TABLE OF CONTENTS HEADING PAGE NUMBER 1. Table of Contents 1 2. Table of Illustrations 2 3. Introduction 3 4. Body of work 4 to 8 5. Conclusion 9 6. Illustrations 10 to 12 7.

Bibli ography 13 8. Glossary 14 to 16 9. Index 17 to 19 TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS HEADING PAGE NUMBER 1. Inside the Head 10 2. Inside the Brain 11 3. Areas and Jobs 12 INTRODUCTION NOTE: All words in bold print will be found in the glossary. The human body is divided into many different pa rts called organs. All of the parts are controlled by an organ called the brain , which is located in the head. The brain weighs about 2.75 pounds, and has a w hitish-pink appearance. The brain is made up of many cells, and is the control centre of the body. The brain flashes messages out to all the other parts of th e body. The messages travel in very fine threads called nerves. The nerves and the brain make up a system somewhat like telephone poles carrying wires across the city. This is called the nervous system. The nerves in the body don't jus t send messages from the brain to the organs, but also send messages from the ey es, ears, skin and other organs back to your brain. Some nerves are linked dire ctly to the brain. Others have to reach the brain through a sort of power line down the back, called the spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord make up the ce ntral nervous system. The brain doesn't just control your organs, but also can think and remember. That part of the brain is called the mind. PROTECTING THE BRAIN Twenty-eight bones make up the skull. E ight of these bones are interlocking plates. These plates form the cranium. Th e cranium provides maximum protection with minimum weight, the ideal combination . The other twenty bones make up the face, jaw and other parts of the skull. Another way the brain keeps it self safe is by keeping itself in liquid. Nearly one fifth of the blood pumped by the heart is sent to the brain. The brain the n sends the blood through an intricate network of blood vessels to where the blo od is needed. Specialized blood vessels called choroid plexuses produce a prote ctive cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid is what the brain literally floats in. A third protective measure taken by the brain is called the blood brain barrier. This barrier consists of a network of unique capillaries. These capil laries are filters for harmful chemicals carried by the blood, but do allow oxyg en, water and glucose to enter the brain. THE DIFFERENT SECTIONS OF THE BRAIN The brain is divided into three main sections. The area at the front of the brain is the largest. Most of it is known as the cerebrum. It con trols all of the movements that you have to think about, thought and memory. The cerebrum is split in two different sections, the right half and the left half. The outer layer of the cerebrum is called the cortex. It is mainly m ade up of cell bodies of neurons called grey matter. Most of the work the brai n does is done in the cortex. It is very wrinkled and has many folds. The wrin kles and folds give the cortex a large surface area, even though it is squeezed up to fit in the skull. The extra surface area gives the cerebrum more a rea to work. Inside the cortex, the cerebrum is largely made up of white matter . White matter is tissue made only of nerve fibres. The middle regio n is deep inside the brain. It's chief purpose is to connect the front and the back of the brain together. It acts as a "switchboard", keeping the parts of yo ur brain in touch with each other. The back area of the brain is divided in to three different parts. The pons is a band of nerve fibres which link the bac k of the brain to the middle. The cerebellum sees to it that all the parts of y our body work as a team. It also makes sure you keep your balance. The medu lla is low down at the back of your head. It links the brain to the top of the spinal cord. The medulla controls the way your heart pumps blood through your b ody. It also looks after your breathing and helps you digest food.

This is because the person would not be the same. For example. language and plans. The thalamus is located in between above the lower br ain and under the two hemispheres. thus enabling the pe rson to somewhat see. THE HYPOTHALMUS: This part of the brain is located directly above the brain stem. CONCLUSI ON After all of the work and research that we have done it is very evident to us that the brain is one of the most wondrous organs that humans could have. would not h ave the same memories or the same abilities that the host body had had. The hypothalmus controls basic drives like hunger and sex and as well as our response to threat and danger. This "thinking cap" was divided into two different parts. The last idea of the future that we will list is called "artificial hearing and seeing". you are right handed. The electrodes are connected to a s mall camera that is some where on the person's ear. If the left side of your brain is more developed like most people's are. For instance "brain grafting" is one procedure that may be used in the f uture. THE THALAMUS: The thalamus is like a relay area. move. You may have heard the saying "practice makes perfect". how to write. But as of yet these procedures are not practical first because of the size of the computer. The cortex is a sheet of grey ish matter which produces our thoughts.THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE BRAIN THE BRAINSTEM: The brainstem is one of the oldest parts of the brain. They flash as the picture from the camera. brain transplants. T he hypothalmus also controls the pituitary. swallowing and heart rate. The computer sends the images from the camera directly to the implan ted electrodes. First a electrodes must be planted in the brain. THE DIFFERENT SECTIONS OF THE BRAIN: Most of the above mentioned parts of the brain were produced early in evolution but the higher mammals especially humans went on to produce a sort of "thinking cap" on top of these parts. The right side of your brain is more artistic and emotional while t he left side of your brain is your "common sense" and practical side. Artificial hearing is much more complicated then artificial seeing. THE PITUITARY: The pituitary pr oduces hormones such as testosterone that circulate through out the body. THE CEREBELLUM: One of t he most important part of the Human brain is the cerebellum. in short it's what makes humans. This would result in control of parkinson's disease and oth er seizure related diseases. the brain rewrites the program and makes it better. The cerebellum is involved with the more complex functions of the brain and sometimes is even refe rred to as "the brain within the brain". Another radical idea that has already been succe ssfully been tried on rhesus monkey's is. the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere. run and jum p are all previously learned activities that the brain recorded and can playback when needed. It controls such functions as breathing. Brain grafting is to transplant a very thin layer of brain skin from one person to another. another way of "practising" is just to imagine w hat you wish to do. The cerebellum acts as a control and coordination centre for movement. It also controls ou r sensations and voluntary movements. A computer is attached to t he camera. Then thro ugh a microphone a computer produces electrical pulses that are then sent to the electrodes in the brain. then you will be le ft handed. Well th is saying is not entirely true. it will think tha t you are doing what your imagining and respond by rewriting it's previous progr am and carrying out any other actions needed for that function. THE CEREBRAL CORTEX: The cerebral cortex make s up the top of the two hemispheres of the brain. Every time you practice. stores our memories and gives us the abili ty to imagine. humans. IN THE FUTURE Today many experiments are being conducted that may be break through's for the f uture. such as fi guring out math and logic problems. Artificial seeing is achieved by planting sixty-four small electrodes in front of the visual cortex of the brain. On the o ther hand if the right side of your brain is more developed. blood pressure. The ethics and leg al problems for such a transplant would probably never let this operation be per formed on humans. The cerebellum carries small "programs" that have been previously learned. it receives messages from lower brain areas such as the brainstem and hypothalmus and sends them to t he two brain hemispheres. it cannot be taken out of the labora tory second the cost of the package and third the risks involved. This is one why to explain wet dreams. . Since the cerebellum can't actually feel.

1988 2.It guides us through almost every second of our life. electrodes: They are made out met al and emit electricity. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. diseases: Illnesses that can be terminal. 1990 3. Even after exploring vas t and distant sky's to the microorganisms that exist today. cerebrospinal fluid: This what the brain floats in. It also co ntains the brain. The Incredible Machine by Geographic. It gets messages from the lower brain area and sends them to th e higher brain. glucose: This is a combination o f sugar and water. skull: The skull is made up of twenty-eight bones. Also see: brain. ce rebrum: The cerebrum is split in to two different sides. glucose and water are able to enter the brain. choroid plexuses: These special blood vess els are what produce the cerebrospinal fluid. usually very little. stores ou r memories.transp .. artificial seeing: When a perso n is able to see but not naturally. medulla : The medulla is almost right behind the brainstem.5. Encyclopedia Inc. copyright Encyclopedia Britann ica Inc. the introduction is the 1st page. central nervou s system: This the brain and spinal cord put together. National Society. hemisphere: These are the two different part of the cerebrum. bra instem: This is what the brain had used to be early evolution. blood brain barrier: A set of special capi llaries that are only found in brain. pituitary: The pituitary produces hormones. It also is produces our thoughts. grey matter: Mainly made from the cell bodies of neurons. It controls basic drives such as hunger and sex. artificial seeing 6 artificial hearing 7 balance 3 blood brain barrier 2 blood 2. Parkinson's Disease: This disease causes the victim to h ave seizures. brain grafting: Brain grafting is the process o f taking a thin layer of brain skin from the donor and moving to new host. cerebellum: This part of the brain makes sure that all of your body wo rks together. Mark copyright Macmillan Education.3. The brain. organs: Important part of the body. cranium: This is the part of the skull that holds the brain. 1992 GLOSSARY artificial hearing: Wh en a person is able to hear but not naturally. spina l cord. Unfortuantly they do n't prevent narcotics from entering the brain. brain: An organ that is pinkish -white in appearance and is located in the skull. 1986 4. capillaries: Ti ny blood vessels. The Brai n and Nervous System by Parker. cells: What all living thing are built from. nervous system: The whole system of nerves that attach to the s pinal cord. spinal cord: This cord goes down your back. cerebral cortex: This is one of the most important parts of the brain. INDEX NOTE: For the Index. and plans. transplant: To transplant is to take something from one pers on and put it into another person.hemispheres 4 .. but now it only controls our basic functions such as breathing and heart rate. mind: Not just the brain but the actual consciousness that we have..6.4. National Society copyri ght Geographic. hormones: Chemicals that can change the chemical make up of your physical body.7 . hypothalmus: This part of the brain is located above the brainstem. the brain has never ceased to amaze us and probably never will. thalamus: The thalamus a sort of relay room. Almost all nerv es in the body are connected to the spinal cord. This organ controls almost ev erything that the body does. Left and right. There purpose is to filter the blood so o nly oxygen. It helps you to digest you r food. It also keeps your balance. Encyclo pedia Britannica by Britannica.harmful chemicals 2 blood pressure 3 blood vessels 2 brain 1.2. Almost all of th e brain's work is done there. cortex: This is the outer layer of the cerebrum.3 . n erves: Pathways that the brain uses to send messages to and from different part s of the body.. heart and lungs ar e examples of organs. It is located above the spinal cord. white matter: White matter is tissue made f rom nerve fibres. The Brain and N ervous System by Lambert. pons: A band of ne rve fibre that connect the back the brain to the middle. It i s located at the front of the head. Steve copyright Franklin Watts.

.grafting 2 .back brainstem 2 2.lants 6 .3 6 .3 choroid plexus 2 cortex cranium 2...section .3 breathi ..4 3 .middle ng capillaries cells 2 1 central nervous system 1 cerebellum 3.3..3 thalamus 4 water 2 white matter 3 .3 spinal cord 1.front 2.3 3..5 cerebral cortex 5 cerebrospinal fluid 2 cerebrum 2.6 2 digesting food electrodes glu 3 6 cose grey matter heart 2 2 3 hormones 4 hunger 4 hypothalamus 4 medulla 3 memory 2 mind 1 nerves 1.protecting 2.3 nervous system 1 neurons 2 organs 1 oxygen 2 parkinson's disease 6 pituitary 4 pons 3 sex 4 skull 2.

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