# Block Foundation Design

Prepare by Wisit Kawayapanik

Mass moment of inertia.Flow Chart for Block Foundation Design Review vender equipment drawing Review geotechnical data. Spring constant. Load combination Soil bearing capacity check Dynamics Analysis Mass. Moment calculation. Damping ratio Evaluate of Resonance Evaluate of Displacement Result of evaluate NG OK END . Calculation seismic force Preliminary sizing of foundations Load calculation. Natural frequency.

In actual practice there is always some damping (e. viscous damping. understanding the behavior of a system undergoing harmonic excitation is essential in order to comprehend how the system will respond to more general types of excitation. stiffness and damping are known as mechanical system. etc. Harmonic excitation may be in the form of a force or displacement of some point in the system. is called the degree-of-freedom of the system. it is forced to vibrate at the same frequency as that of the excitation. in which the frequency changes from the initial to final values of frequencies with a given time-rate (i. Damping has very little effect on natural frequency of the system. aero dynamical damping. Although pure harmonic excitation is less likely to occur than the periodic or other types of excitation. If only one coordinate is required. Degrees Of Freedom: The minimum number of independent coordinates needed to describe the motion of a system completely. Amplitude: The maximum displacement of a vibrating body from its equilibrium position. Frequency: The number of oscillations completed per unit time is known as frequency of the system. ( fn = 1 2π k ) m Damping: The resistance to the motion of a vibrating body is called Damping.) present in the system which causes the gradual dissipation of vibration energy and results in gradual decay of amplitude of the free vibration. forces produced by the reciprocating machines. or the motion of machine itself. Forced vibration: When a dynamic system is subjected to a steady-state harmonic excitation.Basic Terminology Periodic Motion: A motion which repeats itself after equal intervals of time. It is commonly produced by the unbalance in rotating machinery. .. The harmonic excitation can be given in many ways like with constant frequency and variable frequency or a swept-sine frequency.g. the calculations for natural frequencies are generally made on the basis of no damping. ramp). Harmonic excitation is often encountered in engineering systems. and hence.. then the system is called as single degree-of-freedom system. the internal molecular friction.e. Fundamental Mode of Vibration: The fundamental mode of vibration of a system is the mode having the lowest natural frequency. Natural Frequency: The frequency of free vibration of a system is called Natural Frequency of that particular system. Damping is of great importance in limiting the amplitude of oscillation at resonance. Mechanical System: The system consisting of mass.

.Resonance: If the frequency of excitation coincides with one of the natural frequencies of the system. the amplitude of vibration becomes excessively large. This concept is known as resonance.

size and embedment depth Weight of machine parts and the rotor parts (pump / compressor rotor and motor rotor) Location of center of gravity both vertically and horizontally Operating speed of machines and power rating of motor (RPM) Magnitude and direction of unbalanced forces. STEP 2 Review geotechnical data • • • • • • Soil weight density Poisson's ratio Dynamic shear modulus (G) Shear wave velocity (vs) Dynamic modulus of sub-grade reaction (ks) Allowable soil bearing pressure or pile load carrying capacity for design of foundation . Limit of deflection and vibration amplitudes at center line of rotor.STEP 1 Review vender equipment drawing • • • • • • • • • Plan dimension of pump / compressor base frame Height of rotor / shaft center line from the bottom of skid Anchor bolt location. For reciprocating machines both primary and secondary unbalanced forces and couples and respective CG locations needs to be checked.

having first natural frequency less than machine's operating speed. A detail dynamic analysis of foundation is required for a range of machine operating speeds to ensure that the dynamic design criteria are met. having first natural frequency more than machine's operating speed. If the foundation is low tuned. High tuned foundations.5 times the vertical distance from the bottom of foundation to the center line of the shaft / rotor. The width of foundation should be at least 1. Foundations should be designed for this type of machines high tuned or low tuned side whichever more practical.STEP 3 Categorization of rotating machines based on machine speed • • • • Low Speed machine: The low speed machines operate at a speed range of less than 500 RPM. Horizontal eccentricity should be limited to 5% of the corresponding foundation dimension. Intermediate speed machine: The intermediate speed machines operate at a speed range 500 RPM to 1000 RPM. Foundations should be designed for this type of machines high tuned or low tuned side whichever more practical. High Speed machine: The high speed machines operate at a speed range of more than 1000 RPM. . should be designed for this type of machines. The center of mass of machine foundation (machine foundation system) should coincide with the centroid of the soil foundation or pile group resistance. Dynamic amplitude shall be checked during start up and coast down condition. Low tuned foundations. dynamic amplitude shall be checked during start up and coast down condition. In this case machine will pass the resonance during machine start up and coast down condition. STEP 4 Preliminary sizing of foundations • • • Weight of the block foundation should be at least 4 times the weight of reciprocating machines and 3 times the weight of centrifugal machines. In this case machine does not pass the resonance during machine start up and coast down condition. You need to ensure that there is no adverse effect to machine operation during the resonant conditions. Variable Speed machine: The variable speed machines operate at a speed range as prescribed by vendor. should be designed for this type of machines.

whichever is greater. from soil report. then follow Step-4 for foundation sizing and put it into 3D model for any interference check if you are doing the dynamic analysis of concrete block. Dynamic analysis is not required if the power rating of motor is less than 200hp. a= maximum cantilever projection (inches).0012 x (ks x (a)4)1/3 ft. then follow the following steps . ks= soil dynamic modulus of sub-grade reaction.• For a rigid mat. measured from face of block STEP 5 Requirement for dynamic analysis of foundations Dynamic analysis of concrete foundations is not required for all the foundations supporting rotating equipment. You need to refer your project design criteria for the conditions for dynamic analysis. t = 0. Following are the general criteria for not performing any dynamic analysis of foundation supporting rotating equipment: • • Dynamic analysis is not required if the weight of machine is less than 25kN. following criteria to be followed: o o Minimum thickness of the mat will be 600 mm or 1/5 th of least foundation dimensions or 1/10 th of largest foundation dimensions. lbs/in3. If you are not doing any dynamic analysis of concrete block foundation. Maximum thickness of the mat will be 1500 mm The formula based on Beam on Elastic Foundation Minimum thickness of mat.

y direction .STEP 6 Foundation check • • Calculation foundation weight Check mass ratio Wc/Wm >4 for reciprocating and 3 times the weight of centrifugal STEP 7 Load calculation • • • • Structure weight Equipment weight Operating(dynamics load) Seismic load x.

7Ey Description Operating weight Operating weight+seismic Operating weight+seismic Empty weight+seismic Empty weight+seismic Remark Long term Short term STEP 10 Soil bearing capacity check • • • Qx = P My P Mx = ± ± . Qy A Zy A Zx For long term Qx.ey vertical & horizontal for dynamic load (pump.9(Ds1 + Ds2 ) +0.Qy < 50% of 1.7Ey 0.7Ex 0.ey for equipment(distance from equipment to C.STEP 8 Moment calculation • • • • STEP 9 Calculation ex.9(Ds1 + Ds2 ) +0.G of foundation) Calculation ex. motor) Summations moment force Calculation moment force from seismic load Load combination • • • • Case 1 2 3 4 5 Ds1= structure weight Ds2= equipment weight D0 = operating load(dynamic) E = seismic load Load Combination Ds1 + Ds2 + D0 Ds1 + Ds2 + D0 +0.Qy < 50% of Qall For short term Qx.33xQall .7Ex Ds1 + Ds2 + D0 +0.

BL2 .81 Calculation mass moment of inertia for rocking Iψ = Iψ ( machine ) + Iψ ( Foundation ) Σ[mi / 12(ai 2 + bi 2 ) + miki 2 ] = • Calculation mass moment of inertia for pitching Iφ = Σ[mi / 12(ai 2 + bi 2 ) + miki 2 ] = I φ ( machine ) + I φ ( Foundation ) STEP 12 Spring constant • • • • • Vertical spring Horizontal spring(x direction) Horizontal spring(y direction) Rocking Pitching kz = G .G. BL .By.ηψ 1− µ kφ = G .η x ky = 2(1 + µ ).Bz. BL .η y kψ = G .ηφ 1− µ .G. BL .Dynamics Analysis STEP 11 Mass & Mass moment of inertia • • Calculation Mass mt = Wc + Wg 9.BL2 .Bψ .Bx.Bφ .η z 1− µ kx = 2(1 + µ ).

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fnx .ω nx mt 2π ky 60 = .05(Dii) Dit = Dig+Dii . fnφ .STEP 13 Natural frequency • • • • • Vertical Horizontal x Horizontal y Rocking Pitching = ω nz ω nx = ω ny = kz 60 = .ω ny mt 2π = ω nψ kψ 60 = . fnψ .ω nz 2π mt kx 60 = . fnz . fny .ω nφ Iφ 2π STEP 14 Damping ratio • • • • • Embedment ratio (αi) Mass ratio(Bi) Geometrical ratio(Dig) Internal damping = 0.ω nψ 2π Iψ = ω nφ kφ 60 = .

pitching fm = fn 1 − 2D2 Compare between fmachine ± 20% . horizontal for rocking. If < 1 resonance can possible check detail again = fm fn 1 − 2 D 2 for vertical.STEP 15 Resonance frequency check • • • • • Vertical Horizontal x Horizontal y Rocking Pitching 2xDz2 2xDx2 2xDy2 2xDψ2 2x DФ2 If > 1 resonance not possible.

Dz. ry = 2 2 (1 − ry ) + (2.ry ) 2 fo fnz fo fnx fo fny fo fnψ fo fnφ 1 = .Dφ . rz = (1 − rz 2 ) 2 + (2.rψ ) 2 1 = .rφ ) 2 Where fo = frequency of machine frequency of foundation & machine (vertical) fnx = frequency of foundation & machine (horizontal x) fny = frequency of foundation & machine (horizontal y) fnψ = frequency of foundation & machine (rocking) fnφ = frequency of foundation & machine (pitching) fnz = STEP 17 Dynamic force Vertical force • Fz = mixexω 2 Where mi = rotor weight e= = eccentricity of unbalance mass(vender provided. rx = (1 − rx 2 ) 2 + (2. rφ 2 2 (1 − rφ ) + (2. rψ 2 2 (1 − rψ ) + (2.rz ) 2 1 .STEP 16 Amplitude check Magnification factor • Mz = • Mx = • My = • Mψ = • Mφ = 1 .Dx. equation.Dψ .rx) 2 1 .Dy. table) e 1 − ( fo / fc) 2 fo =operating speed fc=critical speed .

ω = 2π fo / 60 Horizontal force • Fy=Fz Rocking force • STEP 18 Fψ=Fy x moment arm(cg of machine to base of foundation) Dynamic displacement • • • Az = Mz x Fz/kz Ay = My x Fy/ky Aψ = Mψ x Fψ/kψ STEP 19 Total displacement • • Azt = e x Aψ+Az Ayt = h x Aψ+Ay Where e = a/2 h = b/2 .

shrinkage reinforcement shall be provided at every 600 mm along X.Arya.5-0. ii. September 2008 S. Texas. May 1981 . Gulf Publishing Co.STEP 20 Amplitude check • Allowable amplitude(vender provided) > Azt. Houston.. M. O’nell and G. Pincus. “Calculation Sheet for 7A30-P03A/b FDN MA’ADEN AMMONA PROJECT”.75% reinforcing bar at the opening • The reinforcement shall be extended at least 50 times the rebar diameter from edge of opening • If foundation thickness is over 1 m. • Minimum cover to reinforcement shall be 75 mm at bottom and 50 mm at top and side faces of the foundation • Arrange 0. References i.The minimum size shall be 16 mm diameter and spacing shall be limited to maximum 300 mm. Samsung Engineering. “Design of Structures and Foundations for Vibrating Machines”. Ayt STEP 21 Reinforcement • Minimum reinforcement in block foundation shall be 25 kg/m2 . iii.Y&Z direction • Reinforcement shall be used at all faces. October 2011 Samsung Engineering. “Design Manual for Civil Engineering”.