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ONE IN CHRIST VOL.45 NO.2
ECCLESIAL THOUGHT AND LIFE TRAJECTORIES PART 2. OLIVIER CLÉMENT AND PAUL EVDOKIMOV: DEUX PASSEURS Stefanie Hugh-‐Donovan*
Olivier Clément, French Orthodox lay theologian, historian and author, gained recognition as one of the significant pioneers of the renewal of Orthodox theology in the twentieth century. The Russian Diaspora brought Eastern Orthodoxy into a fresh encounter with the West, enabling Clément, a young atheist, to discover Christ. He was baptised into the Russian Orthodox Church in Paris in 1951. The ecclesiology, theology and ecumenical thought of Paul Evdokimov was a major influence in leading Clément to this decision, and resulted in a lifelong friendship and fruitful theological and literary collaboration. Part 1 of this study, on Clément and Thomas Merton, appeared in One in Christ, vol. 45 no.1.
Olivier Clément (1921-‐2009)1 and Paul Evdokimov (1900-‐70)
Born in a ‘dechristianised’ area of southern France, Olivier Clément experienced no familial or ecclesial encounter with Christ in his early
Stefanie Hugh-‐Donovan is a doctoral research student at Heythrop College, University of London. Her recent article, ‘Olivier Clément on Orthodox theological thought and ecclesiology in the West’ appears in the International Journal for the Study of the Christian Church, 10/2-‐3 (2010): 116-‐29. 1 Olivier Clément published some thirty books and numerous articles especially in the theological journal Contacts, with which he had editorial involvement from 1959. He has written introductions and forewords for books written by many other Orthodox authors, among which, Paul Evdokimov’s Les âges de la vie spirituelle (Paris: DDB, 1964), translated by Sr Gertrude SP as The Struggle with God, (Paulist Press, 1966) and by M. Plekon, Ages of the Spiritual Life, (St Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1998); The Sacrament of Love (St Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 2001); L’Art de l’icône: théologie de la beauté (DDB, 1970); Orthodoxie (DDB, 1979), trans. J Hummerstone, Orthodoxy (New City Press, 2011). 2 The aim of ‘dechristianisation’ was the eradication of Catholic religious practice and Catholicism itself; see Frank Tallett, ‘Dechristianizing France: The Year II and the Revolution Experience’, Religion, Society and Politics in
and later by 3 Clément as providential. Living Icons (Notre Dame. where for many years he taught at the Saint Sergius’ Institute and the Institute of Ecumenical Studies in Paris. émigrés of the Bolshevik Revolution who had settled in Paris around the time of Clément’s birth. 16 (1987). ‘Orthodoxy and the Western European Reformation tradition: a memoir’. 4 Michael Plekon. (2008). Orient-‐Occident: Deux Passeurs (Labor et Fides. Clément’s profound understanding of both the East and the West enabled him to become a passeur. Aram. 105. Plongeron. The Struggle with God. historical events regarded by Evdokimov. and founded the Orthodox Theological Institute of Saint Sergius in 1924. 5 See Nicolas Lossky. His Christian formation developed under the guidance and friendship of Paul Evdokimov and other theologians of the Russian Diaspora. Frank Tallett & Nicholas Atkin (Hambledon Press. eds. a-‐t-‐elle une histoire?’. As a young man he struggled with the philosophies of contemporary nihilism that characterised an atheism that was ‘no 1 longer the privilege of an enlightened minority’ but a norm that had 2 permeated all classes of society. 2002). He was twenty-‐seven years old when this metanoic conversion dynamically changed his thought and life-‐trajectory. 10/2-‐3 (2010): 90-‐97. 1985). ‘The Conversion of Louis Massignon in Mesopotamia in 1908’. 6 See O. In the tragedy of the Russian Revolution they saw the resurrection that follows the cross: an opportunity for Orthodoxy to come out of isolation and stand together with the 4 Western Churches. Orthodox theologian and ecumenist and close friend of Fr Sergius Bulgakov. International Journal for the Study of the Christian Church. Science religieuses. 1991). Almost at the point of suicide. 1-‐28. ‘La déchristianisation. 205-‐20. (Cerf. Clément. 2007). 9. After baptism at the age of thirty into the Russian Orthodox Church Clément continued to live and work in the West. Paul Evdokimov and Olivier Clément. he believed the presence of Christ drew him to Christianity. 3 A view shared by Elizabeth Behr-‐Sigel. See Ian Latham. 249-‐251. In France since 1789. . See B. 20. 1 Evdokimov. a term he chose affectionately for two men he considered to 5 6 be his ‘masters and friends’: Vladimir Lossky and Paul Evdokimov. 2 Louis Massignon underwent a similar experience of near suicide and ‘Presence’ which resulted in his conversion to Christianity.HUGH-‐DONOVAN Olivier Clément & Paul Evdokimov 298 years. 7-‐8. Concerning the encounter of Christians of East and West see Olivier Clement’s Préface in Olga Lossky’s Vers le jour sans déclin: Une vie d’Élisabeth Behr-‐Sigel (1907-‐2005).
Evdokimov’s concerns included faith and culture. These two men.2 this ecumenical context. were Russian and European. continued to write in Russian for Russians. born in Kiev. engaging particularly with contemporary patriarchs and leaders of the Churches of East and West. engaged fully with the French milieu. continued their studies and wrote in French. arriving in their twenties. Clément’s book Orient-‐Occident: Deux Passeurs was written as an act of homage and gratitude to Vladimir Lossky and Paul Evdokimov. on the other. he presented a powerful Christian message to a contemporary society. Nicolas Berdiaev. the spiritual life. He returned to Russia and met many philosophers and writers. all born between 1870–1880. Evdokimov departed with the defeat of the White Army and Lossky left Russia during the expulsion of intellectuals. 2 Both were born in Russia and as forced émigrés became lay theologians in France. art. Christian and humanist traditions. key influences in Clément’s life at that time. liturgy. 3 Léon Chestov and Sergius Bulgakov. eschatology. Clément believes Orthodoxy gave them the inner freedom to explore everything essential to enable them to become witnesses to their faith where God had led them. Lev Shestov. thought. 12. writers and artists by Lenin in 1922. 2 See also N. like Clément. Lossky. great intellectual Russian philosophers and theologians. settled in France but with the hope of returning to Russia. a man of dialogue and unity’.45 NO. and also expelled by Lenin. 2003). Irénikon. 1844-‐1936. before settling in Paris in 1921 where he lectured at the Sorbonne. its literature. married an Orthodox Christian and worked in Italy under the pseudonym. but anti-‐Soviet. Jean Claude Noyer describes Clément as a 1 ‘stroller between two shores. On the one hand he sought to establish unity among Christians of Eastern and Western cultures and traditions.299 ONE IN CHRIST VOL. whereas Lossky and Evdokimov. he was deeply aware of the struggle for faith in contemporary society in a 1 See his introduction to his book of interviews with Clément. ‘La Présence orthodoxe dans la “diaspora”’. Paris. . tome LXV (1992): 352-‐362. a fact which enabled Clément’s rapprochement with them. 3 Leon Chestov. among whom were Bulgakov and Berdiaev. eldest son of a Jewish family. freedom and authority and. and a compelling answer to atheistic nihilism which has been the significant contemporary context for the Orthodox Church in Russia and in its diaspora. Mémoires d’espérance (DDB.
5 Plekon. a riveting narrator of the Church’s teaching’. The Byzantine Liturgy. 10/1-‐2 (1978). its Pentecostal understanding of the modern world. who characterizes Evdokimov as ‘a “witness to beauty”. 105. Evdokimov believed that by sharing and living its tradition in the West. trans. His theological focus was the rediscovery of the Eucharistic ecclesiology of the early Church. Eastern Churches Review. a perceptive interpreter of the liturgy’s poetry. 2011). Living Icons. not resignation lies at the heart of the spiritual life. enriching it from the perspective of Russian religious philosophy of the early twentieth century. He soon belonged to a creative group of Russian Orthodox thinkers who are considered outstanding: Berdiaev. 9. Gillet. 10-‐16. See H-‐J Schulz. Evdokimov’s theology is both intellectual and a celebration of joyful ecclesial praise. the renewal of Orthodoxy could bring new life to all the Churches. Hummerstone (New City Press. 3 See Kallistos Ware. and the ‘liturgical. and its 4 vital eschatology. he argues that struggle. bringing them out of a long isolation resulting 3 from historical events and nationalism. See Plekon. 20040). ‘Catholicity and Nationalism: A Recent Debate at Athens’. 103. of Notre Dame. J. Living Icons (Univ. 104. His major work The Church and the Holy Spirit portrays the early Church’s charismatic character. a characteristic of 1 Clément’s own life narrative. Preface to Evdokimov’s Orthodoxie (DDB 1979). He saw himself as a Russian in exile who had become a witness for the universal church: he remained rooted in the patristic 1 Plekon notes that Clément judged Les âges de la vie spirituelle to be Evdokimov’s masterpiece. while the Eastern Churches would benefit from a new recognition of the diversity and unity that this renewal embodied. 1986). patristic and iconographic richness’ of 5 Evdokimov’s theology resonated deeply and authentically with Clément. 2 Bulgakov. Evdokimov’s dialectical position challenged the meaning of past and contemporary events. 6 Ibid. its ‘prophetic intuitions. 2 Nicolas Afanasiev (1893-‐1966) was the only Orthodox theologian cited in the preconciliar acta of Vatican II. Afanasiev . In his essay on sanctity. With them. 4 Clément.HUGH-‐DONOVAN Olivier Clément & Paul Evdokimov 300 time of totalitarian ideologies and contemporary atheism. . His reference to the Fathers was not simply to quote them but to ‘incarnate their spirit in our time and for our future’. (Et New York. of the icons’ shimmering 6 light and colour.’ Both Clément and Evdokimov are scholars and poets. xix-‐xx.
he writes. serenity and optimism. but provided a universal service to the Church from the perspective of an ecumenical renewal. a revelation. He had been formed by dramatic early experiences and the faith of his mother. 2 Dostoevsky and the problems of evil. 2008). unsurprisingly perhaps after this childhood experience and those he endured through death-‐inflicting cavalry charges as an eighteen year old conscript. ‘ecclesia. was assassinated. aged seven. Orient-‐Occident. remained with the child into manhood. much influenced by the writings of Dostoevsky on the sombre and sometimes tragic outcomes of human freewill. Paul Evdokimov was a theologian both of the church and the world. Tradition Alive. Dostoevsky : Language. It would seem it introduced Evdokimov to the great theological themes of which he often spoke during the last years of his life. 2003). goodness and sacrifice. Clément judges that psychoanalysis does not reduce mystery. The Church. emphasizes the organic unity of the people of God . Paul Evdokimov. translated from the Hebrew qahad. ed. Michael Plekon (Bowman and Littlefield. Interpreting Orthodoxy within a contemporary context. fishes swim and men pray’: Evdokimov is remembered as a man whose faith was as natural to him as breathing. See also. ‘Paul Evdokimov and Eschatology’ in Aidan Nichols. Evdokimov.45 NO. years which Clément perceives to have been his most fruitful: that of the sacrificial love of the Father.2 and Byzantine Russian tradition. Faith and Fiction (Continuum. The glimpse of the face of his dead father. 1 Evdokimov.. and ‘the smile on the face’ of the Father which we would 3 have all eternity to contemplate. Clément recalls that in his later years Evdokimov radiated an interior freedom. 106. His father. ‘Birds fly. but rather shows that through our destiny. 1961) cited by Rowan Williams. 177. he was caught up in the traumas that followed the revolution of 1905. mystery attracts us to Him. Born in St Petersburg. 194-‐204. from the beginning the Church was a communal church and its unity was a 1 “Christophany”. the most European city of Russia. ‘Christ and the Church’. Light from the East (Sheed and Ward. who he knew to be a man of duty. 2 Evdokimov.. a visible manifestation of Christ. a colonel in the Army. chose to ponder freewill in his first philosophy book.’ According to the early Fathers. into an aristocratic family.301 ONE IN CHRIST VOL. and his twelve year old brother travelled alone to central Russia to rejoin their mother. Dostoïevski et le problème du mal (Paris: DDB. 1995). . 3 Clément.
of silence and hope. 5 Evdokimov. 2009). Sein zum Tode. Evdokimov judges the atheism that claims autonomy for the individual in its denial of all dependency is typical of the West. cites Evdokimov. Michalis S. holiness. put this question: ‘Where is God? I am going to tell you. fit only to be stored in the attic of history’. and the inclination of a being 6 towards death. de Seuil. 123. Evdokimov came to understand that in its roots the Russian Revolution was a spiritual phenomenon that could 3 only be overcome by a spiritual renewal. is a functional disorder. prophetic words perhaps concerning Soviet 5 atheism? According to Evdokimov this lies at the very heart of atheism and is the source from which arises the Freudian complex of universal guilt: the death of the Father. 39. Pilate’s question remains to be answered by us all: ‘What is truth?’ For the believer. who identified himself as ‘crucified’ in his last moments. and was recognised as a friend by Russian religious philosophers. Nietzsche. a form of spiritual madness. 2 Clément.HUGH-‐DONOVAN Olivier Clément & Paul Evdokimov 302 he observed that ‘after having announced the death of God. 65.’ To have no concept of sin and of its opposite. The Struggle with God. We have killed him. L’amour fou de Dieu et le mystère de son silence (Éd. 1 Clément. it seemed 1 the world entered into the silence of the great Sabbath’. 3 See also Civilizational Dialogue and World Order. Atheism The atheist considers the spiritual life to be ‘a useless object 4 hampering him. 66.’ Evdokimov cites St Isaac the Syrian who lived in the seventh century: he composed a synthesis of patristic thought and wrote a phenomenology of sin judging the ‘unique’ sin was ‘to be insensible to the resurrection’. eds. Todestrieb and Heidegger’s formula. 1973). ‘in which the thought of Moltmann was for 2 Evdokimov a sign’. . Orient-‐Occident. while the militant atheism of the Communist Soviets is more consistent and radical: ‘it is centred on only one historic negation: Christ is not risen. 4 Ibid. Michael & Fabio Petito (Palgrave Macmillan. Evdokimov believed the roots of the student riots in Europe and America and Third World revolutions had spiritual origins. 6 Ibid. Ibid. a view which Clément shared in his commentaries on the student uprisings in Paris. 4. Clément notes.
which has lost the rhythm of a past organic life to urbanised modernity. 5 Ibid. but the meaning of negation changes according to the ‘depth of suffering in the one who denies. on the second last step before perfect faith”.2 ‘nothing is comparable to the truth of the Gospel offered and lived in 1 the Eucharist. because “Perfect atheism (perfect here means lived even to suffering) is at the top of the ladder. Evdokimov judges. In 1918 he studied theology in Kiev. 2 . ‘The fool is free to say in his heart: There is no God’. Ibid.303 ONE IN CHRIST VOL. and kisses the face of the Great Inquisitor 5 contracted with suffering. so Dostoevsky affirms in 2 Confession of Stavrogin. acting as a safeguard cooperating with the grace of the Holy Spirit. a time of which he rarely spoke. I believe.’ God calls Christian thinkers to creatively interpret the precious heritage of the past into a harmony that speaks to contemporary humanity. but was soon mobilised into the White Army. 69. Evdokimov reflects on Psalm 13: 1. 44. and of 3 grace with despair’. so distasteful to Christ. he was thus formed by two disciplines: soldier and monk. Atheists too can criticise materialism but attain a grandeur in their concern for human dignity and rights. Arriving in Paris in 1923 Evdokimov enrolled at the 1 Ibid.45 NO. 4 Ibid.’ Landmarks on the road The young Evdokimov received a military education in accordance with the aristocratic tradition of his family. An atheism that deeply experiences suffering ‘knows its own paradoxical cross’. but not of Evdokimov. and in this way the atheist becomes a true brother of the Christian. the experience of Clément and Bulgakov. 3 Ibid. but spent time with his mother on retreat in monasteries during the holidays. This atheism is intensely different from rejection caused by the indifference of the lukewarm. Atheism and faith ‘can meet together above senseless talk in the silent combat of the angel with Jacob. According to Jules Lagneau there exists a purifying 4 atheism: ‘That salt which hinders belief in God from corrupting itself’. surviving the death and tumult of cavalry attacks. in The Possessed’. ‘that is why the Christ of the “Legend” of Dostoevsky is silent.
4 Clément. 2005). lies Evdokimov’s genius: an ability to synthesize and in so 5 doing to go beyond his masters. 3 ‘Quelques jalons’. 110. the need to dive into the thought of the Fathers to live the liturgy. Wisdom from Above: A Primer in the Theology of Fr Serge Bulgakov’ (Gracewing. See also Rowan Williams study. ‘a renewed understanding of the Trinitarian mystery’. 2 Paul Evdokimov. . such as Marx. Le buisson ardent (Lethielleux. 5 Ibid. Nietzsche and Freud. and herein. 15. in the manner of Bulgakov. among whom was Vladimir Lossky. “to consume the Eucharistic fire”. 15. Evdokimov recalls the eschatological character of Berdiaev’s theology. 1981). for Clément. and to speak creatively to the very heart of contemporary cultural crisis. ‘Quelques jalons sur un chemin de vie’. which 2 Evdokimov notes in Quelques jalons sur un chemin de vie. at the previous generation of Russian philosophers. 2001). Clément judges Evdokimov’s position to be closer to Berdiaev’s. Choosing not to enter into the criticism levelled by some of his contemporaries. ‘The Russian religious revival and its theological legacy’. he has attempted to reply in the spirit of the Fathers to the ‘Fathers of modern thought’. 192. Light from the East. Clément recounts that as priest and professor Bulgakov inspired in Evdokimov ‘the “Orthodox instinct”. 109-‐10. Bulgakov was considered by many to be the most creative and important theologian of the renewal. (T & T Clark. 204. Orient-‐Occident. ‘an apophatic anthropology of man as 4 microcosm and microtheus’. ‘the antinomy of the abyss and the cross’. 3 discover the icon. see also Orient-‐Occident. This collection includes most of Evdokimov’s articles. 109. Nichols. but that his writing and thought was more ecclesial. Bulgakov (1944) and Berdiaev (1948). Sergii Bulgakov. bestowing dignity on the one on whom he looked. from the perspective of transfiguration 1 See Aidan Nichols. and brought the Church’s tradition into dialogue with modernity: see Michael Plekon. 1. and confirmed for him the prophetic mission of Orthodoxy in the West and the importance of the Holy Spirit in the Church and in the world.’ Berdiaev however appeared to ‘unveil’ deep intuitions: ‘the weakness of God before the tragic freedom of man’.HUGH-‐DONOVAN Olivier Clément & Paul Evdokimov 304 Sorbonne. and that the face of Berdiaev was unforgettable. and the Institute of Saint Sergius where Fr Sergius 1 Bulgakov and Nicolas Berdiaev were decisive influences. Evdokimov commenced writing around the time of their deaths.
sadly in 1936 Natacha was diagnosed with cancer. can turn the destiny of a young person around as much as a meeting with Nietzsche. 113. L’autre soleil. 4 Thomas Merton’s birthplace. and understood him as announcer of a Christianity renewed by the experience of atheism. it was because he had been 2 nourished on the works of the great spiritual writers. they passed the remainder of the war at Valence. They were joined by Evdokimov’s mother and lived at Menton. by dividing Les âges de la vie spirituelle into three stages—Encounter with God. 3 Ibid. Gabriel Matzneff exclaimed in a television discussion. ‘If Freud and Jung professed their admiration for the psychological insight of Dostoevsky. He describes the spiritual route of ascesis. Charisms of the Spiritual Life—interpreting the sayings and writings of the Desert Fathers and the early founders of monasticism in a synthesis with astonishing insights into the characters created by Dostoevsky. 117. Evdokimov remained a lay 3 theologian. See part 1 of this study. Obstacle and Struggle. Evdokimov sought to recover for people caught in contemporary modern materialistic society thoughts that embraced the value of silence. 1 Ibid. 1915.45 NO. while Evdokimov cared for his ailing wife.305 ONE IN CHRIST VOL. it would seem to be a work for him. Clément recounts that during this time. The Struggle with God. In 1940 Italian troops occupied Menton. as many did during this inter-‐war period. the children and their home. experienced by Clément and described in his own spiritual autobiography. 2 . where ‘heart speaks to heart’. Evdokimov. that a book such as Evdokimov’s Les âges de la vie spirituelle. firmly believing in ‘the universal priesthood of the laity’ and the value of their service. cleaned rail wagons and served in restaurants. who as a ‘pneumatophore’. As noted above. he prepared a philosophical thesis which viewed Dostoevsky through the prism of Russian religious philosophy. Clément considered this book to be Evdokimov’s masterpiece.’ While studying at the Sorbonne Evdokimov worked at night in the Citroen factory. He married Natacha in 1927 and they had a daughter Nina and son Michel in 1928 and 1930. Evdokimov again became a refugee and after a brief sojourn 4 at Prades. 48.2 1 in the Holy Spirit and an active eschatology. prayer and contemplation.
an organisation which helped young displaced refugees from Europe and the Third World. but found a meeting place there beyond all 4 moralist notions. that calls us to care for the stranger and commands that ‘you will love him as yourself. living out the text of Leviticus 19: 33-‐34. the 6 astonishing grace to trace the image of God coming on earth. refugees. 4 Ibid. and used in the title of Evdokimov’s next book. Orient-‐Occident. In this work Clément believes Evdokimov identified the driving force of his own destiny: that of Aloicha Karamazov sent into the world by his staretz to witness to a 3 monachisme intériorisé. increased Evdokimov’s conviction that ‘the broken 1 Clément. The poor have been given a ‘privilege’: to show the face of Christ and the figure of the Poor one. 201. later published as Dostoïevski et la problème du mal. explores all the dissociations of the contemporary person to flash the loving and silent light of Christ in these 2 ‘underground passages’.HUGH-‐DONOVAN Olivier Clément & Paul Evdokimov 1 306 carrier of the spirit. in ‘the sacrament of love’. Le Mariage. Resistance for him was non-‐violent and had the aim of saving lives. and in 1945 his wife died of cancer. displaced people and students after the Second World War. Evdokimov wrestled with the question posed by the apocalyptic events of the twentieth century: if the world is a theophany (as he knew it to be since childhood and from the sophiology of Bulgakov) what explanation is there for evil throughout history? His response lies in the kenosis of God that preserves the free-‐will and choice of humankind. a phrase taken from St John Chrysostom. .’ In a certain sense we are all ‘displaced persons’. 201. 2 5 6 Comité Inter-‐Mouvements Auprès des Evacués. because you were strangers yourselves in the land of Egypt. Ibid. Clément’s analysis of the importance of Evdokimov’s thesis. walking through our world. Orient-‐Occident. His mother died in 1942. and exiles from paradise: homo viator. that did not negate life but transfigured it. sacrament de l’amour (1944). He has given to refugees a special destiny. 3 Ibid. that did not reject woman. 111. 112. 111. Caring for refugees. Clément. Evdokimov worked in the Resistance and 5 with protestant friends in CIMADE. who had nowhere to lay his head. Clément sees Evdokimov’s true calling was as an exile himself. Germans occupied the ‘free zone’.
March 2005): 69-‐89. At the 1 John A Jillions. source of a love at the same time ontological and personal. Clément and Evdokimov discussed the possibility of an Orthodox call to the Church for an ecumenical council. 201. the service of God in the 4 service of the neighbour outside the church building. together calling down the Holy Spirit. ‘Gender and the Process of Moral Development in the Thought of Paul Evdokimov. eds. 2005): 313-‐334. where she sheltered refugees and helped Jews during the German occupation. who died in a concentration camp and was recently canonised by the Orthodox Church. See also Christopher P. Orient-‐Occident. ‘“The Sacrament of the Brother/Sister”: The Lives and Thought of Mother Maria Skobstova and Paul Evdokimov’. 3 Maria Skobstova (1891-‐1945). 5 Clément. 3 He and his close collaborator Maria Skobstova. in its deepest ecclesial existence it is a real participation in the Trinitarian existence.’ Mother Maria. She was canonised in 2004. Evdokimov followed the 2 teaching of Bulgakov. Cunningham and Elizabeth Theokritoff (Cambridge University Press.2 condition of the world and society demanded a “social ecclesiology”. Second Conference: Radical orthodoxy: a Christian answer to Post-‐Modern Culture. Paul Evdokimov and Olivier Clément were all active in the resistance during the Nazi occupation of France. 287. Theological Studies (66/1. Cambridge Companion to Orthodox Christian Theology. . Ecclesial ‘knowledge’ and monasticism In notes for a joint paper in 1970. ‘Living Tradition—Social Theory working with theology: the case of Fr Sergius Bulgakov’. 4 Michael Plekon. took monastic vows and rented a house in Paris. The Church is the Church of Christ in the Holy Spirit and identifies herself in the Eucharist. Institute for Ecumenical Studies. 1999). She was sent to Ravensbruck and died in 1945.307 ONE IN CHRIST VOL. by living the principles of social ecclesiology. one and holy as a Eucharistic community. 2008). St Vladimir’s Theological Quarterly (49/3. Klofft. which was not completed before Evdokimov’s death. They 5 jointly proclaim the Church is the Church of the Trinity. Ukrainian Catholic University. Mary B.45 NO. when she took the place of a Jewish woman. ‘Orthodox Christianity in the West’. Sergii Bulgakov: Towards a Russian Political Theology (Continuum. 2 Cited in Michael Plekon’s paper. worked with the poor and persecuted: their lives were ‘celebrations of the liturgy after the liturgy. Her spiritual director was Fr Sergius Bulgakov. 1 He called for a unified Christian witness to an “ecumenical epiclesis”’. Also Williams. her ‘convent’.
69. book II. ‘that allows the Spirit to illuminate life and 4 make it fruitful’. the mystical essence. 4 Clément. reinvented for the man of the ‘technopolis’. once the Church was recognised by Emperor Constantine the witness of Christian martyrdom was no longer necessary. 1. the State ought to end by 1 being worthy to become only the Church and nothing else’. on the contrary. Dostoyevsky’s thoughts express this liaison of Christianity with Power: ‘It is not the Church that ought to be turned into a State. while the relation of the priest to Christ can be seen in the theology of the icon: the priest is not identical with Christ. 5 ‘pneumatophores’. trans. achievable as monachisme intériorisé. the State and society. 200. .’ They see the role of the monk in the world is to be a visionary witness. They recognised the staretz as a prophetic image for our times. in Le Millénaire du Mont Athos (Chevetogne. that can be the vocation of all believers. Evdokimov describes the progression of martyrdom and monasticism during the early Christian era. 5 Ibid. the monastic vocation today is. of the monastic life on an 3 ecumenical and transconfessional level. ‘Bread in the Wilderness’. 1 Williams. There is a need for ‘the universal priesthood of the laity’ to be open in the 2 modern world to ‘the universal vocation of ‘interiorised monasticism’. The direct quotes are cited by Thomas Merton and taken from an article by Léon Zander. 118. 177-‐8. Christ came in order that all could be drawn in him towards the Father and could become ‘porteurs de l’Esprit’. but the witness of the monk became profoundly necessary in a Church which had allowed its identity to be defined by history. cites Dostoevsky. 3 Ibid. 2 Evdokimov. Penguin Classics. more than ever before. David Magarshack. as from a lower to a higher form. Orient-‐Occident. 1963). in an asceticism of healing and integration. chapter 5. Evdokimov and Clément were deeply interested in the great Russian authors.HUGH-‐DONOVAN Olivier Clément & Paul Evdokimov 308 celebration of the Eucharist the laity as the universal priesthood prays with the ordained priest at the level of imploration. Freed of all totalitarian temptation. 113. 201. vol. he is his typos. his icon. The Brothers Karamazov. The Church is the Church of the Holy Spirit in Christ. not merely ‘an interior life for a layman.’ but carrying the notion of a ‘lay-‐monk’ who penetrates to the ‘ontological roots. ‘Le monachisme-‐réalité et idéal-‐dans l’oeuvre de Dostoievski’. but. Les âges.
St Basil compares the monks to the “violent ones” of the Gospel. Evdokimov. published a special edition commemorating ‘Paul Evdokimov. witnessing directly to the meaning of all being. Gythiel and Victoria Steadman (St Vladimir’s Seminary Press.’ Ecclesial Art Clément found poetry and beauty in Orthodox liturgy and art.2 vitally essential. L’Eglise orthodoxe (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. The Sacrament of Love: The Nuptial Mystery in the Light of the Orthodox Tradition. monasticism has been an integral part of the Church. trans. 98. 2 .’ Monks ‘take seriously the call to the “one 3 thing needful” of which the Gospel speaks . a normative 2 value for every believer. as the source of light and life for all life. frescoes and mosaics represent in space what the spoken liturgy represents in time: the reflection and the anticipation of the 6 Kingdom. Living Icons. 195). its architecture. ‘Since its advent. 171.. 2001). patristic and 5 iconographic richness of Evdokimov’s theology’ was always faithful to church tradition. the Orthodox church. who “lay hold of the Kingdom. 4 Evdokimov. 2006).45 NO. as editor of Contacts. 6 See Clément. Sermo de renunciation saeculi.” and thereby give expression to the maximalism of 4 the Christian life. ibid. because it expresses a spiritual norm that is universal. In 1995 Clément. a perceptive interpreter of the liturgy’s poetry. The Church must not be a separated society. of the icon’s shimmering light and colour. He characterises Evdokimov as ‘a witness to beauty. 3 Ibid. 164. but bring to life the dialectic 1 of unity and diversity.. In his Rules. the prayer of the reunified heart and intellect. 81.309 ONE IN CHRIST VOL. Témoin de la beauté de Dieu: Vingt-‐cinq ans après’ (no.’ The ‘liturgical.. cut off from the world. columns of prayer which support and bring peace to the universe. The icon par excellence is Christ himself. 5 Plekon. the French theological journal. choreography and music. Anthony P.. lifting fallen humankind that has forfeited its rights. For the Orthodox Church the first and fundamental icon is the face of Christ: Christ is 1 Ibid. The veneration of holy images or icons was formulated as a dogma of faith by the seventh Ecumenical Council. PG 31:632.
an eternal face. 3 Clément. According to the seventh Council. in the fundamentals of Christianity. the one who honours the image also honours the one who is represented by it. Steven Bigham (Oakwood Publications. Paul Evdokimov was committed to 5 ecumenism. Tradition and Ecumenism Evdokimov and Clément’s ecclesiology stems from their acceptance of the self-‐identification of the Eastern Orthodox Church with the Early Christian Church. Evdokimov writes in 2 L’Art de l’Icone. Sources: les mystiques chrétiens des origines (Stock. working especially at first with Reformed Christians. 1990). Theodore Berkeley. Paul Evdokimov. but after being invited to attend Vatican II as an observer. a secret face that God contemplates and which it is the vocation of man to realise. ‘earthly culture is the icon of the heavenly Kingdom’. his contacts and collaboration with the Catholic Church increased. it yet holds on to the true apostolic faith. 22. The two theologians became part of the re-‐articulation of the patristic 4 renewal and resourcement which enriched Christian Churches during the twentieth century and fostered a real and new spirit of ecumenism between Christian confessions. trans. In an eschatological perspective the icon suggests the true face of man or woman. Clément believed that all people and cultures are rooted. 1981). 4 Clément. Constance Garnett (Bantam.HUGH-‐DONOVAN Olivier Clément & Paul Evdokimov 310 not only the Word of God but his image. 5 John A Jillions. ‘Orthodox Christianity in the West’ Cambridge Companion to Orthodox Christian Theology. 2008). trans. The mysterious movement of love and unity of the Trinity is symbolised in Roublev’s great icon 1 showing the hospitality of Abraham receiving three angels. 1970). 1993). L’Autre Soleil. The Roots of Christian Mysticism: Text and Commentary (New City. The whole church constitutes an icon of the kingdom. 2 . especially with the contemplative orders. with Christ Pantocrator in the centre of the cupola. 370. The Art of the Icon: a Theology of Beauty. L’Art de l’Icone: theologie de la beauté. 1982. either 3 knowingly or unknowingly. (DDB. 1 Ibid. Trans. 287. that in spite of errors which have occurred within its ecclesial ministry and portrayal of identity during the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries. ‘Beauty will save the world’: words from Dostoevsky’s The Idiot. particularly in CIMADE. reprinted DDB.
Clément has devoted his Christian life and corpus of work to a ‘renewed understanding of the human 3 person in the light of our relationship to God’ and a life-‐long quest not only to further and encourage dialogue between Eastern and Western Christians but with all cultures and peoples. whether diplomatic or whatever people are willing to settle for. ‘Preface’. that when the world is bowed down under the weight of care. traces her 1 “little way”. Evdokimov appeals to a saintliness that is both kenotic and creative. and invites all to sit down at “the table of sinners”’. it is the face of the person that radiates this 2 truth and light. Clément concludes his Preface to Orthodoxie with this assessment: Evdokimov ‘appeals to the ecumenism of the contemplatives. but of being. 2003. the fast could then be the renunciation of the superfluous. his sharing with the poor and his smiling equilibrium. to Evdokimov’s Orthodoxie 13.’ And Evdokimov tells us. 5 Ibid. The Church must remind people that Christian tradition formed our sense of personhood. the art of humility does not consist of becoming this or that. Evdokimov expresses the fruitful creativeness of the Russian diaspora in its meeting with both Christian and atheist West. he notes. Clément judges there is no longer a place today for a Church that dominates.’ 1 Evdokimov. 4 Clément. 2 . of people of prayer.4. Like Clément’s contemporary and compatriot ‘Simone Weil. 3 Michael C. 5. a theme of hope. ‘Preface’. 6.45 NO. but “the centre 5 where the lines converge”. humble but capable of 4 radiating life into all the complexity of history. Clément judges John Paul II had such a presence. vol. Petite boussole spirituelle pour notre temps. of all who desire not accommodation between churches. In Clément’s view. rather than severe fasts and mortifications. Clément. How right it is. Jordan. the person in communion is the fundamental Christian theme. ‘the discipline of regular periods of calm and silence’.2 Evdokimov sees that modern man needs rest.311 ONE IN CHRIST VOL. Fall. The Christian presence must essentially be a witness to the life that is lived in Christ. Logos. in the exact measure proposed by God. The Struggle with God. 48. 122. ‘St Thérèse speaks of spiritual childhood. Today this appeal still shows us the way.
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