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74 - December 1993


News trom Council

The following is Section 1 (the section expression of concern in a diplomatic Scientific Technical Committee a solu-
relevant for the VLT Project) of the reso- note from the French Government have tion will be sought to introduce adaptive
lution issued by Council during its meet- led to reconsideration of this plan. optics at the Nasmyth foci at the earliest
ing of December 2, 1993: Following the presentation and dis- possible time.
In its October 4 and 5, 1993 meeting cussion of different alternatives for cost Furthermore, the Executive will en-
Council expressed its approval of the reduction, Council adopts further mod- deavour to reintroduce full Coude and
revised VLTNLTI project as referred in ifications to the VLT programme plan. interferometric capabilities at the ear-
June 1993 Cou-483 for content, schedule This includes the postponement of the liest possible date. This will include pro-
and staff. Financial difficulties discussed implementation of VLTI, VISA, Coude visions for continuing technological re-
in the Finance Committee meeting of Train and associated adaptive optics for search and development programmes
November 8 and 9, 1993 and recent all telescopes. In consultation with the devoted to this end.

VLT News trom the VLT Division


The status of VLT activities is shifting the mass has increased with respect to Enclosures
more and more from the design to the the original design. The maximum total
construction phase. Major progress was moving mass is 450 tons wh ich include The design and construction of the
achieved in the following areas: 320 tons of structural steel. enclosures were contracted to the
A demonstration test of the encoder SEBIS Consortium in Italy. The final de-
Mechanical Structure was carried out successfully. This en- sign is near to completion (January
coder uses two laser interferometers 1994).
The detailed design of the structure is and a number of flat mirrors fixed on Wind tunnel tests have been per-
reaching completion. The calculated low- the structure. Each mirror can cover a formed for the assessment of wind
est locked rotor eigenfrequency is 8.1 Hz range of about 4 degrees and the two loads on a single enclosure. Additional
around the elevation axis and about heads permit the transition from one tests will be performed in November
10 Hz around the azimuth axis. To obtain mirror to another without the loss of 1993 to study the interference between
this and to optimize the manufacturing, information. the enclosures.
Mirrors and M1 Unit of the results of a preliminary enquiry. A - Study of acoustic noise inside UT en-
call for tenders is running for the pro- closures
The first primary mirror blank has
curement of CCD cameras for autoguid- - Study of thermal environment in VLTI
been delivered to REOSC and the pads
ing and wavefront sensing applications. facilities
for the axial supports have been glued
- Measurements of ground transfer
on the back. The manufacturing of other
functions on Paranal
blanks by Schott proceeds as planned. Coude Station
Two parallel contracts were issued for
The concept is based on a large turn-
the design of the mirror Gell. The Prelimi- Auxiliary Telescopes
table on which all the coude station
nary Design Review will take place at
equipment is fixed. It is used to com- Calls for tenders for the design,
the beginning of next year.
pensate the field rotation for coude in- manufacture, test in Europe, transport
struments and to position the collimat- to and erection in Chile of three auxiliary
M2 Unit ing units to be used for the different telescopes and equipment for 11 sta-
The call for tenders has been issued types of beam combinations. The con- tions were sent to industry in July 1993.
and the tenders are expected in mid- tract for the construction of turntables
December. The requirements include a has been issued.
Beam Combiner System
fast guiding mode (field stabilization)
and a chopping mode for frequencies Adaptive Optics An in-house design study of the beam
up to 5 Hz and amplitude of up to 1 arc- combiner is nearing completion. The
An optimization study has permitted main objective of the study is a concep-
minute. the finalization of the essential parame- tual design wh ich allows the assessment
ters necessary for the establishment of of the interface to the civil engineering
Coating Plant specifications. infrastructure and understanding of the
The technical specifications and tradeoffs between various concepts for
statement of work for the Call for Ten- Handling Aspects the homothetic mapping.
ders have been completed. The specifi- A new concept for the M1 handling
cations are based on a sputtering pro- tool has been developed. The principle Instru mentation
cess. The start of the contract is ex- is a hydraulic whiffle tree. The geometry
pected to be May 1994. The VLT Medium Resolution Spec-
is identical to that of the REOSC tool.
trometer/lmager (ISAAC) reached the Fi-
The M1 handling tool will include the nal Design Review (FDR). The CONICA
Washing Unit and Cleanroom lifting system and will form a self-stand-
(High Resolution Near Infrared Camera)
ing unit in the Mirror Maintenance and FORS (Focal Reducer Spectro-
The specifications and statement of
Building. graph) are approaching the FDR stage.
work for the call for tenders is being
prepared. The contract for the washing The UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph
unit will include the pilot washing unit VLTI System Level (UVES) completed the Preliminary De-
(for the 3.6-metre mirrors) for La Silla. sign Review in October. The Multi-Fiber
A number of studies at system level
Cleanroom specifications have been Area Spectrograph (FUEGOS) is being
are currently being carried out or have
prepared. The cleanroom will comprise studied by a consortium composed of
been completed. These studies are im-
both the coating and washing unit for the Observatoire de Meudon, the Ob-
portant for assessing the overall perfor-
the 8-m mirrors. servatoire de Geneve, the Observatoire
mance of the VLTI as weil as for the
de Toulouse and the Osservatorio di
specification of VLTI subsystems, such
Bologna. The Phase A study ended in
Cassegrain and Nasmyth as the delay lines. Studies include:
October and is being reviewed by ESO
- Control model of delay line/fringe technical staff. The Mid-Infrared Image
The conceptual design has been sensor Spectrometer is being studied by the
completed and the call for tenders will - Structural deformation of unit tele- Service d'Astrophysique CEAlDAPNIA
be sent out early in 1994 after analysis scopes under wind loads and is making progress in Phase A.

First Light from the NTT Interferometer

A ECKART and L.E. TACCONI-GARMAN, MPE Garehing, Germany

It is not obvious that placing a mask masking has mainly been used for bright the atmosphere of Mira (e.g., Wilson et
over a telescope and blocking most of sources having reasonably simple struc- al. 1992; Haniff et al. 1992).
the light will improve its imaging perfor- ture. Fortunately, there are some very This article describes aperture-mask-
mance. Yet several groups have done interesting objects that satisfy these ing observations of cool giants with the
just this in an effort to overcome the criteria: cool giant stars, whose large 3.5-m ND in the near infrared (1.5 ~lm).
limits of atmospheric seeing and angular diameters (up to -0.05") make We chose the infrared because, al-
achieve the best angular resolution from them ideal targets for big telescopes. though the angular resolution is some-
large telescopes such as the 4.2-m Aperture masking has so far allowed what poorer than at visible wavelengths,
WHT, the 3.9-m AAT, the Haie 5-m and detection of convective hot spots on the the stars are much brighter and the at-
the Mayall 4-m at Kitt Peak. Aperture red supergiant a Ori and asymmetries in mospheric seeing is more favourable.

Before describing our observations, we Why Use an Aperture Mask?
give abrief introduction to the tech-
niques involved. Each ro-sized patch on the pupil has
an unknown phase error, corresponding
Optical/IR Interferometry to the unknown thickness of atmo-
sphere above it. Each pair of patches
To produce images that have high forms an interferometer that measures a
angular resolution one must overcome particular spatial frequency on the sky.
the seeing. This means compensating With an un-masked pupil there are many
for perturbations in the wavefront of the different pairs measuring a given spatial
light that result from its passage through frequency. Each one contributes a dif-
the atmosphere. These perturbations ferent phase error, so that many fringe
arise because the refractive index of the patterns with the same spatial frequen-
atmosphere is continually fluctuating, cy are superimposed on the detector
primarily due to turbulent mixing of re- with different position offsets. The resul-
gions of air with differing temperatures. tant fringe power will be the sum of
The incoming wavefront can be thought these randomly-phased contributions.
of as being made up of a large number The problem is that the wavefront errors
of patches, each having a diameter of ro, are different in every short-exposure im-
where the wavefront is approximately age, so the final fringe power, being the
flat across each patch. The quantity ro sum of a random walk, will also fluctu-
determines the seeing: at a wavelength ate. This introduces so-called atmo-
A, the seeing disk has a FWHM of about Figure 1: To change between masks, the NTT
spheric noise in the power spectrum. A
was tilted to 15° (rom the horizontal and the
1.2 Vro (e.g., ro = 15 cm at 550 nm for 1" non-redundant aperture mask, in wh ich mirror cover (grey) was partially closed. Here,
seeing). no baseline is sampled more than once, Oskar von der Lühe (Ieft) and Tim Bedding
Adaptive optics seeks to compensate eliminates atmospheric noise. This is (right) stand on the telescope structure and
for wavefront perturbations in real time particularly important in the infrared, show off the 7-hole mask. The black circle
using a small deformable mirror. Pro- where the large numbers of photons behind their heads is the annular mask
vided the mirror has enough actuators mean that atmospheric noise usually attached to the M3 baffle. Andreas Eckart is
(one for every ro-sized patch on the dominates over photon noise. standing at floor level.
pupil), it is possible to place most of the Another advantage of non-redundant
light in a diffraction-limited core. Of aperture masking is that it improves the
course, one also requires sufficient accuracy with which one can correct for
photons per ro-patch to measure the variations in atmospheric seeing, some- generally dominates over atmospheric
wavefront and calculate the correction.' thing wh ich is often the limiting factor in noise. Here, Buscher & Haniff (1993)
It is possible to achieve high angular high-resolution imaging. This is because advocate the use of a long slit.
resolution passively (i.e. without adap- a pupil composed of subapertures each We do not wish to give the impres-
tive optics), provided one has a fast having size :s ro is quite insensitive to sion that masking a telescope is always
detector. This involves recording the changes in the actual value ro. Of the best strategy. In same situations,
distorted image in a succession of short course, a mask also reduces the light however, there are powerful arguments
exposures, each of which "freezes" the level and restricts observations to bright for doing so and these issues are dis-
seeing, and processing them off-line. objects. But for those objects, there is cussed more fully in the references. To
This is the basis of speckle interferome- an additional advantage if the light being summarize, an aperture mask with non-
try. Each short-exposure image con- discarded does not carry useful infor- redundant holes provides more accu-
tains high-resolution information wh ich mation. This last point becomes clear if rately calibrated measurements at the
can be extracted via a Fourier transform one imagines observing an object wh ich full diffraction limit, but at the expense of
and calibrated using similar observa- is only barely resolved by the full tele- lower sensitivity and poorer spatial-fre-
tions of a nearby unresolved star. scope aperture. In this case, the "useful" quency coverage. As noted above, an
Aperture masking is identical to light comes from the outer parts of the annular mask should be a good com-
speckle interferometry, except that one pupil and the remainder only serves to promise in the infrared, but this method
places a mask over the telescope pupil. add noise to the signal we are interested has so far only been tested on binary
The mask may consist of a small in. By using a mask, one can effectively stars (Haniff et al. 1989).
number of holes arranged in a non-re- increase the resolving power of the tele-
dundant pattern (i.e., so that all baseline scope by giving more emphasis to high
vectors are distinct). Alternatively, it may spatial frequencies.
Masking the NTT
be partially redundant, such as an A big drawback of using a non-redun- Our observations were made on the
annulus or a slit. The pros and cons of dant mask with a small number of holes ND in August 1993, using the SHARP
aperture masking have been discussed is the poor coverage of spatial frequen- infrared camera (Eckart et al. 1991). In
elsewhere (Haniff & Buscher 1992; eies. A good compromise in the photon- order to sampie the images fully at the
Buscher & Haniff 1993; Haniff 1993) and rich infrared regime is an annular mask. diffraction limit at the J band, it was
here we simply try to summarize the This has full spatial frequency coverage necessary to magnify the image scale.
main arguments. while being minimally redundant: rough- We did this by placing a focal expander
Iy speaking, each baseline is measured just in front of the dewar window. This
1 Adaptive optics is not lhe same as active optics. twice. Furthermore, a thin annulus large- device, wh ich we named COSHARP,
The lalter involves adjusting the primary mirror 10 Iy retains the other advantages men- consisted of a pair of lenses mounted in
correcl tor lelescope f1exure, etc., and the correc- tioned above, namely accurate calibra- an aluminium tube. COSHARP per-
tions are necessarily made on a much slower
timescale. This type or correction produces excel- tion and enhanced resolution. However, formed perfectly and we wish the same
lent long-exposure images, but cannot be used tor an annular mask is not a good choice in success to its more expensive space-
real-time seeing compensation. the visible regime, where photon noise based cousin.

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Figure 2: (a) The 7-hole non-redundant mask, with the pupil of the NTT shown as dashed eire/es, (b) Theoretical spatial-frequency coverage. The
central red dot is the origin and the other points (in symmetrical pairs) show the 21 different baselines.
(c) Typical 0.1-s exposure of a bright star. The envelope corresponds to the airy disk of a single hole and fringes from the interferometric array
are clearly visible. The image is 2.9" across.
(d) The average power spectrum of 200 interferograms like the one in (c). Since the telescope has an alt-azimuth mount, the orientation of the
pattern varies with the rotation angle of the mask with respect to the sky.

We observed several red giants and lowest elevation (15°), partly closed the of spatial frequencies more uniform.
Mira variables using both an annular primary mirror cover and climbed onto Figures 2 (c) and (d) show data from a
mask and a 7-hole non-redundant the telescope structure. The whole pro- bright star. The signal in the power
mask. Placing a full-sized mask over the cess of changing the mask took two spectrum is attenuated relative to the
primary mirror of a large telescope is people about 5 minutes (see Figure 1). theoretical pattern (2 b), mainly due to
rather difficult, especially if you want to The mirror cover of the ND opens like seeing decorrelation during each 0.1-s
change between different masks during a pair of sliding doors, wh ich makes it exposure. This exposure time, which
the night. The solution adopted by most useful as a secure handhold. We note in was set by the detector system, is a little
observers is to place the mask inside passing that this mirror cover can easily long and we plan to install a fast shutter
the instrument at an image of the tele- be used to create a slit mask, simply by for future observations.
scope pupil. Re-imaging the pupil to a opening the cover to the desired width. The annular mask (Figure 3) has an
diameter of -20 mm with a lens allows As mentioned above, a slit mask can be effective outer diameter of 3.3 m and a
one to use a correspondingly smaller used for interferometry at visible width of 20 cm. The transfer function
mask, wh ich is very convenient but re- wavelengths. (Figure 3 b) gives strong emphasis to
quires extra optics to be inserted in the The design of the 7-hole mask is high spatial frequencies. In the mid-fre-
system. With SHARP on the ND, this shown in Figure 2 (a). When projected quency range the transfer function is a
was not practicable. on the entrance pupil of the ND, the factor of -7 below that of the unmasked
The ND is a compact alt-azimuth te- holes have a diameter of 25 cm and lie telescope. However, in the presence of
lescope in a small enclosure, making it on a circle of diameter 3.05 m. We did seeing, the signal from the unmasked
quite easy to access the telescope not use the full diameter of the pupil telescope is strongly attenuated, while
structure. This allowed us to place the (3.5 m) in order to avoid vignetting that that from the annular mask (Figure 3d)
masks on the baffle in front of Mirror 3, would arise from the mask not being is less severely affected.
at wh ich point the converging f/11 beam exactly at the pupil plane. Figure 2 (b)
has a diameter of 45 cm. The masks shows the two-dimensional spatial fre-
Results and Future Prospects
were made from 5 mm thick black PVC quency coverage. The arrangement of
and, by bolting a mounting ring to the the holes is based on a design by Corn- Despite poor weather, we obtained
M3 baffle, we were able to attach and weil (1988), except that we moved the good observations of several southern
remove them very easily. To reach the lower pair of holes closer together to red giants and Miras that we would ex-
M3 baffle, we drove the telescope to its make the radially-averaged coverage pect to have large angular diameters.

02 0<4 06 08
Angular frequcrlcy

Figure 3: (a) The annular mask, with the pupil of the NTT shown as dashed eire/es.
(b) Radial cuts through the NTT modulation transfer function in the absence of seeing effects. The solid curve is for the annular mask and the
dashed curve is without a mask (but including the telescope's central obstruction). An angular frequency of 1 corresponds to the diffraction limit
of the fu/l 3.5-m aperture.
(c) Typical O. 1-s exposure of a bright star, showing many sma/l speckles. The image is 2.9" across.
(d) The average power spectrum of 500 interferograms like the one in (c). The origin of the spatial frequency domain is at the centre, where the
signal is strongest. The arc-like features are due to the telescope spiders and also to a deposit on M3 courtesy of the bird life on La Silla.

Preliminary analysis of the data indi- there are always practical difficulties Cornwell, T.J., 1988, IEEE Trans. Antennas
cates that these stars are resolved and with aperture masking. We therefore and Propagation 36, 1165.
that they probably rival Betelgeuse and hope that future instruments will be de- Eckart, A., Hofmann, R., Duhoux, P., Genzel,
Mira in angular size. If this turns out to signed to contain a reimaged pupil at R., & Drapatz, S., 1991, The Messenger
be the case, we will be able to look for which masks can be easily inserted.
Haniff, CA, & Buscher, D.F., 1992, J. Opt.
evidence of asymmetries and surface We thank Reiner Hofmann for making Soe. Am. A. 9, 203.
features on these stars. COSHARP, Gerardo Ihle and the staff in Haniff, CA, Buseher, D.F., Christou, J.C., &
The number of stars that can be re- the La Silla workshop for making the Ridgway, S.T., 1989, MNRAS 241, 51 P.
solved by 4-m-class telescopes is smalI, masks, and telescope operator Francis- Haniff, CA, Ghez, A.M., Gorham, P.W, Kul-
but the results so far have proved very co Labrafia for excellent support during karni, S.R., Matthews, K., & Neugebauer,
interesting. The new generation of the observations. G., 1992, AJ 103, 1662.
8-10-m telescopes will give a big im- Haniff, CA, 1993, Speckle v non-redundant
provement in angular resolution, and masking. In: Robertson, J.G., & Tango,
masking observations similar to those WJ. (eds.), Proe. lAU Symp. 158, Very
High Angular Resolution Imaging, Sydney,
we have described should allow de- References
Australia, January 1993, in press.
tailed study of stars with large angular Buscher, D.F., & Haniff, CA, 1993, J. Opt. Wilson, R.W, Baldwin, J.E., Buscher, D.F., &
diameters. At the moment, however, Soe. Am. A. 10, 1882. Warn er, P.J., 1992, MNRAS 257,369.

Optical Gyro Encoder Tested on the NTT

Offenburg and Steinbeis Transfer Zentrum Physikalische Sensorik, Offenburg, Germany
M. RAVENSBERGEN, European Southern Observatory

The prototype of the optical gyro en- In principle, the OGE integrates the line in order to find the best integration
coder (see [1] and [2]) has been suc- signal of the ring laser gyro and com- time constant.
cessfully tested on the ND telescope in pensates it for misalignments and earth The OGE data were transformed into
the period of 5 to 10 September 1993. rotation in order to get the angles in altitude/azimuth coordinates according
Day time tests until 20 September telescope coordinates. The ring laser to its system equations and calibration
proved the repeatability of the measure- gyro data are also used to stabilize the data. This was compared with the read-
ments. The tests confirmed the specifi- fiber optic gyro. The data collection was ings of the altitude and azimuth encod-
cations of the encoder and qualified this however done for the two gyros indi- ers of the ND.
type of angular encoder for the use in an vidually and the data were evaluated off- The OGE was first mounted on the
optical telescope.
The optical gyro encoder (OGE) con-
sists of two gyros:
1. A ring laser gyro. This gyro consists of
a triangular or square light path with
mirrors in the corners. Laser light from
an ionizing laser source (e.g. HeNe) is
emitted in the 2 directions of the light
path and the resulting interference
pattern is measured.
The light path is made in a glass block
with a thermal expansion coefficient
of zero. It has therefore a very stable
scale factor but the resolution is not
2. A fiber optic gyro. This gyro consists
of a polarization maintaining fiber,
which is wound on a coil. A light
source emits light in the two direc-
tions of the coil, and the interference
pattern is measured. Compared with
a ring laser gyro with the same en-
closed area for the light path, the sen-
sitivity multiplies with the number of
turns. This results in an excellent res-
olution and low noise. 'On the other The optieal gyro eneoder mounted on the NTT eentre pieee (altitude axis). The ring laser with
hand, the scale factor is not sufficient its front-end eleetronies is mounted in the box, while the fiber gyro is mounted on the right-
because of imperfections in the opti- hand plate. Dimensions of the mounting box are about 45 x 45 x 45 em. The axis of the optieal
cal elements and thermal effects. gyro eneoder is from left to right on this pieture.

azimuth box to measure azimuth rotation Resolution: < 3 x 10-4 arcsec at a read- This also means that, in this case, the
and was later fixed to the centrepiece in out rate of 10Hz tracking performance is not dependent
order to measure altitude rotation. Bandwidth: up to 120 Hz (adjustable by on a pointing model: the OGEs drive the
The OGE measures in respect to iner- software) motors in such a way that the inertial
tial space, while the NTI encoders No temperature compensation had to rate becomes zero.
measure in respect to altitude/azimuth be applied. The test campaign proved that this
coordinates of the earth frame. Because In gyro terms the data are as folIows: device is also quite useful for calibrating
of this basic difference in operation, Bias stability: < 2 x 10-3 degrees/hour existing encoders and for analysing ex-
several special effects were detected: Scale factor stability: < 1 ppm isting telescope control loops and struc-
1. Stressing of the azimuth bearing Random walk coefficient: < 5 x 10-4 de- tures.
support ring. When the telescope greesl our.
starts to move from a stand-still posi-
tion, the telescope is already moving The high resolution and bandwidth
before the NTI encoder measures a make the OGE an excellent device for The authors would like to thank:
rotation. This is due to the friction in telescope tracking. Having fiber optic - the personnel of ESO in Chile for their
the radial bearing of the azimuth axis, gyros mounted on the telescope tube, support in the preparation and the
which is also the mounting location of the rotation rate has to be zero during execution of the test,
the NTI encoder. tracking for alt-azimuth mounted tele- - B. Gilli from ESO Garching for the
2. Sag of structural parts of the center- scopes as weil as for equatorial preparation of the software on the
piece of the NTI according to the mounted telescopes. However, the in- NTI,
altitude position. trinsic integration principle and drift re- - the co-workers at the Fachhochschu-
3. Minor nonlinearities of the NTI en- quire the use of an initialization refer- le Offenburg and the STZ Physika-
coders in the sub arcsec range. ence and an autoguider. lische Sensorik for their excellent de-
4. Details of the control loop behaviour. The installation of an OGE is easy be- velopment work and
cause it does not need to be mounted in - the Ministry for Research and Tech-
The preliminary evaluation of the test the telescope axis and there are no tight nology of Baden-Württemberg.
data gave the following characteristics: mechanical tolerances to be respected.
Pointing accuracy: Azimuth axis: On an equatorial mounted telescope,
< 0.7 arcsec rms the application is even easier because References
Altitude axis: no coordinate transformation is needed: [1] F. Merkle and M. Ravensbergen: The
< 1 arcsec rms If one OGE is mounted on the alpha and Messenger No. 65, Sept. 1991.
Tracking accuracy: < 0.1 arcsec rms another one on the delta axis, they see [2] W. Schröder et al. (1991): Proc. SPIE
over a time of 30 seconds an inertial rate of zero during tracking. 1585.

Infrared Astronomy with Arrays: the Next Generation


The title is that of a conference held at dustry" evening session. Such sessions (see The Messenger, 70, 10) and CONI-
UCLA in July 1993 at wh ich approxi- have become a regular feature of CA (The Messenger, 67, 17) instruments
mately 250 participants experienced a special ist infrared conferences, and this for the ESO VLT. With its relatively short
feast of 73 papers and 120 posters cov- one really demonstrated the extensive long wavelength cut-off this array yields
ering both recent astrophysical results cooperation wh ich has developed be- extremely low dark current (-0.1 eis)
and future prospects for the next gener- tween astronomers and industry during and read noise (-20e) at comfortable
ation of infrared array instruments on the last few years and the remarkable operating temperatures -70K. Results
large ground-based telescopes and in progress made in the developmentlop- at the conference, however, revealed
space. Although it was a very exciting timization of arrays for infrared as- the strong competition it now faces from
meeting both scientifically and techni- tronomy. the new SBRC 256 x 256 InSb array,
cally with many highlights, the purpose Based on the quantity and quality of successor to their famous 58 x 62 de-
of this article is not to review the confer- the scientific results presented, the vice, which is sensitive out to 5 ~lm and
ence (to be published as a book by standard in the near infrared (1-2.5Ilm) has been baselined for the long
Kluwer and edited by lan McLean) but to region has ciearly been set during the wavelength channels of ISAAC and
draw attention to developments in the last few years by the 256 x 256 CONICA. Somewhat unexpectedly, the
field of infrared array detectors reported Hg:Cd:Te NICMOS3 array developed first tests of these arrays have shown
there which are of great interest for both for the HST instrument with whose that they can also compete with the
planned and future VLT instruments. name it has become synonymous (and Hg:Cd:Te arrays with regard to dark cur-
Partly because the conference was whose home was visited by many of the rent and noise, albeit at less comfort-
in California, the infrared detector participants on an oversubscribed tour able temperatures (-30K) and with
manufacturers were represented in organized by the RockweIl International much more stringent requirements on
force to present their products and sol- Science Center). This is the array in- the instrumental background due to
icit feedback from users on the perfor- stalled in IRAC2 atthe 2.2-m telescope on their longer cut-off wavelength. They
mance of current arrays and their future La Silla and currently baselined for the also yield quantum efficiencies >0.8
requirements in a special "meet the in- short wavelength channels of the ISAAC which are higher than the Hg:Cd:Te

arrays at the short wavelengths and do formats but also improved sensitivity this device to a format of 128x 192 pix-
not appear to suffer from the persist- and hence a considerable overall perfor- els being managed by INSU and with
ence and "glow" problems of these mance gain. One of the VLT infrared ESO participation was also presented. A
arrays under extremely low background instruments still in the definition phase novel feature of this array, appreciated
conditions. Among the first instru- at ESO - the cryogenic infrared echelle by many participants, is the possibility
ments equipped with such an array is spectrometer - actually requires arrays of switching between high and low val-
the Caltech infrared camera for the Keck of this size for a reasonable echelle for- ues of the charge capacity in order to
telescope wh ich has already achieved a mat and will c1early profit from any im- optimize its performance under different
1a K' (2.1 /-lm) limit of 22 mag./sq. arc- provement in noise performance as background conditions (e.g. imaging
sec in 20s of integration time. Unfortu- such an instrument should be detector and spectroscopy). Both SBRC and
nately, the weil capacities of the first limited over much of its wavelength RockweIl have also developed low-
devices are rather low (-2·1Q5e) for range. Technically, it is also not too late noise, high-capacity (10 7 e), As:Si IBCI
ground-based L (3.8 /-lm) and M (4.8/-lm) to plan for the use of these larger format BIB (Impurity Blocked Conductionl
broadband imaging. At ESO, however, arrays in ISAAC and CONICA. Although Blocked Impurity Band) arrays with for-
we are currently preparing to test an the present 256 x 256 arrays were mats up to 256 x 256 which are sensitive
engineering array of this type and ex- baselined even before these arrays be- throughout the 10 and 20flm windows
pect delivery early next year of a science came commercially available, the opti- although it has yet to be established that
grade array with higher weil capacity if cal designs of both instruments were such devices can be exported outside
current experiments with higher doping specified to accommodate 512x512 the United States. RockweIl also re-
at SBRC are successful. Cincinnati arrays in anticipation of future develop- ported progress with As:Si solid-state
Electronics also presented their new ments. An expansion to 1024x 1024 photomultipliers wh ich have high q.e.'s
256 x 256 InSb array wh ich yields higher now appears possible without major op- (-0.7) and are capable of counting sin-
weil capacities of -10 6 e at the expense tomechanical changes if and when they gle photons with a response time of
of higher dark current and read noise become available. 50ns. Although the present formats are
and could be of great interest for long- Considerable progress was also re- small (10 x 10), these devices may be of
wavelength imaging. The big news, ported on the development of longer interest in the future for very low
however, was that both Rockweil and wavelength arrays which cover the 10 background (e.g. high-resolution spec-
SBRC have now started development of and 20/-lm atmospheric windows and troscopy) applications and the measure-
1024 x 1024 arrays, i.e. jumping the pre- are of interest for the VLT mid-infrared ment of fast transient phenomena.
viously anticipated next step in format. imagerlspectrometer for wh ich ESO has This is obviously an exciting and
Both plan to utilize four quadrant read- contracted a Phase A study to a consor- probably exceptional period in the his-
out chips so that 512x512 arrays tium of institutes led by the Service tory of infrared array development. If, as
should also be available if required and d'Astrophysique, Saclay (see The expected, the detectors highlighted
offer a fallback if yield of the full arrays Messenger, 73, 8). Performance of the here materialize within the next few
proves to be a major problem. Both high weil capacity (-10 7 e) 64x64 Ga:Si years, infrared astronomers will have
companies appear to be more con- photoconductor array developed by evolved from using noisy single detec-
cerned, in fact, by yield (and hence cost) LETI/L1 R in France for ground-based tors to almost "perfect" arrays of one
than technical performance aspects al- use in the 10/-lm window was demon- million pixels within aperiod of little
though Rockweil plan a concerted strated to good effect by an image of the more than a decade. Coupled with the
attack on the persistence problem and ß Pic disk obtained by P.O. Lagage us- new instrumental opportunities created
hope also to increase quantum efficien- ing TIMMI at the ESO 3.6-m and voted and the larger telescopes now under
cy and reduce the read noise of the new one of the conference scientific high- development, they will clearly open the
devices to -5e. The prospect now, lights by Mark Morris in his closing way for the next big step in our explora-
therefore, is not only of much larger summary. The follow-on development of tion of the infrared universe.

Current CCD Projects at ESO and Their Relation to the

VLT Instruments

sentation, it is more convenient to de- instrument depending on its scientific

1. Introduction
scribe the various developments now aim. One can differentiate between the
The following is abrief description of under way and then state their relevance following types of CCOs:
CCO detectors foreseen to be used with to the different VLT instruments. • Well-specified "catalogue products"
VLT instruments currently under study Oifferent strategies of procurement where a design and manufacturing
or design and of the contracts under are necessary because large CCO de- process already exist and the device
way to procure them. tectors for application in advanced as- is to a basic extent tested at the
In the actual sequence of work, the tronomical instrumentation are not avail- manufacturer. For large sizes, how-
requirements on the detectors to be able as off-the-shelves products. ever, the manufacturing itself still im-
used are set in the instrument design Moreover it is not possible to define a plies a number of risks (e.g. in thin-
phase and this is the starting point for standard CCO device, because the re- ning) thus making the delivery un-
the procurement activities. In this pre- quirements change from instrument to foreseeable.

• Oevices on a best-effort contract with Table 1: Summarized Specification for the main parameters of the thinned Thomson 2048 2,
detailed specifications but without 15-llm Pixelsize devices
manufacturer's guarantee to meet
them and mostly without any
manufacturer's involvement in device •CHIP TOPOLOGY
testing and characterization. Operation mode Frame transfer, single field
• Unique prototypes to test new de- Readout mode - At least two identical on-chip output amplifiers on
one chip side offering the possibility of simultane-
velopments which, when successful,
ous readout to reduce the overall readout time
can lead to the definition of new cata- - The entire charge pattern of the light sensitive
logue products. area may be read through either one of those
It will be impossible to describe and output amplifiers or simultaneously through all of
them, if so required
compare all parameters of the various
eeos here, so that this article is focus- • GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
ing on the physical device format, pixel 15 micron square format
Pixel size
size, buttability, number of outputs, 100 % aperture
thick or thin version, the latter being the Pixel number 2048 x 2048
fundamental requirement to reach high
quantum efficiency over the spectral • MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS
range from UV to NI. The performance in Flatness of light sensitive area 15 mieren peak to peak
read-out noise, weil capacity, uniformi- Package and Chip design Three-side buttable
ty, etc. is equally important but would Dead surface gap Less than 400 mieren between sensitive areas
require a detailed discussion which is (mounted in TMS package) of the specified CCDs
outside the scope of this article. The • ELECTRICAL PERFORMANCE
relevance of these parameters change
Readout noise in slow scan operation Less than 4e- (target): 10e- (upper limit) at Data rate
also very much depending on the 50 KHz with C.D.S. measurement performed at
specific, astronomical application they -40·C
are intended for. Full weil capability More than 100000e- measured at -80·C
(Design goal 130000el
Charge transfer efficiency per clock Better than 0.99995 measured at -80·C
2.20482 , 15-flm Pixel Size CCOs cycle (Design goal 0.99999)
tram Thomson TCS Dark Current (D.C.) Less than 0.1 e-/min/pixel at -80·C
Based on scientific requirements for Measurement performed at +20·C:
D.C. (-80·C) = 3.10-6 x D.C. (+20·C)
current and future instruments, all main
Additional Features Binning facility for 2 x 2 pixels with full signal (design
parameters of a eeo were set up in a goal)
baseline specification in November Nominal operating mode is MPP
1991 to look for a supplier being able to Either Inverted or Non-inverted mode operation is
accept certain risks in the development possible
of a thinned product of the required size.
After a formal call for tender proce- •OPTICAL PERFORMANCE
dure, Thomson TeS, Grenoble, was Quantum efficiency > 20 % at 350 nm (design goal: 30 %)
selected in June 1992 for the develop- > 45 % at 450 nm (design goal: 50 %)
ment of this product. The intention was > 60 % at 600 nm
to establish a specified product being > 25 % at 900 nm (design goal: 30 %)
All QE values measured at -80·C
characterized almost completely by the Within 30 % peak to peak over the whole light
Uniformity of QE across light sensi-
manufacturer himself, thus providing a tive area sensitive area
"standard" product with guaranteed Typical value of High Frequency Photo Response
performance. Non Uniformity: ± 3 %
The specifications were developed in Measurement at -80·C
co-operation of ESO and TeS as a Cosmic Ray Sensitivity <3 events/(cm 2 • minute) at a CCD temperature of
trade-off between scientific require- -80·C
ments and technical solutions - risks Defects Not more than 10 bad columns
Less than 500 hot or dark pixels
the manufacturer could accept in terms
of predictability, yield and accuracy. The
result is the product Thomson THX 7397
M, wh ich - assuming the development
is successful - is intended to be offered
also to other customers. May 1994 of five devices fully meeting The final use of these detectors is
It features a 2048 2 detector with all specifications. foreseen at the echelle spectrographs
15-f.l.m pixel size, 3-side buttable, two Figure 1 shows a first frontside illumi- (UVES) under construction for the Nas-
outputs and will be thinned with subse- nated (thick) sam pie shown in the myth foci of the VLT. One of the instru-
quent surface treatment not requiring course of the eeo workshop 4/5 Oc- ment configurations under study is
UV flooding for optimal operation. The tober in Garching. Looking at the photo- based on the use of a 3 x 1 mosaic. If the
specifications are summarized in graph you might notice the rather un- manufacturing is successful, these de-
Table 1. conventional package construction of vices could also be used to upgrade
A number of mechanical/electrical the eeo, attempting to implement La Silla instrumentation and be im-
sam pies and an engineering grade are mechanical requirements for mosaick- plemented in second-generation VLT in-
to be delivered until January 1994 ing right from the design start with mini- struments. A mosaic of 2 x 2 devices of
followed by the final delivery until mal mechanical adjustment needs. this type can also be considered as a

backup solution for the Focal Reducer
spectrographs for the VLT (FORS1 and

3. 2048 2 , 24-f..lm Pixel Size eeos

trom SITE
The CCO department of Tektronix
was sold in November 1993 to SITE (=
Scientific Imaging Technologies), a
wholly owned subsidiary of CBA Int.
Three "catalogue" devices TK2048EB
featuring 2048 2 format, 24-flm pixel
size, non buttable, 2 (4) outputs,
thinned, not requiring UV flooding are on
order. The possibility to apply a special
UV coating to even improve the quan-
tum efficiency of the thinned CCO main-
Iy between 300-350 nm is still investi-
gated but, as a drawback, would require
UV flooding. As this is a "catalogue"
product, the devices are characterized
partly by SITE.
The final use is foreseen at the red
camera of EMMI at the ND and the
Focal Reducers at the VLT (FORS 1
and 2).
The delivery of these devices is cru-
cial, since EMMI red has been waiting
for it for a number of years, thus operat-
ing presently at only 50 % of the
foreseen efficiency. Envisaged delivery
dates are January 1994, January 1995 Figure 1: The first-front side sampie of the described Thomson 2048 2 GGO during inspeclion at
and July 1995 but may change so that ESO (Ieft), tagether with a "package sampie", i.e. the support without the chip (10 wer right). A
here the establishment of a reasonable view of the sampIe almost face-on is shown in the insert.
backup solution is necessary.

4. 2048 2 Format, 15-f..lm Pixel Size

and 2048 2 Format, 24-f..lm Pixel
Figure 2 shows another custom de- CCOs of the FORS instruments (single
Size eeos trom LORAL South
sign of a special CCO under way at use of the scientific CCO) and to be
In order to establish a backup solution LORAL for ESO since April 1993. It fea- used for tests of the improvements in
for devices of 2K format with 15-flm pixel tures the following characteristics: 2048 2 , image quality by rapid guiding with one
size, a foundry run of an existing design 24-flm pixel size, 4 outputs, non buttable of the four small frame-transfer CCOs
was ordered in June 1993 at LORAL. The together with the following tracker accommodated at the four corners on
design of this device was done by John CCOs on the same chip: 2 guiding the same die (i.e. wafer substrate) as the
Geary, Harvard Smithsonian Inst., and CCOs of format 180x200 active imag- scientific CCO (Figure 2). Oelivery of the
has the following main characteristics: ing zone, 24-~lm pixel size, 1 output and raw wafers is envisaged for March 1994.
2048 2 detector with 15-flm pixel size, 2 guiding CCOs of format 180x400 ac-
3-side buttable, two outputs. Oevices tive imaging zone, 24-flm pixel size, 1
5. eeo Thinning at Steward Ob-
produced by LORAL are thick devices output. Here the design was partly done
servatory, University ot Arizona
and can at LORAL only be enhanced by LORAL and partly at ESO in-house in
with lumigen coating (not requiring UV a very flexible co-operation. Again the The group led by Mike Lesser at the
f1ooding). As a consequence, the devices are thick and solutions for pack- Steward Observatory has been working
quantum efficiency in the blue is poor aging, testing, enhancement, etc. have extensivelyon the actual thinning pro-
and could be improved by means of to be provided by the customer. These cess and surface treatment for about
thinning and surface treatment. In this CCOs are intended to be mounted in the 10 years and demonstrated very prom-
case the foundry approach basically de- two direct CCO cameras which are ising results in 1992 with the thinning of
livers only the processed wafers of which foreseen as testing devices for the opti- Loral South CCOs. Although being ca-
by preliminary tests aselection of the cal quality and the operation of the VLT pable of reaching high quantum efficien-
CCOs must be done for frontside (thick) Unit Telescopes. The field covered by cy, the devices do presently require UV
packaging, lumigen coating or for later the scientific CCO corresponds to ap- f100ding as the surface treatment is not
thinning as described in the next para- proximately 1.5 x 1.5 arcmin. Besides a permanent solution in terms of the
graph. No device characterization or the standard readout, the CCO will energy conditions for surface charge. At
packaging solution for buttability is be used in 2 x 2 or 4 x 4 binned mode that time ESO placed a contract to thin
offered by the manufacturer, so that the (pixel size 0.08 and 0.16 arcsec respec- and optimize four LORAL devices of 2K
customer has to find his specific solu- tively). format, 15-flm pixel size, 2-side buttable
tion. Oelivery of the raw wafers is Other possible uses of the devices are design, and first results are expected
foreseen at the beginning of 1994. to serve as a backup solution for the until the end of 1993.

CCOs and could be used in all applica-
tions for which these are planned.

6. Concluding Remarks
The more recent main CCO procure-
ment activities for the VLT have been
described here in a summarized form.
The assessment of the probability of a
given development to be completed
successfully has to be updated on a
weekly basis depending on the techni-
cal results obtained by the manufactur-
ers in the various phases of their pro-
cessing. Another source of worry is the
fact that the CCO field has - especially
in 1993 - undergone dramatic changes
concerning the future of major suppliers,
with recurring announcements of clo-
sures of manufacturing lines and of
change of property.
The limitation on ESO manpower and
budget considerations necessarily limit
the number of parallel developments we
can carry out, but the floating situation
forces us, as weil as any other group
working in this field, to systematically
explore alternative routes of procure-
ment in industry and in research
laboratories. These might become the
single alternative solution of the future.
In many observing modes of the VLT,
Figure 2: Sketch o{ the GGO design {oreseen tor the VLT test camera: a 2048 2, 24-pm scienti{ic the photons collected by the 8-m
GGO, surrounded by tour tracker GGOs, o{ two different sizes. mirrors end up on the few square cm of
the CCO detectors and the success or
failure of the best scientific programme
Currently, a follow-up contract for construction with similar mechanical in- of European astronomy can depend on
thinning and optimization of six 2048 2 , terface as for the Thomson CCOs of the final performance of these devices.
3-side buttable LORAL South CCOs identical format (described above) is While sometimes one feels the weight of
(described in the previous paragraph) is under study in order to simplify potential this responsibility, this is what ultimately
in preparation. It foresees the delivery of exchanges of the two. makes the work in this field so exciting
the final thinned CCOs, requiring UV As a consequence, these devices rep- and any result towards better detectors
flooding, in June 1994. A packaging resent an alternative to the Thomson so much rewarding.


The Limits of Faint-Object Polarimetry

R. FOSBURy1 (ST-ECF), A. CIMATTI (ESO/Florence, Italy)
s. 01 SEREGO ALiGHIERI (Arcetri, Italy)
Introduction by Chambers, Miley & van Breugel tinuum. Clearly, the scattering will pro-
(1987), there has been considerable in- duce a linear polarization signature with
A common problem in observational
terest in trying to disentangle those a precisely defined geometry having the
astrophysics is the investigation of com-
components in the galaxies wh ich can electric vector perpendicular to the di-
plex geometrical structures wh ich are
tell the story of their stellar evolutionary rection of the illuminating source in the
below the resolution capabilities of tele-
history from those which are the result nucleus. This is a strong hypothesis
scopes. In some cases, small-scale
of the presence of a powerful AGN. since, with the appropriate observa-
structures can be inferred from the glo-
These objects show a roundish, red tions, it is readily refutable.
bal morphology, e.g., the beautiful "ioni-
component and an irregular blue struc-
zation cones" seen in some of the near-
ture wh ich is aligned - but not necessar-
by Seyfert galaxies (Figure 1), but a ge-
ometry-sensitive tool is needed in order
ily coincident - with the extended dou- Techniques
ble radio source (Rigler et al. 1992, Oun-
to make real progress with the inference
lop & Peacock 1993). Attempts to ex- The determination of polarization de-
of the fundamental physical processes.
plain the elongated blue component mands the measurement of intensity
The study of rapid time variability has
have centred on two mechanisms. One ratios. For faint extragalactic sources,
been valuable for the determination of
proposes that the particle jets wh ich the fluxes from wh ich the ratios are
physical scale sizes and, in some cases,
drive the extended radio source some- formed are measured in the presence of
the discovery of bulk relativistic effects
how trigger the formation of stars as a strong, and generally polarized, sky
as an explanation of apparent superlum-
they traverse the galaxy ISM (Rees background. Even small variations in
inal motion. It is polarimetry, however,
1989, Oe Young 1989). This young stel- this background would make sequential
which is capable of giving us the most
lar population shines brightly in the UV measurements of different polarization
detailed information about "directionali-
and, rather like the track of a particle in a directions prone to severe systematic
ty". This is, of course, a well-established
bubble-chamber, traces the radio axis errors. The techniques in common use,
technique in astronomy with many ap-
before dynamical effects in the galaxy therefore, make flux measurements in
plications in many wavebands. Polari-
smear the structure. The second derives orthogonal polarization directions simul-
metric studies cover a wide range of
from the hypothesis that powerful radio taneously The method that we use with
astrophysical subjects. In particular, it
galaxies and radio quasars are one and EFOSC1 (see The Messenger, Sep-
is important for solar system objects, in
the same type of object and differ in tember 1989, No. 57) for both imaging
many fields of stellar astrophysics (star-
appearance only by the inclination of the and spectro-polarimetry employs a
forming regions, young stars, binary
radio axis with respect to our line-of- Wollaston prism in the parallel beam
systems, variable stars, pulsars, etc.)
sight. This unification scheme clearly and an aperture mask in the focal plane
and in all extragalactic sources, from
implies the presence of a quasar nu- of the telescope. The mask ensures that
normal galaxies (magnetic fjelds, ISM) to
cleus in the HzRG which, as proposed the sky from one polarization is not
active galaxies and asos (synchrotron
by Tadhunter et al. (1988), will have pro- superimposed on the object in the other
emission, ISM, scattering, geometry). It
found effects on the ISM and will be (Figure 2).
is not our intention to review here either
impossible to hide - especially in the We have used this method to mea-
the applications or the physical pro-
ultraviolet where the galaxy host may be sure polarizations in radio galaxies with
cesses and observing techniques.
relatively faint. redshifts as high as 2.63 and fainterthan
Rather it is to concentrate on a particu-
Optical observations of the HzRG with an R magnitude of 22. Our experience
lar aspect of the subject wh ich has
z ~ 1 sam pie the rest-frame UV and so it has been that, for these faint objects,
yielded a rich harvest of new results on
is not surprising that they show signifi- the accuracy of the measurement is rel-
faint sources with the current generation
cant morphological differences from atively free from systematic effects
of 4-m-class telescopes and promises
their (extremely rare) low redshift coun- while the precision is entirely limited by
even more from the yet-Iarger photon
terparts wh ich are observed in the opti- counting statistics with CCO detectors.
collectors which are just starting to be-
cal. One important question we have to Instrumental polarization - wh ich is
come available. This is the study of the
answer, whatever the correct explana- <1 % for imaging and <5 % for spec-
surroundings of active galactic nuclei
tion of the alignment phenomenon, is tropolarimetry - is straightforward to
(AGN) wh ich show many indications of a
whether these differences are entirely measure and correct for by looking at
predominantly axial symmetry deter-
due to the different wavebands of the field stars and polarimetric standards.
mined by the properties of the funda-
observations or whether we see evolu- The critical part of the analysis is, fairly
mental source of luminosity.
tionary effects in addition. Our polariza- obviously, the extraction of the object
Following the discovery of the "align-
tion observations have been directed flux - including faint extensions - from
ment effect" in high-redshift radio galax-
towards testing the hypothesis that the the background. Optimum methods for
ies (HzRG) by McCarthy et al. (1987) and
blue, aligned structures result from the doing this, using high s/n sums of all
scattering of the nuclear quasar com- the individual observations to define
1 Affiliated lo lhe ASlrophysics Division, Space Sci- bined with locally generated line a weighting scheme, are being de-
ence Department, European Space Agency. fluorescence excited by the EUV con- veloped.

Figure 1 a: An example of ionization cones in the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 5252 (Courtesy of Z. Tsvetanov & C. Tadhunter). The two images -
with the same scale and orientation - show at the left line-free continuum (starlight) and at the right [OIlI}/5007 line emission (excited by the

Blazarbeam implieations for our understanding of planned instruments will have polari-
massive galaxy formation. metrie eapabilities whieh are briefly re-
In reeognition of the fact that the VLT viewed here.
will give very important gains for polari- FORS, an imager/speetrograph de-
zation measurements, most of the signed to work at the Cassegrain foeus



Wollaston prism

lonization cone
Figure 1 b: A cartoon of the origin of the
ionization cone phenomenon by shadowing
close to the AGN. In addition is shown the
blazar beam which is thought to be produced
by Doppler boosting in regions associated
with the formation of the radio jet in radio
galaxies. The radio-quiet Seyferts show no
evidence of a blazar component.

Given our experienee with the 3.6-m

teleseope, it is straightforward to ex-
trapolate to the eapability of an 8-m VLT
element. The new, large teleseopes are
going to give enormous gains in this
type of measurement and will allow de-
tailed polarization mapping and high-
resolution speetropolarimetry where Focal-plane grid
now we struggle to do broad-band
Figure 2: A schematic view of an imaging polarimeter using a Wollaston prism to split the
"aperture" polarimetry and eoarse-reso-
polarized beams and a focal-plane mask to avoid overlapping images at the detector. At ESO,
lution speetral measurements. The abili- this facility is available with EFOSC and can be converted for spectropolarimetry by adding a
ty to reaeh galaxies at redshifts greater grism in the parallel beam. An achromatic half-wave plate has been obtained and will shortly
than one and to separate stellar and be added to the instrument so that the plane of polarization can be rota ted with respect to the
nuelear eomponents will have profound mask. This is especially important for spectropolarimetry.

between 330 and 1,100 nm with spec-
troscopic resolution up to 2000, will
have both imaging- and spectro-
polarimetry modes. These are provided
by rotatable retarders and a Wollaston
prism to be used in combination with
filters or grisms and focal plane masks
or slitlets. lt is anticipated that the degree
of linear polarization will be measured
with an accuracy of 1 % in one hour down
to U, S, V and R magnitudes of 22-23 in
imaging and down to V= 17.3 in spectros- 0.4
copy with 2.5A resolution.
ISAAC, the IR imager/spectrograph 4
for the Nasmyth focus will work be- Pdcr
tween 1 and 51lm with spectroscopic
resolutions in the range 300-10,000. lt
will do imaging polarimetry using a fixed
analyser in one of the filter wheels, to be
used in combination with filters and with
rotation of the whole instrument.
Similarly, imaging polarimetry will be p/cr
possible with CONICA, the high spatial
resolution, near-IR (1-5Ilm) camera. R0
This is designed to work at the coude
Figure 3: A three-dimensional plot of the analytie distribution funetion (a Riee distribution) for
focus in combination with adaptive op- the linear polarization measured in the presenee of poisson noise. The x-axis shows the
tics but the effects of the coude optical measured polarization (normalized to the observational a), while the y (depth)-axis shows
train on polarization measurements the similarly normalized true (input) polarization. The distribution beeomes highly skewed as
have yet to be carefully assessed. p/a ---? 0 and so the resulting measurement bias must be removed.
UVES is an echelle spectrograph for
the Nasmyth with a spectroscopic reso-
lution of 40,000. The possibility of doing the orientation of the electric vector et al. 1993b). In this case, q and u are
spectropolarimetry with a polarization {), are derived from q and u as their the amplitudes of the si ne and eosine
analyser in the pre-slit optical train has quadratic sum and the arctangent of terms in a sinusoidal fit to a set of inten-
been investigated, but is not in the pres- their ratio respectively. The distribution sity ratios at different orientation angles
ent plan because of possible difficulties functions of p and {) are no longer nor- of the instrument. The bias in the mea-
with the polarization induced by M3, the mal and that of p becomes skewed as surement of p is obtained by comparing
image slicer, the image derotator and p ~ 0 (Figure 3). These distribution the value input to the simulation with
the spectrograph. Nevertheless these functions have to be calculated, either that derived from fitting the peak of the
problems are not insoluble and polari- analytically or by Monte-Carlo simul- p-distribution. These observations used
metry with UVES would be useful, e.g., tation, before proper confidence limits a total observing time of 270 min on the
to study the line polarization structure in can be attached to measurements 2.2-m and 3.6-m telescopes and are
AGN. (Simmons & Stewart 1985, Clarke & close to the limit of what can be
The present design of the 10-20 Ilm Stewart 1986). Secause of its skewed achieved with these instruments. The
Cassegrain imager/spectrograph anti- distribution, measurements of p close to same precision could be reached in less
cipates that both imaging- and spectro- zero are biased and this has to be re- than an hour with the same type of
polarimetry will be possible with a rotat- moved using the calculated distribution instrumentation on an 8-m telescope.
able retarder and fixed analyser. function (Wardie & Kronberg 1974).
While the analytic functions can be
Scientific Highlights
used to reduce observations, we have
Simulation and Error Estimates
found it convenient to build a stochastic The first detection of polarization in
The state of polarized light is de- model of the polarimeter wh ich can be HzRG with z > 1 was in 3C 386 and
scribed by the four Stokes parameters, readily adjusted to match a particular 3C277.2 (di Serego Alighieri et al. 1989)
I, Q, U and V. These can be normalized observational setup and set of measure- and this was followed by a polarization
to unit intensity for the light source and it ment angles. In addition to calculating map of 3C368 made by the Ourham
is then the second two components of the distribution functions for the quan- group (Scarrott, Rolph & Tadhunter
the vector, q and u from wh ich the state tities of interest, the simulation can be 1990). There are now measurements of
of linear polarization is derived. In a used to optimize the use of a given some forty objects with z>0.1 (Cimatti
practical polarimeter, q and u are rep- amount of observing time amongst a et al. 1993a) and a remarkably well-
resented by appropriate intensity ratios sequence of exposures at different defined trend is emerging. The degree
in orthogonal polarizations. When orientations of the polarizing prism. Our of linear polarization is strongly corre-
poisson noise from the object and the version is implemented in the lnteractive lated with the rest wavelength of the
sky is the only source of error, the dis- Oata Language (IOL) and runs on a Sun observed radiation (Figure 5). For a giv-
tribution functions of q and u are workstation. A typical run of 30,000 en filter, this manifests itself as a corre-
straightforward to calculate and only trials for a set of four angles takes just a lation with redshift but it appears that
become non-normal at very low signal/ few minutes on aSpare 10. The sampie the wavelength dominates any evolutio-
noise ratios (Clarke et al. 1983). The output shown in Figure 4 represents a nary effects (Cimatti et al. 1993a). For
quantities of direct astrophysical inter- set of imaging observations of the those objects observed at a rest
est, the degree of polarization p and z=2.63 galaxy MRC2025-218 (Cimatti wavelength below 4000A, the polariza-

Sunusoidal fits for q & u Polarization distribution
o,20 rTTTT"rrr""TT"TT"1rTTTT1rrTTT"rrr-rrrnm-rrrrrTrT"TT1


c.. -0,00


o 100 2DO 30:) 0,00 0.05 0,10 0.15 0,20

Theta distribution Stokes parameters q & u

2000 I 0,20

1500 0,10 f - - - - - + - - - - - + - - - - - + - - - - - l


1000 ~ -0,00

5DO -0,10 I------t-~-_+---_+--_____i

- 0 ,20 U-1...u....u...U-.l...u....u...U-.l...u..~.L..Wu...L..J....L..L..Wu...L..J....L..L..Wu..w
50 100 150 200 -0.20 -0.10 -0,00 0.10 0,20
stokes lJ
Figure 4: A representation of our stoehastie model of imaging polarimetry. This shows the measured data for the high redshift radio galaxy
MRC2025-218 (z=2.63) from the ESO 2.2 and 3.6-m teleseopes. In cloekwise order, the four frames show: (1) The measured data points with
their 1 s error bars (red stars) and the fitted sinusoid (blue dashes). The yellow eurves represent every thousandth fit to 30,000 simulated data
sets with poisson noise added to sky and objeet counts. (2) The polarization distribution resulting from the simulations. The gaussian (green) and
paraboloidal (red - fitted to the peak only) fits are used for finding the most probable polarization. This measurement eorresponds to a pis of 3. 8
and so the distribution funetion differs only slightiy from anormal eurve. (3) The distribution funetion for the position angle of the E-veetor. (4) The
distribution of simulated points in the q, u-plane. The eireles represent 67 %, 90 % and 95 % eonfidenee limits.

tion is generally higher - ranging up to Attempts to model the spectral ener- Taken with other tests of the radio-
20 % - than the objects observed at gy distributions and polarizations of loud unification scheme, the polarimetry
longer wavelengths and has an E-vec- these HzRG using a combination of pravides very strang evidence that the
tor wh ich is, in all measured cases, per- starlight and scattered quasar light are HzRG indeed harbour obscured quasar
pendicular to the radio axis within the hampered by the paucity of spec- nuclei. Many details, however, remain to
measurement error. trapolarimetric - or line-free imaging be investigated. For example, it is not
Spectrapolarimetry (di Serego Ali- polarimetrie - data. They do, however, known how much the blazar beam -
ghieri, Cimatti & Fosbury 1993 and in indicate that it is possible to reproduce thought to be present in all radio-Ioud
preparation) shows this polarization these two types of measurement simul- quasars - contributes to the scattered
drap longward of 4000A very clearly in taneously using an old stellar population radiation. This will have a bearing on the
two individual objects. This is inter- and scattering by dust. Electron scatter- relative strength of any scattered broad-
preted as the increasing dominance of ing cannot, however, be ruled out and line radiation. There is also evidence
unpolarized starlight above the H&K- remains a possibility especially close to that the non-stellar continuum radiation
break fram an old stellar population (Fig- the nucleus and, possibly, for sources in fram AGN may be as extended or even
ure 6). rich clusters. more extended than the BLR (Bi nette,

Fosbury & Parker 1993, Antonucci 1993)
which will also have an effect on the
ratio of line to continuum radiation in H&K
polarized light.
• break
Both imaging and spectropolarimetry
are now playing an important role in the
understanding of the AGN phenome-
P (%)
non. We have discussed here only the
polarization produced by scattering. In-
trinsically polarized emission mecha- 10
nisms like synchrotron radiation are
also, of course, the subject of intensive
study in these objects. The nearby Sey-
fert galaxies can now be studied in great
detail using polarimetrie techniques,
and we fully expect to be able to emu-
late such investigations at cosmologi-
cally interesting distances when we o
have access to the bigger telescopes.
2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
The extension of the measurements into Arest (A)
the infrared will also be interesting, Figure 5: Linear polarization measurements for radio galaxies with z>O. 1 collected by Cimatti
especially for resolving the electron vs. et al. (1993a). The arrows represent upper limits and the different symbols are from different
dust scattering question. observers. The fractional polarization is plotted against the wavelength of the filter passband in
Finally, we stress that the use of spec- the rest-frame of the galaxy. All the delecled polarizations 10 the left of the H& K break have
tropolarimetry to identify and remove E-vectors perpendicular to the radio axis.
the AGN contribution to the luminosity
of very distant radio galaxies can allow
deductions to be made about their Cimatti, A., di Serego Alighieri, S., Field, G.M., Dunlop J.S., Peacock JA, 1993, MNRAS, in
stellar evolutionary histories with much G.M. & Fosbury, R.A.E., 1993b, ApJ, in press.
press. McCarthy P.J., van Breugel w., Spinrad H. &
greater confidence than pure spectros- Cimatti, A., di Serego Alighieri, S., Fosbury, Djorgowski S., 1987. Ap J, 321, L29.
copy. The epoch of galaxy formation is RAE., Salvati, M., & Taylor, D. 1993a, Rees, M., 1989. MNRAS, 239, 1p.
one of the outstanding questions in cos- MNRAS, 264, 421. Rigler, MA, Lilly, S.J., Stockton, A., Ham-
Clarke, D. & Stewart, B.G., 1986. Vistas in mer, F. & Le FEMe, 0., 1992, Ap J, 385, 61.
mology today.
Astron. 29, 27.
Clarke, D., Stewart, B.G., Schwarz, H. E. & Scarrott, S.M., Rolph, CD. & Tadhunter,
Brooks, A., 1983. A&A, 126, 260. C.N., 1990. MNRAS, 24, 5p.
References De Young, D.S. 1989. ApJ, 342, L59. Simmons, J.F.L. & Stewart, B.G., 1985, A&A,
Antonucci, R., 1993. In: lAU Symposium di Serego Aligllieri, S., Fosbury, R.A.E., 142,100.
#159. "Active galactic nuclei across the Quinn, P.J. & Tadhunter C.N., 1989. Na- Tadhunter, C.N., Fosbury, RAE., di Serego
electromagnetic spectrum", Geneva, 1993. ture, 341, 307. Alighieri, S., 1988. In: "BL Lac Objects",
Binette, L., Fosbury, RAE. & Parker, D., di Serego Alighieri, S., Cimatti, A., Fosbury, Maraschi, L., Maccacaro, T & Ulrich, M-H.,
1993. PASP, 105, 1150. R.A.E., 1993, in Active Galactic Nuclei eds. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. 79.
Chambers, K.C., Miley, G.K., & van Breugel, across the Electromagnetic Speclrum, Wardie, J.F.C. & Kronberg, P.P., 1974. Ap J,
W. 1987, Nature, 329, 604. Courvoisier et al. eds., in press. 194,249.

Photometrie bands
/----------- ------ /
> /

'+-, /
0) /
o /


Figure 6: A cartoon of the speclral energy distribution of a HzRG adapted from Rigler et al. (1992). This shows the two spectral components
which will alternalively dominate the measured flux above and below Ihe H&K break in the resIframe of the galaxy. We identify the blue
component with the alignment effecl which results from fluorescence and scattering processes powered by the AGN.


CCD Astrometry. No, Really - It is Interesting!


star. However, astrometric results with Perhaps the biggest advantage which
In recent years, the field of astrometry the precisions attained by CCO pro- CCOs provide for astrometry is that
- usually considered a stuffy backwater grammes have yet to be obtained with since CCO data are inherently digital,
by most astronomers - has been re- any magnitude compensation system they can be easily evaluated as obser-
vitalized by the introduction of CCOs and a CCO. This means that while CCO vations are being carried out. In particu-
into general astronomical use. Not only astrometric programmes can obtain lar, this means that the observer can
have these devices made photographic parallaxes to more distant stars than examine test images, and place the pro-
plates outdated for most astrometric photographic programmes, they can gramme object back in exactly the same
purposes, but they have significantly only do so for relatively faint 01 ;z: 15) location on the telescope's focal plane
advanced the precision with wh ich as- magnitudes. as the last epoch's observations. The
trometry can be done. In the process The second difficulty with CCOs is the immediate result of this is to allow CCO
they are turning astrometry from a field limited size in wh ich they are currently astrometry to be almost purely differ-
dominated by large, long-term mea- available. Photographic plates can be ential - except for applications requiring
surement programmes and endless re- purchased (at least for the immediate the highest of precision, the telescope's
ductions of celestial co-ordinates, into a future) in sizes up to "" 400 mm on a field distortion becomes irrelevant.
vital and fundamental contributor to cur- side. The largest CCOs currently avail- Second, CCOs have much higher
rent research programmes. In this ar- able are more like 50 mm in size. This quantum efficiencies than photographic
ticle, I'd Iike to show what CCOs can means that CCOs cannot be used for plates - allowing the observation of
(and can't) be used for, why they are so applications requiring wide-angle (i.e. ;z: objects - 3 magnitudes fainter for a
much better than photographic plates, 20-30') astrometry. However, this may given telescope and observing condi-
how easy it is to do astrometry with not be as serious a problem as it seems. tions. In particular, they are more sensi-
them, and to look at where progress in Studies of the astrometric effects of the tive in the red. This latter point is espe-
this field can be expected to go. atmosphere have shown that the residu- cially important because the astrometric
als produced in astrometric solutions effects of the atmosphere become less
increase with the FOV used and de- severe when observations are made at
Wh at CCO Astrometry Can't 00
crease with exposure time (Han 1989, red wavelengths.
Of course, no device is perfect, and Monet & Monet 1989). This means that And lastly, because the matrix of pix-
there are some astrometric applications for useful exposure times (- 1000s), els in modern CCOs are so regular,
for which CCOs have not proved suc- solutions for reference frames in fields and charge-transfer efficiencies are so
cessful. Perhaps the most serious un- of "" 20' never get much better than "" good, the precision of centroiding be-
solved problem is that of dynamic 10 mas 1 - and this uncertainty scales comes almost photon-counting limited
range. Whereas photographic plates roughly as both the one third power of - the more photons you collect the bet-
can be successfully used for astrometry field size and inversely with the square ter your position comes. This allows im-
when the cores of images are saturated, root of the exposure time. This means ages to be centroided to hundredths of
no technique has yet been devised that for large fields of view (- 1°), the an image size. Photographic plates, on
which allows saturated CCO images to limiting precision is set by the atmo- the other hand, have an irregular matrix
be centroided with the same precision sphere, not the detector, and the use of of grains, and they also must be di-
as unsaturated images. This is a major CCOs may produce no gain. It also im- gitized with a measuring machine, with
problem for the astrometry of distant plies that taking short exposures in or- all the mechanical uncertainties that
and bright objects, like Galactic giants, der to avoid the saturation problems those machines introduce. It should be
supergiants and AGB stars - these in- described above significantly degrades noted, though, that centroiding to this
clude, of course, the distance-indicator astrometric performance. precision requires that all the objects
objects everyone would like to obtain have the same point-spread-function,
parallaxes for; Cepheids and RR Lyrae that is they must be unresolved. (This
Wh at CCO Astrometry Can 00 has important implications for the as-
The difficulty is that these stars are So, those are the minuses - you can't trometry of the very distant objects. If
intrinsically very bright, and rather rare. measure very bright stars, and you can't extragalactic reference objects are re-
So, within a given CCO field-of-view the measure very large angles. However, quired, they must be asos - galaxies
number density of stars suitable for use those are exactly the classes of object will not do.)
as reference objects is very small - to for wh ich HIPPARCOS will be producing Taken together, these advantages
obtain sufficient counts on the intrinsi- superior astrometric data in the next few allow astronomers to acquire astrometry
cally fainter background stars requires years in any case. It is in measuring faint at the several mas-Ievel in a very
saturating the programme object. objects - objects which HIPPARCOS straightforward manner, using the com-
Photographic programmes deal with can't reach - that ground-based CCO mon-user CCO instruments now avail-
this by the deposition of uniform Ni- astrometry really finds its niche. able at most telescopes. Moreover, they
chrome attenuation spots onto filters allow more dedicated astrometric pro-
mounted against the plates, allowing 1 "mas" is used as an abbreviation for milliarc- grammes to push precisions below the
selective dimming of the programme second lhroughout. mas-Ievel. The pioneers in this field have

been the US Naval Observatory's Flag-
staff station, which has been carrying
out a CCO parallax programme since
1983 (see Monet et al. 1992). This pro-
gramme has been so phenomenally
successful, that it has led to the termi-
nation of the observatory's long-running
photographic programme. Its success
has also led to the initiation of smaller
astrometric programmes at other obser-
vatories - most notably, Mt. Stromlo
(Ianna 1992), Cerro Tololo (Ruiz et al.
1991) and Palomar (Tinney 1993a).
These programmes, however, have
been significantly different from most
previous astrometric programmes. To
some extent, astrometric programmes
have traditionally been carried out on
dedicated, small aperture telescopes
and have targetted large numbers of
stars. They have tended to be run as a
"service" to the astronomical communi-
ty, rather than with a specific and im-
mediate scientific goal in mind. The
ease of doing astrometry with CCOs,
however, has changed that. The smaller
programmes listed above have all been
scientifically motivated, and targeted at
particular classes of objects of interest
to the astronomers concerned. In short,
they are no different from any other type """'~\"'''>n'''''''=~'m ' .~'ilWr."fu::&l.~.iiIl>;,~J.:ii
of astronomical project. Figure 1: A typical GGO frame of the recently discovered VLM star TVLM513-46546 (north is
up, west to the left. The object is marked with abox).
"Do-It-Yourself" Parallaxes
The Palomar Parallax programme was tions at as long a wavelength as possi- for one of our programme objects
motivated by the need for more paraI- ble desirable; second, the effects of at- (TVLM513-46546) is shown in Figure 1.
laxes for the very faintest of main se- mospheric differential colour refraction Figure 2 shows its preliminary astromet-
quence stars. A p'lotometric survey for are minimized by observing in the red; ric solution as derived in Tinney (1993a).
these stars (Tinney 1993b, Tinney, Reid and third, as the CCO used was front- Over the 2 years for which data have
& Mould 1993), had indicated a need for side illuminated, observing at a red been reduced to date we typically ob-
more Very Low Mass (VLM, M $ 0.2Md wavelength reduces the sub-pixel tain parallaxes with 2-3mas uncertain-
stars with measured distances, in order effects of observing through the CCOs ties. Over the total 3 years wh ich our
to define the colour-magnitude relations frontside gate structure. programme will run (observations will
essential for photometric selection of Multiple images (3-4) of each pro- terminate in November 1993) we expect
these stars. The USNO's results encour- gramme object were obtained at high to obtain parallaxes with uncertainties of
aged us to try and obtain these parallax- parallax factors several times a year. 1-2 mas. For the one object we have
es for ourselves, rather than rely on their Some effort was made to place objects measured in common with the USNO
heavily overburdened programme. at roughly the same location on the CCO (VB10), agreement was found within our
Observations were carried out at five at each epoch. All the data were flat- estimated 1-0 uncertainties (Monet et al.
epochs per year (roughly evenly spaced tened with dome flats. The stellar im- 1992).
throughout the year so as to provide ages were centroided using OAO- The greatest problem to surmount in
good sampling of our VLM survey PHOT - we found that each observation carrying out a parallax programme for
fields), with the Palomar 60" (1.5-m) te- could be centroided to about 1/20Oth these stars, is dealing with the effects of
lescope. The CCO used was a Tektronix of an image size. That is, for a star differential colour refraction (OCR) -
1024 x 1024 thick, front-side illuminated of 1=16.5, a single 300s exposure in 1':0 put simply, the reference stars have a
device. When mounted at the Casse- seeing gives a position good to = 5 mas. shorter effective wavelength through the
grain focus of the 60" the CCO's 24f.lm (Observations were not carried out in Gunn i filter than the much redder pro-
pixels gave a scale of 0.372"/pix. The seeing worse than 2':5 - It was found to gramme stars. This results in the pro-
field-of-view then was = 6' - this was be not worth the time spent reducing the gramme stars suffering less atmospher-
found to be sufficiently large to provide data). All our observations were mapped ic refraction than the reference stars.
a good background reference frame of onto a common coordinate system us- However, so long as observations are
stars for our programme objects, wh ich ing a reference frame of background made reasonably close to the meridian,
were situated at b - 40° - 60°. All stars - since our programme objects are this effect can be substantially
observations were carried out through a intrinsically very faint, an average back- corrected. We do this by observing each
Gunn i filter (I'eff = 790nm, tJ.f... = 100nm). ground star of similar magnitude is more object as it rises and sets on a single
The choice of this filter was motivated than 100 times further away, making night. The motion introduced by OCR
by several factors; first, the target stars corrections from relative to absolute can then be measured and calibrated
were all extremely red, making observa- parallax very smalI. A sampie CCO frame out on subsequent nights. We found

• 07AUG91 0 211-PR92

28JAN92 (>
0 ....... . ,- ..... .... x 30JAN92
E .............

;L 600 650
700 750 800 850

8 E
'-' ...,0 ~
0 .......... -, ....... '0 1
'-' Sl
<J 0

600 650 700 750 800 850
1SO 200 2SO )0:>
JUUAN DATE - 2447891.5 (0 Jon '990). t::.a (mos)
Figure 2: The pre/iminary astrometrie solution for this objeet (Tinney 1993a).

that our use of a Gunn i filter gave us a sions? Currently, the barrier preventing Higher precisions can be achieved by
significant reduction (a factor of about 4) sub-mas astrometry is the atmosphere observing reference frames over smaller
in the amount of OCR observed, com- - both due to differential c%ur refrac- fields of view, so long as a rich enough
pared with that seen at the USNO, tion, and due to differential seeing field of unresolved objects is available to
where a much wider filter (/\,eff = 690 nm, effects. The obvious solution is to carry transfer all the data onto a common co-
i",')... = 300 nm) is in use. This means that out astrometry from space with a CCO ordinate system. Narrow-band filters,
while we need to take longer exposures, camera, something the corrected HST longer integration times and larger tele-
we have considerably more flexibility in may be able to do. But in the nearer scopes should be used to minimize the
scheduling, since we can observe = 4 term, what can be done from the atmosphere's effects whenever possi-
times further from the meridian for a ground? It turns out that there are a ble. Sites with superior seeing should
given OCR effect. For a non-dedicated number of regions in the "observing obviously also be preferred. By taking
facility this flexibility is important. In any phase space" wh ich have yet to be fully advantage of all these, it should be
case, longer exposures allow differential explored, and wh ich may produce some possible to push the astrometry of faint
seeing effects over the field of view to exciting new results. objects below the 1-mas barrier.
be averaged out and therefore increases
astrometric precision.
Figure 3 shows how this small pro-
gramme has been able to make a signifi-
cant contribution to the specific prob-
lem it was designed to address. The first o o
panel shows the colour-magnitude dia-
gram as it existed when our VLM survey
_.Jll~._._._._._._._._._._._. M = 11 MEo1 = 11
~rn Eol
was begun, the second shows it as of [I] Cl
earlier this year. Almost half of the VLM Cl
stars (M so1 > 13) wh ich now have paraI- N _ fIlnrn N
-·_·_·Cl·_·-ID"·_·_·_·_·_·_··.. _· M = 12 MEo1 = 12
laxes come from the Palomar pro- [I] Cl

gramme. It is also worth noting that by ~- ~

carrying out our own parallax observa-
tions, this improvement could be ob- MEo1 =13 MEo1 = 13
tained quite quickly - the total time be-
tween the identification of TVLM513-
46546 as a VLM candidate and the mea-
surement of its absolute magnitude (it is
the second faintest VLM star known) (() (()
was only 18 months.

Pushing Back the Envelope

2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5
If "common-user" astrometric pro-
grammes can obtain results at the sev- (a) I-K (b) I-K
eral mas level over only a few years, Figure 3: (a) The M,//-K diagram as known eirea 1985. (b) The eurrent MI//-K diagram, ine/uding
what are the prospects for specialized parallaxes from the Pa/omar (stars, Tinney 1993a), USNO (squares and eire/es, Monet et a/.
programmes to achieve higher preci- 1992) and Mt. Strom/o (triang/es, /anna 1992) programmes.

Figure 1: ESO 50-cm telescope with the TV guiding system of Figure 2: Our spectrograph with GGO and GGO electronics, in the
FLASH. The total weight of the guiding system is only about 35 kg. It small cabin at the concrete base of the telescope, the smallest coude
contains the fiber-fed interface, comparison lamps and a conven- room in the world. In the background some counterweights of the
tional SIT low-Iight-Ievel camera. telescope balancing system can be seen.

plifies the merging of the reduced differ- These frames are transferred to magne- served in more detail (van Genderen,
ent echelle orders. One also eliminates tic tapes each morning and later copied 1989).
flexure problems while housing the in- to OAT-tapes by ESO. Ouring the past decade our group has
strument in a temperature and humidity observed spectra of the established and
controlled room. Ouring observing at the newly discovered LBVs of the Galaxy
ESO 50-cm telescope the spectrograph Luminous Blue Variables and of the Magellanic Clouds more or
was placed in the small cabin at the less regularly each year at La Silla with
concrete base of the telescope behind Apart from supernovae at outburst CASPEC. The exhibited long-term
the astronomers office with only two LBVs are the most luminous stars in the spectral variations shown by the LBVs
connections to the outside world, one Universe (M "" -9 to -11). For more have been of vital importance for a
incoming fiber and one outgoing coaxial recent reviews see Wolf (1992) and better understanding of the outburst
cable. Stahl (1993). The LBVs have recently phenomenon. They have contributed
With an efficient detector, stars down been recognized as keys in connection quite considerably to derive the general
to a magnitude of 7 are in the reach of with the evolution of massive stars. At picture sketched above. On the other
the ESO 50-cm telescope. Using an EEV quiescence they define an inclined in- hand, with snap shot observations, typi-
CCO with 1252 x 770 pixel of 22 fl, we stability strip of OB supergiants (Wolf, cally separated by one year, the detailed
get 2700 Ä in one exposure. At standard 1989) close to the Eddington limit. They hydrodynamic processes cannot be
setup we selected the wavelength range are characterized by photometrie varia- studied.
from 4050 to 6780 Ä. This setting allows tions of 1 to 2.5 mag in timescales of
observations of 57 echelle orders simul- years and longer. At maximum bright-
The Campaign
taneously, with a generous overlap be- ness they are surrounded by cool
tween the orders. With a 100 fl fiber, ("" 8000 K), dense (N "" 10 11 cm-3 ) slow- For a better understanding of the at-
wh ich corresponds to 2':75 at the ESO Iy expanding (v "" 100 km S-1) envelopes mospheric motions, systematic spec-
50-cm telescope, the spectral resolution of typically equivalent spectral type A. In troscopic monitoring over a time span
is about 20,000. Ouring observation, up addition to the large outbursts, photo- of months with good resolution in
to 100 CCO frames (including ThAr- and metrie microvariations of 0.1 to 0.2 mag wavelength and time is badly needed.
flatfield-spectra) can be stored on the on timescales of 1 to 2 months or more We therefore applied for two contiguous
hard disk of the CCO control computer. have been found in all those cases ob- observing runs of two months each at

But what can you do with that sort of tions with a CCO mosaic, bonded onto a hope to carry out test observations with
astrometry? The prospects are enor- single silicon substrate, in which one of the ND, to explore its use for high pre-
mous - to name just a few: parallaxes of the CCOs is configured as a frame cision astrometry below the 1-mas
more distant and/or fainter classes of transfer CCO, allowing very short (and barrier in studies of the Galaxy's
objects like very low-mass white dwarfs, unsaturated) exposures of a target star, satellites. It is my hope that the activity
optical counterparts of neutron stars, while the surrounding CCOs acquire in this field will encourage more mem-
and brown dwarf candidates; orbits for deep images of the surrounding stars bers of the general community to inves-
close (2-10") binaries; proper motions for use as reference objects. tigate this "rediscovered" astronomical
of globular clusters, and proper motions technique - one which shows such as-
within globular clusters; and proper mo- tounding promise for the future.
tions for the Galaxy's satellite galaxies.
There are also prospects for CCOs to I've tried to show, in the sections
be extended towards the observation of above, some of the interesting results References
bright stars - those objects too faint for currently being obtained with CCO as- Han, 1., 1989, AJ, 97, 607.
HIPPARCOS and too bright for current trometry, some of the exciting pros- lanna, P., 1992, lAU Symposium 156, ed:
CCO techniques, or those objects too pects for its future, and how straightfor- Mueller.
distant for HIPPARCOS. The use of anti- ward it is to actually do it. Several pro- Monet, O.G., et al. 1992, AJ, 103, 638 (M92).
Monet, O.G., & MoneI, A.K.B., 1992, BAAS,
blooming techniques, and the develop- grammes at La Silla currently use CCOs
24, 1238.
ment of CCOs with larger full-well for astrometric purposes, both for Ruiz, M.T., et al., 1991, ApJ, 367, L59.
capacities, may allow precise astrome- studies of the solar system and nearby Tinney, C.G., 1993a, AJ, 105, 1169 (T93).
try to be done with the brightest stars. stars, and future programmes are Tinney, C.G., 1993b, ApJ, 414, 279.
An alternative technique, being explored planned to expand on their use for these Tinney, C.G., Reid, LN., Mould, J.R., 1993b,
at the USNO, is to carry out observa- local studies. Within the next year, I ApJ, 414, 254.

High-Resolution Speetroseopy at the ESO 50-ern

Teleseope: Speetroseopie Monitoring of Galaetie
Lurninous Blue Variables
1Landessternwarte Heide/berg-Königstuh/, Heide/berg, Germany;

2Gothard Astrophysica/ Observatory, Szombathely, Hungary

the necessary mechanical stability can telescopes. The spectrograph named
High-dispersion spectroscopy used be reached only at the expense of great FLASH (fiber-linked astronomical spec-
to be the domain of big coude spectro- weight (e.g. CASPEC of the ESO 3.6-m trograph of Heidelberg) has been de-
graphs attached to large telescopes. At telescope weighs more than 500 kg). signed and constructed at the Landes-
least since the launch of IUE it has be- The use of echelle spectrographs for sternwarte Heidelberg (Mandel, 1988)
come quite obvious that high-resolution ground-based observations at small te- and has subsequently been successfully
spectroscopy can be done with a tele- lescopes, therefore, used to be very lim- used for spectroscopic monitoring cam-
scope as small as 45 cm if equipped ited. The possibilities for doing this, paigns at different sites and telescopes.
with an echelle spectrograph. With IUE however, have improved dramatically Our equipment, comprising the spec-
even extragalactic objects are being in- since the advent of optical fibers for trograph, a TV guiding system, mechan-
vestigated. All known Luminous Blue astronomical observations. ical interfaces, a computer system with
Variables (LBVs) of the Magellanic With our fiber-linked echelle spectro- a magnetic tape, monitors and power
Clouds, for example, have been re- graph attached to the ESO 50-cm tele- supplies with a total weight of about
peatedly observed by our group in the scope we obtained unprecedented time 600 kg fits into eight medium-size con-
high-resolution echelle mode. series of highly resolved spectra of a tainers. Two well-trained people are
For obvious reasons it is also very few galactic LBVs and, as a by-product, able to install and adjust the system in
desirable to use echelle spectrographs of two other hot stars. A short descrip- less than half a day.
connected to small telescopes for tion of the instrumentation and of the In practice, our spectrograph works
ground-based observations. The pres- campaign and observational results are much like CASPEC with only two signifi-
sure for observing time is much smaller presented in this report. cant differences; the rectangular spec-
than for large telescopes and hence trograph slit is replaced bya round fiber
long-term programmes have a better with 100 Il core diameter and the spec-
chance of being realized if achievable trograph is not mechanically connected
with a small telescope. The idea of building a compact, fiber- with the telescope. The light scrambling
Echelle spectrographs, however, are linked, portable high-resolution echelle property of the fiber results in a
weil known to be very sensitive to bend- spectrograph was conceived in 1984 homogeneous illumination of the echelle
ing effects. If directly attached to the and looked very promising in filling an grating independent of guiding errors
telescope, e.g. at the Cassegrain focus, instrumentation gap of nearly all smaller and seeing variations which also sim-

the ESO 50-cm telescope in periods 50
and 51 to observe the established
galactic LBVs 11 Gar, AG Gar and
HO 160529 with FLASH. The length of
the period was motivated by the time-
seales mentioned above for photometrie
microvariations for wh ich in the case of
HO 160529 semi-periods of 57 and 101
days have been quoted in the literature
(Sterken, 1977 and Sterken et al., 1991).
Note that the typically expected dynam-
ical timescales of the extended atmo-
spheres of LBVs of a few hundred solar
radii during outburst are also of this
order. ESO generously allocated the re-
quested observing time fram February
thraugh May 1993. Only 15 nights could
not be used due to bad weather. The
campaign has thus certainly contributed
to improved statistics of useful nights in
Figure 3: Control room at astronomers office with CCD-, computer- and TV-guiding-monitor,
1993 at this telescope, wh ich is normally
personal computer, and magnetic tape. With this equipment we are completely independent,
used for photometry only.
using only the naked telescope at each observation site.
Fortunately, ESO has pravided travel
expenses for six observers so that the
heavy burden of securing more than one
thousand scientific frames could be dis- each observer sent the OAT tapes to the that the efficient handling of the huge
tributed upon the shoulders of several Landessternwarte Heidelberg-König- amount of spectroscopic data was only
members of the Wolf pack. At the end of stuhl, where the gathered data were possible due to the al ready existing far-
his run of typically three weeks duration, feverishly reduced. It should be noted reaching automatization of the reduc-
tion procedure which is a modified ver-
sion of the ESO-MIOAS echelle reduc-
tion package running at the UNIX work-
stations of the Landessternwarte (cf.
Stahl et al., 1993a).

A quick inspection of the incoming
data has readily shown the considerable
line profile variations of the target stars.
This is demonstrated in Figure 4 by He I
6678 (right) and Si 116347 (Ieft) of AG Gar
which had a visual magnitude of about 7
during the campaign. A spectrum with a
S/N ratio of about 100 in the red spectral
range was obtained in about two hours
exposure time. In the time span
J02449023 to J02449139 we could ob-
serve AG Gar in 91 nights. Figure 4
exhibits the variations of the colour
coded intensity distributions of the lines.
The lines are centred at the system ve-
locity (+20 km S-1) of AG Gar. The total
width of the abscissa is 600 km S-1 for
both lines. The ordinate gives the time
interval increasing from bottom to top.
The increasing intensity is coded from
black, blue (absorption) to green, yellow
(continuum), and to red, white (emis-
sion). Spline fits through the intensity at
each wavelength and resampling in
equidistant time steps were used to in-
terpolate for those few nights of not
spectroscopic quality and to account for
not completely equal time intervals from
Figure 4: Une profiles and profile variations of Sill 6347 (Ieft) and Hel 6678 (right) of AG Car.
Look up table: black, blue (absorption) - green, yellow (continuum) - red, white (emission). The night to night.
fines are centred to the systemic velocity (+ 20 km S-I) of AG Car. The complete width of the As shown by the Figure, in the be-
abscissa is from -300 to +300 km S-I for both lines. The ordinate gives the time from ginning Hel 6678 showed a strong ab-
JD2449023 (bottom) to JD2449139 (top). sorption line at virtually systemic veloci-

In addition to the galactic LBVs, we In addition, it is weil known that fiber-
observed the B91a supergiant ß Ori and fed spectrographs with their light
the 07V star 8 1 Ori C. ß Ori was always scrambling properties allow for particu-
exposed for five minutes at the begin- larly precise radial-velocity measure-
ning of each night to check the setup ments. Therefore, the set of data of
of the equipment and to control the fo- ß Ori represents an invaluable treasure
cus of the telescape. In 86 nights for oscillation analyses and theoretical
(JD2449023-JD2449127) spectra were investigations of pulsational motions.
secured. Quite interestingly, dramatic Such a homogeneaus set of data over
Ha-profile variations ranging from in- such a lang time period and broad spec-
verse to normal P Cygni-type profiles via tral range has never been obtained be-
double emission to pure absorption fore with modern detectors for any of
were observed (see Figure 5; look up the hot supergiants.
table like for AG Car). The change from Again it is evident that for realistic
normal to inverse P Cygni-type profiles wind models of even "normal" super-
and vice versa sometimes occurs within giants the impact of lang-term spectros-
a few nights. copic monitoring programmes is quite
Ha emission in B supergiants is often essential.
interpreted in terms of steady-state Our attention has been drawn to 8 1
mass lass. The rapid variability of the Ori C by Manfred Pakull. This famous
surface phenomena concluded from the 07V star of the Trapezium of the Orion
Ha variations of ß Ori, however, indi- nebula is known to be spectroscopically
Figura 5: The dramatic Ha-profile variations cates that a steady-state approach to peculiar and variable. Occasional in-
of ß Ori. Centre of the abscissa is the laborat- describe these extended atmospheres verse P Cygni-type profiles of the He 11
ory wavelength of Ha; the complete width is and their winds is at least not a com- 4686 line had been observed and re-
from -410 to +410 km S-I. Look up table as plete one. Allowance has to be made ported in the literature (Conti, 1972).
for Figure 4. The ordinate extends from
for time-dependent hydrodynamic pro- Therefore, we put this star into the list of
JD2449023 to JD2449128 (bottom to top).
Note the smooth curvature of the terrestric
cesses. our targets. In the period JD2449023 to
lines (indicated by arrows) due to the reduc-
tion of the spectra to heliocentric velocities,
which also demonstrates the accuracy of the
radial-velocity measurements.

ty. A few days later an additional

faint absorption at a velocity of about
120 km S-1 and slightly later a redshifted
emission became discernible. This type
of profile was followed by an inverse P
Cygni-type profile after the third month
of our campaign. Finally, during the last
month, quite drastic changes occurred
from an inverse P Cygni-type profile via
a double absorption to a pronounced P
Cygni-type profile.
The corresponding profile variations
of Si 11 6347 are less pronounced. A P
Cygni-type profile is prevailing with an
expansion velocity of about 100 km S-1
wh ich agrees with the wind velocity pre-
viously derived for AG Car by Wolf and
Stahl (1982). But the intensities both of
the emission and absorption compo-
nents vary quite considerably. Occa-
sional substructures in the emission
component are also discernible.
Since our spectrograms cover a large
wavelength range, a number of strategic
Iines formed in different layers can be
scrutinized and can be used to probe
the time- and depth-dependent velocity
fields in the atmospheres of LBVs. The
results clearly demonstrate that the
campaign has provided a wealth of in-
formation, a very good basis for a deep-
Figura 6: The spectacularly regular Ha-profile variations with aperiod of 15.43±0.03 days of
er understanding of the physics of the 8 'Ori C. Look up table: black (absorption - blue (continuum) - green, yellow, red, white
winds of LBVs and for modelling the (emission). The spectrum extends from the nebular emission (white), to -600 km S-I to the leff
hydrodynamic processes connected and to +300 km S-I to the right. The time span on the ordinate is JD2449023 to JD2449112.
with the LBV phenomenon. The curvature of the terrestric lines is again evident.

JD2449112 we exposed 8 1 Ori C in 89 tions, the inverse P Cygni-type emission References
nights. The typical exposure time was of He I1 4686 "occurred on an irregular
one hour. As evidenced by Figure 6, the fashion" and was therefore ascribed to Conti, P.: 1972, ApJ, 170, 325.
spectrum of 8 1 Ori C is distinguished by accretion rather than to something Mandel, H.: 1988, in lAU Symp. 132, eds. G.
extremely regular variations of Ha, the strictly connected to the rotation of 8 1 Cayrel de Strobel and M. Spite, p. 9-13,
period being 15.43 ± 0.03 days (see Ori C. The strict periodicity now estab- Kluwer.
Stahl et al. 1993b). In the Figure, the lished does, however, favour such a Stahl, 0., Mandel, H., Wolf, S., Gäng, Th.,
nebular emission (white) is shifted so connection and makes 8 1 Ori C the Kaufer, A., Kneer, R., Szeifert, Th. Zhao, F.:
that a range of -600 to +300 km S-1 first convincing candidate of an 0 star 1993a, A&AS, 99, p. 167-177.
around Ha is displayed. Continuum is oblique rotator. Stahl, 0.: 1993, in New Aspects of Magellanic
blue. Blue-shifted stellar emission and Cloud Research, eds. S. Saschek, G.
Klare, J. Lequeux (Proc. Sec. European
absorption alternate very regularly with
Meeting on the Magellanic Clouds, SFS
virtually no difference from cycle to cy- Conclusion 328), p. 263.
cle. The apparent deviation during the Stahl, 0., Wolf, S., Gäng, Th., Gummers-
fifth period is caused by worse sampling The results presented demonstrate bach, CA, Kaufer, A., Kovacs, J., Man-
due to bad weather. Note that the dis- the considerable impact of long-term del, H., Szeifert, Th.: 1993b, A&A, 274,
cernible substructure in the black high-resolution spectroscopic monitor- L29-L32.
stripes is due to a second maximum of ing programmes at small telescopes on Sterken, C.: 1977, A&A, 57, 361.
(redshifted) emission. This same strict variable star research. Sterken, C., Gosset, E., Jültner, A., Stahl, 0.,
periodicity was also found for Hell 4686 The ESO 50-cm telescope, our fiber- Wolf, S., Axer, M.: 1991, A&A, 247, 383.
van Genderen, A.M.: A&A, 208, 135.
and other different lines. 8 1 Ori C is a linked echelle spectrograph and the ex-
Wolf, S.: 1989, A&A, 217, 87.
good example to show the importance cellent meteorological conditions of the Wolf, S.: 1992, in Nonisotrapic and Variable
of having long time series with regular Atacama desert - a perfect match for Outtlows trom Stars, eds. L. Drissen, C.
sampling and good resolution in time. investigating the long-term spectros- Leitherer, A. Nota, (A.S.P. Cont. series Vol.
Based on previous snap shot observa- copic behaviour of bright stars. 22), p. 327.

Probing the Kinematics in the Core of the Globular

Cluster M15 with EMMI at the NTT
0. QUELOZ and M. MAYOR, Geneva Observatory, Switzerland

1. M15: a Prototype
considered for a long time as a proto- (1989) obtained velocity dispersion val-
Collapsed-Core Cluster?
type of the collapsed-core star clusters, ues 8.4 :5 op:5 30.0 km S-1 over different
There is now agiobai theoretical the observational difficulties are particu- small (- 1") areas of integration in the
understanding of the long-term dynami- larly important. central few arcseconds of M15. They
cal evolution of globular clusters. Differ- The current determinations of the sur- retain as their best estimate a central
ent kinds of theoretical approaches pre- face-brightness profile of M15 do not velocity dispersion of 25 km s-\ a value
dict the collapse of the cluster core, allow us to discriminate between pre- difficult to reconcile with any existing
wh ich can then be halted or even re- and post-core collapse models, nor to model, and possibly indicative of the
versed by a core heating due to stellar exclude the presence of a central mas- presence of a central black hole. More
encounters involving binary stars. A sive black hole. Although the central recently, we derived a velocity disper-
cluster could suffer a succession of col- luminosity cusp in M15 has now been sion of 14 km S-1 from an integrated
lapsing and expanding phases: the so- clearly resolved into several bright stars light spectrum obtained over a central
calied gravothermal oscillations (for re- (see Figures 1 and 2), even the most area of integration of 6" x 6" (Meylan et
cent reviews see the proceedings of the recent studies from HST data cannot al. 1991, Dubath et al. 1993, 1994). Be-
workshop Structure and dynamics of unambiguously determine whether the cause of our larger sampling area, we
globular clusters, Djorgovski and Mey- surface-brightness radial profile flattens probably would have missed any central
lan eds. 1993). off interior to a radius of about 2" or velocity dispersion cusp over an area of
From an observational point of view, continues to rise at subarcsecond radii -1". However, recent numerical simula-
however, the situation is much less clear (see Lauer et al. 1991 and Yanny et al. tions (Zaggia et al. 1992a, b, and Dubath
(see e.g. Meylan 1993). A major difficul- 1993). The central velocity dispersion et al. 1993, 1994) pointed out that the
ty in finding a signature of core collapse profile in M 15 is also poorly known. velocity dispersions derived over such
in a globular cluster is that the observ- Accurate central velocity dispersions small central areas in M15 are affected
able structural changes may occur only are difficult to obtain from radial veloci- by large statistical errors because of the
in a very small central area, where accu- ties of individual stars because of dominance of too small a number of
rate measurements of surface bright- crowding and the small number of bright bright stars. These errors can explain
nesses and velocity dispersions are stars. An alternative is to use integrated- the large variation of velocity-dispersion
greatly complicated by the small light spectra to derive velocity disper- estimates obtained at different locations
number of bright stars dominating the sions by measuring the line broadening in the core of M15.
integrated light. In the case of the high- that arises from the random motions of In order to test the existence of a
concentration globular cluster M 15, the stars. In this way, Peterson et al. central velocity dispersion cusp in the

2. Mapping the Core of M15
with EMMI Observations

In July 1993, we obtained five high-

resolution integrated-light echelle spec-
tra in the core of M15. We used a 1"x8"
slit, with exposures offset in 1" steps in
order to cover a total central area of
5"x8" (see Figure 3). The exposure
times were -30 minutes for each expo-
sure. Ouring these observations, the
seeing values (determined from EMMI
CCO images) were about 0.9". EMMI
was used in echelle mode with the
echelle grating #10 and the cross-dis-
persing grism #5 (see the EMMI operat-
ing manual). The CCO used is the ESO
CCO #34. It is a LORAL CCO with
2048 x 2048 pixels of a size of 15 11m
wh ich correspond to 0.35" on the sky.
For our instrument setup and slit width,
the typical full-width at half-maximum
(FWHM) of the emission lines of the
thorium-argon comparison spectra, i.e.,
our typical spectral resolution, is
9-10 km s-'.
Before each exposure on the cluster
core, we also obtained (1) an echelle
spectrum of an isolated red giant
member of M15, and (2) CCO images of
the core of M15 in the V-band. The
Figure 1: GGO image of the centraI10.5" square region of the globular cluster M15 taken in the observations of red giant stars show
V-band with HRGam at the GFHT (from Racine & McGlure 1989). The angular resolution on this that the width of stellar cross-correlation
image is 0.35" FWHM. The three stars, forming an equilateral triangle at the centre of the functions is perfectly constant during all
figure, are the main contributors to the former unresolved luminosity cusp. the observations and small (6.5 km s-')

core of M15, we carried out new high-

resolution observations with the ESO
Multi-Mode Instrument (EMMI) on the
ND. The best way to minimize the
statistical error due to a small stellar
sampie is to obtain a full 2-D kinematical
map of the cluster core, i.e., to derive
radial velocities and velocity dispersions
at many different locations. The unique
imaging/spectroscopic capabilities of

EMMI are very useful to carry out such
observations. CCO images taken just
before an echelle spectrum allow very

precise a priori/posteriori positioning of
the slit within the crowded core of M15. 9

• •

Figure 2: The same region of M15 as in
Figure 1, as seen by the Faint Object Gamera
(FOG) of the HST (Oubath et al. 1994). This •
public image was obtained in the F/96 mode
with the F342 (central wavelength 3420 A) • • •
filter. The sharp cores of the point spread
functions have FWHM = 0.08". No image
• • •
restoration has been applied to this image.
The three central stars are even more promi- •
nent at this wavelength than in the V-band
image (Figure 1).

in comparison with the expected central
velocity dispersion (10-25 km s-') in
M15. The width of the cross-correlation
functions of stars depends mostly,
when the intrinsic width of the stellar
lines is smalI, on the spectral resolution
of the observations.
The GGO images were first used to
position the slit with the usual proce-
dure. A bright isolated star is accurately
centred on the slit in echelle mode using
the slit viewer. EMMI is switched to the
imaging mode, and the position on the
GGO corresponding to the slit position
in echelle mode is determined from an
image of the star. The telescope is then
shifted to move the cluster location to
be observed to the same pixel coor-
dinates as those of the bright star, and
EMMI is switched back to the echelle
mode to start the spectral observation.
These GGO images also allow an a pos-
teriori check of the slit position. The
intensity profile through the slit is com-
pared with that from the GGO image at
the expected slit location. Thanks to the
crowded stellar field in the core of M15,
a good match between the two profiles
is only obtained at one location on the
GGO. Moving by one pixel in any direc-
tion degrades significantly the agree-
ment between the two intensity profiles.
In this way, we can determine the posi- Figure 3: In this figure, the HST image from Figure 2, displayed with a high low-cutoff so as to
show only the bright stars of this image as black dots, is superposed to isomagnitude contours
tion of the slit to better than half a pixel,
from one of the V-band GGO images taken with EMMI at the NTT. The isolated stars of the
i.e., to better than 0.2". The exact loca- EMMI image have FWHM of 0.9". The five dashed-line rectangles show the exact positions of
tions of the 1" x 8" slit during the five the 1"x8" s/it during the five high-resolution spectral observations on the cluster core. The
high-resolution spectral observations three solid-line rectangles are three particular areas of integration for which the corresponding
are displayed in Figure 3. cross-correlation functions are displayed in Figure 4.

3. Data Reduction with

The data reduction was carried out cross-correlation algorithms work with ous studies (e.g., Oubath, Meylan and
with a new software called INTER- 2-D spectra (orders - pixels) and a Mayor 1992). Our cross-correlation
TAGOS (INTERpreteur-Treatment, Anal- wavelength solution stored in coef- technique produces a cross-correlation
ysis, GOrrelation of Spectra) developed ficients. The different orders are neither function (GGF) - relative intensity as a
by L. Weber and O. Queloz at the Gene- rebinned in wavelength units, nor function of the radial velocity Vr - which
va Observatory. This programme is built merged together. is nearly a perfect Gaussian (see Fig-
and optimized for the automatic data The five echelle spectra of the cluster ure 4). The radial velocity is given by the
reduction of echelle spectra from fiber- core were reduced by taking advantage abscissa of the minimum of the GGF,
fed spectrographs but is also efficient of the spatial resolution along the slit, as and the velocity dispersion can be de-
for images from slit spectrographs. IN- for long slit spectra. The spatial informa- rived from the broadening of the GGF in
TER-TAGOS is now in operation at the tion along the slit of EMMI in echelle comparison with GGFs of individual
Observatoire de Haute-Provence to do mode is fully conserved. We checked stars.
on-line the automatic data reduction of this by observing isolated stars posi-
spectra from the ELOOIE echelle spec- tioned at different locations along the
4. Results
trograph. slit. In addition, with a slit of 8" in length
This software includes a cross-corre- and the EMMI setup used, the succes- The radial velocity and the broadening
lation package wh ich works easily with sive orders do not overlap. of the cross-correlation function were
very low signal-to-noise images, typical- For each of the five observations in derived for each pixel position in the
Iy used for cross-correlation analysis. the cluster core (see Figure 3), we ex- area covered by the five slits displayed
Optimal orders extraction and very effi- tracted spectra from each order in many in Figure 3. The spatial resolution of
cient cosmic correction algorithms spatial bins along the slit direction. these measurements is limited in one
(Horne 1986) are available. Great care These spectra were then reduced using direction by the slit width (1 ") and in the
was taken to define a good wavelength INTER-TAGOS, and the reduced spec- other direction - along the slit - by the
calibration algorithm. Using about 1000 tra cross-correlated with a numerical seeing (-0.9"). This kinematical map
calibration lines, we measured with mask. The properties of this mask, as fully confirms the results of our numeri-
ELOOIE at the OHP a wavelength cali- weil as the details of our cross-correla- cal simulations (Oubath et al. 1994)
bration reproducibility of 2 m/s! The tion technique, are described in previ- which predicted large statistical errors,

these cases, if the few dominant stars 5. Conclusion
100 have unusually large radial velocity
We do not find any evidence for a
differences, the CCFs are artificially
velocity cusp in M15 from our mapping
........ broadened leading to overestimates of
of the kinematics in the central area
>, 99 the velocity dispersion. These different
of 5"x8". There is no evidence for a
::::rn cases are illustrated in Figure 4, which
central velocity dispersion significantly
t:: shows three CCFs A, B, and C obtained
larger than 15 km s-" and our best
.....III 98 respectively from the area of integration
estimate is op = 13±3 km S-l. This val-
t:: A A, B, and C displayed in Figure 3. The
ue is consistent with predictions of sev-
CCF A has a stellar width and allows us
eral pre- or post-collapse theoretical
97 to derive an accurate radial velocity for
dynamical models of M15: op(O) =
the star (AC 212, Auriere and Cordoni
100 12-17 km S-l from IIlingworth and King
1981) located in the rectangle A in Fig-
(1977), op(O) = 13-15 km S-l from
......... ure 3. The double CCF C shows that the
~ Phinney and Sigurdsson (1991) and Phin-
........ two stars (AC # 214 and # 215) in
99 ney (1993), and op(O) = 14 km S-l from
>, rectangle C, barely resolved under the
::::rn seeing conditions during the observa-
Grabhorn et al. (1992). Consequently,
t:: there is no need to invoke the presence of
tions, are clearly resolved in velocity.
.....III 98 Accurate radial velocities were also de-
any massive central black hole in the core
t:: B rived for these two stars. In the case B,
of M15.
we have integrated over a slightly larger
97 area in order to produce a CCF as large
100 as possible. The velocity dispersion de-
rived from the broadening of the CCF B
......... is 15 km s-" however, the statistical
........ error on this result is large since the CCF
>, 99
..... B includes mostly the contributions of
'Uj three stars. This is not obvious from
.....III 98 Figure 4B, but appears unambiguously References
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mapped. Gur numerical simulations in Strueture and Dynamies of Globular
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A New Quasar Pair: Q2126-4350 and Q2126-4346
M.R.S. HAWKINS, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Great Britain
R. W HUNSTEAD, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Australia
G. MEYLAN, European Southern Observatory, München, Germany
P VERON, Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France
S.G. OJORGOVSKI, S.G. and J.D. SMITH, Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy,
Caltech, Pasadena, USA

Since the discovery in 1979 of the In the course of a survey for optically are two images of a single quasar, these
first gravitationally lensed quasar variable quasars (Hawkins and Veron, differences could perhaps be due to the
00957+561, a lot of effort has been 1990), we have found a new pair of time delay between the two light paths.
devoted to finding more such objects. quasars (02126-4350 and 02126-4346) The whole 19-deg 2 field of our vari-
Twelve are now known, the largest sep- with similar redshift (z-1.10) and sep- able quasar search has been surveyed
aration between the various images be- aration (202 arcsec) to 01146+111. at 843 MHz with the Molonglo Observa-
ing 6.5 arcsec. These two objects have about the same tory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) (Mills,
However, neighbouring quasars hav- magnitude (B=20.2 and 20.4 respec- 1981). One member of the new quasar
ing the same redshift are not necessarily tively on the reference UKST Schmidt pair (02126-4346) is a strong radio
images of a gravitationally lensed sys- plate). Both have a high amplitude of source, with a flux density of 178 mJy,
tem. Six pairs of quasars have been variability, AB = 1.0 mag. We have deter- whereas the other quasar (02126-4350)
found with separations in the range 3 to mined that, in our sam pie, -8 % of all is not detected at 843 MHz, having a 30
10 arcsec corresponding to a few tens UVX quasars have such a high am- upper limit of 2.5 mJy. Furthermore,
of kiloparsecs. These objects are be- plitude of variability; this fact suggested 02126-4346 is not detected in the PNM
lieved to belong to the same group or to us that, in this case, we were possibly survey at 4850 MHz (Gregory et al.
cluster of galaxies. observing a large-separation gravita- 1993), implying that the source is weak-
Another pair of quasars, 01146+111 tionally lensed system. er than 45 mJy at this frequency and
Band C, at z= 1.012, with aseparation A 60-min exposure spectrum was therefore that it has anormal spectrum
of 157 arcsec, attracted a lot of attention obtained on August 18, 1993 with the (a<-0.8) and is unlikely to be variable.
some time ago. Turner et al. (1986) have EMMI spectrograph at the ESO ND Consequently, the radio information al-
suggested that this is a single quasar 3.5-m telescope (shown in Figure 2). most certainly excludes the hypothesis
gravitationally lensed by a massive clus- The two objects were placed simultane- that we are looking at a gravitationally
ter of galaxies. Blandford, Phinney and ously on the slit. The stronger object lensed system and reinforces the idea
Narayan (1987) have shown that this (02126-4350) shows a broad Mg 11 that quasars cluster on a scale -1 Mpc.
assumption is very unlikely to be correct emission line and a narrow [Oll] emis-
and Phinney and Blandford (1986) have sion line allowing to determine an accu- References
suggested that 01146+111 Band C are rate redshift z= 1.116. The fainter object Blandford, R.D., Phinney, E.S. and Narayan,
two distinct quasars separated by - has only a broad Mg 11 emission line at R. 1987, ApJ 313, 28.
700 kpc whose proximity is attributable the same redshift. The two spectra look Gregory, P.C., Vavasour, J.D. and Scott,
to clustering. significantly different, but if the objects W.K. 1993, NRAO preprint.
Hawkins, M.R.S. and Veron, P. 1990, The
Messenger 61, 46.
Figure 1: Part of a Mills, B.Y. 1981, Proc. ASA 4, 156.
; 2-minute exposure Phinney, E.S. and Blandford, R.D. 1986, Na-
.. • frame taken on ture 321, 569.
~. August 18, 1993 Turner, E.L. et al. 1986, Nature 321, 142.

. •


~ • • through a I filter with

EMMI at the ESO
NTT on La Silla. The
size is 3.9 arcmin x
4.7 arcmin. North is
• up, east to the left.
ca '0 =0
• The seeing is 1.4 arc-

sec. The two q;

0- • -- quasars, 02126-
4350 and 02126- )(

, ... ...
4346, identified with
the letters A and B,

. respectively, are <ii

• separated by 202

• •

• .A 6000 7000 9000

. Wavelength (A)
Figure 2: Spectra of the two quasars observed with
EMMI. Top: 02126-4350, bottom: 02126-4346.


VLT Working Group for Scientific Priorities -

Status of the Work
L. V/GROUX, Service d'Astrophysique, Sac/ay, France

In its May 1993 session, the ESO Sci- capabilities to create a unique break- of IR observations similar to the drama-
entific and Technical Committee formed through, tic developments of optical observa-
a working group to propose a set of • make recommendations in several tions coincident with the use of 2D elec-
main scientific priorities to serve as areas of the VLT: telescopes, detec- tronic detectors 25 years ago. New
guidelines for future discussions on the tors, instruments and operations. techniques of imaging at the diffraction
VLT and its instrumentation. A number The first part of this work is now com- limit with adaptive optics or interferome-
of working groups on this matter existed pleted. Preliminary versions of the other try are already operational in the in-
during the early definition phase of the points have been presented and dis- frared , but might not become available
VLT. Their reports are included in the cussed during the November 1993 STC in the visible in the next few years. To-
proceedings of the 2nd VLT Workshop, meeting. We do not yet have a detailed gether with the detector revolution and
held 1986 in Venice. On that basis, ESO new instrumentation plan, but we are the increase of telescope size, they will
worked out the VLT Instrumentation almost getting there. I will indicate here provide an enormous gain in sensitivity
Plan which was widely circulated in the only the general directions to get a for point source observations. Last but
community in June 1989 and discussed flavour of our work. not least, the VLT will become opera-
by ESO committees. Between the pre- To define the scientific priorities, we tional after the ISO mission wh ich is
paration of the Blue Book and the com- have not tried to make an extensive expected to create a scientific break-
missioning of the first unit telescope, survey of all the astrophysical problems through with its sensitivity improved by
about 12 years will elapse - even more wh ich can be tackled with the VLT, but a factor of 50 to 100 over IRAS. New
for the other unit telescopes. Being rather to focus on a few scientific do- scientific problems will be uncovered
roughly half-way between these two mains in which we expect that the VLT and will require new sets of infrared
events, the STC thought it timely to re- will provide a significant gain over exist- observations.
assess these scientific priorities for the ing capabilities. For the time being, we The present VLT instrument package
VLT and the instrumentation plan, taking have selected four domains, star forma- is designed around CCDs that are about
into account recent scientific and tech- tion and young stellar objects, starburst state-of-the-art at the present day. Re-
nical developments. Another goal of this galaxies and active nuclei, formation cent developments in the CCD mosaic
exercise is to provide scientific priorities and evolution of galaxies, and formation techniques and progress of the IR
wh ich can later be used as guidelines in and abundances of the elements. For arrays will allow a new instrument de-
prevision of future problems, technical each of these themes, we have iden- sign, with a good image sampling on a
trade-off or descoping. tified programmes wh ich can be done large field. The VLT has been optimized
After some changes during the sum- with the planned instruments, and those for image quality, and the pixel sampling
mer, the group is now composed of STC wh ich require new instruments. This must be optimized accordingly. How-
members K. de Boer, B. Marano and L. part of the work must be followed in two ever, further analysis is needed to
Vigroux (chairman). ESO represen- directions, elaborate on these themes, assess these instrument concepts.
tatives J. Wampler, J. Walsh and S. and incorporate one or two additional During the last STC meeting, it was
D'Odorico and two external experts, B. themes. decided to continue this work along the
Fort and R. Kudritzki. For the telescopes and the instru- line defined in the preliminary report.
To involve the ESO community in this ments, we have agreed on two main ESO will strengthen its participation,
activity, we circulated during the sum- directions: emphasize the importance of both in scientific priorities definition, and
mer a questionnaire about the scientific the infrared, and the need for very large in the assessment of the new instrument
programmes to be done with the VLT. detectors. concepts. A final version of the report
The real work of the group started in Arguments for supporting infrared will be presented at the next STC meet-
September 1993. The main line of our work on the VLT are overwhelming. In- ing in May 1994 and discussed more
reflection is organized around several frared astrophysics deals with crucial widely in a workshop which will be
steps: areas such as star-forming regions organized by ESO before the summer.
• review the capabilities of other obser- wh ich are generally embedded in dusty
vatories in the VLT era, both on clouds and accessible only in infrared, or
ground and in space. Scientific pro- detection of very distant galaxies wh ich
grammes for the VLT have to be ex- are about 5 to 10 times brighter in the
amined in the context of what will be infrared than in the visible. The largest
done at the other observatories, gain provided by large telescopes is for
• assess the uniqueness of the VLT, infrared wavelengths where observa-
both as single 8-m telescope or with tions are limited by the background. In
the four telescopes, this case, the sensitivity increases as D4 ,
• define a set of scientific domains in D being the telescope diameter. In addi-
which the VLT with an appropriate tion, a revolution in IR detectors is now
instrumentation will have the taking place. We should expect aboost

Working Group tor Scientitic Priorities tor La Silla
these problems in a systematic way. As ESO's resources, and the credibility
Preparation of the Report
a result, the scientific productivity of La of the ESO community, are largely
At its first full meeting in May, the WG Silla's telescopes - even some of the tied to the timely and successful com-
emphasized the importance of receiving newest and most powerful - is being pietion of the VLT. Early experience
feedback and advice from the commun- compromised. Clearly, this state of on how to control, equip, staff, and
ity. Since then, a total of three draft affairs cannot be allowed to continue. operate the VLT is crucial.
reports have been widely circulated, the Yet, with the VLT project on its hands, - Long-term importance for a broad
last two through the members of the it is difficult for ESO to boost La Silla by segment of the user community. ESO
STC and Users Committee. The WG new recruitment or by drawing on was created to serve the scientific
also met with the UC, on September 16. Garching staff. Bringing the top-priority interests of the community and
The resulting numerous comments have facilities up to standards worthy of a should provide optimum conditions
all been considered in the preparation of world-class observatory must happen for its top-priority research projects.
the final Report, dated October 23, within an essentially constant staff and - Importance for specific interests of
wh ich was submitted to the STC at its budget envelope. user communities in the member
34th meeting, November 4-5, 1993. It follows that increased effort in some states, at a support level consistent
The STC supported the basic propos- areas will draw resources from others: with the importance of the research
ais of the Report and encouraged the Quality must be enhanced at the ex- and the size of the community.
Director General to implement them "in pense of quantity. In order to thus qual- When considering a specific facility,
good spirit". With this recommendation, itatively enhance the scientific produc- the WG consulted the statistical infor-
the WG has forwarded its report to the tivity of La Silla within the existing means, mation available from the OPC on the
Director General and Council for further a set of scientific priorities for the opera- number, rating, and approval rate of the
action. tion of the observatory are needed. proposals received. Individual proposal
The Report of the WG is freely avail- In order for ESO to steer through this ratings are, of course, confidential, but
able from ESO (Section Visiting As- process in a responsible and transpar- average grades and general trends were
tronomers), and readers interested in ent manner, the Director General available.
the details are encouraged to consult it. appointed in early 1993 a Working
The following is just a brief summary of Group on Scientific Priorities for La Silla
Proposed Improvements
the rationale for its recommendations, Operations. Its members are: J. Krautter
and of some lessons learned. (OPC), J. Lub (UC), M. Mayor (ex-STC), The clear top priority for increased
and J. Breysacher, D. Hofstadt, J. Mel- support is the ND: This telescope must
nick, and J. Wampler (all ESO statt), with now be brought to technical and opera-
the writer as Chairman. The proposals tional standards at wh ich its great scien-
The La Silla Observatory will, for at of the WG were to be submitted to the tific potential can be realized. Moreover,
least another decade, remain the bread DG with the comments of the STC. valuable experience can be gained for
and butter of ground-based European the VLT project by upgrading and
observational astronomy in the southern operating the ND according to VLT
Defining Scientific Priorities
hemisphere. Currently, La Silla is prob- standards. ESO is al ready planning
ably unsurpassed for the range and flex- While never trivial, it is relatively easy how to achieve these goals by con-
ibility of its facilities. Basically, Visiting to agree on priorities for exciting new certed action from La Silla and Garch-
Astronomers evAs) can expect to use opportunities. It is far more difficult to ing. The WG strongly welcomes this
front-line instrumentation covering the choose wh ich facilities and freedoms initiative.
range from the atmospheric cutoff to may have to disappear in order for La Second priority is to bring the other
millimetre wavelengths, with few other Silla as a whole to perform optimally. major telescopes to consistently high
restrictions than the competition for ob- Scientific priorities have not previously performance, especially as regards im-
serving time. In addition, La Silla hosts a been formulated in a way suitable for age quality. Items include fast and reli-
number of more specialized experi- that purpose. This is clearly reflected in able top-end exchanges and mirror
ments not directly related to the re- the comments received from users: realignment (3.6-m and 2.2-m); im-
search conducted by ESO staff as- about 99 per cent emphasize the unique proved dome seeing; and a new control
tronomers or VAs. value of a particular piece of equipment system at the 2.2-m for optimum IR
However, in recent years, new tele- as seen in isolation, but without regard performance. A full complement of
scopes and instruments have appeared for the entire picture. modern CCD detectors and on-line data
on La Silla at an accelerating rate, with As guidelines for its own discussion of reduction facilities are urgently needed
no corresponding increase in the staff. priorities for instruments, services, and at all telescopes.
Particularly after the advent of the ND, it scheduling techniques, the WG used First among third-priority items is a
is proving impossible to adequately sup- the following criteria. The list below is permanent CAT-CES optical fibre link:
ort all the facilities currently offered to indicative, but neither complete nor in The CAT M3 drive is becoming increas-
visiting astronomers. Several changes strict order of importance: ingly unreliable. Improved measure-
and upgrades at the larger telescopes re- - Uniqueness, on an international ments of seeing and other meteorologi-
main to be fully tested and implemented. scale, of the scientific opportunities cal data are also high on this list. Finally,
An overload of conflicting demands offered: La Silla belongs at the fron- numerous improvements of individual
and a lack of clear priorities have tiers of astronomical research. telescopes and instruments are pro-
prevented the staff from addressing - Direct relevance for the VLT project. posed throughout the report.

Proposed Economy Measures Lessons Learned strongly emphasizes that the task is not
finished with the present report: Re-
A recommendation for increased Most reactions to these proposals views of operating modes and adjust-
priority also implies an identification of have shown real understanding of the ment of the facilities offered must be-
other areas where a corresponding re- factual situation: Despite very difficult come a permanent (e.g. annual) feature
duction of effort can be made. Minor, financial conditions in most of the of ESO's forward planning.
cosmetic measures will not lead to sig- member states, ESO is nevertheless The compromises reached can never
nificant overall relief, nor can a single allowed to proceed with the construc- satisfy everybody. The inevitable dis-
radical measure do so at a scientifically tion of our most coveted tool: The full- satisfaction of some is best turned into
acceptable cost. Hence, the recommen- scale VLT - the world's largest tele- proposals for future improvements. Its
dations of the WG have considered a scope. Looking at the fate of some other least constructive expression would be
broad range of actions. large research projects in the world, it is to criticize those on La Silla who are
Much of the workload on the staff is not unreasonable that we contribute by charged with the execution of these
due to frequent instrument changes. trimming some of our lower-priority ac- necessary policies.
Hence, the WG proposes a system tivities. A final important lesson from this
of block scheduling on all telescopes Other comments have taken the form work is how little even relatively major
on which the instrument configura- of unconditional demands for continued restructuring of the observing facilities
tion cannot be frozen entirely. Service support for this or that favourite facility, on La Silla and the way they are
observing would be introduced as regardless of the impact on the rest of scheduled results in measurable effects
a serious option. Test and setup time ESO. Few of us are in a position to make on the total workload of the T.R.S. De-
can be minimized as part of the bene- such demands in our home countries, partment, let alone on the budget of
fits. and even powerful rhetoric cannot by ESO/Chile as such. For the longer term,
In parallel, a balanced plan is pro- itself make staff and money appear. this exposes again painfully clearly how
posed (summarized in Chapter 6 of the The central message of the report is small a fraction of the total effort and
Report) to redistribute the instrumenta- that ESO is now finding itself in the real budget of ESO has direct impact on the
tion among the telescopes so that max- world of limited resources, and we have scientific productivity of the La Silla Ob-
imum specialization is achieved at each to respond rationally to this discovery. servatory.
telescope while limiting the total choice This includes the ability to assign priority It follows that when further efficiency
as little as possible. Rare exceptions to certain overall scientific goals in a measures become necessary in 1996,
would still be allowed. long-term strategy, and to programme mere reduction of scientific oppor-
Finally, the WG recommends that a resources so as to actually achieve tunities along the course explored here,
few facilities be decommissioned as no them. Demands for wholesale perfec- leaving the organization itself un-
longer competitive on the basis of quali- tion beyond ESO's means are basically touched, is not the appropriate starting
ty of the data, quality and quantity of pointless and lead instead to general point for a rational solution.
recent proposals, and operational and dissatisfaction. Profound reorganization of the entire
maintenance effort. In addition to a few ESO infrastructure in Chile will be
instruments, this category includes the needed in order for La Silla and Paranal
Longer-Term Prospects
Schmidt telescope (as a general user together to serve the ESO community in
instrument), the GPO, and ESO use of Human beings are imperfeet, and a scientifically competitive and cost-
the Danish 50-cm telescope. conditions change. The WG therefore effective way in the VLT era.

Proposal Statistics

In the following figures, the number of observing proposals received (dotted lines) and accepted by the OPC (full lines) is
plotted for each telescope/instrument combination as a function of the ESO period number. The data cover Periods 41 through
52 (1988-1993).
These statistics were prepared for the Working Group on Scientific Priorities for the La Silla Operations.

3.6m + EFOSCI 3.6m + ASPEC 75
3.6m + OME-O +

.. .

50 ..
", ...•...• ~0 .
co. 50
co. 50
eco. .•...•...•..
eco. eco.
. ......

-i. 25

ci 25 .' ..•.
.•. . G········· .0 z
ci 25 .0


o 0 o·
40 45 50 40 45 50 '10 45 50
ESO Pcnod No. ESO Pcnod o. ESO P('riod No.

3.6m + TIMMI 3.6m + IR phot. OPTOPUS 3.6-m MEFOS
10 0 10

0. 50

E E 6 E a
0. 0. 0.

ci ci
_.··:;;:J \'//\_
--V ~ ~__1--
z 25 z z o ••
2 2

0 .................................. . J:: 0

40 45 50 ,10 45 50 40 45 50
ESO PCl'iod No. ESO Per'iod No. ESO Period o.

3.6m + CES link 3.6m + HS Phot. 3.6m + Special


10 10

c. ··
E 6
..•. '0 0.
6 ."-0

·0·· ...
o o 'ö


ci ci
z 2 Z
--'.. . . "';'" J z

o ------~---~~-- 0

·10 45 50 40 45 50 40 45 50
ESO Penod No. ESO Penod No. ESO Pc";od No.

3.6m + peckle 3.6m + IR PE 3.6m + B&Ch. Sp.

75 75

o "
~ 50
~ 50
~ ~
o o o

ci . . . .o. 25 ci 25
z 2 •• :' " 0. ,.,
" . " ,", .0

---------------- ---' '-
....~ .
40 45 50 40 45 50 40 45 50
ESO PCl'iod No. ESO PCI';od No. ESO Period No.

NTT + EMMI .~ ........ 75
~ 50
&. 50
0. 50
0. 0.
'ö ~
o 'ö
ci 25 ~ ci 25
z 25 z .""0

40 45 50 40 45 50 40 45 50
ESO Period No. ESO PCI'iod No. ESO Period No.

TT + Special


E a



'10 45 50
ESO Pcl'iod No.

2.2m + IRACI/2 75
2.2m + EFOS 2
2.2m + CCD cam.
~ ~ ~

';ö ';ö
~ ~ ~
50 IRA 2 .P 0
50 g, 50·
e'" e'" e ......
.; .. ." '"
.~ ...•...•.
.•.• '0
~ '"o

z 25 z ~5
............................: /
~ .... ...
40 45 50 115 50 40 115 50
ESO Pel'iod No. ESO Per'iod No. ESO Pel'iod No.

2.2m + IR phot. 2.2m + polarim. 2.2m + Special
10 10
~ ~ ~

~0 ~o ~0
e'" 6 .. ... e'" 6

'ö '"o

.; .; \ ;........ .;

z 25 Z ..•.. z 2

.... ..-

'10 45 50 40 45 50 40 45 50
ESO Pcl'iod No. ESO Pel'iod No. ESO Period No.

2.2m + B& h sp. 75
1.52m + B&Ch sp.
1.52111 + ECHELE



.. &

.•. ... .
Co .G" .0·· ... Co
~ ~

.; .;
25 Z Z5 ~ 25

.... ~ .. o o .... ~ ...

40 45 50 /15 50 40 45 50
ESO Pet'iod No. ESO P 'rlod No. ESO Penoel No.

1.0m + IR phot.
1.0m + Std. phot. 1.0m + Sp ci al
~ ~ ~

~ ~ ~o o
g, 50 g, 50
e e '"e
~'"o Co
'ö ~ '"o

.; .;
..~ .
25 z 25 Z
=- _- ••

"0 ll5 50 40 45 50 40 45 50
ESO Pcl'iod No. ESO PCI'iod No. ESO Period No.

75 1.4m CAT + CES 75

0.5m + Std. phot. 0.5m + Special
~ ~ ~

~0 ~

50 .•. g,

~ ~
z 25 ~ 25 Z 2

'.' . .. ···0·····. .'
o .
40 45 50 40 45 50 40 115 50
ESO Penod No. EsO Pcl'iod No. ESO Porioe! No.

GPO dir. + I rism 75
1.54mD + CCD cam. 1.54mD + CORAVEL
10 10
~ ~ ~ ~.
~0 ~ ~

- V - '..:., ····.:······L
g. 50 o
e"-"- 6 e"- "-
0 o '. o
.; ~ 25 .;
z 2 Z

45 50 40 45 50 '10 45 50
ESO Period No. E 0 Period No. ESO Period No.

1.54mD + uvbyß phot.

0.5mD + uvbyß phot. 0.9m NL
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
"- '"
"- 50

g, 50
e"- e"- E eeo corno
Wull'. phot.

. . ~
.; 25

....•. ,

z 25

JI5 50 40 45 50 40 '15 50
ESO POI'iod No. ESO PCl'iod No. ESO PCl'iod No.

The 93NOV Release of ESO-MIDAS

ESO Image Processing Group

reduction procedures has been im- on the ESO Archive which contains so
The new release of ESO-MIOAS con-
plemented. The Oata Organizer uses as far 30,000 EMMI/SUSI exposures. This
tains a substantial number of improve-
input a list of FITS files or MIOAS images version of the package is still a prelimi-
ments and new features. Among these
as weil as a list of FITS keywords or nary version and the structure of the
is the implementation of a new set of
MIOAS descriptors which are consid- output association table may be
Graphical User Interfaces based on
ered to be relevant (e.g., exposure time, changed in the future.
OSF/Motif, wh ich makes the usage of a
telescope setting, instrument mode) to
number of application packages easier.
create an Observation Summary Table.
In the sections below the main improve- Each entry of this table is then
1.3 eeo Package
ments are highlighted. For more detailed
classified according to a set of user- Since the last update of the MIOAS
information we refer to the last issue of
defined rules: the user may for instance CCO package in 1986 a number of new
the ESO-MIOAS Courier (July 1993). group the data according to the expo- instruments have been installed on the
sure type and put together all frames La Silla Telescopes. In addition, new
1. New Features and Application observed in a given instrument mode. CCOs became available offering large
Packages An interface based on the Table Editor pixel areas and higher quantum efficien-
has been developed to facilitate the for- cy. With these innovations the variety of
1.1 System
mulation of these rules. observing modes has grown and, as an
Significant modifications and en- The association of science frames obvious consequence, the amount and
hancements have been implemented in with suitable calibration exposures is the diversity of data taken have dramati-
the MIOAS Command Language, e.g. an achieved by using the same rule- cally increased. It is clear that the
improved debugger for MIOAS pro- generating interface as referred to MIOAS CCO reduction software should
cedures, more robust error handling and above even though the rules to be ap- be able to cope with these improve-
direct access to all data structures from plied are different: One may want for ments and hence requires compatibility
within a procedure. To improve the in- instance to look for all the Flat Fields with the hardware as it exists at present.
formation transfer, the support of help which have been taken within a certain When designing the basic layout of
text for descriptors in data files has time interval of the science exposure. the CCO software, a number of basic
been added. A prototype of communi- The Association Process creates a requirements were kept in mind: e.g.
cation protocols has been implemented MIOAS table which can be used by any robustness, user-friendliness, easy
to enable interaction of any stand-alone reduction package. It contains one col- adaption for new or non-ESO in-
programme with MIOAS. umn for each type of exposure (e.g. SC, strumentation, automatie calibration
BIAS, OK, WCAL), while each row con- procedures to enable a quick-look facili-
tains for the corresponding science im- ty at the telescope. In what sense these
1.2 Oata Organizer
age the set of suitable calibration requirements can be realized depends
A new application package called 00 frames. on the data-acquisition system, archiv-
(Oata Organizer) for preparation of data The Oata Organizer has been tested ing and, obviously, the data-reduction

system. In this respect the development Long and XSpectra as weil as many interfaces in the fields of telescope and
of the CCO package took place at the additional features, such as batch re- instrument control, archives and data
right time. The ESO archive project has duction. The Long package now analysis. In addition to the OSF/Motif
accomplished that for a number of tele- supports 10 and long-slit spectroscopy XHeip interface, the 92NOV release in-
scopes and instruments the setup and includes a graphical user interface. c1uded several Athena-based interfaces
specifications are stored together with A tutorial (command TUTORIAULONG) (XSpectra, XEchelle, XFilter, XStella).
the data. In addition, the new MIOAS demonstrates the commands of the Some of them (XEchelle, XFilter, XStella)
Oata Organizer package offers a signifi- package. have not yet been ported to OSF/Motif
cant help in preparing the data for re- A new package for spectral analysis and compiled versions for Sun and HP
duction (see above). has been developed by Juan Veliz at La will be available through our anonymous
The new CCO package in MIOAS Silla and is based on the graphical user ftp account.
makes use of the output MIOAS table of interface XAlice. It provides basic func-
the Oata Organizer package that con- tions for:
tains the science and calibration data • flux integration, including continuum 3. Availability
and the relation between these two. The fitting and determination of line para-
package provides commands to do the meters like fwhm, equivalent width, The 93NOV release of MIOAS is
various bias calibration steps like com- flux and continuum level scheduled for distribution in Oecember
bining calibration frames, subtraction of • rebinning (Iogarithmic, frequency, 1993. An alpha version was frozen in
the bias level determined from the over- red-shift) July and tested internally. After this test,
scan area or from a separate bias frame, • filtering by smooth or median filters the beta version was sllipped to more
correction for dark current, division by • multiple-component fitting by a set of than 15 sites representing the major
the correction for illumination, and gaussians. hardware platforms. Based on these
correction for the fringe pattern. Also, test reports, the release will be finalized
tools are provided for trimming the in November. The 93NOV MIOAS re-
frames of the unwanted over-scan strip, 2. Graphical User Interfaces lease will be verified on the following
and for correcting the frame for bad systems: SUN SPARC Solaris 1.x and
pixels intensities. All operations steps The version 93NOV includes four 2.x, HP 9000, IBM PS/6000, OEC Ultrix-
that successfully finished are recorded OSF/Motif based interfaces: (MI PS), OEC VAXNMS, OEC Open VMS
in the descriptor of the reduced frame. 1. XHeip provides access to the on-line (APX), Silicon Graphics and PC/Linux.
This recording, wh ich includes updating documentation. More functions have OEC OSF/1 systems are not yet
the HISTORY descriptor, avoids repeti- been implemented since the 92NOV supported but a beta-test version is ex-
tion of reduction sequences, and pro- version, including a history mechan- pected to be available in the spring of
vides the user with the information on ism, strings search, files printing, con- 1994. Sites must explicitly request the
what has been done to the data. text selection and feedback (problem release, specifying the medium.
By combining the basic reduction report). The MIOAS system is, at the moment,
steps, a complete reduction pipeline 2. The new interface XOisplay imple- distributed free of charge to non-profit
procedure is built that enables the user ments a number of display related research organizations. They must sign
to do an automatie reduction of all sci- commands. It enables manipulation a User Agreement with ESO in order to
ence frames. The pipeline procedure is of images, LUTs, Ins and cursor obtain the system. Information and re-
controlled by a set of reduction key- commands in an easier way. quests for MIOAS should be directed to
words in combination with the informa- 3. The interface XLong is related to the the Image Processing Group at ESO,
tion stored in descriptors of the data new long-slit spectroscopy package Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 0-85748
frames. Therefore, apart from com- Long. The interface allows the activa- Garehing, Germany, or through E-mail
mands that do the actual work, a tion of calibration commands and (Internet: midas A Hot-line
number of commands help the user to provide convenient panels for are service is also available at the same
manage keywords and descriptors. lines identification and batch reduc- address. New releases and patches can
tion. be copied from the midas account on
4. The interface XAlice is related to the the Internet host ''.
1.4 Spectroscopy Packages
new spectral analysis package Alice Application packages and documenta-
The long-slit spectroscopy package (see Spectroscopy Packages). tion are also available on our anonym-
Long has been totally refurbished since All these interfaces conform to the ous ftp account. A bulletin board can be
the version 92NOV. It includes all func- ESO GUI Common Conventions which accessed through the 'esobb' account
tions of the previous packages Spec, define the Look and Feel for all ESO on the Internet host ''.

An ESO-MIDAS Implementation for PC/Linux

C. GUIRAO, ESO Image Processing Group

It may seem to be a contradiction to workstations, the final analysis, which inexpensive system that small institutes
implement a large image processing requires much more time for the in- and even individual scientists can
system like ESO-MIOAS on PC type terpretation of data than for actual com- afford.
systems; however, they are becoming puting, may be weil suited for a PC. One We decided to focus on Linux, a pub-
surprisingly powerful. Although normal of the main objectives is to provide an lic domain Unix system, as the most
reduction of data is better performed on ESO-MIOAS implementation on a very suitable for the MIOAS community.

Linux not only satisfied the requirements Table 1: Configuration of PC test system.
to install MIDAS (C and Fortran compil-
ers plus X11) but it also complies with Hardware Software
ANSI-C and POSIX standards. In addi- i4860X/25 Linux SLACKWARE 2.01 0.99.pI12
tion, it includes all the network software 20 Mbytes RAM ce: GNU compiler 2.4.5 (included)
necessary to integrate the PC into a Adaptec 1542B SCSI board f2c: f77 to C translator 22 (included)
LAN. Linux is supported by the Free 1 Gbyte SCSI hard disk X11 R5 (included)
Software Foundation wh ich also pro- WO-8013 Ethernet board Motif 2.1 (not required)
vides other public domain software (Iike Local Bus S3 Video Card MIOAS beta-release 93NOV (28 Mbytes)
The popularity of Linux has increased
enormously in the last months (as indi-
cated by the "Iinux" newsgroup, one of produce not included in the distribution MIDAS shared library. The C-Whetstone
the most active newsgroups on of Linux. Thus, we can only distribute benchmarks by H.J. Curnow and BA
USENET), and with it the interest of the them in binary executable form as an Wichman (1976, Computer Journal, Vol.
Astronomical community for having option in the distribution tape. They will 19, No. 1) were used to compute the
MIDAS ported to it. This became appar- also be available under our "anonymous "cwhetstones". The last columns with
ent during the 5th ESO/ST-ECF Data Anal- ftp" account. MIDAS benchmarks refer to the filtert
ysis Workshop where the MIDAS Group The hardware and software config- median command executed on a
showed the progress with PC port. uration for the test system is given in 1000 x 1000 image and the Wavelet
Now, the situation has improved sub- Table 1 for information only. It does not tutorial written 100 % in C code.
stantially and we are glad to announce mean to be the unique or minimum Besides the official distribution of
that the complete "core" of MIDAS has hardware setup. MIDAS requests only a MIDAS in source form, we intend to
been successfully implemented and 386 CPU, Linux release 0.99p112 or make a fully installed version for Linux
verified on Linux SLACKWARE 2.01. higher, a minimum of 16 Mbytes of available on the midas ftp account. It
Some other MIDAS packages have also memory and some disk space depend- will be located in a subdirectory called
been tested by their authors (Iike ing on the amount of data needed. With "Iinux" and be available in two forms:
WAVELET, PEPSYS, ECHELLE and shared libraries, the MIDAS executables one with sources (= 60 Mb) and another
LONG). Apre-release of the 93NOV re- and help files take around 30 Mbytes. with only binaries (28 Mb), all packages
lease has already been distributed to Table 2 gives a comparison of the included.
several test-sites for a complete check- performance of some MIDAS tasks on a In order to limit our administrational
out. PC and SPARCstation 2. It should be overhead, we will not distribute the
The Graphic User Interface (GUI) noted that on Linux there is no real ESO-MIDAS PC/Linux version to indi-
packages for MIDAS are being ported to Fortran compiler but a Fortran-to-C viduals but only to registered sites.
Linux. Two of them, XHeip and XDis- translator, and access to the disk on Thus, we will give MIDAS site managers
play, are al ready available while the rest SPARCstation 2 is about 5 times faster permission to distribute PC versions of
will follow soon. The MIDAS GUls are than on our PC. MIDAS to people associated with their
based on OSF/Motif wh ich is a licence Both SunOS and Linux used the institute.

Table 2: Performance of MIOAS on a PC/Linux system.

System Core install Size of core Cwhetstones Filter Wavelet

PC/Linux, i4860X/25 49min 11 Mb 10 MIPS 2435 sec 313 sec

SUN SPARCstation 2 30min 26Mb 10 MIPS 2045 sec 405 sec

DDS/DAT Tape Cartridges as New ESO Tape Standard


The 9 track W' tape format has during Gbyte of data per night. These facts dors. Its total storage capacity and data
the last many years proved to be a very demand that a new standard for data density are also important factors. Data
reliable tape standard for the exchange exchange must be adopted to facilitate transfer rates and speed of positioning
of data. Its main disadvantages are easy transport of data acquired at La on the media should be considered.
the relatively small data capacity per Silla. Since many user sites would need to
volume (approximately 200 Mbyte for a Several aspects must be considered purchase devices for the chosen media,
2400-foot tape written with 6250 bpi) when choosing a new standard. The the price of both media and drives
and very bad data density in terms of media must be reliable both in the sense cannot be disregarded. A crude com-
Gbyte per volume or mass. Large CCD of data security and with regard to parison of different media is given in the
detectors can now easily produce over a support from multiple independent ven- table, where values for the relative cost

and speed are only indicative. The "for- drives and a relative fast positioning on medium. It will still be possible for users
ward" speed indicates the time for a fast files are also important factors. to request their data on W' tapes but by
forward positioning on a file and de- Thus, the DDS/DAT tape format is default DDS/DAT tapes are provided.
pends on the size of the files being adopted as the new standard for export The Exabyte format is also available but
skipped. CD-ROM was included for of data from La Silla. Hardware com- users who want their data on this
comparison only since it is a read only pression is not used since a common medium must perform the copying
medium. Drives for writing CD-ROMs standard has not been defined for this themselves.
are becoming available but are still
rather expensive as shown in the table.
Weighing the different factors, the
Media Capacity Density Cost Speed
DDS/DAT tape cartridge seems to be
the better choice. A main point is the Gb Mb/g Mb/cm 3 media drive rate forward
very good operational experience with
DDS/DAT tapes used during the last '12" 0.2 0.2 0.1 1 12 0.8 92
two years for transferring data from the MO-disk 0.6 3.1 2.8 7 4 1.4 1
ND to the ESO archive in Garching. It CD-ROM 0.6 5.7 3.3 1 (20) 0.4 1
OIC 1.0 3.7 2.7 3 1 1.0 380:
has reasonable storage properties and
DDS/DAT 2.0 47.6 27.8 1 3 0.5 10
is supported by multiple independent
Exabyte 5.0 64.9 35.8 1 4 0.5 15
manufacturers. The lower price for

ESOIOHP Workshop on Dwarf Galaxies

From September 6-9, 1993, more Today, dwarf galaxies are recognized the possible discontinuity between
than 90 astronomers from all over the as prime laboratories for the study of normal and dwarf ellipticals, and star
world met at the Observatoire de Haute- some of the most burning issues of as- formation.
Provence (OHP) for a workshop on tronomy, such as structure formation, Although there was clearly an atmo-
"Dwarf Galaxies" jointly organized by galaxy evolution, star formation, and sphere of unanimity about the subject, it
ESO and OHP. dark matter. The number of workers in was amusing to see that there is appar-
Dwarf galaxies are inconspicuous, the field is growing very rapidly. The ently not yet a consensus as to the
faint and small stellar systems which, response to the announcement of the definition of what a dwarf galaxy iso But
until recently, have largely been ne- present workshop was accordingly there is nothing wrong with this. A phys-
glected. The much rarer giant spirals large. This clearly shows the need for ical definition of the subject would imply
and ellipticals, more visible, attract more more meetings on this subject. an understanding of the physical nature
attention. This is mirrored by the fact Talks and posters about every aspect of dwarf galaxies. While we are still far
that there have been only two meetings of dwarf galaxies were presented. There from this goal, the workshop has
on this subject before, one in 1980, or- have been a number of hot topics, such brought us a good deal closer....
ganized by ESO in Geneva, and one in as the question of dark matter in the
1985 in Paris, organized by the Institut Jocal dwarf spheroidals, the big holes in B. BINGGELI, G. MEYLAN,
d'Astrophysique. the H I component of dwarf irregulars, P PRUGNIEL


4th ESOIOHP Summer School in Astrophysical Observations

Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France, 18-29 July 1994
The rapid advances made in the area of astronomical instrumentation had the side eftect that fewer students have ready access to up-
to-date observing facilities. As a contribution to reducing this imbalance in the training of young astronomers, the ESO/OHP Summer
School ofters the opportunity to gain practical experiences under realistic conditions.
In groups of three, each guided by an experienced observer, the participants will use the equipment of the OHP to carry out a small
observing programme with telescopes of 1.2-1.9 metre aperture (direct imaging and spectroscopy, both with a CCO detector). to reduce
the data with a modern image processing system (MIDAS or IHAP), to extract relevant additional information from the astronomical
literature, and to describe the results in a brief summary which is to be presented to the other participants at the end of the school.
The preparation of the practical work will be supplemented by aseries of 90-minute lectures which will be given by invited specialists.
Foreseen subjects include: (a) Modern Telescope Layout, (b) Oetectors, (c) Optical instrument design, (d) Principals of Photometry, (e)
Spectrographs and spectroscopy, (~ IR Astronomy from the ground and from space, and (g) Oata reduction techniques. A scientific talk on
a frontier astronomical subject is also foreseen.
The working language at the summer school will be English. Applications are invited from graduate students working on an astronomical
Ph.O. thesis at an institute in one of the ESO member countries. Application forms are available from the organizers and have to be
returned by March 31,1994. Additionally, a letter of recommendation bya senior scientist familiar with the applicant's work is required. Up
to eighteen participants will be selected and have their travel and living expenses fully covered by ESO or OHP. (Reports on the previous
ESO/OHP Summer Schools have appeared in The Messenger: see No. 53, p. 11, No. 61, p. 8 and No. 69, p. 17).
The Organizers:
M.P. Veron J. Wampler
Observatoire de Haute-Provence European Southern Observatory
F-04870 Saint-Michel-I'Observatoire Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2
France 0-85748 Garching

ESO Workshop on ESO Ubraries On-Une Catalogue

The ESO Libraries On-line Catalogue is now publicly avail-
The Bottom of the Main able. The system allows access to the Library Catalogue for all
Sequence - And Beyond ESO libraries, informs about new acquisitions, and enables
library users to view their checkouts.
ESO, Garehing Users from within ESO reach the system via the riogin com-
August 8-10, 1994 mand: riogin -I library ac4 (for users in Garching) or riogin -I Islib
ac4 (for users in Chile). From outside ESO, use the telnet
An ESO Workshop on the objects at, and below, the bottom address, login: library (defaults will refer to
of the stellar main sequence will be held from August 8-10, at Main Library in Garching) or Islib (defaults refer to La Silla
the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory, Library).
Garching, Germany. Two user guides are available: "The ESO Libraries On-line
This workshop aims to discuss recent observational and Catalogue in a Nutshell" and "The ESO User Guide to the On-
theoretical issues related to the lowest mass stars and brown line Catalogue". Both are available from the ESO Library in
dwarfs, both in the Galactic Oisk and Halo, including the Garching (esolib Cl
following topics: Further information about the system will be given in a
• Searches for Low Mass Objects in the Oisk and Halo forthcoming issue of the Messenger.
• Studies of Spectral Properties
• Progress in Parallaxes
• Searches for Li
• Progress in Models
• The Teff and L Scales
• Future Oirections New ESO Publications
Scientific Organizing Committee: (September-November 1993)
Chris Tinney, R.F. Jameson, Rafael Rebolo, Francesca O'An-
tona, Mike Bessell, Jim Liebert, France Allard, Neill Reid.
The SEST Handbook (ESO Operating Manual No. 19 -August 1993).
Contact Address:
Annual Report 1992.
Chris Tinney
European Southern Observatory,
Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2 Scientific Preprints
0-85748 Garching, Germany. 939. A. Renzini: Searching for Type 1a Supernova Progenitors. To
e-mail: ctinney(fl FAX: (089) 320 2362 appear in Supernovae and Supernova Remnants, lAU Coll. 154,
ed. R. McCray (Cambridge University Press).

940. S. Savaglio et al.: The Metal Systems in QOOOO-2619 at High 57. N. Hubin, J.L. Beuzit, E. Gendron, L. Demailly: ADONIS - a User-
Resolution. Astronomy and Astrophysics. Friendly Adaptive Optics System for the ESO 3.6-m Telescope.
941. L. Wisotzki et al.: The New Double QSO HE 1104-1805: Gravi- To be published in the Proc. ICO-16 Satellite Conf. on "Active and
tational Lens with Microlensing or Binary Quasar? Astronomy Adaptive Optics", Garehing, August 2-5, 1993.
and Astrophysics. 58. M. Cullum: Detectors. Contribution to the Commission 9 report
942. H.W. Duerbeck and EX Grebel: Recovery of the Classical Nova for the lAU Transactions XX11 A.
AR Cir. M.N.RAS. 59. G. Rousset et al.: The COME-ON-PLUS Adaptive Optics System:
943. J.C. Cuillandre et al.: "Va-et-Vient" Spectroscopy: a New Mode Results and Performance. To be published in the Proc. ICO-16
for Faint Object CCD Spectroscopy with Very Large Telescopes. Satellite Conf. on "Active and Adaptive Optics", Garehing, August
Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2-5, 1993.
944. E. Krügel and R. Siebenmorgen: The Transfer of Radiation in 60. J.M. Beckers: Imaging with Array Detectors Using Differential
Galactic Nuclei - Dusty Hot Spots in the Star Burst Galaxy M82. Detection. Submitted for publication to Experimental Astronomy.
Astronomy and Astrophysics. 61. G. Filippi: Software Engineering for ESO's VLT Projeet. Paper
945. R. Siebenmorgen and R.R. Peletier: Search for the 1.67 ~lm PAH presented at the International Conference on Accelerator and
Emission Band: More Upper Limits. Astronomy and Astro- Large Experimental Physics Control Systems (ICALEPCS '93),
physics. held in Berlin, Germany, October 18-22, 1993.
946. A. Cimatti: Stellar and Scattered Light in a Radio Galaxy at z =
2.63. The Astrophysical Journal.
S. di Serego Alighieri and A. Cimatti: Misdirected Quasars in
Distant Radio Galaxies. Paper presented at the lAU Symp. 159
on "AGN across the electromagnetic spectrum", held in
Geneva, August-September 1993.
947. AA Zijlstra and R. Siebenmorgen: The Past and Present
Proceedings of the
Infrared Spectrum of BD+3003639. Paper presented at the 5th ESO/ST-ECF Data Analysis
workshop "Planetary Nebula Nuclei: Models and Observations",
Bachotek, 31 August-2 September 1993. Workshop Available
948. O. von der Lühe: Speckle Imaging of Solar Small Scale Struc- (ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings No. 47)
ture. 11. Study of Small Scale Structure in Active Regions.
Astronomy and Astrophysics. The proceedings of this workshop have now been published.
949. T.R. Bedding and A.A. Zijlstra: Angular Diameters of Compact The 230-p. volume, edited by P. J. Grosbol and R. C. E. de Ruijs-
Planetary Nebula. Astronomy and Astrophysics. scher, may be obtained at a price of DM 30.- (including packing
950. L. Pasquini and H. Lindgren: Chromospheric Activity in Pop 11 and surface maiI). Payments have to be made to the ESO bank
Binaries. Astronomy and Astrophysics. account 2102002 with Commerzbank München or by cheque,
951. B. Pettersson and Bo Reipurth: Young Stars Associated with the addressed to the attention of
Vela Molecular Ridge: I. VMR Clouds C and 0, Collinder 197 and ESO, Financial Services
Vela R2. Astronomy and Astrophysics. Karl-Schwarzschild-Str.2
952. S. Refsdal and J. Surdej: Gravitational Lenses. Accepted for 0-85748 Garehing b. München, Germany
publication in Reports on Progress in Physics.
953. S. Benetti et al.: The Late Evolution of the Type 11 SN 1990 E.
Astronomy and Astrophysics.
954. L.M. Buson et al.: The Distribution of lonized Gas in Early-Type
Galaxies. Astronomy and Astrophysics.
955. E. Bica, D. Alloin and H.R. Schmitt: Integrated Spectral Proper-
ties of Star Clusters in the Near Ultraviolet. Astronomy and
Astrophysics. Arrivals
956. G.M. Stirpe et al.: Steps Toward Determination of the Size and
Structure of the Broad-Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei. VI. Europe
Variability of NGC 3783 from Ground-Based Data. The CHAVAN, Alberto (I). Engineer (Software)
Astrophysical Journal. FERRAND, Didier (F), Engineer/Physicist
957. M. Della Valle and M. Livio: On the Nova Rate in the Galaxy. LEIBUNDGUT, Bruno (CH), Astronomer
Astronomy and Astrophysics. MINNITI, Dante (RA), Fellow
958. E.K. Grebel et al.: Be Stars in Young Clusters in the Magellanic
Clouds. D.J. Bomans and E.K. Grebel: Blue and Red Super- Departures
giants and the Age Structure of the NGC 330 Region. Papers
accepted for publication in Space Seience Reviews. Europe
959. H. Van Winckel et al.: V417 Cen: A Yellow Symbiotic System in a BOSSE, Nathalie (F), Secretary
Resolved Nebula. Astronomy and Astrophysics. CAROLLO, Marcella (I). Student
960. M.C. Festou, H. Rickman and R.M. West: Comets. Astronomy & KJELDSEN, Hans (DK), Fellow
Astrophysics Reviews. KOLB, Manfred (0), Student
WOLOHAN, Deirdre (IRL). Administrative Clerk (Personnei)
Teehnieal Preprints ZHU, Nenghong (RC), Associate

56. A.F.M. Moorwood: IR Array Instruments for the ESO VLT. To Chile
appear in Infrared Astronomy with Arrays: The Next Generation, CAPPELLARO, Enrico (I), Associate
ed. I. McLean, Kluwer: Dordrecht. DELLA VALLE, Massimo (I), Fellow

MESSENGER INDEX 1992-1993 (Nos. 67-74)

Solar System G. Testor and H. Schild: Woll-Rayet Stars Be- A Buzzoni, M Longhetti, E Molinari, G. Chin-
yond 1 Mpe: Why We Want to Find T~em carini: The Galaxy Population in Distant
R.M West: Minor Planet Diseovered at ESO and How to Do It 72, 31 Clusters 69, 55
is Named "Chile" 67, 33 C. Alard, A Terzan, J Guibert: Light Curves of R.F. Peletier and JH. Knapen: Looking
R.M West: Another Chiron-type Objeet Miras Towards the Galaetie Centre 73, 31 Through the Dust - the Edge-On Galaxy
67,34 C.G. Tinney: CCD Astrometry 74,16 NGC 7814 in the Near Infrared 70,57
0. Hainaut, A Smette, R.M West: Halley B. Wolf et al.: High-Resolution Speetroseopy L. Infante et al.: Dark Matter in CL0017
Back to Normal 68, 36 at the ESO 50-em Teleseope: Speetro- (z=0.272) 70, 61
L.D. Schmadel: The ESO Minor Planet Sky seopie Monitoring 01 Galaetie Luminous S. Barde/li et al.: Study of the Shapley Super-
69, 32 Blue Variables 74, 19 cluster 71, 34
H. Böhnhardt, K. Jockers, N. Kiselev, G. P Dubath et al.: Probing the Kinematies in D. Block, P Grosbßl, A Moneti, P Patsis:
Schwehm, N. Thomas: Comet P/Grigg- the Core 01 the Globular Cluster M15 with IRAC2 Observations of the Spiral Galaxy
Skjellerup Observations at ESO La Silla EMMI at the NTT 74, 23 NGC 2997 71,41
During the Giotto Eneounter Period 69, 38 M Naumann, R. Ungruhe, W.C. Seitter: The
R.M West, H.-H. Heyer, J Quebatte: A Minor ESO Red Sky Survey - a Tool for Galaetie
Planet with a Tail! 69, 40
Interstellar Medium and Cosmologieal Studies 71, 46
R.M West and 0. Hainaut: New Objeet at the P Fouque, D. Proust, H. Quintana, R.
M Lemoine, R. Ferlet, C. Emerich, A Vidal-
Edge of the Solar System 70, 33 Ramirez: Dynamies of the Pavo-Indus and
Madjar, M Dennefeld: The Importanee of
M Di Martino, M Gonano-Beurer, S. Mottola, Grus Clouds of Galaxies 72, 42
Lithium 67, 40
G. Neukum: Physieal Study of Trojan As- E Giallongo et al.: Ouasar Absorption Spee-
W. W. Zei/inger, P Mßller, M Stiavelli: Probing
teroids: a Photometrie Survey 71, 10 the Properties 01 Elliptieal Galaxy Cores:
tra: The Physieal State 01 the Intergalaetie
O. Hainaut and R.M West: Another Trans- Analysis of High Angular Resolution Obser-
Medium at High Redshifts 69, 52
Plutonian Minor Planet: 1993 FW 72, 17 E Palazzi, MR. Attolini, N. Mandolesi, P vational Data 73, 28
Crane: Probing Beyond COBE in the In- M Kissler et al.: NGC 4636 - a Rieh Glob-
terstellar Medium 69, 59 ular Cluster System in aNormal Elliptieal
Stars x.-w. Liu and J Danziger: Atomie Processes Galaxy 73, 32
and Exeitation in Planetary Nebulae 71, 25
M Niehues, A Bruch, H. W. Dürbeck: Obser- JR. Walsh and J Meaburn: Imaging the Glob-
vations of the Symbiotie Star BD -21 0 3873 ules in the Core of the Helix Nebula (NGC Magellanic Clouds
within the Long-Term Photometry of Vari- 7293) 73,35
ables Programme 67,38 L. Wang: A Honeyeomb in the Large Magel-
L.o. Loden: A Serutiny of HD 62623 and HD lanie Cloud 69, 34
96446 68, 26 Novae, Supernovae, M Azzopardi: Two New Catalogues of Small
E Poretti and L. Mantegazza: Doing Re- Supernova Remnants Magellanie Cloud Members Coming Soon
search with Small Teleseopes: Frequeney 71,29
Analysis of Multiperiodie 0 Seuti Stars M Della Valle: Nova Museae 1991: One Year
68,33 Later 67,35
S. Ortolani, E Bica, B. Barbuy: An Intermedi- L. Wang and M Rosa: Light Eehoes from Quasars, Seyfert
ate Age Component in a Bulge Field 68, 54 SN 1987 A 67,37 and Radio Galaxies
E Oblak et al.: Profile of a Key Pro- PA Caraveo, G.F. Bignami, S. Mereghetti, M
gramme: CCD and Conventional Photome- Mombelli: On the Optieal Counterpart 01 P Magain, J Surdej, C. Vanderriest, B.
try of Components 01 Visual Binaries 69, 14 PSR 0540-693 68, 30 Pirenne, D. Hutsemekers: The New Grav-
A Vidal-Madjar et al.: Observation of the Cen- I.J Danziger and P Bouchet: Radioaetive iso- itational Lens Candidate 0 1028+1 011 and
tral Part of the ß Pictoris Disk with an Anti- topes 01 Cobalt in SN 1987 A 68, 53 the Importanee of High Ouality Data 67, 30
Blooming CCD 69, 45 A Bianchini, M Della Valle, H. W. Dürbeck, M G. Mi/ey et al.: Distant Radio Galaxies 68, 12
N.S. van der Bliek et al.: Profile of an ESO Orio: A Very Low Resolution Speetrometrie Chr. de Vegt: Astrometry with ESO Tele-
Key Programme: Standard Stars for the In- Nova Survey 69, 42 seopes. A Contribution to the Construetion
fra red Spaee Observatory, ISO 70, 28 H. W. Dürbeck, R. Dümmler, W. C. Seifter, of the New Extragalaetie Referenee Frame
H. Hensberge, J Manfroid, C. Sterken: EM Leibowitz, MM Shara: The Reeur- 69,28
Long-Term Stability in Classieal Photome- rent Nova U Seo - a Touchstone of Nova B. Koribalski and R.-J. Dettmar: High-
try 70, 35 Theories 71, 19 Resolution Imaging with the NTT: The Star-
G. Cayrel de Strobel: The Contribution of De- burst Galaxy NGC 1808 71, 37
tailed Analyses of F, G, and K Stars to the Supernova Diseovered at ESO 67, 59 D. Reimers, L. Wisotzki, Th. Köhler: New
Knowledge of the Stellar Populations of the Bright Double Ouasar Diseovered - Gravi-
tational Lens or Physieal Binary? 72, 39
Galaetie Disk 70, 37 Galaxies MR.S. Hawkins et al.: A New Ouasar Pair:
B. Barbuy. J Gregorio-Hetem, B. V. Castilho:
A Study of T Tauri Stars and Li-Rieh Giant R. West: The Andromeda Galaxy 67, 15 02126-4350 and 02126-4346 74,27
Star Candidates 70, 43 G. Vettolani et al.: Profile of a Key Pro-
MD. Guamieri et al.: IR Stellar Photometry in gramme: A Galaxy Redshift Survey in the
Globular Clusters Using IRAC2 70,44 South Galaetie Pole Region 67,26 X-Ray
J Storm and A Moneti: Distanees to Ex- D. Proust and H. Quintana: Speetroseopie Ob- and Gamma-Ray Sources
tragalaetie RR Lyrae Stars Using IRAC2 servations in the Cluster 01 Galaxies Abell
70, 50 151 68,36 G.F. Bignami, PA Caraveol, S. Mereghetti:
J. Bouvier: Rotation of T Tauri Stars from M Ramella and M Nonino: The Giant Are in SUSI Discovers Proper Motion and Identi-
Multi-Site Photometrie Monitoring 71, 21 EMSS2137-23 69,11 fies Geminga 70, 30
AM Lagrange, J Bouvier, P Corporon: TY G. Soucai/: Speetroseopy of Ares and Arclets I.F. Mirabel: The Great Annihilator in the Cen-
CrA: a Pre-Main-Sequenee Binary 71, 24 in Rieh Clusters of Galaxies 69, 48 tral Region 01 the Galaxy 70,51

N. Lund: Keeping an Eye on the X-Ray Sky A. Moorwood: ISAAC -Infrared Spectrometer F. Murtagh and H.-M Adorf: Astronomical
70,55 and Array Camera for the VLT 70, 10 Literature Publicly Accessible On-Line: a
H. Oekker and S. O'Odorico: UVES, the UV- Short Status Report 72, 45
First Optical Identification of an Extragalactic Visual Echelle Spectrograph for the VLT R. Müller, H. Höness, J Espiard, J Paseri, P
Pulsar 72, 27 70, 13 Oierickx: The 8.2-m Primary Mirrors of the
L. Zago: The Choice of the Telescope Enclo- VLT 73,1
sures for the VLT 70, 17 H.U. Käufl: Ground-Based Astronomy in the
Instrumentation, L. Zago: The VLT Enclosure from the User's 10 and 20 J.Lm Atmospheric Windows at
Data Processing, etc. Standpoint 70, 19 ESO - Scientific Potential at Present and
R. Gredel and U. Weilenmann: New Features in the Future 73, 8
H. van der Laan: The VLT Progresses as its of IRSPEC 70, 62 EGosset and P Magain: On the Linearity of
Programme Management is Adapted 67, 2 H.u. Käufl et al.: TIMMI at the 3.6-m Tele- ESO CCD #9 at CAT + CES 73,13
M Tarenghi: VLT News 67,2 scope 70,67 TMC. Abbott and P Sinclaire: CCD Linearity
H. van der Laan: Contracts Signed for Two F. Murtagh: Astronomical Data Handling: at La Silla - a Status Report 73, 17
VLT Instruments: FORS and CONICA 67, Windows of Opportunity and of Challenge F. Murtagh, W. W. Zeilinger, J -L. Starck, H.
15 70, 71 Böhnhardt: Detection of Faint Extended
R. Lenzen and 0. von der Lühe: Couda R. Hook: ESO Computer Networking 70, 76 Structures by Multiresolution Wavelet Anal-
Near Infrared Camera Instrument Contract P Grosbel: Electronic Network Access to ESO ysis 73,37
Signed 67, 17 70, 79 MA. Albrecht and A. Heck: StarGates and
I. Appenzeller and G. Rupprechl: FORS - the ESO Image Processing Group: The New MI- StarWords - an On-Line Yellow Pages Di-
Focal Reducer for the VLT 67, 18 DAS Release; 92NOV 70, 80 rectory for Astronomy 73, 39
M Faucherre and B. Koehler: Delay Lines EJ Wampler: FFT Removal of Pattern Noise M Tarenghi: VLT News from the VLT Division
of the VLT Interferometer: Current Status in CCD Images 70, 82 74, 1
67, 21 E Gendron and N. Hubin: Adaptive Optics on TR. Bedding et al.: First Light from the NTT
A. Moorwood and G. Finger: IRAC2 - ESO's the 3.6-m Telescope: Latest News! 70, 84 Interferometer 74, 2
New Large Format Infrared Array Camera R. de Ruijsscher: Where is MIDAS Available? H. Oahlmann et al.: Optical Gyro Encoder
67, 21 70, 85 Tested on the NTT 74, 5
F. Malbel: A Coronagraph for COME-ON, the R.M Wes I: ESO, CNRS and MPG Sign A. Moorwood and G. Finger: Infrared As-
Adaptive Optics VLT Prototype 67,46 Agreement on Enhancement of the VLT in- tronomy with Arrays: the Next Generation
N. Hubin and E Gendron: News from the VLT terferometer 71, 1 74, 6
Adaptive Optics Prototype Project: A New M Quattri: The VLT Main Structure 71, 2 O. Iwert: Current CCD Projects and Their Re-
Photon Counting Wavefront Sensor Chan- P Oierickx: Manufacturing of the 8.2-m Zero- lation to the VLT Instruments 74,7
nel for COME ON PLUS 67, 49 dur Blanks for the VLT Primary Mirror 71, 5 ESO Image Processing Group: The 93NOV
L. Pasquini, G. Rupprechl, A. Gilliotte, J.-L. U- Bo Reipurth: Availability of Schmidt Emulsions Release of ESO-MIDAS 74,33
zon: A New Cross Disperser for CASPEC 71,10 C. Guirao: An ESO-MIDAS Implementation
67, 50 K.-H. Oünsing et al.: Prototype of the FORS for PC/Linux 74, 34
A. Giliotte, J. Melnick, J. Mendez: News About Multiple-Object Spectroscopy Unit Under O. Hofstadt et al.: DDS/DAT Tape Cartridges
Imaging Filters 67,51 Test 71,43 as New ESO Tape Standard 74, 35
ESO Image Processing Group: MIDAS Memo
L. Vigroux el al.: L1TE: the Large Imaging Tele-
67, 51 scope 71,44 First 8.6-m Glassy Meniscus Blank for the VLT
P Oierickx and W. Ansorge: Mirror Container
N. Hubin, G. Rousset, J.L. Beuzit, C. Boyer, 67, 1
and VLT 8.2-m Dummy Mirror Arrive at RE-
J C. Richard: First Technical Run of the
OSC 68,6
COME-ON-PLUS at the ESO 3.6-m Tele-
JM Beckers: Introducing the First Instrument Seeing, Atmospheric
scope 71,50
Science Teams 68, 8
R.M Wesl: New R.E.O.S.C. Polishing Facility
J.L. Beuzit and N. Hubin: ADONIS - a User Effects and VLT Site
Friendly Adaptive Optics System for the
for Giant Mirrors Inaugurated 68, 10
3.6-m Telescope 71, 52 F. Bourlon: A Geological Description of Cerro
H.-J. Bräuer and B. Fuhrmann: The Son-
HE Schwarz and TMC. Abbott: Nonlinear- Paranal or Another Insight Into the "Perfect
neberg Plate Archive 68, 24
A. Moorwood el al.: First Images with IRAC2 ity Problems with Generation 3 CCD Con- Site for Astronomy" 67, 4
68, 42 trollers 71, 53 MA. Fluks and PS. TM: On Flux Calibration
N. Whyborn, L.-A. Nyman, W. Wild, G. Oel- L. Pasquini and A. Gilliotte: CASPEC Im- of Spectra 67, 42
gado: 350 GHz SIS Receiver Installed at provements 71, 54 M Sarazin: PARSCA 92: The Paranal Seeing
SEST 68,45 P Kjaergaard: First Images from DEFOSC Campaign 68, 9
A. Gilliotte: Fine Telescope Image Analysis at 71,57 H.-G. Grothues and J Gochermann: The In-
La Silla 68, 46 TA. Birulya, O.K. Mikhailov, P V. Sheglov: fluence of the Pinatubo Eruption on the At-
A. Gilliotte, P Giordano, A. Torrejon: The Dust A New Fine-Grain Photographic Emulsion mospheric Extinction at La Silla 68, 43
War 68,46 71,57 M Sarazin and J Navarrele: Seeing at
G. Richter, G. Longo, H. Lorenz, S. Zaggia: E Poretti: Correction "On the Dead-Time Con- Paranal: Mapping the VLT Observatory
Adaptive Filtering of Long Slit Spectra of stant in Photon-Counting Systems" 71, 58 71,7
Extended Objects 68 48 M Tarenghi: The VLT: Important Contracts G. Mateshvili and Y Mateshvili: Dust in the
E Poretti: The Determination of the Dead- Concluded 72, 4 Earth's Atmosphere Before and After the
Time Constant in Photoelectric Photometry O. Baade et al.: Remote Observing with the Passage of Halley's Comet (1984-1987)
68, 52 NTT and EMMIISUSI: a First Assessment 71, 14
A. Balestra et al.: NTT Remote Observing 72,13
from Italy 69, 1 A. Ferrari et al.: CCD Photometric Standards A Paranal Portfolio 67, 12
J.M Beckers: A Fourth VLT Instrument Sci- for the Southern Sky: a Status Report Paranal (October 1992) 70, 6
ence Team 69, 5 72,18
M Franchini et al.: "Remote" Science with the E Aubourg et al.: The EROS Search for Dark
NTT from Italy. Preliminary Scientific Re- Halo Objects 72, 20 Science with the VLT
sults 69,6 M Redfern et al.: TRIFFID Imaging of 47 Tuc
A. Moorwood et al.: IRAC2 at the 2.2-m Tele- on the NTT 72, 29 J Lequeux: The Magellanic Clouds and the
scope 69,61 V. de Lapparent et al.: Mapping the Large- VLT 73, 19
L. Pasquini, H. W. Oürbeck, S. Deiries, S. Scale Structure with the ESO Multi-Slit M Sliavelli: Nuclei of Non-Active Galaxies
O'Odorico, R. Reiss: A New 2048x2048 Spectrographs 72, 34 with the VLT 73, 21
CCD for the CES Long Camera 69, 68 H.U. KäufI: Phase-A Study Launched for the R. Ferlet: From Planets to the Big Bang with
L. Gonzalez, O. Hofstadt, R. Tighe: New CCD 10/20 J.Lm CameralSpectrometer for ESO's High-Resolution Spectroscopy at the VLT
Cryostat for EFOSC2 69, 70 VLT 72,44 73, 25

R. Fosbury et al.: The Limits of Faint-Object P Bouchet, A. Cabillic, C. Madsen: ESO Ex- R.M West: Riccardo Giacconi Receives High
Polarimetry 74,11 hibitions in Chile - a Tremendous Success NASA Honour 71, 3
68,18 A. Blaauw: The ESO Historical Archives
RM West: The Youngest Visitors Yet 68, 20 (EHA). Inventory per December 1992 71,9
Organizational MaUers RM West: A Most Impressive Astronomy Ex- R.M West: The ESO C&EE Programme Be-
hibition 68, 21 gins 71,9
H. van der Laan: The Squeeze is on the La O. AIIoin and T. Le Bertre: Astronomical Ob- DA Verner: Astronomy Acknowledgement
Silla Observatory 69, 12 servations in 2001 68, 22 Index 1992 71,59
H. van der Laan: The Idea of the European H. Zodet: A Panorama 01 La Silla 68, 28 P Aniol: Amateur Astronomy with CCDs
Southern Observatory 70, 3 R.M West: Russian Comets and American 71,60
G. Bachmann and M Tarenghi: Develop- Rockets 68, 39 K. Kjär: Development 01 ESO Publications
ments in ESO/Chile 70, 5 R. Rast: Close Encounters with lee Balls of a 71,61
R. Giacconi: Current ESO Activities 72, 1 Second Kind 68, 40 R.M West: ESO C&EE Programme: a
R.M West: Relations Between the Republic I. Ferrin: On the Nature of the Smette-Hainaut
Progress Report 72, 6
01 Chile and ESO 72, 3 Object 68, 40
R.M West: The ESO-Portugal Cooperation
R. Rast and N. Johnson: Unidentified Object
72, 8
Riccardo Giacconi - ESO's Next Director Gen- Over Chile Identified 68, 41
RM West: Change 01 Editor 72, 10
eral 68, 1 H. Böhnhardt: On the "Unidentilied Object
Over Chile" 68, 42
C. Madsen: ESO Exhibition in Florence
Supplementary and Modifying Agreement Re- 72,10
garding the 1963 Convention Between The M Veron and O. Baade: The 3rd ESOIOHP
J Andersen: Ray Tracing Twenty Years at
Government of Chile and The European Summer School: Proven9al Summer, Hard
ESO 72,12
Southern Observatory (ESO) 72, 4 Work and Warm Hospitality 69, 17
G. Alcaino and W. Liller: The Instituto Isaac C. Madsen: ESO at CNRS Plenary Meeting
Newton: A Highly Productive ESO-Chile
H.-H. Heyer: A Two-Colour Composite 01 IC
Other Topics Connection 69, 21
The ESO Aficionados: The Other Face of La 1396 72, 16
Silla 69,25 B. Altieri: "EI C6ndor Loco" Tests the La Silla
po. Lindblad and A. Blaauw: Gösta W. Funke S. O'Odorico: Alive and Kicking into the 90's Winds 72,29
1906-1991 67,24 R.M. West: What Is This? 72, 40
69, 27
C. Madsen: ESO at EXPO '92 67,48 H. van der Laan: Jan Hendrick Oort (1900- M-H. Ulrich: A Message lrom the New Editor
E. Oavoust: Jean-Luc Nieto (1950-1992) 1992) - Looking Ahead in Wonder 70, 1 73, 1
67, 48 R.M West: ESO to Help Central and Eastern L. Vigroux: VLT Working Group lor Scientilic
RM West: Things that Pass in the Sky 67,52 European Astronomers 70, 8 Priorities - Status 01 the Work 74, 28
E. Fosbury, A. Turtle, M Black: Astronomical R.M West: ESA Astronaut Claude Nicollier J Andersen: Scientilic Priorities lor La Silla
Light Pollution by Artificial Satellites 67,53 Visits ESO 70, 9 Operations 74, 29
O. Hainaut: Unidentified Object Over Chile U. Michold: Something is Going On in the J Breysacher and J Andersen: Proposal
67, 56 ESO-Libraries 70, 21 Statistics 74, 30
A. Smelte and 0. Hainaut: A Near Miss? C. Madsen: "Exploring the Universe" from the B. Binggeli et al.: ESOIOHP Workshop on
67, 57 Desert Gate 70, 24 Dwarf Galaxies 74, 36
J. Lequeux: The Future of Astronomy Publi- H. Zodet: ESO in Milan. Some Notes on the
cations: Electronic Publishing? 67,58 Assembly 01 an ESO Exhibition 70, 26 H.-W. Marck 1914-1992 68,23
O.A. Verner: Astronomy Acknowledgements P Lena: Professor Lodewijk Woltjer Elected Sporty ESO 69, 25
Index 1991 67,61 to the French Academy 01 Sciences 70,27 More 1910 Halley Memorabilia 71, 17
OB. Herrmann: On the Life Expectancy 01 A. Smelte: Fire at the 1-m Telescope! 70, 70 ESO Visitor Programme at Garehing 72, 7
Astronomers 67,62 H. Barwig and K.H. Mantel: Acknowledge- "Future Astronomers 01 Europe" - ESO's Con-
M-H. Ulrich: Bigger Telescopes and Better ment 70,70 tribution to the European Week lor Scien-
Instrumentation: Report on the 1992 ESO M Creze, A. Heck, F. Murtagh: Report on tilic Culture 72, 9
Conlerence 68, 1 ALD-II, Astronomy Irom Large Databases "Astronomieal" Organ Concert in the La Ser-
R.M West: European Planetarians Meet at 70, 80 ena Cathedral 72, 11
ESO Headquarters 68, 15 R.M West: The End of the Earth? 70, 87

A P Aniol: Amateur Astronomy with CCDs B. Barbuy, J Gregorio-Hetem, B. V Castilho:
71,60 A Study 01 T Tauri Stars and Li-Rich Giant
T.MC. Abbolt and P Sinclaire: CCD Linearity I. Appenzeller and G. Rupprecht: FORS - the Star Candidates 70, 43
at La Silla - a Status Report 73, 17 Focal Reducer for the VLT 67, 18 S. Bardelli et al.: Study 01 the Shapley Super-
C. Alard, A. Terzan, J Guibert: Light Curves 01 E. Aubourg et al.: The EROS Search for Dark cluster 71, 34
Miras Towards the Galactic Centre 73, 31 Halo Objects 72, 20 H. Barwig and K.H. Mantel: Acknowledge-
M.A. Albrecht and A. Heck: StarGates and M Azzopardi: Two New Catalogues of Small ment 70,70
StarWords - an On-Line Yellow Pages Di- Magellanic Cloud Members Coming Soon T.R. Bedding et al.: First Light Irom the ND
rectory for Astronomy 73, 39 71,29 Interferometer 74, 2
G. Alcaino and W. Liller: The Institute Isaac A. Bianchini, M Oella Valle, H. W. Oürbeck, M.
Newton: A Highly Productive ESO-Chile Orio: A Very Low Resolution Spectrometric
Connection 69, 21 B Nova Survey 69, 42
O. Alloin and T. Le Bertre: Astronomical Ob- G.F. Bignami, PA. Caraveol, S. Mereghelti:
servations in 2001 68, 22 O. Baade et al.: Remote Observing with the SUSI Discovers Proper Motion and Identi-
B. Altieri: "EI C6ndor Loco" Tests the La Silla ND and EMMI/SUSI: a First Assessment fies Geminga 70, 30
Winds 72,29 72, 13 JM Beckers: Introducing the First Instrument
J Andersen: Ray Tracing Twenty Years at G. Bachmann and M Tarenghi: Develop- Science Teams 68, 8
ESO 72, 12 ments in ESO/Chiie 70, 5 JM Beckers: A Fourth VLT Instrument Sci-
J Andersen: Scientilic Priorities lor La Silla A. Balestra et al.: ND Remote Observing ence Team 69, 5
Operations 74, 29 Irom Italy 69, 1 O. Block, P Grosbel, A. Moneti, P Patsis:

IRAC2 Observations 01 the Spiral Galaxy S. O'Odorico: Alive and Kicking into the 90's G. Guirao: An ESO-MIDAS Implementation
NGC 2997 71,41 69, 27 for PC/Linux 74, 34
J.L. Beuzit and N. Hubin: ADONIS - a User P Oubalh el al.: Probing the Kinematics in
Friendly Adaptive Opties System lor the the Core of the Globular Cluster M15 with
3.6-m Teleseope 71, 52 EMMI at the ND 74,23 H
B. Binggeli et al.: ESOIOHP Workshop on K-H. Oünsing el al.: Prototype of the FORS
0. Hainaut: Unidentified Objeet Over Chile
Dwarf Galaxies 74, 36 Multiple-Objeet Speetroseopy Unit Under
67, 56
T.A Birulya, O.K. Mikhai/ov, P V. Sheglov: Test 71,43
O. HainauI, A Smette, R.M West: Halley
A New Fine-Grain Photographie Emulsion H. W. Oürbeck, R. Oümmler, w.G. Seitter, Back to Normal 68, 36
71,57 EM Leibowitz, MM Shara: The Reeur- 0. Hainaut and R.M Wesl: Another Trans-
A Blaauw: The ESO Historieal Archives rent Nova U Seo - a Touchstone of Nova Plutonian Minor Planet: 1993 FW 72, 17
(EHA). Inventory per Deeember 1992 71, 9 Theories 71, 19 MR.S. Hawkins et al.: A New Quasar Pair:
H Böhnhardt: On the "Unidentilied Objeet
Q2126-4350 and Q2126-4346 74,27
Over Chile" 68, 42
H Böhnhardt, K Jockers, N. Kiselev, G. E H Hensberge, J. Manfroid, G. Sierken:
Long-Term Stability in Classieal Photome-
Schwehm, N. Thomas: Comet P/Grigg-
ESO Image Processing Group: MIDAS Memo try 70,35
Skjellerup Observations at ESO La Silla
67, 51 O.B. Herrmann: On the Life Expeetaney 01
During the Giotto Eneounter Period 69, 38
ESO Image Processing Group: The New MI- Astronomers 67,62
P Bouchet, A Gabillic, G. Madsen: ESO Ex-
DAS Release; 92NOV 70, 80 H-H Heyer: A Two-Colour Composite 01 JC
hibitions in Chile - a Tremendous Sueeess
ESO Image Processing Group: The 93NOV 1396 72, 16
68, 18
Release of ESO-MIDAS 74, 33 O. Hofsladl el al.: DDS/DAT Tape Cartridges
F. Bourlon: A Geologieal Deseription 01 Cerro
as New ESO Tape Standard 74,35
Paranal or Another Insight Into the "Perfeet
R. Hook: ESO Computer Networking 70, 76
Site lor Astronomy" 67, 4
J. Bouvier: Rotation 01 T Tauri Stars Irom
F N. Hubin and E Gendron: News from the VLT
Adaptive Opties Prototype Projeet: A New
Multi-Site Photometrie Monitoring 71, 21
M Faucherre and B. Koehler: Delay Lines Photon Counting Wavefront Sensor Chan-
H -J. Bräuer and B. Fuhrmann: The Son-
of the VLT Interferometer: Current Status nel for COME ON PLUS 67, 49
neberg Plate Archive 68, 24
67, 21 N. Hubin, G. Roussel, J.L. Beuzil, G. Boyer,
J. Breysacher and J. Andersen: Proposal
R. Ferlel: From Planets to the Big Bang with J.G. Richard: First Teehnieal Run of the
Statisties 74, 30
High-Resolution Speetroseopy at the VLT COME-ON-PLUS at the ESO 3.6-m Tele-
A Buzzoni, M Longhetti, E Molinari, G. Ghin-
73, 25 seope 71,50
carini: The Galaxy Population in Distant
Clusters 69, 55 A Ferrari el al.: CCD Photometrie Standards
lor the Southern Sky: a Status Report
c I. Ferrin: On the Nature of the Smette-Hainaut L. Infante et al.: Dark Matter in CL0017
Objeet 68, 40
(z=0.272) 70, 61
PA Garaveo, G.F. Bignami, S. Mereghetti, M MA Fluks and PS. TM: On Flux Calibration O. Iwert: Current CCD Projeets at ESO and
Mombelli: On the Optieal Counterpart 01 01 Speetra 67, 42 Their Relation to the VLT Instruments 74,7
PSR 0540-693 68, 30 E Fosbury, A Turtle, M Black: Astronomieal
G. Gayrel de Strobel: The Contribution 01 De- Light Pollution by Artificial Satellites 67,53
tailed Analyses 01 F, G, and K Stars to the R. Fosbury el al.: The Limits of Faint-Objeet K
Knowledge 01 the Stellar Populations 01 the Polarimetry 74, 11
Galaetie Disk 70, 37 P Fouque, O. Proust, H Quinlana, R. HU. Käufl et al.: TIMMI at the 3.6-m Tele-
M Greze, A Heck, F. Murtagh: Report on Ramirez: Dynamies of the Pavo-Indus and seope 70,67
ALD-II, Astronomy lrom Large Databases Grus Clouds of Galaxies 72, 42 H U. KäufI: Phase-A Study Launched lor the
70, 80 M Franchini el al.: "Remote" Seienee with the 10/20 J.Lm CameralSpeetrometer lor ESO's
ND lrom Italy. Preliminary Seientifie Re- VLT 72,44
H.U. Käull: Ground-Based Astronomy in the
D sults 69,6
10 and 20 J.Lm Atmospherie Windows at
ESO - Seientilie Potential at Present and
H. Oahlmann et al.: Optieal Gyro Encoder
Tested on the ND 74, 5
G in the Future 73, 8
M Kissler el al.: NGC 4636 - a Rieh Glob-
I.J. Danziger and P Bouchet: Radioaetive Iso-
E Gendron and N. Hubin: Adaptive Opties on ular Cluster System in aNormal Elliptieal
topes 01 Cobalt in SN 1987 A 68, 53
the 3.6-m Teleseope: Latest News! 70, 84 Galaxy 73, 32
E Oavoust: Jean-Lue Nieto (1950-1992)
R. Giacconi: Current ESO Aetivities 72, 1 P Kjaergaard: First Images Irom DEFOSC
E Giallongo el al.: Quasar Absorption Spee- 71,57
H. Oekker and S. O'Odorico: UVES, the UV-
tra: The Physieal State of the Intergalaetie K. Kjär: Development 01 ESO Publieations
Visual Eehelle Speetrograph lor the VLT
Medium at High Redshifts 69, 52 71,61
70, 13
A Gi/iotte, J. Melnick, J. Mendez: News About B. Koribalski and R.-J. Oettmar: High-
V. de Lapparent et al.: Mapping the Large-
Imaging Filters 67, 51 Resolution Imaging with the ND: The Star-
Seale Strueture with the ESO Multi-Slit
A Gilliotte: Fine Teleseope Image Analysis at burst Galaxy NGC 1808 71, 37
Speetrographs 72, 34
M Oella Valle: Nova Museae 1991: One Year La Silla 68, 46
A Gilliotte, P Giordano, A Torrejon: The Dust
Later 67,35
War 68,46
R. de Ruijsscher: Where is MIDAS Available?
70, 85 L. Gonzalez, O. Hofsladl, R. Tighe: New CCD AM Lagrange, J. Bouvier, P Gorporon: TY
Ghr. de Vegl: Astrometry with ESO Tele- Cryostat for EFOSC2 69, 70 CrA: a Pre-Main-Sequence Binary 71, 24
seopes. A Contribution to the Construetion EGossei and P Magain: On the Linearity of M Lemoine, R. Ferlel, G. Emerich, A Vidal-
01 the New Extragalaetie Relerenee Frame ESO CCD #9 at CAT + CES 73,13 Madjar, M Oennefeld: The Importanee 01
69, 28 R. Gredel and U. Wei/enmann: New Features Lithium 67, 40
P Oierickx and W. Ansorge: Mirror Container of IRSPEC 70, 62 P Lena: Prolessor Lodewijk Wolljer Eleeted
and VLT 8.2-m Dummy Mirror Arrive at RE- P Grosbel: Eleetronie Network Aeeess to ESO to the Freneh Aeademy 01 Seiences 70, 27
OSC 68,6 70, 79 J. Lequeux: The Future 01 Astronomy Publi-
P Oierickx: Manulacturing of the 8.2-m Zero- H.-G. Grothues and J. Gochermann: The In- eations: Eleetronic Publishing? 67, 58
dur Blanks for the VLT Primary Mirror 71,5 fJuenee of the Pinatubo Eruption on the At- J. Lequeux: The Magellanie Clouds and lhe
M Oi Martino, M Gonano-Beurer, S. Mottola, mospherie Extinetion at La Silla 68, 43 VLT 73,19
G. Neukum: Physieal Study 01 Trojan As- MD. Guarnieri el al.: IR Stellar Photometry in Po. Lindblad and A. Blaauw: Gösta W. Funke
teroids: a Photometrie Survey 71, 10 Globular Clusters Using IRAC2 70,44 1906-1991 67, 24

x.-w. Liu and J. Danziger: Atomic Processes L. Pasquini, G. Rupprecht, A. Gil/iotte, J. -L. U- M Tarenghi: VLT News from the VLT Division
and Excitation in Planetary Nebulae 71, 25 zon: A New Cross Disperser far CASPEC 74, 1
L.a. Loden: A Scrutiny of HD 62623 and HD 67,50 G. Testor and H. Schild: Wolf-Rayet Stars Be-
96446 68,26 L. Pasquini, H. W. Dürbeck, S. Deiries, S. yond 1 Mpc: Why We Want to Find Them
D'Odorico, R. Reiss: A New 2048 x 2048 and How to Do It 72, 31
CCD for the CES Long Camera 69, 68 G.G. Tinney: CCD Astrometry 74, 16
M L. Pasquini and A. Gilliotte: CASPEC Im-
C. Madsen: ESO at EXPO '92 67,48
G. Madsen: "Exploring the Universe" from the
provements 71, 54
R.F. Peletier and J.H. Knapen: Looking u
Through the Dust - the Edge-On Galaxy
Desert Gate 70, 24 M -H. Ulrich: Bigger Telescopes and Better
NGC 7814 in the Near Infrared 70,57
G. Madsen: ESO Exhibition in Florence Instrumentation: Report on the 1992 ESO
E. Poretti and L. Mantegazza: Doing Re-
72, 10 Conference 68, 1
search with Small Telescopes: Frequency
G. Madsen: ESO at CNRS Plenary Meeting M-H. Vlrich: A Message from the New Editor
Analysis of Multiperiodic 8 Scuti Stars
72, 12 73,1
P. Magain, J. Surdej, G. Vanderriest, B. 68,33
Pirenne, D. Hutsemekers: The New Grav- E. Poretti: The Determination of the Dead-
itational Lens Candidate Q 1028+1011 and Time Constant in Photoelectric Photometry
68, 52
the Importance of High Quality Data 67, 30
F. Malbet: A Coronagraph for COME-ON, the E. Poretti: Correction "On the Dead-Time Con- N.S. van der Bliek et al.: Profile of an ESO
Adaptive Optics VLT Prototype 67,46 stant in Photon-Counting Systems" 71, 58 Key Programme: Standard Stars for the ln-
D. Proust and H. Quintana: Spectroscopic Ob- frared Space Observatory, ISO 70, 28
G. Mateshvili and Y. Mateshvili: Dust in the
Earth's Atmosphere Before and After the servations in the Cluster of Galaxies Abell H. van der Laan: The VLT Progresses as its
151 68,36 Programme Management is Adapted 67,2
Passage of Halley's Comet (1984-1987)
71, 14 H. van der Laan: Contracts Signed for Two
VLT Instruments: FORS and CONICA 67,
U. Michold: Something is Going On in the Q
ESO-Libraries 70, 21 15
G. Mi/ey et al.: Distant Radio Galaxies 68, 12 H. van der Laan: The Squeeze is on the La
M Quattri: The VLT Main Structure 71, 2
I.F. Mirabel: The Great Annihilator in the Cen- Silla Observatory 69, 12
tral Region of the Galaxy 70, 51 H. van der Laan: Jan Hendrick Oort (1900-
A. Moorwood and G. Finger: IRAC2 - ESO's R 1992) - Looking Ahead in Wonder 70, 1
New Large Format Infrared Array Camera H. van der Laan: The Idea of the European
67, 21 M Ramella and M Nonino: The Giant Arc in Southern Observatory 70, 3
A. Moorwood et al.: First Images with IRAC2 EMSS 2137-23 69, 11 D.A. Verner: Astronomy Acknowledgements
68,42 R. Rast: Close Encounters with Ice Balls of a Index 1991 67,61
A. Moorwood et al.: IRAC2 at the 2.2-m Tele- Second Kind 68, 40 D.A. Verner: Astronomy Acknowledgement
scope 69, 61 R. Rast and N. Johnson: Unidentified Object Index 1992 71, 59
A. Moorwood: ISAAC - Infrared Spectrometer Over Chile Identified 68, 41 M Veron and D. Baade: The 3rd ESO/OHP
and Array Camera for the VLT 70, 10 M Redfem et al.: TRIFFID Imaging of 47 Tuc Summer School: Provenyal Summer, Hard
A. Moorwood and G. Finger: Infrared As- on the NTI 72, 29 Work and Warm Hospitality 69, 17
tronomy with Arrays: The Next Generation D. Reimers, L. Wisotzki, Th. K6hler: New G. Vettolani et al.: Profile of a Key Pro-
74, 6 Bright Double Quasar Discovered - Gravi- gramme: A Galaxy Redshift Survey in the
R. Müller, H. H6ness, J. Espiard, J. Paseri, P. tational Lens or Physical Binary? 72, 39 South Galactic Pole Region 67,26
Dierickx: The 8.2-m Primary Mirrars of the Bo Reipurth: Availability of Schmidt Emulsions A. Vidal-Madjar et al.: Observation of the Cen-
VLT 73, 1 71, 10 tral Part of the ß Pictoris Disk with an Anti-
F. Murtagh: Astronomical Data Handling: G. Richter, G. Longo, H. Lorenz, S. Zaggia: Blooming CCD 69, 45
Windows of Opportunity and of Challenge Adaptive Filtering of Long Slit Spectra of L. Vigroux et al.: L1TE: the Large Imaging Tele-
70, 71 Extended Objects 68 48 scope 71,44
F. Murtagh and H. -M. Adorf: Astronomical L. Vigroux: VLT Working Group for Scientific
Literature Publicly Accessible On-Line: a
Short Status Report 72, 45
s Priorities - Status of the Wark 74, 28

F. Murtagh, W. W. Zei/inger, J. -L. Starck, H. M Sarazin: PARSCA 92: The Paranal Seeing
B6hnhardt: Detection of Faint Extended Campaign 68, 9 w
Structures by Multiresolution Wavelet Anal- M Sarazin and J. Navarrete: Seeing at
ysis 73,37 Paranal: Mapping the VLT Observatory J.R. Walsh and J. Meaburn: Imaging the Glob-
71,7 ules in the Care of the Helix Nebula (NGC
L.D. Schmadel: The ESO Minor Planet Sky 7293) 73, 35
N 69, 32
E.J. Wampler: FFT Removal of Pattern Noise
HE Schwarz and T.MG. Abbott: Nonlinear- in CCD Images 70, 82
M Niehues, A. Bruch, H. W. Dürbeck: Obser- L. Wang and M Rosa: Light Echoes from
vations of the Symbiotic Star BD -21 0 3873 ity Problems with Generation 3 CCD Con-
SN 1987 A 67,37
within the Long-Term Photometry of Vari- trollers 71, 53
L. Wang: A Honeycomb in the Large Magel-
ables Programme 67, 38 A. Smette and O. Hainaut: A Near Miss?
lanic Cloud 69, 34
67, 57
R.M West: The Andromeda Galaxy 67,15
A. Smette: Fire at the 1-m Telescope! 70, 70
o J. Storm and A. Moneti: Distances to Ex-
tragalactic RR Lyrae Stars Using IRAC2
R.M West: Minor Planet Discovered at ESO
is Named "Chile" 67,33
E. Oblak et al.: Profile of a Key Pro- R.M West: Another Chiron-type Object
70, 50
gramme: CCD and Conventional Photome- 67, 34
G. Soucai/: Spectroscopy of Arcs and Arclets
R.M West: Things that Pass in the Sky 67, 52
try of Components of Visual Binaries 69, 14 in Rich Clusters of Galaxies 69, 48
R.M West: New R.E.O.S.C. Polishing Facility
S. Ortolani, E. Bica, B. Barbuy: An Intermedi- M Stiavelli: Nuclei of Non-Active Galaxies
far Giant Mirrors Inaugurated 68, 10
ate Age Component in a Bulge Field 68, 54 with the VLT 73,21
R.M West: European Planetarians Meet at
ESO vHeadquarters 68, 15
p T R.M West: The Youngest Visitors Yet 68, 20
R.M West: A Most Impressive Astronomy Ex-
E. Palazzi, MR. Attolini, N. Mandolesi, P. M Tarenghi: VLT News 67,2 hibition 68, 21
Grane: Probing Beyond COBE in the in- M Tarenghi: The VLT: Important Contracts R.M West: Russian Comets and American
terstellar Medium 69, 59 Concluded 72, 4 Rockets 68, 39

R.M. West, H.-H. Heyer, J. Quebatte: A Minor scopic Monitoring 01 Galactic Luminous
Planet with a Taill 69, 40 Blue Variables 74,19
R.M. West: ESO to Help Central and Eastem N. Whybom, L.-A. Nyman, W. Wild, G. Del-
European Astronomers 70, 8 gado: 350 GHz SIS Receiver Installed at
R.M. West: ESA Astronaut Claude Nicollier SEST 68,45
Visits ESO 70, 9
R.M. West and O. Hainaut: New Object at the
Edge 01 the Solar System 70, 33
R.M. West: ESO, CNRS and MPG Sign
Agreement on Enhancement 01 the VLT In-
terferometer 71, 1 L. Zago: The Choice 01 the Telescope Enclo-
R.M. West: The ESO C&EE Programme Be- sures lor the VLT 70, 17
gins 71,9 L. Zago: The VLT Enclosure lrom the User's
R.M. West: Relations Between the Republic Standpoint 70, 19
01 Chile and ESO 72, 3 W. W. Zeilinger, P. Meiler, M. Stiavelli: Probing
R.M. West: ESO C&EE Programme: a Pro- the Properties 01 Elliptical Galaxy Cores:
gress Report 72, 6 Analysis 01 High Angular Resolution Obser-
R.M. West: The ESO-Portugal Cooperation vational Data 73, 28
72, 8 H. Zodet: A Panorama 01 La Silla 68, 28
R.M. West: Change 01 Editor 72,10 H. Zodet: ESO in Milan. Some Notes on the
B. Wolf et al.: High-Resolution Spectroscopy Assembly 01 an ESO Exhibition 70, 26
at the ESO 50-cm Telescope: Spectro-

News from Council 1
M. Tarenghi: VLT News from the VLT Division.............. 1
T.R. Bedding et al.: First Light Irom the NTT Interferometer. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 2
H. Dahlmann et al.: Optical Gyro Encoder Tested on the NTT .. 5
A. Moorwood and G. Finger: Infrared Astronomy with Arrays: the Next Gen-
eration 6
O. Iwert: Current CCD Projects at ESO and Their Relation to the VLT Instru-
ments 7


R. Fosbury et al.: The Limits 01 Faint-Object Polarimetry 11


C.G. Tinney: CCD Astrometry ..... 16
B. Wolf et al.: High-Resolution Spectroscopy at the ESO 50-cm Telescope:
Spectroscopic Monitoring of Galactic Luminous Blue Variables 19
P. Dubath et al.: Probing the Kinematics in the Core of the Globular Cluster
M15 with EMMI at the NTT 23
M.R.S. Hawkins et al.: A New Ouasar Pair: 02126-4350 and 02126-4346 27


L. Vigroux: VLT Working Group for Scientific Priorities - Status of the Work 28
J. Andersen: Working Group for Scientific Priorities for La Silla Operations 29
J. Breysacher and J. Andersen: Proposal Statistics 30
ESO Image Processing Group: The 93NOV Release of ESO-MIDAS 33
C. Guirao: An ESO-MIDAS Implementation for PC/Linux 34
D. Hofstadt et al.: DDS/DAT Tape Cartridges as New ESO Tape Standard 35
B. Binggeli et al.: ESO/OHP Workshop on Dwarf Galaxies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

4th ESO/OHP Summer School in Astrophysical Observations 37
ESO Workshop on ''The Bottom of the Main Sequence - And Beyond" . . . . . . .. 37
ESO Libraries On-Line Catalogue .. 37
New ESO Publications 37
Statt Movements 38

MESSENGER INDEX 1992-1993 (Nos. 67-74) 39