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Kreyòl ayisyen Native to Native speakers Language family Haiti and Dominican Republic (Haitian descents) 9.6 million (2007) French Creole • Antillean Creoles • Writing system Haitian Creole 
Latin (Haitian alphabet) Official status
Official language in Recognised minority language in Regulated by
Haiti Dominican Republic Ministère de l'éducation nationale et de la formation professionnelle Language codes 
ISO 639-1 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-3 Linguasphere
ht hat hat 51-AAC-cb
Haitian Creole (Kreyòl ayisyen; pronounced: [kɣejɔl ajisjɛ̃] French: Créole haïtien), often called simply Creole or Kreyòl, is a language spoken by about twelve million people, which includes virtually the entire population of Haiti and via emigration, by about two to three million speakers residing in the Bahamas, Belize, Canada, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, France, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Ivory Coast, Martinique, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, the United States, and Venezuela. Haitian Creole is one of Haiti's two official languages, along with French. It is a creole based largely on 18th-century French and some West African languages, and has secondary influence from other languages. In school, all children learn both Creole and French. Partly due to efforts of Félix Morisseau-Leroy, since 1961 Haitian Creole has been recognized as an official language along with French, which had been the sole literary language of the country since its independence in 1804. Its orthography was standardized in 1979. The official status was maintained under the country's 1987 constitution. The use of Haitian Creole in literature has been small but is increasing. Morisseau was one of the first and most influential authors to write in Haitian Creole. Since the 1980s, many educators, writers and activists have written literature in Haitian Creole. Today numerous newspapers, as well as radio and television programs, are produced in Haitian Creole. As required by the Joseph C. Bernard (Secrétaire d'État de l'éducation nationale) law of 18 September 1979, the Institut Pédagogique National established an official orthography for Kreyòl, and slight modifications were made over the next two decades. For example, the hyphen (-) is no longer used, nor is the apostrophe. The only accent accepted is the grave accent (à, è, or ò).
Consonants Haitian orthography IPA Examples nearest English equivalent b ch d f g h j k l m n ng p r s t v w y z b ʃ d f ɡ h ʒ k l m n ŋ p ɣ s t v w j z bagay cheve dènye fig gòch hinghang jedi kle lalin moun nòt hinghang pakèt rezon sis tonton vwazen wi pye zero before shoe do festival gain hotel vision sky clean man note feeling spy ruin six telephone vision we yes zero . b. they would have learned a rudimentary creole even before getting there. k and z. ui). en. t. m. z. except for proper nouns and foreign words.Haitian Creole 2 Origins There are many theories on the formation of the Haitian Creole language. its sound is produced by using the combination of letters k and s. an. As for letter x. Letter u is always associated with another letter (ou. j. on. oun. è. s. while letter i (and its sound) is used to replace the single letter u in French words. r. f. ch. e. Orthography and phonology Haitian Creole has a systematic orthography where spelling strictly follows pronunciation. u and x. k. Letter k is to be used for the sounds of letters c and q. oun. g. or g and z. According to the official standardized orthography. d. and that since many of those slaves were being kept for some amount of time near these trading posts before being sent to the Caribbean. h. Another one states that Haitian creole was mostly locally developed when slaves speaking languages from the Fon family started to relexify them with vocabulary from the French language. p. o. One states that a form of creole had already started to develop on West African trading posts before the importation of African slaves into the Americas. w. Of note is the absence of letters c. ò. ou. v. q. n. l. y. ui. Haitian Creole is composed of the following 32 sounds : a. i. ng.
It was later revised with the help of Frank Laubach. The last of Pressoir’s criticisms was that “the use of the circumflex accent to mark nasalized vowels” treated nasal sounds differently from the way they are represented in French and.g. contain nasalized high vowels (e.Haitian Creole 3 Vowels Haitian orthography a (or à before an n) an (when not followed by a vowel) e è en (when not followed by a vowel) i o ò on (when not followed by a vowel) ou oun (when not followed by a vowel) ui IPA Examples nearest English equivalent a ã e ɛ ɛ̃ i o ɔ ɔ̃ u ũ ɥi abako pàn apple anpil kle fèt mwen lide zwazo deyò tonton kafou youn lannuit (none) clay festival (none) unique sole sort (none) you (none) huis-clos • There are no silent letters in Haitian Creole. <en> for /ɛ̃/ and <èn> for /ɛn/. who also criticized its association with Protestantism. but <òn> = /ɔn/. • All sounds are always spelled the same. The official creation of the orthography was essentially an articulation of the language ideologies of those involved and therefore brought out political and social tensions between competing groups. Pressoir argued that these letters looked “too American. This orthographical controversy boiled down to an attempt to unify a conception of Haitian national identity. except when a vowel carries a grave accent <`> before <n>. . <on> = /ɔ̃/. which makes it an open vowel instead of a nasal vowel (e. A large portion of this tension lay in the ideology held by many that the French language is superior. therefore. on. Haitian orthography debate The first technical orthography for Haitian kreyòl was developed in 1940 by Ormonde McConnell. Haitian scholar Charles Pressoir critiqued the McConnell-Laubach orthography for its lack of front rounded vowels because of their highly symbolic value in kreyòl. which led to resentment of the language by some Haitians and an admiration for it from others. a highly politicized and controversial topic of which there are many competing views. would inhibit the learning of French.” This criticism of the “American look” of the orthography was shared by many educated Haitians. • There is some ambiguity in the pronunciation of the high vowels i and ou when followed in spelling by n: common words such as moun ("person") and machin ("car") end with consonantal /n/. and sometimes oun) are pronounced as an oral vowel followed by n. the digraphs denoting the nasal vowels (an. but <àn> = /an/). en. mostly adopted from African languages. • When immediately followed by a vowel in a word. <an> = /ã/. Another criticism was of the broad use of the letters /w/ and /y/. houngan "voodoo priest").g. The McConnell-Laubach orthography received substantial criticism from members of the Haitian elite. resulting in the creation of what is known as the McConnell-Laubach orthography. while very few words.
In southern Haiti. There is no difference between direct and indirect. "she" "We". . others are not. "me" Tu. "them" (*) sometimes ou is written as w – in the sample phrases. There has been a debate going on for some years as to whether these markers are affixes or clitics. te. Although the lexicon is mostly French. "us" "You" (pl. "you" (sing.) "They". w indicates ou. me. one pronoun for each person/number combination. an apostrophe or a space. It makes matters more complicated when the affix itself is shortened. The primary word order (SVO) is the same as in French. moi "I". and therefore what should be used to connect the affixes to the word: the most popular alternatives are a hyphen. (**) depending on the situation. particularly pluralization of nouns and indication of possession. and there is no grammatical gender—meaning that adjectives and articles are not inflected according to the noun. French Fon Haitian Creole English Ma bécane/becane moi[in 17th century popular french] my-SING-f bike Keke che bike my Bekàn mwen bike my My bike French Fon Haitian Creole English Mes bécanes my-PL bikes Keke che le bike my-PL Bekàn mwen yo bike my-PL My bikes Pronouns There are six pronouns. and its plurality is determined by context. perhaps making only one letter (such as m' or w'). elle. are indicated by appending certain markers. it is pluralized by adding yo at the end. verbs are not inflected for tense or person. Plural of nouns If a noun is definite. Elles "He". vous "thou". on Nous Vous Ils. Many grammatical features. zòt is used. person/number 1/singular 2/singular 3/singular 1/plural 2/plural 3/plural Creole Mwen Ou (*) Li Nou Nou or Ou (**) Yo Y' Short form M' W' L' N' French English Je.) Il. If it is indefinite. to the main word. it has no plural marker.Haitian Creole 4 Grammar Haitian Creole grammar is highly analytical: for example. Some are of French origin. like yo. the sentence structure is like that of the West African Fon language.
(lit. and the sound varies by the last sound of the noun itself. and it is placed before the noun: Haitian Creole Yon/on kouto Yon/on brezo French English Un couteau A knife Une cravate A necktie Definite article There is also a definite article. Yon is derived from the French il y a un. It is used only with singular nouns. It is placed after the noun. and French un/une. "there is a/an/one"). yon or simply on depending on regional dialects (pronounced /jõ/ or /õ/). an "a" or "an" is placed before the possessive pronoun. respectively. possession does not indicate definiteness ("my friend" as opposed to "a friend of mine"). Possession Possession is indicated by placing the possessor or possessive pronoun after the item possessed. roughly corresponding to English "the" and French le/la. This is similar to the French construction of chez moi or chez lui which are "my place" and "his place". it becomes la: .Haitian Creole 5 Haitian Creole Liv yo Machin yo Les livres Les autos French English The books The cars Fi yo mete wob Les filles mettent des robes The girls put on dresses. Haitian Creole Lajan li Son argent French English "His/her money" My family "Their house" or "their houses" Your father Pierre's cat Marie's chair Jean's father's friend "Fanmi mwen" or "fanmi m" or "fanmi an m" Ma famille Kay yo "Papa ou" or "papa a ou" Chat Pierre a Chèz Marie a Zanmi papa Jean Papa vwazen zanmi nou Leur maison / Leurs maisons Ton père Le chat de Pierre La chaise de Marie L'ami du père de Jean Le père du voisin de notre ami Our friend's neighbor's father Indefinite article The language has two indefinite articles. In northern Haiti. If the last sound is an oral consonant and is preceded by an oral vowel. and possessive constructions are often followed by a definite article. Unlike in English.
replacing a noun: . it becomes an: Haitian Creole French Chyen an Pon an English Le chien The dog Le pont The bridge If the last sound is a nasal consonant. and English "this" and "that". except that it is placed after the noun it qualifies.Haitian Creole 6 Haitian Creole kol la Liv la kay la French English La cravate The tie Le livre The book La maison The house If the last sound is an oral consonant and is preceded by a nasal vowel. It is often followed by a or yo (in order to mark number): sa a = This here / that there (ceci / cela) Haitian Creole Jaden sa bèl French English Ce jardin est beau This/that garden is beautiful. As in English. it becomes an: Haitian Creole Fanmi an Mi an French English La famille The family Le mur The wall If the last sound is a nasal vowel. it becomes nan. it becomes a: Haitian Creole kouto a Peyi a French English Le couteau The knife Le pays The country If a word ends in "mi" or "mou" or "ni" or "nou". but may also be "lan" Haitian Creole Machin nan Telefòn nan French La voiture Le téléphone English The car The telephone Madanm nan / Fanm nan La dame / La femme The woman "This" and "that" There is a single word sa that corresponds to French ce/ceci or ça. it may be used as a demonstrative. it may also be used as a pronoun. As in English. it becomes lan: Haitian Creole Lamp lan Bank lan French La lampe English The lamp La banque The bank If the last sound is an oral vowel and is preceded by an oral consonant.
Li dòmi aswè Li li bib la Mwen fè manje Nou toujou etidye Il dort le soir. and changes in tense. se. are indicated by the use of markers. We always study. . Copulas The concept expressed in English by the verb "to be" is expressed in Haitian Creole by three words.Haitian Creole 7 Haitian Creole sa se zanmi mwen French C'est mon ami English This/that is my friend sa se chyen frè mwen C'est le chien de mon frère This/that is my brother's dog Verbs Many verbs in Haitian Creole are the same spoken words as the French infinitive. aspect etc. He/she goes to work in the morning. (I cook) Nous étudions toujours. Il lit la Bible. The verb se (pronounced "say") is used to link a subject with a predicate nominative: Haitian Creole Li se frè mwen Mwen se yon doktè French Il est mon frère English he is my brother Je suis médecin/docteur I am a doctor That is a mango tree We are friends Sa se yon pye mango C'est un manguier Nou se zanmi Nous sommes amis The subject sa or li can sometimes be omitted with se: Haitian Creole Se yon bon ide French C'est une bonne idée English That is a good idea Se nouvo chemiz mwen C'est ma nouvelle chemise This is my new shirt To express: "I want to be". usually vin "to become" is used instead of se. ye and sometimes e. Haitian Creole French English Li ale travay nan maten Il va au travail le matin. He/she reads the Bible. mood. He/she sleeps in the evening. Je fais à manger. the verbs have one form only. I make food. but there is no conjugation in the language.
J'ai de l'argent dans la banque. Il y a beaucoup d'Haïtiens en Floride. There are many Haitians in Florida. Haitian Creole has stative verbs. malad means "sick" and "to be sick": Haitian Creole French English I have a sick friend. . So. konn or konnen means "to know" + a noun (cf. French connaître). I have money in the bank. "to have" The verb "to have" is genyen. after the predicate and the subject (in that order): Haitian Creole French English I am Haitian "Ayisyen mwen ye" = "Mwen se ayisyen" Je suis haïtien Koman ou ye? Comment êtes-vous? How are you? The verb "to be" is not overt when followed by an adjective. that is. My friend is sick. but is placed exclusively at the end of the sentence. There is nobody here or there. Il n'y a personne là. French savoir). "to know" There are three verbs which are often translated as "to know". Il y a quelqu'un là. Pa gen moun la. Gen yon moun la. Mon ami est malade.Haitian Creole 8 Haitian Creole French English Li pral vin bofrè m (mwen) Il va devenir mon beaufrère He will be my brother-in-law Mwen vle vin yon doktè Sa pral vin on pye mango Nou pral vin zanmi Je veux devenir un docteur Ça va devenir un manguier Nous allons devenir amis I want to become a doctor That will become a mango tree We will be friends "Ye" also means "to be". Haitian Creole French English Eske ou konnen non li? Connais-tu son nom ? Do you know his/her name? konn or konnen also means "to know" + a fact (cf. Haitian Creole French English Mwen pa konnen kote li ye. There is someone here or there. often shortened to gen. Je ne sais pas où il est I do not know where he/she is. "there is" The verb genyen (or gen) also means "there is/are" Haitian Creole French English Gen anpil ayisyen nan florid. but they mean different things. Mwen gen yon zanmi ki malad J'ai un ami malade Zanmi mwen malad. Haitian Creole French English Mwen gen lajan nan bank lan.
It refers to both "capability" and "availability". Nou kab ale pita Je peux peut-être faire ça demain Maybe I can do that tomorrow. Mwen kapab ale demen. one just uses the basic verb form for stative verbs: Haitian Creole French English Mwen pale kreyòl. it is generally understood as referring to the past: . Haitian Creole Mwen konn fè manje. kap or kab) means "to be able to (do something)". "Do you know to go to Haiti?") He/she cannot read French (lit.Haitian Creole (note pa = negative) The third word is always spelled konn. Haitian Creole Kòman ou fè pale kreyol? French English Comment as-tu appris à parler créole ? How did you learn to speak Haitian Creole? Marie knows how to make cornmeal. as it is one of the most common verbs used in idiomatic phrases. "He knows not how to read French. It comes from the French faire and is often translated as "do" or "make". It has a broad range of meanings. Haitian Creole French English I can go tomorrow. Nous pouvons aller plus tard We can go later. Marie sait faire de la farine de maïs. In the present non-progressive tense. "I know how to make food") Have you been to Haïti? (lit. "to be able to" The verb kapab (or shortened to ka. Marie konn fè mayi moulen. It means "to know how to" or "to have experience". but also some experience with it. This is similar to the "know" as used in the English phrase "know how to ride a bike": it denotes not only a knowledge of the actions. Je peux aller demain Petèt m ka fè sa demen. French English 9 Je sais comment faire à manger I know how to cook (lit. Il ne sait pas lire le français Another verb worth mentioning is fè. very similar to the French "capable". Je parle créole I speak Creole Note that when the basic form of action verbs is used without any verb markers. Tense markers There is no conjugation in Haitian Creole.") Eske ou konn ale Ayiti? As-tu été à Haïti ? Li pa konn li franse.
l ap. special "tense marker" words are placed before the verb. though not necessary. "was doing" With ap and a.Haitian Creole 10 Haitian Creole mwen manje ou manje li manje nou manje yo manje French j'ai mangé tu as mangé il/elle a mangé English I ate you ate he/she ate nous avons mangé we ate ils/elles ont mangé they ate (Note that manje means both "food" and "to eat" – m ap manje bon manje means "I am eating good food". to add "right now": M ap manje kounye a – "I am eating right now" Also. M ap manje apre m priye – "I will eat after I pray" / Mwen pap di sa – "I will not say that" Near or definite future: . those examples can mean "will eat" depending on the context of the sentence. n ap. y ap. the pronouns nearly always take the short form (m ap. "will do" Simple past or past perfect: mwen te manje – "I ate" or "I had eaten" ou te manje. The basic ones are: Tense marker te t ap ap a pral ta Tense simple past past progressive present progressive future a combination of te and ap. etc.) some limitations on use Annotations near or definite future translates to "going to" conditional future a combination of te and a. For other tenses."you ate" or "you had eaten" li te manje – "he/she ate" or "he/she had eaten" nou te manje – "we ate" or "we had eaten" yo te manje – "they ate" or "they had eaten" Past progressive: mwen t ap manje – "I was eating" ou t ap manje – "you were eating" li t ap manje – "he/she was eating" nou t ap manje – "we were eating" yo t ap manje – "they were eating" Present progressive: m ap manje – "I am eating" w ap manje – "you are eating" l ap manje – "he/she is eating" n ap manje – "we are eating" y ap manje – "they are eating" Note: For the present progressive ("I am eating now") it is customary.).
However. English. the French definite article was retained as part of the noun. – "When he/she was eight years old. a testament to the numerous contacts with different cultures that led to the formation of the language. among them Wolof. Portuguese. Other examples: Mwen te wè zanmi ou yè – "I saw your friend yesterday" Nou te pale lontan – "We spoke for a long time" Lè l te gen uit an. "We will see (each other) later) from the old patois (Nous sommes à voire plus tard > > Nous à voire plus tard) meaning: we are to see later. Being a living language.. and also from English. which is being used as . Taino and Arabic. Examples of this are "fè bak" which was borrowed from English and means 'to move backwards' (the original word derived from French is "rekile" from reculer).. with significant changes in pronunciation and morphology. corresponding to English "would" and equivalent to the French conditional tense: Yo ta renmen jwe – "They would like to play" Mwen ta vini si m te gen yon machin – "I would come if I had a car" Li ta bliye w si ou pa t la – "He/she would forget you if you weren't here" Negating the verb The word pa comes before a verb (and all tense markers) to negate it: Rose pa vle ale – "Rose doesn't want to go" Rose pa t vle ale – "Rose didn't want to go" 11 Lexicon Most of the lexicon of Creole is derived from French. the language also inherited many words of different origins. Fon.. "napkin".Haitian Creole Mwen pral manje – "I am going to eat" Ou pral manje – "you are going to eat" Li pral manje – "he/she is going to eat" Nou pral manje – "we are going to eat" Yo pral manje – "they are going to eat" Future: N a wè pi ta – "See you later" (lit. Kongo. Haitian Creole creates and borrows new words to describe new or old concepts and realities. the French definite article la in la lune ("the moon") was incorporated into the Creole noun for moon: lalin. For example. Spanish. often.." M a travay – "I will work" M pral travay – "I'm going to work" N a li l demen – "We'll read it tomorrow" Nou pral li l demen – "We are going to read it tomorrow" Mwen t ap mache epi m te wè yon chen – "I was walking and I saw a dog" Additional time-related markers: fèk – recent past ("just") sòt – similar to fè'k They are often used together: Mwen fèk sòt antre kay la – "I just entered the house" A verb mood marker is ta.
"baggage" (French) banane. "key" (French) clé /kle/. to poke (Spanish) dos cabezas . "chenette". tchok."myself" "number" "voodoo priest" "United States" a very hot pepper "clothesline" "poor devil" (French) Aux États-Unis /etazyni/ (French) piment /pimã/ (French) pendre /pãdʁ/. pobã/ kle kle kola kònflèks kawotchou lakay lalin li makak manbo marasa matant moun mwen nimewo oungan Ozetazini piman pann podyab /kle/ /kle kola/ /kõnfleks/ /kautʃu/ /lakaj/ /lalin/ /li/ /makak/ /mãbo/ /maɣasa/ /matãt/ /mun/ /mwɛ̃/ /nimewo/ /ũɡã/ /ozetazini/ /pimã/ /pãn/ /po jab/ (French) clé /kle/. "banana" (French) bécane /bekan/ (Fon) bokono (French) Bon Dieu /bõdjø/ (French) (Antilles) la quénette (Fula) Chuk – to pierce. "my aunt" (French) monde (French) moi /mwa/ (French) numéro /nymeʁo/ (Fon) houngan "wrench" or "key" "bottle opener" "breakfast cereal" "tire" "house" "moon" "he/she/him/her" "monkey" "voodoo priestess" "twins" "aunt". tʃɔk. "to hang" (French) pauvre diable or (Spanish) pobre diablo ."I". "aged woman" "people/person" "me". poban /kijɛz. 12 Sample Creole anasi annanna Ayiti bagay bannann bekàn bòkò Bondye chenèt chouk dekabes dèyè diri fig je /anasi/ /ãnãna/ /ajiti/ /baɡaj/ /bãnãn/ /bekan/ /boko/ /bõdje/ /ʃenɛt/ /ʃõk/ /decahbes/ /dɛjɛ/ /diɣi/ /fiɡ/ /ʒe/ IPA Origin English "spider" "pineapple" "Haiti(mountainous land)" "thing" "Plantains" "bicycle" "sorcerer" "God" or "God!"/"Good Lord!" "mamoncillo". "rubber" (French) la cahutte /la kayt/ la case"the hut" (French) la lune /la lyn/ (French) Lui (French) macaque /makak/ (Kongo) mambu or Fongbe nanbo (Kongo) mabasa (French) ma tante. "gap" "poke" "2 headed win during dominos" "behind" "rice" "Banana" "eye" "hog banana"   (Akan) "ananse" (Taino) "anana" (Also the source of the word in French) (Taino) (French) bagage.Haitian Creole well as the original Creole word "tòchon". "cola" (English) "corn flakes" (French) caoutchouc.two heads (French) derrière /dɛʁjɛʁ/ (French) du riz /dy ʁi/ (French) figue /fiɡ/ (French) yeux /jø/ (plural of "oeil") kiyèz. "guinip". "key" + Eng.
regardless of skin color (i. "aged man" "neighbor" "they / them / their" – plural marker "soulless corpse / living dead / ghost" (Kongo) nzumbi (French) les oiseaux /wazo/ (frontal "z" kept with liaison) "bird"  Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007  http:/ / www. like "guy" or "dude" in American English). "pea" (English) surfing (French) tonton (French) voisin /vwazɛ̃/ (Fon) ye "bean" "sea-surfing" "uncle". Nouns derived from trade marks Many trademarks have become common nouns in Haitian Creole (i. K. the meanings they carry do not apply in Haiti. Kroskrity (eds. New York: Oxford University Press. e. meaning white person). blan is generally used for a foreigner of any color. Woolard. Meta. regionally called "hog banana" or "sugar banana" in English. (1998).). In B. B. Language Ideologies: Practice and Theory (pp. ht/ Fichiers/ Accueil_menfp. • • • • • • • • • • • • • kolgat (Colgate) or pat – "toothpaste" jilèt (Gillette) – "razor" pampèz (Pampers) or kouchèt – "diaper" or (Br) "nappy" kodak (Kodak) – "camera" frijidè (Frigidaire) – "refrigerator" dèlco (Delco) – "generator" iglou (Igloo) or tèmòs (Thermos) – "cooler" chiklèt (Chiclets) – "chewing gum" magui (Maggi) – "bouillon cube" kitèks (Cutex) – "nail polish" djip (Jeep) – "SUV" douko (Duco) – "automobile paint" koteks (Kotex) – "sanitary napkin" Nèg and blan Despite similar words in French (nègre. The ‘‘real’’ Haitian Creole: Ideology. A recent research project of the Leiden-based Research School CNWS on this topic concerns the relation between Gbe and Surinamese creole languages. A.. Schieffelin. they have become genericized. htm  Joseph C. for example). C. B. The term nèg from nègre in French is generally used for any man. 285–316). The project is titled A trans-Atlantic Sprachbund? The structural relationship between the Gbe-languages of West Africa and the Surinamese creole languages. People who lived before this was official still write and teach their children in their own way of writing creole whether it be the traditional French orthography or something approximate like the way Cape Verdean creole is written in respects to Portuguese  Schieffelin. Bernard (Secrétaire d'État de l'éducation nationale) law of 18 September 1979 (http:/ / commissioneducation.. as has happened in English with "aspirin" and "kleenex".linguistics. and P. ht/ images/ documentspublics/ gtef-lois-1979-creole. eduhaiti. B.  The gap between a person's two front teeth.e.. V. . and Orthographic Choice. and Doucet. R.Haitian Creole 13 /pwa/ /seifiŋ/ /tõtõ/ /vwazɛ̃/ /jo/ /zõbi/ /zwazo/ pwa seyfing tonton vwazen yo zonbi zwazo (French) pois /pwa/. gouv. pdf)  Lefebvre (1985). not a plantain and not a conventional banana. Thus a non-black Haitian man might be called nèg—although the circumstances in which this might occur are unclear—while an African American would probably be referred to as a blan.  A banana that is short and fat. it is just the one that has been made official by the government in education.  It is not the only orthography people use. most notable for its usage in a pejorative context to refer to black people and blanc.
.. – My name is. N a wè pi ta! – We will see later (See you later!) Non m se. both the color and the people) There are many other Haitian Creole terms for specific tones of skin. roz....years old Mwen la – I'm fine Mwen rele.. mawon. while others use the terms freely. – My name is.. bren. so M ap boule – I'm managing (I'm burning) [Response to "sak pase" or "sak ap fèt"] M ap viv – I'm living Mal – Bad Mwen byen – I'm well Mwen dakò – I agree Mwen gen.an – I am. Orevwa! – Good bye [Temporarily] Pa mal – Not bad Pa pi mal – Not so bad Padon! – Pardon! / Sorry! Move! Padonne m! – Pardon me! Forgive me! Pòte w byen! – Carry yourself well! (Take care!) Sak ap fèt? – What's going on? What's up? [Informal] • Sak pase? – What's going on? / What's happening? [Informal] • Tout al byen – All goes well (All is well) • Tout bagay anfòm – Everything is in form (Everything is fine) . etc.. the word nèg is derived from the French "nègre" and is cognate with the Spanish negro ("black".. Some Haitians consider such labels as offensive because of their association with color discrimination and the Haitian class system. such as grimo.. 14 Examples Salutations • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • A demen! – See you tomorrow! A pi ta! – See you later! Adye! – Good bye! [Permanently] Anchante! – enchanted (Nice to meet you!) Bon apre-midi! – Good afternoon! Bònn nui! – Good night! Bonjou! – Good day! / Good morning! Bonswa! – Good evening Dezole! – Sorry! Eskize m! – Excuse me! Ki jan ou rele? – What is your name? Ki jan ou ye? – How are you? Ki laj ou? – What is your age? (How old are you?) Ki laj ou genyen? – How old are you? Ki non ou / ki non w? – What is your name? Koman ou rele? – What is your name? Koman ou ye? – How are you? Kon si. kon sa – So.Haitian Creole Etymologically...
lavalas pa ka pote l ale – What God has saved for you. sak ladan l se rezon – Wisdom comes from the mouth of old people. (Literally: Not every day is Sunday) • Fanm pou yon tan. nobody can take it away • Nèg rich se milat. (Literally: An empty sack does not stand) • Pitit tig se tig – Like father like son. tanbou lou – There are consequences to your actions • Sak vid pa kanpe – You cannot work without food. (Literally: The son of a tiger is a tiger). • Apre bal. showing knowledge of the language and of the Haitian culture. manman pou tout tan – Wife for one time. Proverbs • Men anpil.) • Si ou bwè dlo nan vè. (Literally: With patience you will see the breast of the ant) • Bay kou bliye. milat pov se nèg – A rich negro is a mulatto. the carrier of the scar remembers • Mache chèche pa janm dòmi san soupe – You will get what you deserve • Bèl dan pa di zanmi – Not all smiles are friendly • Bèl antèman pa di paradi – A beautiful funeral does not guarantee heaven • Bel fanm pa di bon menaj – A beautiful wife does not guarantee a happy marriage • Dan konn mode lang – People who work together sometimes hurt each other (Literally: Teeth are known to bite the tongue) • Sak rive koukouloulou a sa rive kakalanga tou – What happens to the turkey can happen to the rooster too • Chak jou pa Dimanch – Your luck will not last forever. the burden is light) – The Haitian Creole equivalent of the Haitian motto written in French "L'union fait la force". respèkte vè a – If you drink water from a glass. respect the glass • Si travay te bon bagay. chay pa lou – Unity creates strength (With many hands. Speakers of Haitian creole will use them frequently. a poor mulatto is a negro • Pale franse pa di lèspri ou – Speaking French does not mean you are smart • Wòch nan dlo pa konnen doulè wòch nan solèy – The rock in the water does not know the pain of the rock in the sun • Ravèt pa janm gen rezon devan poul – Justice will always be on the side of the stronger. (Literally: Cockroach is never right in front of a chicken. mother for all time • Nèg di san fè. moun rich ta pran l lontan – If work were a good thing.) . Bondye fè san di – People say without doing. pòte mak sonje – The giver of the blow forgets. • Ak pasyans w ap wè tete pis – Anything is possible. God does without saying • Sa Bondye sere pou ou. and as such uses a lot of proverbs and colourful expressions to illustrate many situations. the rich would have grabbed it a long time ago • Sèl pa vante tèt li di li sale – Let others praise you (Said to ridicule those who praise themselves) • Bouch granmoun santi.Haitian Creole • Tout pa bon – All is not good (All is not well) 15 Proverbs and expressions Haitian Creole is a very figurative language. (Literally: The mouth of the old stinks but what's inside is wisdom.
Dismissing or defying a threat or show of force (Literally: 10 little ones like you couldn't ... school-parent communications. which are seldom used in French. which means "to wait" and also "tender" San pran souf – Without taking a breath – Continuously "Ou ap kon joj" . Boston. New York City. and Palm Beach). There have been arguments against the phonetic writing system of Creole.Haitian Creole 16 Expressions • • • • • • • • • • • Se lave men.Warning or threat of punishment or reprimand (Literally: You will find out who George is.) "Dis ti piti tankou ou" . government agencies have produced various public service announcements. thus some may use exact French spelling and others may adjust the spelling of certain words to represent the Creole accent and others may drop silent letters at the end of words since Creole rarely uses the liaisons of French. he is a trickster. and other materials in Haitian Creole. The main complaint is that it looks nothing like French and so may hinder the learning of French at school. For instance. (Literally: When chickens will grow teeth. To reach out to the large Haitian population. there exists in Haiti a French-based orthography (l'orthographe francisée) or rather several variations of this which were present long before the introduction of the phonetic orthography.Never. (Literally: He speaks French) Kreyòl pale. Quebec (where French is the first official language). particularly the United States and Canada. Fort Lauderdale.. Another complaint is that the phonetics of the current standard rely on Germanic letters K and W. Unlike the phonetic orthography the French orthography has no official rules or regulations on spelling therefore spelling often varies depending on the writer. kreyòl konprann – Speak plainly. and Central and South Florida (Miami. Miami-Dade County in Florida sends out paper communications in Haitian Creole in addition to English and Spanish. Some of the larger Creole-speaking populations are found in Montreal. the Boston subway system and area hospitals and medical offices post announcements in Haitian Creole .) French-based orthography Alongside the usage of a phonetic orthography used to represent Creole. the result is that a phrase represented phonetically like "Li ale travay le maten" may be represented many ways using the French orthography.. In the Boston area. do not deceive (Literally: Creole spoken is Creole understood) Bouche nen w pou bwè dlo santi – You have to accept a bad situation (Literally: Pinch your nose to drink smelly water) Mache sou pinga w pou ou pa pile sou sa w te konnen – You need to be careful to avoid known problems Tann jis nou tounen pwa tann – To wait forever (Literally: Wait until you become a tender pea) – Word play on "tann". siye l atè – It was useless work (Literally: Wash your hands and wipe them on the floor) M ap di ou sa kasayòl te di bèf la – Mind your own business Li pale franse – He cannot be trusted.) "Lè poul fè dan". • • • • • • • • Li ale travay le maten > Lui aller travail le matin > Li aller travail le matin Koman ou ye? > Comment 'ous yest? > Commen ou yé? Pa gen problem > Pas gagne problème > Pa guin problème Tout bagay an fòm > Toute bagaye en forme > Toute bagail en fóme Pa koun ye a > Pas counne hier à > Pa counne hié à Nou ap chache > Nous ap' chercher > Nou ap chácher Nou bezwen on doktè tout swit > Nous besoin un docteur toute suite > Nou besouin on docté toute suite Kote lopital la? > Côté l'hôpital là? Usage outside of Haiti United States and Canada Haitian Creole is used widely among Haitians who have relocated to other countries.
com/ articles/ 2010/ 01/ 27/ carnegie. Haitian language and culture is taught in many colleges in the United States as well as in the Bahamas.Haitian Creole as well as English. However. com/ news/ 2005/ dnews081605. shtml#13)  Carnegie Mellon releases data on Haitian Creole to hasten development of translation tools (http:/ / esciencenews. the University of Kansas. hasten. As an emergency measure. but merely learned it in their communities. several free apps have been published for use on the iPhone & iPod Touch. and University of Miami are also offering classes in Haitian Creole. The University of Oregon and Duke University will soon be offering classes as well. where over 300. In addition. Carnegie Mellon University released data for its own research into the public domain. and University of Florida offer seminars and courses annually at their Haitian Creole Summer Institute. are studied and researched. which includes an audio phrase book and a section on cultural anthropology.000 Haitians who reside in the neighboring Dominican Republic. edu/ produce-and-print/ contents/ bulletin/ school-of-arts-and-sciences/ foreign-languages-esl-and-humanities/ creole-minor). Dominican Republic The language is also spoken by over 150. Additionally. edu/ ~creole/ ) founded by Dr. cuny. Columbia University. there is a Haitian Creole radio station operating in Havana. com/ show_country. releases. Furthermore.com: Illegal Haitians deported (http:/ / dr1. including learning flashcards by Byki and two medical dictionaries. Most of these speakers have never been to Haiti and do not possess Haitian ancestry. translation. York College at the City University of New York features a Minor in Haitian Creole (http:/ / www. Microsoft Research and Google Translate have implemented alpha version machine translators based on the Carnegie Mellon data. york. international organizations had little idea whom to contact as translators. asp?name=DO)  Dr1. indiana. References  (http:/ / webcache. Lawrence has an Institute of Haitian studies. tools) . Florida International University. 17 Cuba Haitian Creole is the second most spoken language in Cuba. based in Miami. The area also has more than half a dozen Creole-language AM radio stations. Bryant Freeman. com/ search?q=cache:nBY3DCQdALkJ:www0. Albert Valdman where Haitian Creole. data. the University of Massachusetts Boston. among other facets of Haiti. international help badly needed translation tools for communicating in Haitian Creole. hk/ linguist/ program/ contact10. Indiana University has a Creole Institute (http:/ / www. although the locals do not speak it. some estimates suggest that there are over a million speakers due to a huge population of illegal aliens from Haiti. com/ haiticuba. one by Educa Vision and a second by Ultralingua. In addition. ethnologue. haitian. html+ haitians+ mix+ phonetic+ orthography+ with+ more+ french+ spelling& cd=8& hl=en& ct=clnk& gl=us)  Haiti in Cuba (http:/ / www. mellon. htm)  Languages of Dominican Republic (http:/ / www. Brown University. Translation efforts after the 2010 Haitian earthquake After the devastating earthquake that hit Haiti in 2010. hku. development. It is recognized as a language in Cuba and a considerable number of Cubans speak it fluently. googleusercontent.000 Haitian immigrants speak it. Tulane University. creole. founded by Dr. North America's only Creole-language television network is HTN. afrocubaweb.
English – Haitian Creole Dictionary • Creole Language and Culture (http://ocw.fr/fichiers/Langues/creole/ rfi_creole_main.php) – English. ISBN 0-9679937-1-7.com/us/app/ haitian-medical-reference/id370253128?mt=8) – Made for iPhone & iPod Touch. htm) by Hughes St. Language in Society 34 (4): 533–591 • Fattier.nd.org/resources/bcp/Haiti/Kreyol. • Haitian Creole – English Medical Reference by Ultralingua (http://itunes. Wally R. (2000).google.) Substrate versus Universals in Creole Genesis. Topics include Creole and English code-switching in New York City.wiktionary. cartes et commentaires (Dissertation)". Berotte Joseph. and Education (Lexington Books.travelinghaiti.cs. Freeman.org/ wiki/Appendix:Swadesh_lists)) . Creole in education in Haiti. "Linguists' Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Creole Exceptionalism". Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 2010) 297 pages.apple.ahadonline.Haitian Fashion Magazine • Haitian Creole Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words (http://en. Freeman. Creole Made Easy. and Carole M.edu/romance-languages-and-literatures/ creole-language-and-culture) – OpenCourseWare from the University of Notre Dame • UN Declaration of Human Rights in Haitian Creole (http://www.asp) • Common Creole Words and Phrases (http://www. PhD.haiti-reference. using texts authored by Bryant C. Claire (1985) 'Relexification in creole genesis revisited: the case of Haitian Creole'.com/file/view/Toynbee+MW+Visitor's+Guide+St+ Lucian.asp) • Saint Lucia Creole guide (http://kweyol. with references to recent research by linguists on the subject.ku.com/) .com/creole/diction/index.ohchr. Fort. as well as the accompanying mp3 audio supplements. • Litiji Kreyol La (http://justus. Structure. In Kenstowicz. Dominique (1998).amourcreole.apple.org/wiki/ Appendix:Haitian_Creole_Swadesh_list) (from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix (http://en.wikispaces.org/eLibrary/creoleconnection/Number20/haitiancreole. Cambridge: MIT Press.cmu. Light Messages. Michael.com/haitian_kreyol. by Educa Vision (http://itunes. Michel (2001).edu/haitian/) • Haitian Creole (http://www.speech. eds. • Turnbull.org/EN/UDHR/Pages/Language. • Spears. Arthur K. "Morphology in Creole genesis: Linguistics and ideology".com/us/app/byki-haitian-creole/id350651748?mt=8) – for iPhone by Transparent Language • Haitian Creole – English Medical Dictionary for iPhone.wiktionary.rfi.html) Anglican Church liturgical materials in Kreyol digitized by Jean Fils Chery and Richard Mammana • Public release of Haitian Creole language data by Carnegie Mellon (http://www. • Haitian Creole materials from the Institute of Haitian Studies at the University of Kansas (http://www2. Ken Hale: A life in language. In Muysken & Smith (eds.apple..com/#en|ht) supports Haitian Creole in alpha mode. and Creole and French in Haitian literature. Michel (2005). • Byki Learning Flashcards (http://itunes. PhD. External links • What is Haitian Creole? (http://www.anglican. Use. The Haitian Creole Language: History.edu/ ~haitiancreole/) – Complete pdf versions of books created by Bryant C.Haitian Creole 18 Further reading • Degraff.com/us/app/ english-haitian-creole-medical/id354807960?mt=8) • Amour Créole (http://www. "Contribution à l'étude de la genèse d'un créole: L'Atlas linguistique d'Haïti. aspx?LangID=hat) • RFI – Kréyòl Palé Kréyòl Konprann (radio program) (http://www.pdf) • Google Translator (http://translate. Language in Society (Université de Provence) • Lefebvre. 52–121 • Degraff. pp.
A. 836 anonymous edits Image Sources. Fratrep. Vzb83. Bermuda-Russian lover556. WhiteTimberwolf. Embryomystic. Pmronchi. Katonams. Maunus. Shadiac. Wrotesolid. Roses bud78. Haisyen. Kinghajj. WhisperToMe. Adam Keller. KIAaze. Mattisse. SDS112. JHunterJ. Tkynerd. Random user 8384993.wikipedia. Mmwillingham. Nickshanks. Internoob. SameerKhan. D4niel244. Chanheigeorge. Peterfitzgerald. FilipeS. RattusMaximus. Famedard. Orbis 3. Nerdseeksblonde. Christopher Sundita. Xanzzibar. Mrmuk.org/w/index.0/ . Jose77. RobNS. Belovedfreak. Lights. Chronodm. Salvo46. Aaker. Kakofonous. Créole Haïtien. Qurqa. Aeusoes1. PL290. Ckatz. Burschik. Discospinster. Yaris678. Omc. Pitit li. Ed g2s. S19991002. Doady. Jrobin08. Glanhawr. Stogie10. TenIslands. Steverapaport. Senaku. Kwamikagami. Tyronen. Uniongreen113. Zabag. Avicennasis. BovineBeast. VirtualDelight. Koavf. Israelite9191. Naniwako. Blanchardb. Ob ivan. TDogg310. Staxringold. Fenel. LittleRoughRhinestone. Acroterion. Norm mit. Nagy. Energy110. Malik Shabazz. Mild Bill Hiccup. Dale Arnett. J. Isaac Crumm. Reconsider the static. V Brian Zurita. Yurinator180. di M. Richardj311. Muahaichange. Thejadefalcon. Spyder00Boi. Snajjar. ProveIt. Vivenot.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Dominican_Republic. Materialscientist. Mariannesutton. Ego White Tray. Niceguyedc. Parkwells. Ispy1981. JonHarder. Big Adamsky. Wikipedian8904. Skpearman. Angr. Prof Wrong. 1549bcp. Calliopejen1. Tim1357.svg Source: http://en. FrickFrack. Educavision. Rjwilmsi. RhetTbull. Dale Chock. Splashen. Drahgon.. E. DopefishJustin. Hans-Friedrich Tamke. Erolos. SimonP. R'n'B. Cthulhu1234. Paul-L. One4supplies. EVula. XinaNicole. Diderot. Can't sleep. Guyjohnston. Chamaeleon. Boukman. clown will eat me. Mordicai. Edicia. Pontificalibus. Stitchingreader.. Grafen. Moogsi. Hvn0413. CJLL Wright. Tery M. Babbage. Montgolfière. Alsandro. Asrghasrhiojadrhr. Joseph Solis in Australia. El aprendelenguas. Freelance Intellectual. Zachlipton. King Geiseric. Soulja nyn3. Xyzzyva. Munci. Suhardian. Patxi lurra. Croquant. Aard.D. Jon C.svg Source: http://en. Hapsiainen. Revolución. MatthewVanitas. Usien6. G Purevdorj. Keizers. Oldyedniaat. Thnidu. Frecklefoot. AdRock. The Nut..t2. Kleclerc. Julesd. Snori. W. Denelson83. Kharker. Yahia. De728631. Atif. Drpickem. Nostrhome. David spector. Greudin. TonyW. Dmitri Lytov. Janus Shadowsong. Geenius at Wrok. Kazvorpal. Dalencourt. Zofida. Spencer. Sunido. Wikigeek82. Tomchiukc. Président. Seaphoto. DBigXray. Udoryen. Jon Harald Søby. Simon Peter Hughes. Haiti1804.php?oldid=560775041 Contributors: (aeropagitica). FunkyJazzMonkey. Felix ahlner. Blackdoom77. CathySc. Ripley. Sofian Rahmani. Ale jrb.barie. Bibi66. Greenbahama109. Racerx11.wikipedia. Asterion.org/w/index. Bearcat. Kemet. Tabor. ﻧﮕﻮﻧﺒﺎﻧﮕﻮﻧﯽ. Switchercat. Theanthrope. Heyzeuss. Mare Nostrum. Pichpich.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: (colours and size changes of the now deletied versions) Madden. Cub68134.wikipedia. Poppyhaitian. AstroHurricane001. Tiburon108. Excirial.org/licenses/by-sa/3. JamesAM. Iridescent. Kanon6996. JdeJ. MikeGasser. Haitipatrick. Woohookitty. Jeremiestrother. Doprendek. QuartierLatin1968. Howa0082. Blackjays1. Uanfala. Horselover Frost. Officerdoe07. עידו. Bayang.0 Unported //creativecommons. Funnyhat. Gaidheal. Fantastic fred. Geo0910. True. Rjensen. Marco polo. Rif Winfield. Stevey7788. Hippietrail. GoingBatty. Deor. Sburke. Rascar. Ultra megatron. CharlesMartel. Steinbach. Linguistatlunch. Jwillbur. Pefrancois. Florian Blaschke. Opticrom. Node ue. Pdbryson. Lacrimosus. Duoduoduo. Masterches. Creoleavie.org/w/index. Licenses and Contributors File:Flag of Haiti. Sun Creator. AniMate.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Nightstallion License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Dj iET. El Cazangero. Bgirardbond. Bunchofgrapes. Kevlar67. Serapis Alexandria. Nezzadar. Garzo. Dissident. Giraffedata. Courcelles. Jorge Stolfi. Sofa jazz man. Oaurelien. Dana boomer. Lakefall.Article Sources and Contributors 19 Article Sources and Contributors Haitian Creole Source: http://en. Mahmudmasri. Strangeloop. Poccil. EnchantressKali. LOL. Kas wiz. Zippanova. Mcorazao. XLR8TION. Sirtrebuchet. BilCat. Davidcannon. Fanatix.php?title=File:Flag_of_Haiti. Caeruleancentaur. Richaraj. Jmlk17. LlywelynII. Tommy2010. Arctic Kangaroo. 达 伟. AnonMoos. Zscout370 and Nightstallion Coat of arms :Lokal_Profil and Myriam Thyes File:Flag of the Dominican Republic. Zyztem2000. Apollotiger.