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89 – September 1997

FEROS, the Fiber-fed Extended Range Optical
Spectrograph for the ESO 1.52-m Telescope
A. KAUFER, B. WOLF; Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl, Germany
J. ANDERSEN, Astronomical Observatory Copenhagen, Denmark
Overview dispersion spectroscopy with a wide, si- Scientific Objectives
multaneous wavelength coverage, this
FEROS is a fiber-fed bench-mounted instrument mounted on an intermediate- The need for instruments for high-
prism-crossdispersed echelle spectro- size telescope fills a gap in the present resolution spectroscopy has increased
graph for the ESO 1.52-m telescope at and future ESO instrumentation park. It considerably in the last years. With the
La Silla. It works in quasi Littrow mode will allow to realise many important sci- advent of fiber-linked echelle spectro-
and in white pupil configuration. For the entific programmes (a few of which are graphs, the former domain of the largest
object and the nearby sky, the complete described below) of objects down to telescopes became accessible for
optical spectrum from 370–860 nm is re- about 16th magnitude with high effi- small- to medium-size telescopes with
corded in one exposure with a resolving ciency, little constraints on operations their advantage of higher availability for
power of R = 48,000 by the use of a and will relieve the pressure on larger long-term programmes. Furthermore,
two-beam, two-slice image slicer. telescopes. the high long-term spectral stability of
A first concept of FEROS, which is FEROS is built for ESO by a consor- bench-mounted and fiber-fed spectro-
supposed to replace ECHELEC at the tium of four astronomical institutes un- graphs turns out to be crucial for
1.52-m telescope, was presented by der the leadership of the Landes- high-precision spectroscopic work.
Pasquini et al., 1992, “FEROS for the sternwarte Heidelberg (LSW). The Prin- Therefore, it is expected that FEROS
ESO 1.52-m Telescope”, 32nd Scientific cipal Investigator (PI) of the FEROS will be an important work-horse instru-
Technical Committee Meeting, Garch- project is Prof. Dr. Bernhard Wolf at the ment for the ESO community, e.g., for
ing. Designed as a fiber-linked spectro- LSW. Further members of the consor- the search for extrasolar planets with
graph connected to the permanently tium are the Astronomical Observatory high-precision radial-velocity measure-
mounted Boller & Chivens spectrograph Copenhagen (AOC), the Institut d’Astro- ments on long time bases, for investiga-
it has the advantage of being always physique de Paris (IAP), and the tions in the growing field of astero-
available. The fibre entrance of FEROS Observatoire de Paris/Meudon (OPM). seismology, and for spectroscopic in-
is mounted on the slit unit of the Boller & The contract between ESO and the vestigations of time-dependent phenom-
Chivens spectrograph, and it will be pos- FEROS Consortium was signed in Sep- ena in stellar atmospheres and enve-
sible to change from one spectrograph tember 1996. It is planned that the in- lopes in general.
to the other by a simple translation of the strument will be available to the commu- FEROS at the ESO 1.52-m telescope
slit unit. Because FEROS provides high- nity in early 1999. will meet the requirements posed by

room, the fibre exit is converted to the F/
11 focal ratio accepted by the spec-
trograph via a lens system. A two-beam,
two-slice image slicer in the F/11 focal
plane halves the width of the images of
the two fibres in the direction of disper-
sion (cf. Fig. 3). The fibres are re-imaged
on the R2 echelle grating through the
main off-axis collimator. Then, the light
goes back to the main collimator and is
reflected by the flat folding mirror to the
transfer off-axis collimator. The entrance
surface of the large LF5 prism cross-
disperser is located near the white pupil
image and the light is finally imaged by
the dioptric camera onto the detector.
The detector foreseen is a monolithic
thinned 2048 × 4096 15 µm pixel CCD.
The mechanical design of FEROS fol-
lows in many parts the design of the
UVES instrument and consequently
uses standard techniques for bench-
mounted instrumentation. The echelle
grating and the off-axis collimators are
mounted in kinematic mounts; if feasi-
ble, standard industrial mechanical ele-
ments are used.
To ensure a maximum long-term sta-
bility of the spectrograph, no movable or
remotely-controlled parts besides the
CCD shutter are foreseen on the
bench-mounted part of the instrument.
Further, the CCD detector will be
equipped with a continuous-flow cryo-
stat supplied with liquid nitrogen from a
nearby vessel with a capacity for about
two weeks. The cooling by a continuous
flow of liquid nitrogen is important to
keep the weight of the CCD dewar con-
Figure 1: Top and side view of the opto-mechanical layout of FEROS.
stant over longer periods. The evapora-
tion of the LN2 from a standard dewar
these scientific objectives. Due to its The light of the object and the nearby during the night would cause consider-
high efficiency, many of the observing sky is coupled via micro-lenses into two able shifts of the spectrum in main dis-
programmes which to date can only be 100 µm fibres in the Cassegrain focus of persion direction on the detector. In ad-
conducted with CASPEC at the 3.6-m the telescope. The micro-lenses convert dition, the spectrograph is built on a vi-
telescope or EMMI at the NTT are within the F/15 telescope beam into a F/4.6 bration-controlled optical bench and will
reach of FEROS with a comparable beam which is optimal for the fibres. In be housed in a separate light-tight room,
spectral resolution and even superior the coudé room, where the bench- which is temperature and humidity con-
spectral coverage. The same holds for mounted spectrograph will be located in trolled.
the CES at the CAT if the highest-resolu- a temperature- and humidity-controlled The main parameters and the ex-
tion mode is not imperative for an ob-
serving programme. It is worth to note Table 1: Main parameters of FEROS.
that FEROS will not touch the domain of
programmes which can only be carried Wavelength range in one exposure (object+sky) 3700–8600 Å (40 orders, 2 fibres)
out effectively with UVES at the VLT, i.e., Resolving Power (with 2-slice image slicer) λ/∆λ = 48,000
low to medium S/N observations of the Entrance Aperture 2.7 arcsec
faintest objects and high S/N observa- Fiber input/output Focal Ratio F/4.6
tions with resolutions of the order 105 of Spectrograph Beam Size 136 mm diameter
brighter objects [Dekker & D’Odorico, Off-axis Collimators F/11, cut from one parent paraboloid
1992, The Messenger 70]. Echelle R2, 79 lines/mm, 154 mm by 306 mm
Crossdisperser Prism LF5 glass, 55¡ apex angle
Instrument Description Dioptric Camera
Wavelength Range 350–900 nm
Opto-mechanical layout Focal Length; F ratio 410 mm; F/3.0
Field Diameter 69 mm
The bench-mounted part of the opto- Image quality (E80) l 25 µm
mechanical layout of FEROS is shown Efficiency L 85%
in Figure 1. The Boller & Chivens spec- CCD 2048 × 4096, 15 µm, thinned
trograph in the Cassegrain focus of the Expected Detection Efficiency (without telescope) 6% (3700 Å), 21% (5000 Å), 9% (9000 Å)
ESO 1.52-m telescope will be modified Expected Limiting Magnitudes at the ESO 1.52-m 16 mag in V (S/N = 10, 2 h)
to carry the additional fibre-entrance unit 12 mag in V (S/N = 100, 2 h)
and the extended calibration unit for Expected Radial-Velocity Accuracy l 25 m/s, l 5 m/s with iodine cell
both spectrographs. (contract: l 50 m/s)

Figure 2: Spectral beam is evaluated at the moment [cf.
format of FEROS Butler et al., 1996, PASP 108, 500].
showing a simulated For flatfield and wavelength calibra-
flatfield exposure. Red tions, the B&C calibration unit will be
is to the left with the
extreme order 32 with
equipped with a blue-enhanced flatfield
λc = 9850 Å; blue is to source and a Thorium-Argon hollow-
the right with the cathode lamp, respectively.
extreme order 63 with All observing modes will be supported
λc = 3600 Å. Each by the DAISY instrument control soft-
spectral order is ware foreseen at the ESO 1.52-m tele-
double due to the scope for the operation of the B&C and
illuminated object and the FEROS instruments. This will allow a
sky fibre. The whole change between the two instruments
echelle spectrum is
rotated counter-
within a few minutes – an interesting op-
clockwise by 2.4° to tion for spectroscopic programmes
align the slit image which require a pre-examination of the
with the CCD rows. targets with low resolution or spectro-
photometric observing programmes.
Further, full on-line data reduction will
be available at the telescope to enable
the observer to fully exploit the capabili-
ties of the instrument already during the

Spectral Format
A simulation of the two-dimensional
echelle spectrum on the 2k × 4k 15 µm
detector is shown in Figure 2. This simu-
lation includes the wavelength-depend-
ent intensity distribution of the blue-
enhanced flatfield source, the wave-
length dependent transmission of
FEROS itself, the two-beam two-slice
image slicer, models for the blaze func-
tion, for the straylight distribution, and
for the photon and detector noise. This
simulation runs in the MIDAS environ-
ment and is primarily used for the devel-
opment of the on-line data-reduction
and instrument-simulation software.
A special complication of the spectral
format is introduced by the permanently
mounted Bowen-Walraven image slicer
which is needed to achieve the spectral
resolution of R = 48,000. Figure 3 shows
the output of a scaled prototype of this
device built from Acrylic in the mechani-
cal workshop at the LSW. The circular
outputs of the two object and sky fibres
(top) are simultaneously sliced into two
‘half moons’ (bottom) which effectively
halves the equivalent slit width in the
pected performance for FEROS are erably improve the radial-velocity accu- main dispersion direction. The equiva-
summarised in Table 1. racy. This technique in combination with lent slit height was chosen to be 4.5
software cross-correlation has success- times the slit width which leaves a quite
Observing Modes fully been used in the ELODIE instru- small gap between the two half moons.
ment at the Observatoire de Haute-Pro- The individual slit images will be sam-
For the observations with FEROS, vence and achieves a long-term accu- pled on 2 by 10 pixels on the CCD detec-
only three observing modes will be pro- racy of l 15 m/s for a sharp-lined G tor. Therefore, a double-peaked cross-
vided: dwarf [Baranne et al., 1996, A&AS 119, dispersion slit profile has to be handled
373]. For even higher accuracy of the or- by the data-reduction software, which
1. Calibration (Flatfield and Thorium- der of l 5 m/s, the use of an iodine ab- requires special care for the order defini-
Argon) sorption cell placed in the telescope tion and the optimum extraction.
2. Object + Sky
3. Object + Calibration
For the latter mode, the spectrum of an Table 2: Time schedule for FEROS.
adequately attenuated Thorium-Argon
lamp will be recorded through the sky Contract Signature September 1996
fiber during the object exposure. The Ob- Final Design Review June 1997
ject + Calibration mode allows to record Preliminary Acceptance (@LSW, HD) June 1998
the residual motions of the spectrograph Provisional Acceptance (@ESO, La Silla) December 1998
during the object exposure and to consid- Availability to the Community early 1999

an instrument simulation for the prepa-
ration of the observations.
A dedicated DRS is particularly suit-
able for the FEROS instrument because
of its fixed configuration. But it is also
crucial because of the complex spectral
format on the CCD and the large size of
the raw frames (16 Mb for a 16-bit ADC).
As was seen in Figure 2, the DRS has to
cope with the strong curvature of the or-
ders, the doubling of the orders due to
the object and sky/calibration fibres, and
the double-peaked slit profile in cross-
dispersion direction.
Basically, the DRS will follow the
standard echelle reduction scheme with
order definition, wavelength calibration,
background subtraction, flatfield correc-
tion, optimal order extraction to optimise
the S/N of the spectra, rebinning to con-
stant wavelength steps in linear and
logarithmic scale, and if required, order
merging, correction for the instrument
response function, and sky subtraction.
It is worth to note that because of the
very stable spectral format of the
bench-mounted and fiber-fed spectro-
graph, the correction for the blaze func-
tion, that is needed to allow precise
order merging, can be carried out with
the internal flatfields alone. Further,
cross-correlation facilities will be sup-
plied for high-precision radial velocity
work and time-series analysis facilities
for variable-star research which prob-
ably will be the main fields of work for
Figure 3: CCD images of the unsliced and sliced outputs of the scaled image-slicer prototype.
The inhomogeneous intensity distributions within the images is due to the low polishing quality
Time Schedule
and inhomogeneity of the Acrylic’s surfaces.
The time schedule for the FEROS
project is given in Table 2. It is planned
CCD Detector a peak quantum efficiency of 85% at to make the instrument available to the
550 nm and 27% (goal 50%) at 350 nm. community in early 1999. The present
The thinned 2k × 4k CCD and the The delivery of the science grade 15 µm status of the project is that after the final
standard ESO-VLT continuous-flow cryo- EEV CCD to the FEROS consortium is optical design review was passed in Oc-
stat will be provided by ESO (cf. Lizon, planned for November 1997. tober 1996, the procurement of the opti-
1997, The Messenger 88, p. 6, Fig. 1). cal components was started immedi-
The CCD controller electronics will be On-line Software ately. The final mechanical design was
built by the AOC; also the integration completed in June 1997 and the manu-
and testing of the complete CCD sys- The FEROS data reduction software facturing of the mechanical components
tem will be carried out at the AOC. For (DRS) is currently developed in the started afterwards. The FEROS final de-
the beginning, an engineering grade MIDAS environment at the LSW. The sign was presented at the design review
13.5 µm EEV CCD was already deliv- DRS will provide full on-line data reduc- at the end of June 1997 and was ap-
ered by ESO at the end of March 1997. tion of the standard observing modes at proved by ESO. Up-to-date information
The first devices of this type have been the telescope workstation during the ob- on the status of the project is available in
tested at the Royal Greenwich Observa- servation. In addition, the observer will the WWW on the FEROS homepage
tory. They show a good performance be supported by a graphical user inter- (URL
with an on-chip noise of 4 e– rms and face (GUI) for the on-line reduction and ~akaufer/Feros.html).

Project Teams
Table 3: FEROS project teams.
The project teams of the consortium
LSW B. Wolf (PI), I. Appenzeller (Advisor) and ESO consist of the people listed in
A. Kaufer (Instrument Responsible) Table 3. The project is further supported
W. Seifert (Optic Design), H. Mandel (Adjustment) by the technical advice of G. Avila, B.
O. Stahl, A. Malina (Data-Reduction Software) Delabre, H. Dekker, W. Eckert, A. Gil-
C. Hartlieb, L. Schäffner (Mechanics) liotte, J.-L. Lizon, and R. Olivares at
AOC J. Andersen, P. Nørregaard, J. Klougart (CCD controller) ESO.
IAP M. Dennefeld
OPM R. Cayrel
A. Kaufer
ESO L. Pasquini (Instrument Scientist)

ESO Internal Workshop on Forecasting Astronomical Observing Conditions — 29–30 May 1997

Predicting Observing Conditions

at ESO Observatories – Reality and Perspectives*
1. Introduction have accepted ESO’s invitation to be is clearly illustrated. Here follows a
represented at this workshop to intro- summary of the presentation by A.
It is now understood that most future duce the participants to the complex Erasmus:
ground-based observatories will make world of forecasting. In summer the pressure systems
use of flexible scheduling tools to select move southwards and the Subtropical
the observing mode best adapted to the 2. Forecasting Cloudiness and high pressure (H) strengthens and ex-
observing conditions. Water Vapour pands its area of influence. Subsidence
ESO has been conducting a wide sur- in the high creates a strong temperature
vey of existing and potential forecasting Will next night be photometric? When to inversion at about 1000 m above the
techniques and, on the basis of a strat- schedule infrared observing? How sta- surface which traps low-level strato-
egy described in Figure 1, several feasi- ble is the current situation? cumulus clouds below it (notice the area
bility studies were initiated from 1992 of medium grey speckled cloud in and
onwards, both internally and externally. 2.1 Meteorology around the high). The subtropical high is
Most of them are completed or close to and satellite images a semi-permanent circulation feature
completion. It is thus time to prepare the that only experiences minor position
specifications of the operational tools The study of ECMWF forecast skill changes as the high develops east or
and services to be developed for the over ESO observatories ([CRS4 97]) west of its mean position. The high pro-
VLT. has shown that the global forecasts of duces clear dry conditions over northern
For this purpose, a workshop on Fore- cloudiness and water vapour did not Chile. Occasional incursions of moisture
casting Astronomical Observing Condi- reach the type of accuracy needed for and cloud may occur over northern Chile
tions took place on 29–30 May, 1997 at astronomy. A more successful method from the north in summer if the high
ESO Garching. A summary of the main proposed by [Erasmus 97] combines weakens and the anticyclonic flow over
results is presented in what follows, try- synoptic scale circulation modelling with the Amazon basin intensifies.
ing to establish the current state of the ECMWF standard forecasts and analy- In winter the pressure systems move
art applicable to Chilean observatories ses (geopotential height, wind compo- northwards and the subtropics comes
as a whole. nents, temperature and vertical veloc- under the influence of migratory wave-
In his introductory talk, the ESO Di- ity) as well as local surface relative hu- like systems that propagate from west to
rector General stressed that ESO is aim- midity to extract from a 6.7 µm satellite east in the prevailing flow. The high
ing at the highest observing efficiency at image, the pixels which will pass over pressure area of the wave (the ridge) is
the VLT to make possible the scientific the observatory during the period pre- warm and dry while the low pressure
discoveries the astronomical community dicted, and the corresponding water area (the trough) is cool and moist. Mid-
legitimately expects from such a tool. vapour content. The large-scale circula- dle and upper tropospheric clouds can
The DG also indicated that the cost of tion patterns affecting the Chilean coast typically be found along the leading
a night of operation of the observatory are presented in Figure 2. The particu- edge of the ridge and trough in associa-
(P 100,000 DM) gives the scale for de- lar situation of the Atacama desert with tion with surface warm and cold fronts.
ciding the extent to which ESO should respect to cloudiness and water vapour Trough and ridge development, which is
push research in modelling and predic-
tion. He noted in particular that he would
probably exclude launching a dedicated
satellite (as proposed by one of the
speakers) but that he would certainly
support further measurement cam-
paigns or local instrumentation develop-
ment if deemed necessary.
In what follows, the meteorologists at-
tempt to answer questions preoccupying
most individuals involved in the planning
of observatory operation. A common tool
for all studies is the invaluable forecast
service provided by ECMWF (European
Centre for Medium-Range Weather
Forecasts) or its US equivalent NCEP
(National Centre for Environmental Pre-
diction). We are grateful to ECMWF to

*This article summarises the talks and discus-

sions during the meeting. Speakers were A.
Erasmus (University of Northern Colorado), A.
Speranza, R. Deidda and M. Maroccu (CRS4,
Cagliari), J. Vernin and E. Masciadri (University of
Nice), A. Lanzinger (ECMWF Reading) and the au-
thor of the present article. The agenda of the Work-
shop can be found in The Messenger No. 88, June
1997, p. 35. Figure 1: Initial organigram of the prediction strategy for the VLT Observatory.

available for ESO sites. An internal
study was conducted ([Aussem 94]) and
led to the results presented in Table 1
where the nearest neighbour technique
clearly outperforms the neural nets, in
particular with regard to the fine tuning of
the forecast (prediction error smaller
than 0.5 Celsius in 62% of the cases).
However, as could be expected, none of
these techniques can catch weather
trends leading to abrupt temperature
shifts of 2 to 6 degrees in 24 hour, repre-
senting about 15% of the time at Paranal
during the season studied (summer).
Could large ∆T be better predicted
Figure 2: Schematic diagram showing the main synoptic scale circulation systems that control using meteorological models? Obvi-
water vapour and cirrus cloud cover advection patterns over the South-eastern Pacific Ocean. ously, a global model such as ECMWF
The satellite image is taken at 11 µm in the atmospheric IR window. Warmer surfaces appear has a mesh much too large (ca. 60 km)
dark and cold surfaces light. Clouds behave essentially as blackbodies at this wavelength, for the steep terrain surrounding astro-
hence low clouds (being warmer) are medium grey and higher clouds (being cold) appear light nomical sites. Such a model has to be
grey or even white for the highest (about 15 km), coldest cirrus clouds.
complemented either by a statistical
post-processing such as Kalman filter-
ing, or by a local area model (LAM) im-
plementation. The study of 4 sample
years conducted by [CRS4 97] con-
cluded that the poorness of local mea-
surements over the Pacific was limiting
the accuracy of ECMWF forecasts on
the Chilean coast. A LAM initialised by
erroneous forecasts without injection of
additional observational data could obvi-
ously not improve the detection of
unpredicted weather changes coming
from outside its orographic limits.
Table 2 shows however that a simple
Kalman postprocessing of ECMWF
24-hour forecasts successfully cancels
the forecast systematic errors (the cor-
Figure 3: Sample 6.7 µm Satellite Image and Output of Cloudiness and Water Vapour Forecast relation coefficient of postprocessed
over La Silla Observatory: the model identifies at 15 h UT, on November 29, 1993, the image forecasts is as good as for the analy-
pixel which will most probably pass over the observatory 20 hours later. sis). As expected, postprocessing alone
is not able to remove synoptic errors so
usually slight over the south-eastern Pa- Paranal and 84% at La Silla, with re- that large differences between actual
cific, may add a meridional component spectively 2% and 7% false alarm rate. and forecasted temperatures still sub-
to the cloud cover and water vapour sist. Table 3 summarises the forecast
advection patterns. 3. Forecasting Temperature and skill at 12 hour UT at Paranal as a func-
Wind at Ground Level tion of 24-hour temperature changes, it
2.2 Forecast skill shows that 55% – (159+158)/572 – ver-
3.1 24-hour ahead temperature sus 40% – (112+117)/572 – of the cases
It was demonstrated that operational forecasts are brought inside the ±1 C range, and
forecast of cloudiness and water vapour that 84% versus 69% are smaller than
is feasible for observatories in Chile. The At which temperature should the air ±2 C. These performances are very
product illustrated in Figure 3 consists of conditioning of the enclosure be preset similar to the results obtained with the
a daily estimate of the percentage of the during the day so that the telescope and statistical method of Table 1, however it
sky to be clear, covered with transparent primary mirror are in thermal equilibrium is believed – but not proven – that the
cirruses, or by opaque clouds, and the with the outside air at the beginning of cases corrected by either methods have
total amount of precipitable water va- the next night? little in common, so that a mixture of
pour, for the next 24 hours by periods of A chronologically first, non meteoro- both techniques (as proposed on Fig. 1)
3 hours. In addition, an up to 7-day daily logical approach was to train some sta- would consistently improve the forecast
outlook of status and tendency will be is- tistical engine on the large database skill.
sued on qualitative grounds such as dry/
moist and persisting/drying/moistening.
The image area trajectory is forecast
with an rms error below 8% in image Prediction error (Celsius) ≤2 ≤1 ≤ 0.5
transparency units. The water vapour
forecasts agree with infrared radiometric Best Nearest Neighbour 84% 73% 62%
measurements taken from the ground at Best Neural Network 71% 43% 22%
Paranal (NOAO Water Vapour Monitor) Carbon Copy tn = tn–1 63% 36% 19%
within an rms of 1.0 mm H2O (compara-
ble to the dispersion between the WVM Table 1: 24-hour ahead statistical forecast of ground temperature at each hour of the day: hit
ground measurements and the Anto- rate of nearest neighbour and neural network methods over 18,000 observations corresponding
fagasta radiosonde). Cloudy sky is suc- to summer 1989/1990 at Paranal. Nearest neighbour predictions were carried out on a 5-tupple
cessfully forecast 95% of the time at set of the type [tn–1, tn–2, tn–3, pn–1, pn–2].

vertical profile of the temperature of the
Site N ε Kal  r Kal ε per  r per r for r ana
atmosphere several tens of kilometres
upwind (Section 4.3).
La Silla 1114 1.6 0.86 2.1 0.77 0.82 0.86
(2) Use this profile to initialise a
Paranal 572 1.1 0.88 1.5 0.80 0.79 0.87
mesoscale model capable to reflect the
Table 2: Absolute mean errors ( ∈ ) and correlations (r ) between observed 2-metre tempera- effect of the terrain on an unperturbed
tures (C) and estimations by Kalman filter post-processing ( Kal) compared to persistence ( per), atmosphere, in particular the triggering
ECMWF 24-hour forecast ( for), and ECMWF analysis ( ana). N is number of data used for com- of gravity waves or the increase of mix-
parison during the period from 1989 to 1993. ing due to orographic wind shear (Sec-
tion 4.2).
Let us extract from Table 3 the forecast To answer this question, two param- (3) Combine the output of the meso-
skill in the cases when the telescope eters have to be known: the distribution scale model (vertical profile of turbu-
temperature would be 2 C or more of the turbulence along the path, and its lence corresponding to the forecasted
warmer than the outside air, a situation rate of change. The strategy chosen to vertical profile of temperature) with a
which is detrimental for observations at obtain such forecasts requires three forecast of the vertical profile of the wind
all wavelengths (local seeing greater steps: field above the observatory so as to com-
than 1 arcsec in the visible). Such (1) Obtain a reliable forecast of the pute the wavefront velocity (Section 4.4).
cases are down by a factor of 2 from
15% –(4+11+22+46)/572 – to 7.5% –
(2+3+12+33)/572). Converting the over-
all temperature unbalance of Table 3 into Actual 24-hour change (K)
mirror seeing with a rate of 0.5 arcsec per
–6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 1 2 3 4 5 6
positive degree and 0.1 arcsec per nega-
tive degree, we obtain a yearly average
–6 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
mirror seeing in the first hour of observa-
–5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
tion of 0.48 arcsec with persistence (Tn =
–4 0 1 1 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 10
Tn–1) down to 0.35 arcsec when Kalman
–3 0 1 3 8 9 3 3 2 1 1 0 0 31
KFPP Error (K)

KFPP Scores
filtered ECMWF forecasts are used.
–2 1 2 11 14 17 22 9 3 0 0 0 0 79
–1 1 5 3 14 38 38 34 15 9 2 0 0 159
3.2 24-hour-ahead forecasts
1 2 2 2 4 15 34 47 28 16 5 3 0 158
of wind 10 metres above ground
2 0 0 2 1 5 9 21 15 18 5 5 2 83
3 0 0 0 0 4 5 2 6 10 1 2 3 33
Is there any chance that observations
4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 4 2 1 1 12
have to be stopped in the course of the
5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 3
night because the wind is reaching the
6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2
maximum operating velocity (20 m/s)?
This topic did not meet a satisfying
4 11 22 46 91 112 117 73 59 17 12 8
answer until now. The results of Table 4
by [CRS4 97] show large errors and Global scores of persistence
poor correlation of 10-metre wind fore-
casts and analyses with data measured Table 3: Contingency table between errors of Kalman Filtering Postprocessing Procedure
at Paranal or La Silla. (KFPP) and Air Temperature (T2m) daily variation at Paranal during the period 1989–1993 at
12GMT. Sum of the counts along rows (shown in the last column of the table) is the number of
As for 2-metre temperature, much of
times T2m has been forecasted within an error indicated in the first column of the table itself.
ECMWF forecast error is due to the lack Sum of the numbers along a column (shown in the last row), is the number of times T2m has had
of observational data in the Antofagasta a diurnal variation within the value shown in the first row. The generic count within a cell of the
area and could not be corrected by im- table gives number of times T2m has been forecasted within an error indicated in the corre-
plementing a LAM (20 km mesh) without sponding cell of the first columns when the daily variation of T2m was that indicated in the corre-
injection of new observational data. sponding cell of the last row.
However, unlike 2-metre temperature,
not only the forecasts but also the analy-
ses are poorly correlated. Obviously, a Site N | ε Kal | r Kal | ε per | r per r for r ana
global model such as ECMWF and even
the LAM have a mesh much too large for La Silla 1242 2.5 0.64 2.9 0.59 0.57 0.43
the steep terrain surrounding astronomi- Paranal 608 3.0 0.59 3.4 0.56 0.50 0.64
cal sites. One has probably to go down
to a mesoscale model such as the one Table 4: Absolute mean errors ( ∈ ) and correlations (r) between observed 10-metre wind
described in Section 4.2 (ca. 500 m speed (m/s) and estimations by Kalman Filtering Postprocessing Procedure or KFPP ( Kal) com-
mesh). A sample output on Figure 4 pared to persistence ( per), ECMWF 24-hour forecast ( for), and ECMWF analysis ( ana). N is
shows that local overspeed and shears number of data used for comparison during the period from 1989 to 1993.
are then clearly visible. Other more
straightforward methods such a modi-
fied mass-consistency models could be
investigated to improve the case of
10-metre wind forecast.

4. Forecasting Seeing
4.1 Introduction
Does it make sense to plan using
adaptive optics in the next coming
hours? What is the improvement in Figure 4: Sample Output of Surface Wind Mesoscale Modelling in the Paranal Area at 2600 m
Strehl ratio to be expected? altitude on the terrain model of Figure 5 [Masciadri 97].

Figure 5: Input terrain model for Mesoscale Modelling in the Paranal Area with a 500 m horizontal resolution over an area of 60 × 20 km centred
on the site.

Figure 6: Sample Output of Seeing Mesoscale Modelling in the Paranal Area with the terrain model of Figure 5, colour scale is arbitrary, in units
of FWHM (arcsec). The steep coastal slopes appear to strongly perturbate the optical steadyness of the airflow from the Pacific.

4.2 Modelling seeing 5 clearly illustrates the challenge. The line of sight can a natural guide star be
cheapest configuration would allow sev- chosen? In case no convenient natural
Following earlier attempts by [Bou- eral runs per night to be performed in an guide star is available for a given scien-
geault 95] of a mesoscale model ap- operational manner, while the two high- tific object, will the cone effect be small
plied on a mountainous continental site, est costs would simply forbid any opera- enough to allow laser-guide-star opera-
a feasibility study has been started tional use. Initial results of the study by tion?
by [Masciadri 97] for the Paranal area [Masciadri 97] show that a simulated
using the recently developed non- time of 30 minutes is often not sufficient The answers depend on the relative
hydrostatic model, meso-nh, including to fully resolve terrain-atmosphere inter- vertical distribution of the turbulence ex-
slight modifications appropriate to opti- action, it is thus reasonable to assume pected above the observatory, ex-
cal turbulence modelling. The model is that the cost of a simulation will be of the pressed as an isoplanatic angle θ0:
non-hydrostatic, and as such allows the order of a few hundred DM.
vertical development of orographic
4.3 Forecasting wavefront

θ 0 = [ Cn2 (h)h 5 / 3 dh]−3 / 5 (1)
waves which are believed to be respon- Let us assume that it is possible to
sible of a large part of the night-time isoplanaticity model the vertical distribution of the in-
tropospheric seeing. Such waves in- dex of refraction structure coefficient
deed create areas with high kinetic Assuming the decision is made to use
( Cn2 )with an input vertical profile of tem-
energy (and thus well mixed air) at the adaptive optics, how far away from the
boarder of which strong vertical gradi-
ents of the potential temperature consti- Area Vert. Res. Horiz. Res. Simulated Time Time Step CPU Time Price
tute sheets of high optical turbulence. (km (m) (m) (sec) (sec) (sec) (DM)
One of the possible outputs of such a
3-D model shown in Figure 6, could ob- 60 × 20 300 500 × 500 1800 2.5 4629 1388
viously be useful during site surveys to 60 × 20 600 500 × 500 1800 2.5 1945 583
exclude potentially unfavourable areas 60 × 20 300 1000 × 1000 1800 5 719 215
such as the immediate vicinity of the 60 × 20 600 1000 × 1000 1800 5 296 88
steep coastal slopes. 60 × 60 300 500 × 500 1800 2.5 13219 3965
Tuning a model such as meso-nh is a 120 × 120 600 2000 × 2000 1800 10 400 120
complicated task because two param-
eters have to be minimised: the model- Table 5: According to the configuration chosen, the cost of a prediction (based on 1997 CRAY90
ling error and the operational cost. Table CPU charges) can vary by a factor of 50.

by [Masciadri 97], comparing model re-
1993 1989–1993
sults to actual Cn2 profiles measured
from Paranal with balloon borne micro-
Site & hour ECMWF corr err | err | | err |
thermal probes and by the SCIDAR
Antofagasta Analysis 0.986 1.39 2.54 2.50
12GMT 24h For. 0.985 1.41 3.00 2.91
4.4 Forecasting Wavefront
48h For. 0.984 1.32 3.24 3.11
Temporal Characteristics
Quintero Analysis 0.991 1.15 2.48 2.52
Will the adaptive optics system be fast
12GMT 24h For. 0.989 1.35 3.39 3.25
enough to follow the wavefront temporal
48h For. 0.988 1.37 3.96 3.71
Table 6: Averages of daily correlations, mean errors, and mean absolute errors of radio sound-
ing temperatures against ECMWF analysis and 24/48-hour forecast during 1993 period and The atmospheric seeing, expressed
during the 1989–1993 period.
as the Full Width at Half Maximum
(FWHM) of a long-exposure image at an
aberration-free telescope (FWHM P λ/
r 0) is the cumulative effect of numerous
sheets of refractive index perturbations
all the way from about 20 km altitude
Site & hour ECMWF corr err | err |
down to the telescope enclosure (dome,
mirror and instrument seeing are ex-
Antofagasta Analysis 0.918 –0.36 2.11
cluded from this section). Each turbu-
12GMT 24h For. 0.813 –3.36 4.31
lence sheet at altitude h has its own
48h For. 0.781 –0.24 5.09
r 0(h) and moves with the wind at a ve-
locity υ(h) in the direction θ(h). If each
Quintero Analysis 0.854 1.04 4.26
sheet bears a fraction α(h) of the total
12GMT 24h For. 0.785 0.95 6.13
turbulence (as r 0 varies as the –3/5
48h For. 0.748 1.05 7.24
power of the turbulence, we have
r 5
Table 7: Averages of daily correlations, mean errors, and mean absolute errors of radio sound- α (h) = [ r (0h ) ] 3 ), the resultant wavefront
ing wind velocity against ECMWF analysis and 24/48-hour forecast during the 1993 period. The corrugations horizontal velocity at
larger error at Quintero in 1993 is due to the blacklisting of this station from the ECMWF data
assimilation scheme. ground level is

∑ α ( h) υ ( h) ]
5 3
V0 = [ 3 5 (2)

Antofagasta Quintero and the coherence time will be propor-

tional to the time needed for the wave-
1993 1989–1993 1993 1989–1993 front to move by one coherence cell:
Analysis 20% 21% 52% 31% τ 0 ≈ 0.3 (3)
24h For. 48% 46% 98% 62% V0
48h For. 63% 58% 118% 80% It is thus clear from Figure 7 that for a
given seeing vertical distribution V0 will
Table 8: Averages of daily relative unsigned errors of radio sounding wind velocity against
ECMWF analysis and 24/48-hour forecast during 1993 period and during the 1989–1993 peri- be much larger – and τ0 much smaller –
od. The larger error at Quintero in 1993 is due to the blacklisting of this station from the EC- during austral winter. Moreover, 24-hour
MWF data assimilation scheme. ECMWF predictions of wind velocity

perature measured locally by a radio-

sonde as described in Section 4.2.
Could the radiosonde measurement be
replaced by a forecasted temperature
profile to obtain from meso-nh a forecast
of the vertical profile Cn2 (h) above
According to the conclusion of the
evaluation of ECMWF forecast skill by
[CRS4 97], summarised in Table 6, the
temperature profile is accurately repre-
sented and correctly forecast at the two
Chilean radiosonde launching sites. The
question was raised if a profile obtained
under the hydrostatic assumption could
be used to initialise a non-hydrostatic
model such as meso-nh. It was an-
swered that although this would nor-
mally not be possible, the particular
case of the Chilean coast was allowing
this approximation: the general motion
being eastwards, air masses are reach-
ing the coast undisturbed by orography.
Figure 7: ECMWF wind velocity vertical profiles above Paranal: the period May to October is
The verification of this assumption is the characteristic of potential jet stream development at 200 mB. The effect of high altitude wind is
object of the next phase of the study also noticeable down to the level of the VLT site (740 mB).

would as such, even with the 46% error works and Pattern Recognition Methods [CRS4 97] R. Deidda, M. Marrocu, A. Speran-
displayed in Table 8, allow to classify for Time Series Prediction: Application to za; Feasibility Study of a Meteorological
the next night as potentially slow or Seeing and Temperature Forecasting in Prediction Model for ESO Observatories In
rapid. Finally, considering the rather the Content of ESO’s VLT Astronomical Chile; VLT Technical Report CRS-17443–
Weather Station; Vistas in Astronomy, 38, 0002, Apr. 1997.
high correlation coefficients given in
357–374, 1994. [Masciadri 97] E. Masciadri, J. Vernin, P. Bou-
Table 7, it is believed that a statistical [Bougeault 95] P. Bougeault, Chen De Hui, B. geault; Feasibility Study of Seeing Previ-
post-processing of the same type as de- Fleury, J. Laurent, Investigation of seeing sion using the MESO-NH meteorological
scribed in Section 3.1 could also re- by means of an atmospheric mesoscale model: a progress report; VLT Technical
cover part of the systematic forecast numerical simulation, Appl. Opt., 34, Report UNI-17400–0003; March 1997.
errors. 3481–3488, 1995.
[Erasmus 97] A. Erasmus, R. Peterson; The
References Feasibility of Forecasting Cirrus Cloud
Cover and Water Vapour above Telescope
[Aussem 94] A. Aussem, F. Murtagh, M. Sites in Northern Chile; PASP 109: 208– Marc Sarazin
Sarazin; Dynamical Recurrent Neural Net- 214, February 1997.

SUNSET ON PARANAL. This photograph, recently taken on Paranal, shows that the VLT is taking shape.


At the time of this writing, the big-bang onstrated (not surprisingly) that the On the optical side, in May, a new ap-
phase of the NTT upgrade project has autoguider performs much better when proach to mirror maintenance has been
just been completed, and the project is the image quality has been optimised experimented with at the NTT, when the
entering its third and final phase. through proper use of the active optics. primary mirror was taken off the tele-
Namely, operations have been re- This illustrates the importance of the lat- scope and washed in its cell. This inter-
sumed, according to a new model, pre- ter even within the framework of observ- vention, which was executed 38 weeks
figuring the VLT operational model, and ing programmes such as point-source after the last aluminisation, restored the
accordingly providing a test of the latter. spectroscopy, where users in the past mirror reflectivity to its value of 18 weeks
often tended to regard the execution of after aluminisation, and the micro-rough-
The End of the Big Bang image analysis as useless or even ness of the coating to the value of 9
wasteful (in terms of observing time). weeks after aluminisation. Contrary to
The NTT page that appeared in the The functionality of the autoguider aluminisation, washing does not require
previous issue of The Messenger was has been expanded. The autoguider can to take the mirror out of its cell and it can
written almost five months before the now automatically select and acquire a be done at the NTT (while for aluminisa-
completion of the NTT big bang. Al- guide star when the telescope is slewed tion, the mirror must be transported to
though all the fundamental components to a new field. This process includes a the 3.6-m building). Therefore, it is both
of the new control software had been check that the guide probe is not vignet- less delicate and less time-consuming:
implemented, a lot of debugging, fine- ting the field of view of the instrument the whole operation, including rebuilding
tuning, and testing remained to be car- CCD. Guide-star acquisition occurs at the pointing models once the mirror has
ried out for many of them. the position in the field viewed by the been reinstalled on the telescope, can
Both at the telescope and at the in- image analysis camera: accordingly, it be completed in two days and two
strument level, and at the interface be- can be used to run the image analysis in nights. Given the excellent results
tween them, the solution of quite a parallel with observation. As before the achieved in this first attempt, regular mir-
number of weaknesses or problems that big bang, fully automatic combined off- ror washing seems to be a viable alter-
we had had to carry along for a fairly ex- set is possible: when the telescope is native allowing one to increase the spac-
tended period of time required the instal- offset by some amount, the opposite off- ing of mirror aluminisations while pre-
lation at the NTT of a new release of the set is applied to the guide probe, so as to serving the efficiency: accordingly, it is
VLT common software. This installation recover the same guide star in the same contemplated to repeat this operation at
was performed in the second half of location on the autoguider camera. A the NTT in the future. I take this opportu-
May. The outcome was a very significant new feature is that, if the motion required nity to thank our colleagues of the La
improvement of the overall robustness from the guide probe is to bring it outside Silla Support Teams (in particular, Optics
and reliability of the system, as well as of its physical or vignetting position limits, and Mechanics) who have assisted the
the smoothness of its operation. It the autoguider switches to a new guide NTT Team in this intervention.
should also be stressed that, since the star, which it selects and acquires auto- At the time when the last issue of The
part of the software that is affected by matically. Messenger was being prepared, the
these modifications is strictly common to
the NTT and the VLT, the changes made
in the new release in view of meeting the
NTT needs also avoid future problems at
the VLT. This illustrates the importance
of the role of the NTT as a testbench for
the VLT control system: many problems
have already been detected and fixed
prior to the installation of the system on
Other than that, most efforts on the
telescope front have been directed to-
wards the improvement of the image
analysis and autoguiding software. Both
are now much more robust and easier to
use than a few months ago. Operation of
the image analysis has evolved into a
routine. For the user, this should trans-
late primarily into the achievement of
more predictable and stable image qual-
ity. In addition, through logging of the re-
sults of regularly performed image
analysis, a better understanding of the
optical behaviour of the NTT is building
up, which in the long term should allow Figure 1. View of the NTT control room during the first observing run after the big bang. From
overall performance to be enhanced. left to right are Visiting Astronomer Francesco Ferraro, Support Astronomer Chris Lidman, In-
For instance, it has already been dem- strument Operator Norma Hurtado, and Telescope Operator Hernán Nuñez.

EMMI control software was just under- ers). This problem appears to affect all convenience). The latter should be kept
going first tests. This software, given the the CCDs of that type, but the level at to a minimum thanks to the fact that the
very complex nature of the instrument which it starts is lower for #42 than for know-how about the templates is fairly
that it drives, is quite intricate, and its other similar chips on La Silla. There is widespread among the members of the
verification and debugging proved ex- no easy solution apart from the replace- NTT Team supporting daily operations.
tremely demanding. As much time was ment of the CCD. No adequate spare At the back end of the data flow, the
required for the latter, some functionality being available for the time being, CCD original design was to have a copy of the
was only added at a fairly late stage: di- #42 will be left on SUSI until the instru- CCD frames, after readout and storage
chroic mode for medium-dispersion ment is decommissioned to be replaced in the instrument workstation, forwarded
(grating) spectroscopy, driving the by SUSI-2 at the end of 1997. Users will directly to an archive machine, and from
punch tool for multi-object spectroscopy, accordingly be warned against observa- there to a pipeline workstation and a user
and control of the calibration lamp. But tion at too high levels. workstation. The former is to be used for
the most troublesome part of the new The end of the big bang has suffered on-line standard (pipeline) processing of
EMMI control software proved to be the not only from the technical difficulties re- the data, while the latter is at the disposal
control panel, an extremely sophisti- ported above, but even more of the unu- of the astronomer for analysis of his ob-
cated graphical user interface. At the sual extended period of very bad servations using some standard image
time of this writing, while all the functions weather on La Silla in May and June. processing software (for the time being,
of EMMI can now be regarded as con- During the latter, it was not only impossi- IRAF and MIDAS are available). The
trolled in a quite satisfactory manner, the ble to do any observation at all for about whole transfer chain, as well as most of
control panel still shows on occasion one month, but in addition, on several the pipeline and associated quality con-
some apparently erratic behaviour. This instances, it proved impossible to move trol products, are being developed by the
is regarded as a minor drawback, since the building closed because of the ex- DMD. For very much the same reasons
this panel is mostly used for engineering treme strong wind, or even to drive the already mentioned, however, the trans-
purposes, and not generally to drive the telescope or the instrument inside the fer chain could not be brought into a sta-
instrument in normal operating condi- building as water leaks forced us to keep ble operational state yet, so that its im-
tions: indeed, scientific observations are them parked, covered with plastic pro- plementation had to be postponed. In-
primarily carried out through the tections. These circumstances have, of stead, as a provisional workaround, a
high-level operating software, via tem- course, severely hampered our attempts simpler tool, offering less functionality,
plates (of which more below). to complete the verification and commis- has been installed by the NTT Team to
On the other hand, recurrent prob- sioning of the control system. They have transfer data from the instrument work-
lems have been met throughout the had an even worse impact on the devel- station to the astronomer and pipeline
EMMI commissioning with the CAMAC opment of operational tools and proce- workstations. The pipeline processes,
motor controllers. Only those of our dures. which appeared to be working reliably
readers with the deepest knowledge of Operations of the NTT are intended to (although still fairly rudimentary algo-
the NTT upgrade project will remember be fully embedded in an end-to-end data rithms were used for data processing),
that, early on, it had been decided that flow model. At the front end of the data are being modified to allow them to in-
while the electronic controllers of all flow, the user whose programme has gest input from the simplified transfer
other NTT subsystems would be re- been approved by the OPC, goes chain. Once this is successfully com-
placed by VLT standard modules, the through a Phase 2 Proposal Preparation pleted, the change should be mostly
CAMAC controllers of EMMI would be (P2PP) process, during which with the transparent to the user. But there will be
kept and they would be interfaced to the help of a sophisticated software tool no on-line connection to the archive: ac-
rest of the system through a layer of soft- (also called P2PP) he defines Observa- cordingly archiving of the data is, for the
ware making them look like VLT stand- tion Blocks (OBs). An OB can be seen time being, based on tape copies sent by
ard. Financial and manpower con- as the smallest complete description of courier service from Chile to Germany.
straints fully justified that decision, which an observation. OBs are stored in a da- The execution in service mode of
unfortunately now appears as a major tabase, from which they are passed to some shared-risk observations with
source of trouble. The problem could not the high-level operating software (aka SUSI which had started in February,
be tackled during the big bang due to Bob, Broker of Observation Blocks) by continued through March and April. Dis-
lack of time, and it is being investigated the Observing Tool (OT). Bob uses the tribution of the corresponding data is
at this very moment. The current ap- information contained in the OB to trig- currently in progress. Regrettably, the
proach consists in studying operational ger the execution of a series of tem- already described delays due to techni-
workarounds that will limit or cancel the plates, or sequencer scripts. The latter cal and meteorological factors have later
impact of the problem on scientific ob- are essentially sequences of commands on prevented the NTT Team from ex-
servations, since a solution at a more that are passed to the telescope, instru- ecuting many of the service observing
fundamental level cannot be envisaged ment, and detector control systems. programmes that had been approved by
in the short term. While P2PP and OT have been devel- the OPC for the first half of Period 60 (in
By contrast with EMMI, SUSI had al- oped by the Data Management Division particular with EMMI). Even though
ready long ago reached a fairly stable (DMD), and Bob is part of the VLT com- there was no definite commitment to de-
state (thanks, of course, to its much mon software, the specific templates for liver data during that period, we would
greater simplicity). Work done on the EMMI and SUSI were to a large extent have strongly wished to obtain at least
SUSI control software over the last created by the NTT Team. From the de- some observations then, to acknowl-
months has been mostly cosmetic, with scription above, it must be clear that edge the confidence placed in us by the
in particular the implementation of a new proper certification of the templates re- applicants and the efforts made by them
control panel which looks much more quires that the underlying control system for programme preparation, as well as to
similar than the previous one to the con- is operational: given the delays that gain practice in operations. I can only
trol panel of EMMI. have affected the latter, it can be under- reiterate here the apologies that the af-
The bad news for SUSI come from the stood that templates could not be as fully fected investigators have already re-
CCD, the newly installed Tektronix #42, tested and debugged as one might have ceived through personal letters.
whose charge transfer efficiency drops, hoped. Consequently, the first post-big-
causing image smearing, above levels bang NTT users have faced and still Back to Operations
of 60,000 e— for slow readout, and of should expect to face on occasion some
110,000 e— for normal and fast readout difficulties in the use of the templates. (I On June 27, as had long been fore-
(with the settings currently offered to us- would like to apologise here for the in- seen, the NTT went back into normal

operations. The first few observing runs Personnel Movements mental in its technical achievements.
had been scheduled for classical ob- He now is back in the VLT software
serving. The first Visiting Astronomer to The transition of the NTT from a stage group, where the experience that he
come back to the NTT after the big bang of technical development work to regular has accumulated through his work for
was Dr. Francesco Ferraro. Figure 1 operations has been accompanied by a the NTT will without doubt prove ex-
shows a view of the renovated control change of leadership. Jason Spyromilio, tremely valuable.
room during this first run. who had been NTT Project Scientist Finally, I am taking this opportunity to
It is too early to draw conclusions from since September 1995, has left the NTT welcome Chris Lidman in the NTT Team,
the first observing runs at the NTT after team and his function has been taken where he is taking the position of staff
its reopening: this will be left for a next over by the author of these lines. The astronomer left vacant by the departure
issue of The Messenger. It may be suffi- key role played by Jason in the success- of Roland Gredel to the team in charge
cient here to mention that if these runs ful completion of the NTT big bang can- of the 3.6-m telescope and of the CAT at
were affected by some minor hiccups, not be overstated. His dedication to the the beginning of the NTT big bang.
as could be expected after such a long project, his indefatigable activity towards Chris, who was until then a postdoc in
suspension of operations and given the its achievement, and his extreme com- the La Silla medium-sized telescope
difficulties encountered in the last phase petence have been examples and cata- team (aka 2.2 team) where he was in
of the big bang, the general behaviour of lysts for the work of all team members. charge of the IRAC instruments, will in
the system revealed no major flaw. The Jason is now headed towards the VLT, the NTT Team assume the responsibility
users so far have generally expressed where he is to lead the commissioning of SOFI instrument scientist. Until the
an overall satisfaction, assorted with a team. On behalf of the NTT Team, I wish latter comes on line, Chris is sharing the
number of constructive suggestions. him the best of success in this new chal- load of astronomical support of EMMI
The latter are extremely valuable to us, lenge. and SUSI with the other astronomers of
especially since the current NTT prefig- At the same time, Anders Wallander the team.
ures the VLT. Thus we are urging our has left the NTT Team too. One of the
users to tell us what they like and dislike members of the team since its creation
in the current NTT, so as to enable us to in 1993, Anders, as chief engineer of Gautier Mathys
shape the VLT more to their taste. the upgrade project, has been instru-

ESO at the Leipzig Fair

Thanks to the hospitality of the Ger- The first day was
man Federal Ministry of Education and dedicated to the youth,
Research, ESO was able to entertain a and about 5,000 young
60 square metre information stand at the people passed the
“Forschungsforum ‘97”, held in connec- counters, eager to learn
tion with the INNOVATION Fair at Leip- about the latest results
zig’s impressive, new Fair grounds from and ideas in the numer-
September 16–20. ous areas of fundamen-
The stand itself had a circular layout tal and applied re-
with a diameter of 8.2 metres and fea- search that came to-
tured a model of the VLT, ESO videos, gether at the Research
Internet connection and colour panels Forum.
with text and graphics. An 8-metre pano- Three ESO staff
rama photo of the Milky Way formed the members were busy
background and provided an ample set- during the day answer-
ting for the display. ing questions from the

many visitors. It was evident that many

of the young people were informed
about the VLT project and did not want
to miss the opportunity to ask very spe-
cific questions to the ESO staff present.
Later in the day, the extensive pro-
gramme of public lectures included talks
by ESO astronomers focusing on VLT
science and the issue of Astronomy and
the Youth.
Also during the following days, the
ESO stand was well visited. Among the
many visitors were the Mayor of Leipzig,
high-ranking officials from the German
Federal Ministry of Education and Re-
search and representatives from indus-
try. Physics teachers spent substantial
time on the stand, browsing through the
ESO Web pages about the VLT as well
as Astronomy On-line.

Tidal Dwarf Galaxies
I.F. MIRABEL, SAp, Centre d’Études de Saclay, CEA, France
1. Introduction put forward by Schweizer (1978) and lar to those responsible for radio jets,
more recently by Mirabel et al. (1992), claimed that giant galaxies could “eject”
The birth and evolution of galaxies are who found evidence for the genesis of a in the intergalactic medium a substantial
dramatically affected by environmental dwarf galaxy out of material removed part of their stellar mass. The crucial role
effects. Interactions with the intergalac- from the interacting system NGC 4038/ of interactions and gravity was better
tic medium and collisions with compan- 39. The idea that parent galaxies could understood when numerical simulations
ions cause major perturbations in the give birth to dwarf galaxies goes back to (e.g. Toomre & Toomre, 1972) demon-
morphology and content of galaxies. As the sixties, when the first photographic strated how tidal forces shape the stellar
a result, late-type spirals may evolve catalogues of extragalactic “perturbed” structures of interacting systems, creat-
into early-type spirals or even ellipticals. objects were published (Vorontsov- ing tails, bridges and shells. Recent
In “bottom-top” models, larger structures Velyaminov, 1959; Arp, 1966). These studies, based on optical and HI obser-
form from the agglomeration of smaller systems show numerous luminous vations, have shown that debris of colli-
entities, and small galaxies would be clumps, attached to giant galaxies by sions actually form a class of “recycled”
swallowed by giant galaxies. jet-like thin filaments. At that time, some or “second-generation” galaxies that has
A more exotic – and somehow re- authors (Ambartsumian, 1961; Arp, several properties in common with clas-
versed – way of forming galaxies was 1972), invoking nuclear processes simi- sical dwarf galaxies: blue compact
(BCDGs) or irregulars (dIrrs). Because
they are mostly found in tidal tails, they
are now commonly referred as “tidal
dwarf galaxies” (hereafter TDGs).
We report here the results of a
multi-wavelength campaign on tidal
dwarfs carried out at La Silla, with sev-
eral telescopes and instruments. Our
aim was to identify and characterise ob-
jects of tidal origin in the environment of
nearby interacting systems.

2. Observations

The optical observations were carried

out using EFOSC1 on the 3.6-m and
EMMI on the NTT, during several runs
between 1992 and 1995. Deep large-
field BVR images were first taken. We
identified in tidal features associated
with colliding galaxies blue condensa-
tions, and obtained spectra of each of
them using multi-object spectroscopy
techniques. For each field, one mask
containing 20–30 slits had been
punched. We used the low-resolution
grism #3 in the RILD mode of EMMI.
Despite several false alarms – back-
ground galaxies with discrepant red-
shifts – we found in almost all systems
between one and ten tidal dwarfs, exhib-
iting recent star formation revealed by
the presence of ionised gas. In order to
study the stellar populations of tidal
dwarfs, and their star-formation history,
we started in February 1996 a near-
infrared imaging programme. JHK’ im-
ages were taken with IRAC2B on the
ESO/MPI 2.2-m. Because of the rela-
tively small field of view offered by this
Figure 1: A tidal dwarf in the prototype interacting system NGC 4038/39 (The Antennae): This
camera (2′ with the lens LC), compared
classic system is composed of two overlapping, distorted, late-type spiral disks. The two nuclei
seen in the near-infrared K’ image (inset) are separated by 15 kpc. More than 60% of the HI to the typical size of our objects (10′), we
(green contours) is distributed along the tails. The object at the tip of the southern antenna had to mosaic the field and therefore
shows a chain of HII regions, embedded in a low-surface brightness envelope (Mirabel et al., could map only few systems. In that re-
1992). Optical image from the Digital Sky Survey; infrared image taken with IRAC2; HI contours spect, much observing time will be
from Hibbard et al. (1997). The field of view is 17.7 ′ × 19.5 ′. gained using SOFI, the next-generation

Figure 2: Very young tidal dwarfs in NGC
5291, an S0 with a huge HI ring: This lenticu-
lar galaxy is associated with a massive HI ring
(green contours), perhaps formed after a
high-speed collision with the disturbed object
near the S0 (The “Seashell”). The inset
shows a near-infrared K’ image of the collid-
ing galaxies. Associated to the HI clumps in
the ring are found very blue (B –V < 0.3) opti-
cal counterparts. Multi-object spectroscopy
reveals that they host active star-forming re-
gions (see HII-like spectrum at the bottom-
left). Optical R image and spectrum obtained
with EMMI, K’ image with IRAC2; HI from Mal-
phrus et al. (1995). The field of view is
9.2 ′ × 8.7 ′.

from the nuclei, we found small irregular

objects. Their absolute magnitude is in
the range of dwarf galaxies. They host
blue compact clumps that we identified
with star-forming regions. Their spectra
show emission lines, typical of HII re-
gions, ionised by massive OB stars
younger than 10 Myrs. Given the time
scale for the formation of clumps in tidal
tails – typically 1 Gyr (Barnes & Hern-
quist, 1992) – the young stars at the end
of the antennae must have been born in
situ. In Figures 1–3, the contours of the
HI column density are superimposed in
green on the CCD images. It is striking
on these images that the central regions
of the parent galaxies contain little atom-
ic gas, whereas the optical tails, and es-
ESO infrared camera, to be installed ages, long tidal tails are clearly seen pecially the tidal dwarfs, are associated
next year on the NTT. In one of its emanating from the parent galaxies. At with HI clouds as massive as 5 × 109
modes, SOFI will offer a 5′ field. Our their tip, at a distance of 50–100 kpc MA. Such a gas distribution in interacting
IRAC2 observations have already
shown that low-surface brightness tidal
tails can be detected up to 2.2 µm even
on a 2.2-m telescope.
This optical and infrared work was
complemented by radio observations of
the atomic hydrogen, carried out with
the Very Large Array interferometer, ei-
ther by our group or other researchers,
who kindly provided us with the data-
As test cases, we present in Figures
1–4 different examples of interactions:
spiral-spiral collisions (NGC 4038/39 or
“The Antennae”, Fig. 1; NGC 2992/3,
Fig. 4) and spiral-elliptical encounters
(NGC 5291, Fig. 2; Arp 105, “The guitar
galaxy”, Fig. 3). On the optical NTT im-

Figure 3: A gravitationally bound tidal dwarf in

the spiral-elliptical colliding system Arp 105:
The diffuse object at the end of the 70-kpc
long tidal tail escaping from the spiral is as
luminous as the LMC/SMC. The 6 × 109 MA
HI cloud associated with the tidal galaxy
shows evidence of rotation. Another tidal
dwarf is seen south of the elliptical. Note in
that system the extreme spatial segregation
between the atomic (green contours) and
molecular gas (black contours). V band im-
age obtained with EMMI, near-infrared J-
band image (inset) with IRAC2; HI and CO
from Duc et al. (1997). The field of view is 7.5 ′
× 7.5 ′.

Figure 4: A tidal dwarf in the tail of the spiral-spiral colliding system NGC 2992/3. This figure displays multi-band images of the northern tail of
NGC 2992. The spectral energy distribution of the tidal dwarf is dominated by old stars, formed in the disk of the parent galaxy. Optical images
obtained with EMMI, near-infrared images with IRAC2.

systems seems to be quite general having extremely blue colours (B-V l another class of galaxies, the blue com-
(Hibbard & van Gorkom, 1996). Above a 0.3; V-K p 2) (e.g., NGC 5291, Fig. 2), pact dwarf galaxies (BCDGs), are also
critical HI column density between with no compelling evidence for the of recent origin. A sample of them has
5 × 1020 cm–2 and 1021 cm–2, we detect presence of an underlying old stellar been added in Figure 5. Although the
emission lines from gas ionised by mas- population. In this case, the K light B-V colour of BCDGs and TDGs are
sive stars. comes mainly from red supergiants similar, their V-K index seems to differ
younger than 20 Myrs. quite significantly. This could be ex-
3. Properties of Tidal Dwarf Therefore, some tidal dwarf galaxies plained by a metallicity effect. The V-K
Galaxies in the nearby Universe are instances of colour of a starburst depends strongly
genuine young galaxies that are forming on the metallicity during the first 20 Myrs
3.1 Stellar populations their first generation of stars. This class (Cerviño & Mas-Hesse, 1994). Classical
of objects are usually sought in the early BCDGs born in primordial HI clouds are
Tidal dwarf galaxies are made of two distant Universe, where detailed studies metal deficient objects (commonly Z l
main stellar components: young stars are difficult. It has been debated whether ZA/10), whereas TDGs are formed from
recently formed by collapse of expelled
HI clouds, and an older stellar popula-
tion, at least 1 Gyr old, which was pulled
out from the disk of the parent galaxies.
Aperture photometry measurements,
coupled with evolutionary synthesis
models, allowed us to derive the propor-
tion and age of both populations. Fig-
ure 5 displays on a V-K vs B-V diagram
the near-infrared and optical colours of
TDGs and for comparisons photometric
measurements for the outer regions of
their parent galaxies. Although our
data-base is still limited, this figure
shows that there may be a diversity of
tidal dwarfs. On one hand, we find TDGs
dominated by old stars with integrated
colours comparable to those of the outer
disk of their parent galaxies (e.g. NGC
2992, Fig. 4). In this type of objects, the
recent star-formation episodes did not
affect much the overall stellar popula-
tion, and the K-band flux traces red gi- Figure 5: Colour-colour diagram of tidal dwarfs. For reference, the colours of the outer regions
ants. On the other hand, we find TDGs of the parent galaxies are also indicated. A sample of blue compact dwarfs has been added.

tion activity (Elmegreen et al., 1993).
The two scenarios predict a different
fraction of old to new stars.

5. The Fate of Tidal Dwarf


Do tidal dwarf galaxies contribute

significantly to the overall population of
dwarf galaxies? The answer to this fun-
damental question relies, from a theo-
retical point of view, on the knowledge
of two critical parameters: (1) the fre-
quency of galactic interactions, believed
to be increased with redshift; (2) the
survival time of tidal dwarfs. The latter
is limited by the hostile environment of
TDGs, in the vicinity of giant parent gal-
axies. They may fall back on their pro-
genitors, as pointed out by Hibbard &
Mihos (1995), or be tidally disrupted. In
this respect, the indication that some
TDGs are gravitationally bound (Duc et
al., 1997a; Hibbard et al., 1997) sug-
gests the possibility of a longer life ex-
Figure 6: Oxygen abundance vs absolute blue magnitude for our sample of tidal dwarfs (black pectancy.
points) and a sample of isolated dwarf irregular galaxies (open points; from Skillman et al., From an observational point of view,
1989). the census of TDGs is not an easy task.
TDGs should obviously be searched in
recycled material – material which has 4. Formation of Tidal Dwarf the environment of interacting galaxies.
been pre-enriched in the disk of their Galaxies Optical images taken recently with SUSI
parent galaxies – and therefore should during the Big-Bang period of the NTT
be more metal-rich. This is consistent It is known that interactions trigger disclose tens of new tidal dwarf candi-
with the relatively high oxygen abun- star formation (e.g. Kennicutt et al., dates around several colliding galaxies.
dances we estimated in the HII regions 1987). However, until the discovery of Hunsberger et al. (1996) claim from the
of TDGs: ZA/3 on average, a value typi- the tidal dwarf galaxies, this phenome- analysis of photometric data that half of
cal of the outer regions of spirals. A clear non had been observed mostly in the the dwarf galaxies in an Hickson com-
result from our spectral analysis is that central regions of merging galaxies. For pact group could be of tidal origin. How-
tidal dwarf galaxies do not follow the instance, almost all ultraluminous infra- ever, one should note that once the stel-
classical correlation found for field dwarf red galaxies, which host violent nuclear lar/gaseous bridge between the parent
and giant galaxies between luminosity starbursts, are close interacting galaxies and child galaxies has dissipated, it is
(hence mass) and metallicity, as shown (see review by Sanders & Mirabel, 1996 difficult to re-establish a link between the
in Figure 6. and Duc et al., 1997b). two. Our study has shown that a good
How can collisions induce star-form- genetic fingerprint of TDGs is their high
ing episodes at distances as high as 100 metallicity. In this respect, several stud-
3.2 Dynamics kpc from the galactic nuclei? The related ies have put forward trends for dwarf
mechanism involves mass transfers galaxies in groups or clusters to be more
Radio observations of the 21-cm HI mostly driven by gravitational forces. metallic than field dwarfs (Bothun et al.,
line can be used to derive the dynamics Following the interaction, a fraction of 1985; Vilchez, 1995). Since the collision
of the gas. Unfortunately, most tidal the atomic hydrogen loses its angular rate is enhanced in denser environ-
dwarfs found so far have small angular momentum, sinks into the central re- ments, it is tempting to argue that a sig-
sizes compared to the radio synthe- gions where it may be transformed into nificant fraction of dwarfs in clusters
sised beams of the interferometers and molecular gas, fuelling a nuclear star- could be recycled objects. We are cur-
the detailed study of the line profiles is burst or an AGN. Another part of the HI, rently carrying out at La Silla an imaging
difficult. However, there is a tidal dwarf initially situated in the outer regions of and spectroscopy survey to quantify this
where has been found evidence for ro- the disk and therefore less gravitational- effect in the Hydra cluster. A bimodal
tation (Duc et al., 1997a) suggesting ly bound to the galaxy, is stretched and star-formation history is also a strong
some sort of dynamical independence. tidally pulled out into the intergalactic signature for tidal dwarfs. Evolutionary
Because of the low surface brightness medium, supplying the material that Synthesis Models simulating a burst of
of TDGs, the knowledge of the stellar leads to the formation of tidal dwarf gal- star formation on top of the underlying
dynamics derived from absorption lines axies. component of old galaxies reproduce
is still beyond the scope of the current The relative proportions of old and well the TDG star-formation history and
instrumentation. However, we expect young stars that we derive from our ob- will give constraints for their future evo-
that an IR spectrometer like ISAAC, to servations are an important constraint lution.
be installed on the first unit of the ESO for the models of TDG formation. Models
VLT, will achieve the required sensitivity. based on numerical simulations of col- Acknowledgements. We are grate-
An obvious by-product of these kine- liding systems favour two mechanisms: ful to all students, fellows and staff peo-
matical studies will be the determination a local dynamical instability in the old ple at La Silla for their invaluable help
of the TDG dark-matter content, which stellar populations of tidal tails, followed during the introductions. Special thanks
is expected to be low in the numerical by accretion of gas (Barnes & Hernquist, to Chris Lidman for providing helpful tips
simulations by Barnes & Hernquist 1992) or collapse of a supermassive for the acquisition and reduction of infra-
(1992). cloud triggering precipitous star-forma- red images.

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The Activity of Comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1

Monitored Through the CO J(2–1) Emission Line
at 230 GHz
1Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Toulouse, France; 2Astronomiska Observatoriet, Uppsala, Sweden;
3Onsala Rymdobservatorium, Sweden; 4Universidad de Montevideo, Uruguay

CO J(2–1) emission from comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 at 230 GHz was observed on 16 occasions
with the 15-m SEST antenna from 4 December 1996 until 2 January 1997. A clear signal was detected in all daily
averaged spectra, and day-to-day nuclear output variations by a factor p 2 were observed. Whatever the position of
the telescope main beam in the coma, the line position and shape showed remarkably stable characteristics, which
justified to combine the spectra to produce line profiles with S/N greatly enhanced over previous observations of the
same kind. While most of the outgassing occurs from the sunlit side of the nucleus, night-side emission is also
present. The shape of the lines near zero velocities in offset spectra cannot yet be uniquely interpreted. Whatever
the ultimate model proposed to explain these observations, important implications for our understanding of how CO
molecules are stored in the nucleus and later released into the coma may be derived from this data set.
Comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wach- dez2 in 1980 to provide an important ad- in 1927 for its numerous and unpredicta-
mann 1 (hereafter designated as SW1) ditional source of short-period comets ble bursts of activity, some of which
was long the only object of proven beside the Oort cloud. The Centaur and bring its magnitude down to 10–11 from
cometary nature found to orbit the Sun KB populations should contain numer- a state of much lower brightness long
entirely outside the orbit of Jupiter, at an ous small comets
average distance of p 6 AU. Rickman that are not ob-
speculated in 1985 that Chiron, an ob- servable with to-
ject of apparently cometary nature and day’s instruments.
giant size, only physically observable It is currently im-
with large-size telescopes, could be one possible to state
of the largest members of an unseen whether SW1 was
population of comets orbiting the Sun captured from the
between the orbits of Jupiter and Nep- Oort cloud or the
tune1. In recent years, an ever-growing KB. In the light of
number of solar-system objects have all these new de-
been discovered that are also constantly velopments on the
situated far from the Sun. They form the origin and evolu-
now called Centaur and Kuiper Belt (KB) tion of orbits of
families, two groups of bodies that circu- comets, SW1 un-
late between the orbits of Jupiter and doubtedly is a
Neptune and on average beyond that of unique object that
Neptune, respectively. From a dynami- deserves attention
cal point of view, the Centaurs may be besides the inter-
escapees from the Kuiper Belt. While est it has always
the true nature of these newly discov- aroused for its pe-
ered objects still remains to be unveiled, culiar brightness Figure 1: CO production in comet SW1 measured during the month of
the current thinking is that they are the behaviour. December 1996. The comet was observed during a period we can
largest members of a vast reservoir of SW1 is known qualify, based on the comet total magnitude, as of “low” or “minimal”
potential comets proposed by Fernan- since its discovery activity, the so-called “quiescent state”.

thought as being a “dormant state”. The by Senay and Jewitt7 from the JCMT by 15-m diameter antenna, was designed
comet would be inactive most of the time its emission at 230 GHz, based on a pre- to extend the previous observations
and would become suddenly, say every diction made by Crovisier a year earlier8. over a significantly longer period of time
two months or so, much brighter, the in- The Meudon cometary team confirmed and to determine what the normal “gase-
disputable proof that its nucleus is ac- this important observation a little later9. ous” state of activity of the comet was.
tive. A dust coma would then form, driv- These two data sets reveal that the CO Our main objectives were to measure
en by an unseen gas. Spectroscopic ob- line is very narrow and blue-shifted by p the CO production on a daily basis for
servations of comets indicate that water 0.4 km s–1. An isotropically emissive about 30 days, fully define the CO line
is the most abundant volatile species in coma would produce a line centred on parameters (width and line position), es-
their nuclei, and tablish the reality
laboratory data of a night-side
further indicate outgassing and, if
that water should possible, observe
not sublimate at an outburst in
distances from the progress.
Sun larger than 4– Monitoring of
5 AU. However, it the CO J(2-1) line
is not uncommon began on 4 De-
for comets ob- cember 1996 and
served at distanc- ended on 2 Janu-
es from the Sun ary 1997 and data
larger than this were collected on
limit, both on the 16 different days.
incoming and out- The average time
going branches of spent with the
their orbits, to dis- source in the tele-
play a well-devel- scope beam was
oped dust coma. of the order of 90
C/Hale-Bopp minutes per day.
(1995 O1) is the The comet was
most recent exam- detected in all
ple – and how fa- daily averaged
mous! – of an ob- spectra at a level
ject moving to- of 0.04–0.08 K
wards the Sun km s–1 with a S/N
from remote intermediate be-
neighbourhoods, tween that ob-
that has conse- tained with the
quently not been JCM and IRAM
Figure 2: Average ON spectrum in December 1996. The time spent with the source in the antennae. It was
heated since long, aperture is 50,400 sec. The line peak position indicates a sunward ejection of matter at a veloc-
and that displays found that the
ity of order 500 m s–1. The width of the peak is a measure of the kinetic temperature of the gas,
activity when wa- p 12 K. day-to-day varia-
ter cannot escape bility of its CO
its nucleus 3, 4. A production rate
question of paramount importance is the zero velocity, and the observed line was about 2 (Figure 1 shows the pro-
thus “what is the nature of the outgas- displacement indicates an ejection of duction curve derived from our daily av-
sing agent that controls the activity of matter on the sunward side of the nu- eraged “ON” spectra, assuming a nu-
distant comets and how can this gas cleus. The sharpness of the main peak clear source of CO, details on the model
leave the nucleus?”. One would normal- of the line is the result of both an under- we used are given below). CCD images
ly expect a dust mantle and/or water ices sampling of the coma by the telescope taken with the 1-m telescope of the
to block the way towards the surface. main beam and a low kinetic tempera- DENIS project at the end of December
One can see now the key role played by ture. The gas flows from the nucleus at a 1996 on 3 consecutive nights showed a
comet SW1, possibly a pristine and rela- fairly high nearly monokinetic velocity, changing coma whose V magnitude was
tively unevolved object. Like all objects 300–500 m/s from the early measure- L
p 16. The line, as found in previous ob-
never coming closer to the Sun than p 5 ments, and molecular collisions taking servations, was composed of a narrow
AU, its nucleus is subject to only mild place near the nucleus do not widen the and strong peak of FWHM p 0.1 km s–1
heating, and its surface temperature peak thus formed. Due to the long life- blue-shifted by p 0.45 km s–1. On closer
never goes beyond that of the water time of the first CO rotational levels (p inspection, it appeared that the line pro-
sublimation threshold. 106 s) and the slow rate of pumping in file extended towards negative radial
In 1987–88, a large set of CCD imag- the IR vibrational 1–0 lines, the rota- velocities (the “skirt”). This is well seen
es of comet SW1 was obtained by tional temperature acquired in the inner in the average “ON” spectrum shown in
Jewitt5, which showed that the comet coma is conserved through most of the Figure 2. There was no indication, within
was permanently active and always sur- coma. These phenomena have typical our noise level, that the line position
rounded by a dust coma, even when its scale lengths of the order of, or larger changed with either time or activity. The
magnitude was near a maximum value than, 105 km and we evaluate the effect CO velocity did not vary despite a nucle-
of R p 16.5 (maximum magnitudes pre- of IR pumping to be 10% or less over the ar activity level that was observed to
viously derived from photographic entire SEST antenna telescope main change from one day to the next by a
plates5 – nearly equivalent to B magni- beam. The higher resolution IRAM data factor p 2. We also note that past obser-
tudes – are of order 18–19 and underes- further showed the existence of a “skirt” vations of comet SW1 did not reveal any
timate the true comet brightness by p extending to red-shifted velocities, a fea- changes in the velocity of the dust (al-
one unit6). The nature of the outgassing ture that was readily interpreted as proof ways found to be p 150 m s–1), even
agent in SW1 is known since 1994, of night-side outgassing. The present when the nuclear activity level changed
when CO was detected for the first time programme, conducted with the SEST by a large factor. More recently, distant

radio observations of C/Hale-Bopp, an Complementary integrations were what ad hoc at the present time and ad-
indisputably very active comet, never made at three offset positions inside the ditional observations are required to
revealed the presence of high gas ve- coma, at 11 arcsec anti-sunward, 11 and confirm or reject it. Another possible ex-
locities, despite the extremely large CO 22 arcsec sunward, respectively. Our planation is to suppose that some CO
production measured in that comet. All ON and 22 arcsec sunward spectra are radicals are produced from grains that
this leads to the idea that the line dis- shown in Figures 2 and 3, respectively. It move very slowly on the sunward
placement and width take values direct- readily appears that the peak seen in side. We are currently investigating
ly related to the process whereby the the ON integration is also present in the this hypothesis, although there are diffi-
gases leave the nucleus but not so offset integration, at the same velocity of culties associated with it too. One ex-
much to the pects the gas to
amount of mate- be able to entrain
rial thus pro- fairly large grains,
duced. (Of and either those
course, near the grains would
sun, photolytic evaporate rapidly
heating is a to allow for the
source of energy molecules to be
that may effi- excited in the col-
ciently increase lisional part of the
the velocity of coma or we have
coma species). underestimated
A study of the the role of the ex-
spatial distribu- tended source of
tion of CO mole- CO and that of
cules around the the associated IR
nucleus of the excitation mecha-
comet is in pro- nism.
gress. The main The mean gas-
spectral fea- eous output of
tures, namely the comet is p 1
the peak position ton per second,
and width, are i.e. similar to the
explained if out- dust production
gassing occurs rate derived from
mainly on the optical images by
sun-side and if Fulle12. At that
its local rate is rate, comet SW1
proportional to can be continu-
the square of the ously active for
insolation and if Figure 3: Mean line shape recorded in December 1996 when the telescope main beam was put 104 revolutions,
the outflow ve- 22 arcseconds away from the nucleus, sunward. The decrease in line area, within the pointing or a time much
locity is propor- uncertainties, is barely compatible with a source of CO at the nucleus and this could be the larger than its dy-
tional to that in- indication of the presence of a second component produced in an extended region. namical lifetime.
solation. Since
the outflow ve-
locity is expected to vary as the surface p 400 m s–1. This was to be expected References and Notes
temperature, this indicates that conduc- given the observing geometry: both the
tion must play a major role in controlling Sun and the Earth are on the same side 1. Rickman H., in Dynamics of Comets: Their
the surface temperature. The narrow- of the nucleus and the Sun-comet-Earth Origin and Evolution, Carusi A. and
angle is only 9 degrees. More surprising Valsecchi G.B. Eds, Reidel, 129, 1985.
ness of the main peak is due to the low
is the structure seen near zero velocity 2. Fernandez J.A., MNRAS, 182, 481–491,
kinetic temperature of the gas. The 1980.
presence of CO molecules with near- values. Since the telescope main beam 3. Weaver H.A. et al., Science, 275, 1900–
zero and negative velocities requires in- is undersampling the CO cloud, the 1904, 1997.
troducing some night-side outgassing. magnitude of this structure implies a 4. Womack M. et al., AJ, in press, 1997.
The assumption of LTE for the excita- large population of CO molecules with 5. Jewitt D., ApJ, 351, 277–286, 1990.
tion holds because the rotational relax- small radial velocities. Its presence ei- 6. Note that an m = 16 object having re-
ation time constant and IR pumping ther implies a massive injection of CO flecting properties similar to those of P/
rates are rather large, of the order of a molecules in a very specific direction, Halley and situated at 4 and 5 AU from the
few 105 sec and a few 10–6 sec. respec- near the Sun-Earth-comet plane and Earth and the Sun, respectively, would
tively. If the telescope main beam were away from the Earth (i.e. near the termi- have a diameter of the order of 102 km.
larger, the line shape would be quite dif- nator) or the existence of CO molecules 7. Senay M.C. and Jewitt D., Nature, 371,
on the sunward side that barely move. 229–231, 1994.
ferent (the theoretical line profile for an
8. Crovisier J., Lenggries workshop on the
isotropic outflow from a point source Time resolved observations of the activ-
activity of distant comets, Huebner et al.
observed through a telescope main ity of comets (e.g. comet Levy, Feldman Eds., SWRI, San Antonio, TX, 1992.
et al. or comet Hale-Bopp, Bockelée-
beam of large size compared to that of 9. Crovisier J. et al., Icarus, 115, 213–216,
Morvan et al.11) have shown that the nu-
the coma is a rectangle of full width 1995.
twice the outflow velocity), and more cleus responds rapidly to any change in 10. Feldman P. et al., Icarus, 95, 65–72, 1992.
molecules would be observed with zero the insolation pattern of the nucleus and 11. Bockelée-Morvan et al., B.A.A.S., 29, 3,
projected velocities. In our modelling, the presence of a second component at paper 37.03, 1047, 1997.
we adjust the night-side velocity to a fixed velocity during all our observa- 12. Fulle M., Nature, 359, 42–44, 1992.
match the data and we derive that the tions could mean that the rotation axis of
CO flux on the night-side is p 15% of SW1 was not too far from the sunward M. Festou
that at the sub-solar point. direction. This hypothesis seems some-

The ESO-Sculptor Faint Galaxy Survey: Large-Scale
Structure and Galaxy Populations at 0.1 l
p 0.5*
V. DE LAPPARENT, G. GALAZ, S. ARNOUTS, CNRS, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris
S. BARDELLI, M. RAMELLA, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste
1. Introduction ous, but this requires further quantitative cate the derivation of such constraints. A
studies. study of the different galaxy populations
We describe the current status of the The maps of the galaxy distribution and their environment becomes neces-
ESO-Sculptor Survey. The observation- raise several fundamental questions of sary for a better insight into the forma-
al goal has been to produce a new multi- observational cosmology. Among them tion of structure on galactic size up to
colour photometric catalogue of galax- is the problem of the missing mass de- several h –1 Mpc. Constraints on the ini-
ies in a region located near the southern tected in increasing amounts at larger tial perturbations which led to the forma-
galactic pole, complemented by a spec- and larger scales [7]. If the limits of the tion of structures on these scales may
troscopic survey. The primary scientific nucleosynthesis predictions are to be be obtained if one can eventually make
objectives are (1) to map the spatial dis- met [8], the required dark matter for ex- the link between the mass function of the
tribution of galaxies at z Q 0.1–0.5 and plaining the formation of large-scale collapsing matter, the star formation his-
(2) to provide a database for studying structure must be for the most part non- tory of the galaxies, and the influence of
the variations in the spectro-photometric baryonic [9]. In this picture, the galaxy their environment. The mass function is
properties of distant galaxies as a func- formation must be biased towards the predicted by the theoretical models and
tion of redshift and local environment. densest peaks of the matter distribution is partly constrained by the galaxy lumi-
The first clues towards the understand- [10]. Therefore, the voids of the galaxy nosity function [14]. The star formation
ing of the matter distribution in the Uni- distribution could be filled with dark – history is tightly constrained by the ob-
verse have been obtained by mapping and partly non-baryonic – matter. So far, servations (spectral energy distribution
the distribution of its major light-emitting all observational searches for baryonic and magnitude number counts) [15].
components, the galaxies. One of the matter within these voids in the form of One difficulty is to decouple the influ-
main properties of the galaxy distribu- galactic-size systems have led to only ence of the local environment, to which
tion is the presence of structures at rare detections (see [11, 12] and refer- galaxies are intimately related via tidal
nearly the largest scales examined (of ences therein), largely insufficient for ex- interactions and mergers, from the
the order of 100 h –1 Mpc with a Hubble plaining a significant fraction of the miss- large-scale segregation effects resulting
constant of H0 = 100 h km s–1) Mpc. The ing mass. The detection of the dark mat- from the initial conditions [16].
3-dimensional maps provided by red- ter is therefore a crucial requirement for Detailed knowledge of both the large-
shift surveys of various regions of the validating the current scenario for large- scale clustering and the galaxy popula-
sky have clearly demonstrated the inho- scale-structure formation (the gravita- tions in a 3-dimensional galaxy map
mogeneity of the galaxy distribution and tional collapse of primordial fluctua- therefore provides invaluable informa-
have emphasised the need for system- tions). Another challenge is to reconcile tion for studying the formation and evo-
atic redshift surveys over large volumes the size and amplitude of the inhomoge- lution of structure in the universe. With
of the universe. neities in the galaxy distribution with the the goal to address these issues, the
The nearby galaxy distribution sug- high degree of isotropy of the microwave ESO-Sculptor survey of faint galaxies
gests a remarkable structure in which background radiation [13] (this also re- (ESS, hereafter) was initiated in 1989.
galaxies cluster along sharp walls which quires large amounts of dark matter). The programme was granted the key-
delineate vast regions with diameters Mapping the inhomogeneities in the programme status by ESO, which pro-
between 10 and 50 h –1 Mpc devoid of galaxy distribution allows to obtain clues vided the unique opportunity for obtain-
bright galaxies, in a cell-like pattern [2]. on the nature of the primordial fluctua- ing a new complete galaxy sample to
Gigantic structures such as the “Great tions in the matter density field, and both substantial depth and area on the
Wall’’ have been detected and pose the therefore to better understand the pre- sky. A large amount of observing nights
problem of the largest scale for the inho- vailing mechanisms in shaping the early on the 3.6-m and NTT was attributed
mogeneities [3]. The general distribution universe. At large scales, constraints on and allowed to complete the observa-
has the topological properties of a the spectrum of primordial fluctuations tions in the fall of 1995. We describe the
“sponge’’, which naturally arises from can be derived directly from the maps of characteristics of the photometric and
gaussian initial perturbations collapsing the 3-dimensional galaxy distribution. spectroscopic ESS samples in § 2 and 3
under gravity. The nearby redshift maps On smaller scales (p 1 h –1 Mpc), the respectively, and we report the major re-
[2] have generated a renewed interest in non-linear effects of gravitation compli- sults already obtained in § 4. In § 5 we
mapping the large-scale structure of the
Universe in the early 1990’s. Several
ambitious programmes were then initiat-
ed and provide new maps which probe
the distribution out to distances of p
500 h –1 Mpc. These maps contain many
sheets and voids, and confirm the
sponge-like topology [4, 5], with no evi-
dence of voids larger than p 100 h –1
Mpc [6]. It seems that these surveys
have reached the scale where the gal-
axy distribution becomes homogene-
Figure 1: Distribution on the sky of the 13,096 galaxies in the ESO-Sculptor Survey (ESS) to its
completeness limit of R = 23.5 (in J2000 equatorial co-ordinates). The r.m.s. magnitude uncer-
*The ESO-Sculptor Faint Galaxy Survey is one of tainties are 0.04 mag, and the r.m.s. astrometric uncertainties are p 0.2 arcsec. Even at this
the ESO Key Programmes. All the data have now large depth, the galaxy distribution shows large-scale inhomogeneities which are measured by
been collected. the angular 2-point correlation function [19].

Figure 2: 27 spectra from the ESS (black curves) and their reconstructions using 3 principal components (red curves; see text for details). Note
the filtering effect on the spectra with low signal-to-noise ratio, and the variable accuracy in the reconstruction of spectral lines.

comment on the results and examine 23.5. All objects are detected in the 3 various instrumental set-ups used at the
the prospects for the ESS in the coming bands up to R p 21.5. In the range 22 < 3.6-m (EFOSC1) in 1989–1990, and at
years. R < 23.5, the colour completeness drops the NTT (EMMI) from 1990 to 1995 (see
to 65%. Figure 1 shows the projected [17] for further details). These allow to
2. The ESS Photometric Sample distribution on the sky for the R photo- convert the observed CCD magnitudes
metric sample. into the standard Johnson-Cousins BVR
The photometric data for the ESS [17] The data were reduced within MIDAS system.
was obtained from CCD imaging of a on SUN and IBM workstations. The ma- To obtain a homogeneous photome-
continuous strip of 1.53° (R.A.) × 0.24° jors steps in the data reduction were: try, an algorithm for comparing and ad-
(DEC.) Q 0.37 deg2 in the Sculptor con- bias subtraction, flat-fielding using a justing the measured magnitudes in the
stellation (p 0h 21m, p –30° in J2000 co- “super-flat’’ obtained from median-filter- overlaps of neighbouring CCD frames
ordinates), 17° away from the Southern ing of the target exposures themselves, was used [17]. This technique reduces
Galactic Pole. The typical exposure co-addition of multiple exposures, re- by a factor of 3 the systematic deviations
times at the NTT in the B, V, R filters moval of cosmic events. Because the in zero-point between individual CCD
were 25 min, 20 min, and 15 min, re- photometric data were obtained during frames. The resulting r.m.s. internal un-
spectively. Whereas the R and V images 10 different observing runs with chang- certainties in our photometry are 0.04
have comparable depths, the B images ing telescopes, instruments, filters and mag in the 3 filters. The galaxy cata-
are shallower because of the lower detectors, the calibration of the data re- logue was obtained by analysing the full
quantum efficiency at short wavelengths quired a thorough work of measurement CCD data with Sextractor [18]. Note that
of the CCDs used. The photometry for of colour coefficients and magnitude the ESO-Sculptor data played a major
the survey is obtained by a mosaic of p zero-points. These were determined si- role in testing and improving the per-
50 CCD frames in each filter overlapping multaneously with an iterative method. formances of the Sextractor package for
on the edges. The galaxy catalogues are Listed in Table 1 are the mean zero- faint galaxy photometry. Because of its
complete to B = 24.5, V = 24 and R = points and the colour coefficients for the excellent performances, this software is

now widely used by the astronomical dwarf galaxy com-
community. The final ESS photometric ponent, etc. ) [20].
catalogue was produced after identifica-
tion of the multiple detections of the 3. The ESS
same objects from different images, and Spectroscopic
determination of the adopted object pa- Sample
rameters. This catalogue provides aper-
ture magnitudes in the standard B The spectroscop-
(Johnson), V (Johnson) and R (Cousins) ic catalogue pro-
filters, astrometric positions to 0.2 arc- vides the flux-cali-
sec, and morphological parameters for brated spectra of
p 9500, p 12,150, and p 13,000 galax- the complete sub-
ies, respectively [17, 19]. As a by-prod- sample of p 700
uct, the ESS also provides the 3-colour galaxies with Rc m
photometry of 2143 stars to B = 24.5. 20.5 using multi-slit
These are useful for constraining the spectroscopy. At this
models of galactic structure. depth, there are 1.3
The ESO-Sculptor galaxy number- galaxy per sq. arc-
counts in the 3 bands, and the colour min in the survey,
distributions are in good agreement with and the typical multi-
the results for other existing samples slit masks at the
[17]. The faint number counts show the NTT contain p 30
well-known excess over no-evolution slits. The spectra
models, in all 3 bands [20]. The faintest are reduced using
galaxies also exhibit a colour evolution, semi-automatic MI-
characterised by a blueing trend at R > DAS procedures
22 in the B – V colour. These effects are which were specifi-
often interpreted as an increase in the cally designed for
star-formation rate with look-back time these data and
[20]. The angular 2-point correlation which guarantee a
function also shows evidence for signifi- homogeneous and
cant evolution at R Q 23 which could be systematic treat-
related in origin to the excess of faint ment of the numer- Figure 3: Distribution in R.A. versus redshift for 402 galaxies in the
ESS in 3 contiguous redshift ranges (0.08–0.21, 0.21–0.34, 0.34–
galaxies in the blue number-counts [19]. ous CCD expo- 0.47). These maps show that the alternation of voids and walls per-
Whereas the change in amplitude at sures and extracted sist at large distances, with a typical scale of 20–60 h –1 Mpc [25]. The
fainter magnitudes was already detect- spectra. The major right-most cone shows the geometry of the full volume of the ESS
ed in several other samples, a change in steps in the spec- (430 galaxies). In all 4 cones, the right ascension range is 4.72–5.9°
the slope is also detected thanks to the troscopic reduction (see Figure 1).
increased survey area compared to the are: 2-D correction
previous studies [19]. This analysis of for vignetting of
the angular 2-point correlation function field; cosmic events removal by compar- spectrophotometric standards; cross-
might provide new clues on the nature ison of multiple exposures; flat-fielding correlation of the resulting spectra with
and evolution of galaxies at faint mag- to correct for pixel-to-pixel variations, for galaxy templates for redshift measure-
nitudes. Adjustment of the number- variations in the slits transmission, and ment and error estimation.
counts, colour distributions, and varia- for fringes; long-slit wavelength calibra- The delicate extraction of spectra of
tions in the slope and amplitude of the tion using the context LONG of MIDAS; extended objects with an integrated lu-
two-point correlation function for the sky subtraction with a wavelength-de- minosity which represents only a frac-
ESS provide useful constraints for the pendent fit of the sky flux along the slit tion of the night sky, as it is the case for
models of galaxy evolution, and might and by interpolation at the position of the the ESS, requires optimised techniques.
allow to discriminate among the different object; optimal extraction of objects by As a result, several of the high-level
scenarios (pure luminosity evolution, profile weighting; flux calibration using commands have been re-written within

Table 1: CCD photometric characteristics for EFOSC1 (3.6-m) and EMMI (NTT)

Instrument Average zero-points Colour coefficients(a)

CCD/Period B V R kB [B—V ] kV [B—V ] kV ′[V—R ] kR [V – R ]

RCA#8/43-44 23.70W0.03 24.24W0.04 24.21W0.02 0.16W.03 0.04W.02 0.10W.02 0.00W.02
RCA#8/45-46 23.41W0.01 24.06W0.03 24.03W0.02 0.16W.03 0.04W.00 0.10W.02 0.00W.02

THX#18/49-50 24.30W0.02 24.65W0.03 0.05W.01 0.10W.02 –0.10W.01
LOR#34/52 24.69W0.02 25.14W0.02 –0.03W.01
TEK#36/54 25.40W0.02 0.03W.02 0.05W.02

TEK#31/52 24.69W0.02 –0.21W.02
TEK#31/54 24.26W0.01 –0.21W.02

(a) Indicated in brackets are the colour terms by which must be multiplied the listed coefficients kM in order to convert the observed CCD
magnitudes Mobs into the standard Johnson-Cousins magnitudes Mstd (Mstd = Mobs + kMcolour).

MIDAS, and allow better control of the of the galaxies in the sample have emis- tation bias which affect the nearby red-
reduction. In particular, the cross-corre- sion lines [23]. These are essentially shift surveys as well as the intermediate
lation programme was specifically writ- [OII] 3727 Å, Hβ 4851 Å and [OIII] distance multi-fiber surveys, are small
ten for and tested on the ESS data. The 4958.9 Å and 5006 Å. For objects with for the ESS. Comparison of multiple
essential steps are the continuum sub- emission lines, the final redshift is ob- spectroscopic observations for a sub-
traction, the filtering of the spectra, and tained by the weighted mean of the sample of 40 spectra shows that for
the matching of the rest-wavelength in- cross-correlation redshift with the emis- those taken in spectro-photometric con-
tervals of the observed spectrum and sion redshift derived by gaussian fits to ditions, the total external error is of the
template. This matching is performed by the emission lines. Among the 277 gal- order of 7% pixel-to-pixel. Because the
first estimating the object redshift based axies for which the spectral classifica- only existing flux-calibrated samples of
on the cross-correlation with 6 templates tion has already been performed (see galaxies are nearby samples of several
representing the different galaxy spec- § 4.2), 4 are most likely HII galaxies tens of spectra [21], the ESS spectra
tral types (E, S0, Sa, Sb, Sc, Irr) and ob- (based on diagnostic diagrams using provide a unique database of galaxy
tained by averaging several spectra line ratios), and only one galaxy is a spectra representative of the galaxy
from Kennicutt’s sample [21]. The spec- Seyfert 2 [23]. This is in marked disa- populations in a significant spatial vol-
tra are then cross-correlated within their greement with the significantly larger ume. These spectra will be useful for
common rest-wavelength intervals with fraction of active galaxies found in the constraining at low redshift the models
a template of the bulge of M31 which Canada-France Redshift Survey at z m of spectrophotometric evolution of gal-
provides a reliable zero-point of the red- 0.3 [24]. axies, which is an essential step for
shift scale [22]. We emphasise that we A large fraction of the ESS spectra making reliable predictions of galaxy
do not use the comparison of the cross- (p 3/4) were observed in spectro-photo- evolution at high redshift.
correlation with the different galaxy metric weather conditions. Note that op-
types for determination of the spectral timisation of the multi-slit spectroscopic 4. Current Results
types of the ESS galaxies: this tech- observations does not allow to minimise
nique is subject to large errors because the flux losses by adjusting the slit width 4.1 Large-scale structure
it is very sensitive to the noise and spuri- and slit orientation (to correct for atmos-
ous features in the spectra. Our spectral pheric refraction): the slit width is fixed The ESS allows for the first time to
classification method is described in and varies from 1.3 to 1.8 arcsec for the map in detail the large-scale clustering
§ 4.2 below. survey, and the slit/mask orientation is at z lp 0.5 (nearly 10 times deeper than
The full MIDAS routine guarantees a chosen as to globally maximise the the nearby maps of the galaxy distribu-
well-controlled and user-friendly reduc- spacings between the objects perpen- tion [2]). Figure 3 shows the spatial dis-
tion of the numerous images contain- dicular to the dispersion direction. How- tribution for p 400 galaxies of the ESS in
ing simultaneous spectra of 10 (with ever, at the redshift of the ESS galaxies 3 portions because of the long line-of-
EFOSC1) to 30 (with EMMI) galaxies. (z > 0.1), the slits used contain > 95% of sight (the right cone shows the full red-
The average slit lengths vary between the disk and bulge emission of a typical shift range for the ESS). These maps re-
p 10 and p 30 arcsec and the slit width face-on spiral galaxy (p 20 kpc in diam- veal a highly structured distribution
is in the range 1.3–1.8 arcsec. The dis- eter). Therefore, the aperture and orien- which closely resembles that seen in the
persion is 230 Å/mm. The resolution of
the resulting spectra varies from 20 Å
(EFOSC1) to 10 Å (EMMI) (p 110 spec-
tra where obtained with EFOSC1 at the
3.6-m, the rest with EMMI at the NTT).
The resulting wavelength coverage is
4300–7000 Å with EFOSC1 and 3500–
9000 Å with EMMI. The signal-to-noise
ratio of the spectra varies in the range 4–
40, with 75% in the spectra in the range
10–30. The resulting r.m.s. uncertainty
errors in the redshifts are in the range
0.0002 to 0.0005 (i.e. p 60 to 150 km s–1;
this corresponds to a spatial scale of
1 h–1 Mpc, which is small compared to
the size of the large-scale structures).
For each galaxy, the rest-wavelength in-
terval results from the combination of
the grism dispersion, the position of the
object within the multi-aperture mask,
and the object redshift. The majority of
the EFOSC1 spectra have rest-wave-
length intervals in the range 3300–
4700 Å, and the EMMI spectra in the
range 3300–5700 Å. Therefore, only few
emission-line galaxies have Hα within
the observed wavelength range. Figure 4: PCA spectral sequence for 277 ESS galaxies. The parameter δ measures the
Typical spectra of the ESS in the inter- relative contribution of the red and blue stellar components in the galaxy (PC1 et PC2 in
val 3700–5350 Å are shown in Figure 2 Figure 5), and θ measures the contribution of the emission lines (as shown in PC3 in Figure
5). Green points indicate galaxies with W[OII] m 15 Å, blue points are galaxies with 15 Å
(black lines). The prominent H (3968.5
m W[OII] ≤ 30 Å, and red points are galaxies with W[OII] M 30 Å. The different discrete
Å) and K (3933.7 Å) lines of Ca II and the classes obtained by comparison with the Kennicutt spectra [21] are indicated by vertical
G molecular band of CH (4304.4 Å) are dotted lines. Note the non-uniform sampling of the various types, with late-type galaxies span-
detected in most spectra with no emis- ning a larger range in δ, in good agreement with the larger variations in morphological proper-
sion lines. A large part of the contribution ties among the spiral galaxies. As expected, late spectral types tend to have more frequent and
to the cross-correlation peak originates stronger emission lines. θ is a good indicator of emission-line strength for late-type galaxies
from these lines. A large fraction (48%) when used in conjunction with δ. Some of the early-type objects also have emission lines [23].

Figure 5: The first 3 surface density comparable to that for
principal components the “Great Wall’’ [3]. Note that the ESS
obtained for the ESS lies 7° away from the Koo et al. survey
sample. The 1st PC is on the sky. At z Q 0.3 this corresponds
the average spectrum
and resembles an Sb
to 90 h –1 Mpc (with q0 = 0.5). Compari-
spectrum. The 2nd son of the 2 surveys shows no obvious
PC allows to quantify correlation in the occurrence of the over-
the relative contribu- dense structures along the line-of-sight,
tion of the young stel- which might be difficult to reconcile with
lar population, and a typical clustering scale of 128 h –1 Mpc.
the 3rd PC measures Further investigations along this line
the contribution from using simulated distributions are in
the emission lines. progress.
98% of the flux of the
ESS spectra can be
reconstructed by line- 4.2 Spectral classification
ar combination of
these 3 PCs [23]. In the ESS, galaxies have diameters
m 12 arcsec. As a result, the disk and
spiral arms are poorly visible. Any at-
tempt for a morphological classification
would thus be largely approximative,
and could only be limited to the pres-
ence of the main features (disk, bulge,
spiral arms, signs of interaction), and re-
stricted to the closest objects (to z m 0.2;
at larger distances, the diameter of the
objects becomes too small – l 9 arcsec
– for any usable classification). Even
from high-resolution images, the mor-
phological classification is dependent on
the filter used for the imaging, and differ-
ent filters show different stellar compo-
nents with varying morphologies [27].
The Spectral Energy Distributions (SED
hereafter) are a useful alternative ap-
nearby surveys: the distribution is char- (only a few per cent of the galaxies in the proach for characterising the galaxy
acterised by an alternation of sharp survey region have a measured redshift) populations. The SEDs measure quanti-
walls which are spatially extended makes it difficult to establish a relation- tatively the relative contributions of the
across the sky, with voids with typical di- ship between the detected peaks and underlying stellar components and con-
ameters of 20–60 h –1 Mpc [25]. The the network of sheets and voids. In con- strain the gas content and average me-
ESS maps suggest that the cell-like gal- trast, the ESS was designed to sample tallicity. The spectral classification thus
axy clustering seen in the shallower red- efficiently structures similar to those provides a physical sequence which can
shift surveys extends to z Q 0.5. Several found in the nearby surveys: at the medi- be interpreted in terms of evolution of
statistical analyses of the data are in an redshift of 0.3, the redshift survey the stellar components, and allows to
preparation (two-point correlation func- probes an area of 4 × 15 h –1 Mpc2, suffi- trace back the episodes of stellar forma-
tion, power-spectrum, genus, etc. . . .) cient for detecting most sheets with a tion. For deriving a robust classification
and will provide a characterisation of the
large-scale clustering in the ESS for
comparison with the nearby galaxy dis-
tribution. The long line-of-sight sampled
by the ESS might also provide new con-
straints on the galaxy clustering on
scales of L –1
p 100 h Mpc, which are
poorly sampled by the shallower sur-
We emphasise that the large-scale
structure pattern detected in the ESS is
nowhere as regular as in the redshift
survey of Koo et al. [26], which suggests
a periodic distribution of dense struc-
tures with a separation of 128 h –1 Mpc.
This scale is well above the typical size
of the voids in both the shallower sur-
veys [2, 4, 5] and the ESS. This disa-
greement can be partly explained by the
narrow beam size of the Koo et al.
probes (p 5 h –1 Mpc at z p 0.4) which
makes them sensitive to small-scale
clustering and might cause an overesti-
mation of both the density contrast of the Figure 6: Observed and intrinsic B – R colours for 330 ESS galaxies as a function of redshift and
walls and the size of the voids. More- spectral type (E/S0 in black; Sa in red; Sb in green;Sc/Im in blue). The differences result from
over, the sparse distribution of the nar- application of the K-corrections derived per spectral type, redshift interval, and filter band, using
row probes of Koo et al. over the sky the spectrophotometric model PEGASE [34].

for the ESS, we have used the Principal many advantages over other classifica- the infrared. These represent a good
Component Analysis (PCA hereafter) tion methods. It first provides a con- match to the ESS spectra in the optical
[28]. This technique is un-supervised in tinuous classification in a 2-parameter range 3700–5250 Å. We can then derive
the sense that it does not rely on the use space, which allows quantitative analy- analytical relations between galaxy
of a set of galaxy templates. It provides ses of the sample properties as a func- spectral type as measured by δ, redshift
an objective study of the systematic and tion of spectral type. In particular, it will and K-correction [32]. In turn, the K-cor-
non-systematic trends of the sample, allow an unprecedented measurement rections provide absolute magnitudes
and has the advantage of being poorly of the morphology-density relation [33] for the galaxies in the rest-frame filter
sensitive to the noise level in each spec- at large distance. The PCA also provides bands. Figure 6 shows the observed B –
trum. Moreover, the resulting spectral a convenient filtering technique: the re- R colours for the ESS spectra as a func-
classification is strongly correlated with constructed spectra (with 3 compo- tion of redshift and spectral type and the
the Hubble morphological type [29, 30, nents) are inherently “noise-free’’ be- intrinsic colours after application of the
23]. cause the principal components are de- K-corrections. These diagrams show
Application of the PCA to the ESS al- rived from a large sample of spectra. For that the effect of the K-corrections on the
lows to re-write each spectrum as a line- the ESS, the reconstructed spectra have object colours is significant over the red-
ar combination of a reduced number of a signal-to-noise in the range 35–80 (to shift range for the ESS, and is strongly
parameters and vectors (3 in this case), be compared with the range of 4–40 for correlated with spectral type. Note, how-
and which accounts for 98% of the total the S/N of observed spectra). The ESS ever, that the large dispersion in the ob-
flux in each spectrum. The spectral type spectra are reconstructed from the prin- served B – R colours makes any at-
of the galaxies can be written in terms of cipal components of Figure 5 as a linear tempt to determine spectral types from
2 independent parameters δ, θ which re- combination α1PC1 + α2PC2 + α3PC3 colour-redshift diagrams subject to large
spectively measure the position of the (with 0.92 l α1 l 1, –0.2 l α2 l 0.3 –0.05 uncertainties. This approach is often
spectra along the sequence of spectral < α3 l 0.15). Figure 2 shows the recon- used for determination of the galaxy
types, and the deviation from the se- structed spectra (in red) versus the ob- types.
quence originating from either peculiar served spectra (in black) for 27 ESS gal-
continua and/or strong emission line. axies. Reconstruction of noise-free 4.3 Luminosity function
The two parameters are in addition cor- spectra can be especially useful for
related (late-types tend to have stronger comparing the ESS spectra with syn- In addition to the physical information
emission lines). Figure 4 shows the δ−θ thetic templates obtained from models which it provides, the galaxy luminosity
sequence for 277 galaxies of the ESS based on stellar population synthesis function is indispensable for any statisti-
sample. Figure 5 shows the first 3 princi- [34]. cal study of an apparent magnitude-lim-
pal components obtained from these The spectral classification for the ESS ited survey. However, this function is
data sets (PC1, PC2, and PC3). The first allows to derive accurate cosmological poorly known so far due to the limited
2 principal components account for the K-corrections for the various photomet- samples adequate for its measurement.
red and blue stellar populations in the ric bands, which correct for the “blue- The existing luminosity functions meas-
observed galaxies, and their relative shift’’ of the observed filter bands with ured at z m 0.2 from surveys with typical-
contributions to each galaxy spectrum respect to the rest-frame spectra. The ly p 104 galaxies give variables results,
define its position along the PCA se- crucial step is the extrapolation of the which are a function of the selection cri-
quence (measured by δ); the 3rd compo- observed spectra in the rest-frame B teria for the samples [32]. The “local’’ lu-
nent determines the emission line contri- band, which at z p 0.5 corresponds to a minosity function (z p 0.03) [35] is likely
bution (measured by θ). It was already U filter. For this, we use the multi-spec- to be affected by errors in the magnitude
known that the colours of galaxies can tral model PEGASE developed at IAP by measurements in the Zwicky catalogue.
be described by a linear combination of B. Rocca-Volmerange et al. [34] which Luminosity functions based on digitised
stellar colours (namely types AV and provides galaxy SEDs from the UV to plates can be biased by the non-linearity
M0III [31]). The interest of the PCA is to
provide a more detailed demonstration
of this effect over a large sample of gal-
axy spectra.
The continuous PCA spectral se-
quence obtained for the ESS can be
binned to provide the corresponding
fractions of the different Hubble morpho-
logical types (the correspondence is
made by using spectra of galaxies with
known morphology [21]). In this manner,
we find that the ESS contains 17% of E,
9% of S0, 15% of Sa, 32% of Sb, 24% of
Sc, and 3% of Sm/Im (see Fig. 4). The
type fractions show no significant varia-
tions with redshift over the redshift range
0.1 l z l 0.5, and are in good agree-
ment with those found from other sur-
veys to smaller or comparable depth
(see [23, 32]). We find systematic varia-
tions in the main spectral features
(equivalent width of the [OII], [OIII] and
Hβ emission lines; height of the 4000 Å
break; slope of the continuum) with PCA
spectral type, which illustrates the effi-
ciency of the PCA technique for perform-
ing a physically meaningful spectral Figure 7: Luminosity functions in B (open squares) and R (filled circles) for 327 galaxies of the
classification. ESS. The best fit Schechter functions have M*B = –19.58 W 0.17 αB = –0.85 W 0.17, and
The PCA spectral classification has M*R = –21.15 W 0.19 αR = –1.23 W 0.13 [32].

of the photographic emulsion at bright error bars the previous analyses of gal- show no excess over no-evolution mod-
magnitudes [36], and by incompleteness axy number counts and colour distribu- els [44]. Finally, the radio observations
at faint magnitudes. The recent Las tion at B l 24.5 based on smaller areas will allow to study the correlation be-
Campanas Redshift Survey [4] has the and/or fewer bands [17]. The ESS gal- tween the optical and radio properties of
advantage of providing the largest CCD axy spectra provide a unique database the different galaxy populations in an
galaxy catalogue for measurement of for adjustment of the models of spectro- optically selected sample (the opposite
the luminosity function at z p 0.2 (see photometric evolution of galaxies at of the usual approach of making optical
[37] and references therein). However, “low’’ redshift [34]. Calibration of these follow-up observations of a radio-select-
this spectroscopic sample is affected by models on the ESS data, via the propor- ed sample).
selection effects such as variable sam- tions of the different galaxy types and We are considering the extension of
pling over the sky, and a systematic un- their luminosity functions will allow to the ESS spectroscopic sample one
der-sampling of low-surface brightness obtain better predictions of galaxy evolu- magnitude fainter using FORS1 at the
galaxies, which might be responsible for tion at z L 1. These predictions could be VLT/UT1. This would provide the red-
the shallow faint-end slope. tested on the full photometric sample, shifts for another p 1000 galaxies to
The luminosity functions for different which extends significantly deeper than zl p 1 for which the photometry is al-
galaxy types show variations in their the spectroscopic sample, using the 2- ready available. This survey would be
faint end slopes [37, 35]; in some cases, point angular correlation function [19]. useful for obtaining a dense sampling of
the variation is closely related to the Photometric redshifts techniques [42], the large-scale structure at redshifts
presence of emission lines in the galaxy which would require the acquisition of U- where so far only individual structures
spectra [38]. In addition, deep redshift band photometry, would provide addi- are detected, usually in association with
surveys suggest that the slope of the tional constraints, and are under consid- quasars or radio galaxies. The evolution
late-type luminosity function evolves sig- eration. of the large-scale clustering at z p 1 is
nificantly at z M 0.5 [39, 40, 41]. Al- The ESS spectroscopic sample is be- expected to depend markedly on the
though the different deep surveys agree ing complemented by a similar spectro- cosmological parameters [45]. Any de-
to detect an evolution in the luminosity scopic survey being performed in the tection or absence of evolution in the
density by a factor of nearly 2 between northern hemisphere using the CFH Tel- cell-like pattern with redshift would pro-
z p 0 et z M 0.5 [41, 42], the differences escope. The p 1700 galaxies contained vide useful constraints on the mean mat-
in the results emphasise the need for a in the two samples, and their homoge- ter density in the Universe (Ω). The red-
confrontation with new catalogues. In neous spectral classifications and abso- shift extension of the ESS would also be
Figure 7, we show the B and R luminos- lute magnitude determinations provided useful for preparing the definition of the
ity function for 327 galaxies from the by the Principal Component Analysis large area surveys which will be done
ESS sample calculated using an “inho- [23] will provide a new measure of the more efficiently with VIRMOS.
mogeneity-independent’’ method (see luminosity function as a function of spec- Only one other systematic redshift
[32] for details). The 2 luminosity func- tral class at the intermediate redshifts survey is currently being performed at
tions are in good agreement with the re- 0.1 m z m 0.5. The difficulty to interpret the depth of the ESS: the CNOC2 pro-
sults for the CNOC1 survey [40] using the galaxy number-counts from the gramme, with the goal to obtain redshifts
similar filters and an analogous observa- “Hubble Deep Field’’ [42] emphasises for 10,000 galaxies at z l p 0.7. Answer-
tional set-up (multi-slit spectroscopy at the need for a better determination of the ing the question of the scale of homoge-
the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope), “local’’ luminosity function per galaxy neity in the galaxy distribution, and
and which probes the galaxy distribution type. Objective detection of the galaxy hence of the underlying matter distribu-
to similar depth as the ESS. A more de- groups within the ESS is also in tion will nevertheless require larger area
tailed study using the full ESS sample is progress and will allow a detailed study redshift surveys than the ESS and
in course. of the different galaxy populations and CNOC2. In particular, the “Sloan Digital
their relationship with the environment, Sky Survey’’ (SDSS) [46] and the “2dF’’
as measured by the local galaxy density project [47] to map 1 million and 250,000
5. Conclusions and Prospects and the location within the large-scale galaxies respectively out to distances
structure. In particular, the morphology- z p 0.2 over large areas of the sky will
The ESS demonstrates the interest of density relation [33], and the existence both make a tremendous improvement
a deep fully-sampled pencil-beam sur- of an analogous to the Butcher-Oemler in the statistical analysis of the galaxy
vey for probing through and identifying effect [43] for field galaxies are being in- distribution. The larger distances will be
numerous large-scale structures along vestigated. probed by the 2dF extension (6,000 gal-
the line-of-sight. The survey confirms The optical study of the ESS data is axies to R Q 21) [47] and the DEEP sur-
that the nearby properties of the large- complemented by multi-wavelength fol- vey with the Keck Telescope (15,000
scale clustering extend to z l p 0.5, low-up observations: IRAC2 on the galaxies with B p l 24) [48]. Note that the
namely a cell-like structure of sharp ESO-2.2-m telescope is used for obtain- well-known difficulties with the flux cali-
walls alternating with voids of order of ing K ′ imaging of a sub-sample of the bration of multi-fiber spectroscopy, sup-
20–60 h–1 Mpc in diameters [25]. Meas- ESS spectroscopic sample; the same plemented by the aperture bias at
ures of the power-spectrum at scales region is scheduled for observations zl p 0.2 (the fibres only sample the core
L 100 h –1 Mpc and of the topological
p with ISO at 10 µm and 90 µm (in collab- of the galaxies) will make any spectral
properties of the detected structures will oration with B. Rocca-Volmerange); the classification of the SDSS and shallow
provide useful constraints on the nature full ESS region has been observed with 2dF survey subject to a number of bias-
of the primordial fluctuations which led the VLA at 6 cm and 20 cm (in collabora- es. A unique survey for determination of
to the observed large-scale clustering. tion with J. Roland and A. Lobanov). The the galaxy luminosity function per type
The ESS also has the potential for un- optical-K ′ colours allow to identify the will be the 5-m “Liquid-mirror telescope’’
covering very large structures exceed- stellar populations from massive stars to which will provide SEDs with photomet-
ing the extent of the shallower surveys. old giants. The K ′-far-infrared colours al- ric quality for nearly one million galaxies
Some marginal evidence for the pres- low to separate the different populations to z p 1 using a multi-narrow-band im-
ence of an extended under-density in of grains, and indirectly allow to con- aging technique [49]. These data will be
the redshift range 0.3–0.4 is under close strain the star-formation rate. Determi- essential for constraining the evolution
examination. nation of the luminosity functions per of the galaxy populations and of the
The ESS photometric survey is the type in the infrared, are crucial for inter- large-scale clustering with look-back
largest CCD multi-colour survey of gal- preting the infrared galaxy counts. time. It will also allow to simulate the bi-
axies, and allows to confirm with tighter These, in contrast to the optical counts, ases in the SEDs obtained with the

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Massive Stars Running Through Space


1. Introduction compelling evidence that, at least in one the interstellar medium and the stellar
case, the supernova explosion of a mas- wind of a B supergiant moving with a su-
OB runaways are massive (OB) stars sive binary companion is responsible for personic velocity.
that travel through interstellar space with the large space velocity gained by the According to Blaauw (1961), a
anomalously high velocities. The space remaining OB star. The observational “bona-fide” runaway star fulfils two crite-
velocity of these stars can be as high as evidence is based on the discovery of a ria: (i) it has an observed high (i.e. L 30
100 km/s, which is about ten times the wind bow shock around the high-mass km/s) space velocity and (ii) a “parent”
average velocity of “normal” OB stars in X-ray binary Vela X-1, an X-ray pulsar OB association has been identified. It
the Milky Way. Many of them can be with a B-supergiant companion. Here turns out that a significant fraction of the
traced back to a nearby OB association we report on new high-resolution coron- OB stars are runaways; their frequency
where they seem to have originated ographic observations of the bow shock steeply decreases as a function of spec-
from. But how did these massive stars obtained with ESO’s New Technology tral type: from about 20% among the
obtain such a high velocity? Recent ob- Telescope. Furthermore, we present the O-types to 2.5% among B0-B0.5, and
servations carried out at the European first results of hydrodynamical calcula- still lower among B1–B5 (Blaauw, 1993).
Southern Observatory have provided tions simulating the interaction between Almost all runaways appear to be single;

Narrow-band Hα (left) and [O III] (right) images of the wind bow shock around the runaway binary HD77581 (Vela X-1) obtained with the NTT in
January 1996. North-west is up and north-east to the left. The distance between the bow shock’s apex and the supergiant is 0.9 arcminutes, which
corresponds to 0.5 parsec at the distance of 1.8 kpc. To suppress the bright B supergiant’s light (V = 6.9 mag) we used a coronographic plate.
Additionally, a scaled R-band frame was subtracted to further reduce the remaining stellar light. The Hα image clearly shows the 3-dimensional
cone structure of the bow shock and the filamentary structure in front. Obviously, the system is moving to the north. Comparison of the Hα and
[O III] images shows that the [O III] emission originates from a region in front of the (denser) part of the bow shock seen in Hα.

only in a very few cases a runaway is ed that when an OB star is bound to action in a compact cluster of stars re-
confirmed to be part of a binary or multi- another OB star in a binary system, sults in the ejection of one or more of the
ple system (Gies & Bolton, 1986). The the supernova explosion of one of the members. From their extensive radial
average distance with respect to the ga- stars (i.e. the initially most massive one) velocity survey of bright OB-runaway
lactic plane is much larger for confirmed causes the disruption of the binary sys- stars, Gies & Bolton (1986) concluded
runaways than for cluster and associa- tem since more than half of the total that the cluster ejection model has to be
tion members (Gies, 1987). Although mass of the system would be lost after favoured. Apart from the lack of obser-
based on small-number statistics, OB- the supernova explosion of the primary. vational evidence for the presence of
runaways also tend to have high (pro- As a consequence, the remaining mas- compact companions around OB runa-
jected) rotational velocities and rela- sive star escapes preserving its (rela- ways, the existence of 2 runaway
tively high surface helium abundances tively high) orbital velocity. The modern double-lined spectroscopic binaries can-
(Blaauw, 1993). version of this scenario includes a phase not be explained with the supernova
The majority of massive stars are of mass transfer inverting the original model. Also the kinematical age of
members of an OB association or a clus- mass ratio, so that the resulting runaway OB-runaway stars (i.e. the time needed
ter; e.g., for the O stars about 70% be- star has a large probability to remain to reach its present position with respect
long to a cluster or association (Gies, bound to the compact remnant (a neu- to the “parent” OB association) is often
1987); given the large fraction of tron star or a black hole) produced by close to the age of the OB association
O-runaways, it might well be that all the supernova. The mass transfer from itself, which would be in support of the
O-type stars were born in associations the evolved star to the future runaway cluster ejection model. In the following
and that the whole field population con- star could increase its atmospheric we will argue that at least in one case
sists of runaway stars. The study of run- helium abundance. Furthermore, the an- the supernova scenario applies.
away stars is, therefore, intimately relat- gular momentum associated with the ac-
ed to the problem of massive-star forma- creted material would result in a higher 3. A Wind Bow Shock Around
tion and evolution. rotation rate of the future runaway. The Vela X-1
binary supernova model predicts that
2. How are OB-Runaways many OB runaways should have a com- Kinematic studies of OB stars are
Formed? pact companion. Searches for compact hampered by the large distances at
stars around OB runaways have, how- which these stars are usually found,
The two most popular scenarios for ever, up to now not been successful making it very difficult to measure proper
the formation of runaway stars are the (e.g. Philp et al., 1996). motions accurately (although this situa-
binary supernova model (Blaauw, 1961) An alternative explanation for the ex- tion has significantly improved after the
and the cluster ejection mechanism istence of OB-runaway stars is the clus- release of the Hipparcos data). But it
(Poveda et al., 1967). Blaauw suggest- ter ejection model: the dynamical inter- turns out that many OB stars with high

space velocity create an unmistakable
sign in the surrounding space. When an
OB star moves supersonically through
the interstellar medium (ISM), the inter-
action of its stellar wind with the ISM
gives rise to a bow shock. Van Buren &
McCray (1988) inspected the IRAS
all-sky survey at the location of several
OB-runaway stars and found extended
arc-like structures associated with many
of them. The infrared emission results
from interstellar dust swept up by the
bow shock and heated by the radiation
field of the OB-runaway star. In a subse-
quent study (Van Buren et al., 1995),
wind bow shocks were detected around
one-third of a sample of 188 candidate
OB-runaway stars. Thus, the detection
of a wind bow shock can be considered
as an observational confirmation of the
runaway status of an OB star.
Recently, such a wind bow shock was
discovered around the high-mass X-ray
binary (HMXB) HD 77581 (Vela X-1), in-
dicating a high space velocity of the sys-
tem (Kaper et al., 1997). HD 77581 is
the B-supergiant companion of the X-ray
pulsar Vela X-1. The supergiant’s strong
stellar wind is partly intercepted by the
orbiting neutron star resulting in the ob-
served (pulsed) X-ray flux. Obviously,
this binary system experienced a super-
nova explosion which resulted in the for-
mation of Vela X-1. Due to a phase of
mass transfer, the supernova remnant These panels show the results of numerical simulations of the bow shock produced by a run-
(in this case a neutron star) could remain away star with the wind parameters derived for HD 77581 (Vela X-1), moving at 90 km/s in a
bound to its massive OB-star compan- medium with a density of one hydrogen atom cm–3. Shown is the gas density. Different hypoth-
ion when the system received a large eses about the physical behaviour of the gas are made in each case: in the middle panel, the
kick velocity. The short (p 104 years) gas is allowed to cool down by radiation and to transport energy by conduction. In the top panel,
HMXB phase starts when the OB-star it is assumed to be isothermal, at a temperature of 8500 K. In the bottom panel, thermal conduc-
becomes a supergiant. The observed tion has been suppressed. Each panel covers an area of 4.4 × 2.2 parsec. The simulations
indicate that a filamentary structure of the bow shock is expected.
wind bow shock not only indicates the
runaway nature of Vela X-1, it also
shows the direction of motion of the sys-
tem. Most likely, Vela X-1 originates from is present for both filters. In three dimen- finds in the first place the region of freely
the OB association Vel OB1; then, the sions the bow shock has a parabolic flowing wind. This region is bounded by
kinematical age of the system is 2 to 3 shape. Hα photons produced by the far a strong shock, where most of the kinetic
million years, which would be consistent side of the bow shock appear in this im- energy of the wind is transformed into
with the expected time interval between age as a sharp contrast between the thermal energy. The hot, low-density
the supernova explosion of the primary front and far side of the bow shock. A shocked gas has a rather slow cooling
and the subsequent evolution of the sec- comparison of the Hα and [O III] images rate and, while flowing downstream, it
ondary into a supergiant (Van Rensber- shows that the [O III] emission originates provides a cushion supporting the bow
gen et al., 1996). The new Hipparcos from a region in front of the (denser) part shock against the ram pressure of the
measurements confirm this result: the of the bow shock seen in Hα (use the ambient gas. The high temperature of
space velocity of the system is about 50 “remnants” of the surrounding stars as a the shocked stellar wind, in contact with
km/s with respect to the OB association reference). To determine the spatial sep- the warm, dense gas from the ambient
(which is less than the 90 km/s quoted in aration between the regions producing medium accumulated in the bow shock,
Kaper et al., 1997). Hα and [O III] emission, projection ef- produces an intense flow of energy from
In Figure 1 we present new high-reso- fects should be taken into account. the hot to the warm gas by thermal con-
lution images of the wind bow shock duction. The effects of this energy flow
around Vela X-1 obtained with the New 4. Hydrodynamical Simulations are to keep the temperature of the
Technology Telescope at La Silla. We shocked wind at a value of a few million
used the narrow-band Hα (excluding the In order to interpret these observa- degrees, and to evaporate dense gas
[N II] line) and [O III] filters, plus a coron- tions, we performed hydrodynamical from the bow shock into the hot interior.
ographic plate to suppress the large flux simulations of the interaction process This produces an interface of intermedi-
produced by the V = 6.9 mag (!) B super- between the stellar wind of the runaway ate density and temperature between
giant. Furthermore, a properly scaled R- system and the interstellar medium. The the shocked wind and the bow shock.
band image was used to remove (as far observed bow shock is only the outer- In Figure 2 a simulation is shown of
as possible) the remaining parts of the most layer of a more complex structure, the bow shock using the parameters for
PSF and internal reflections (this does whose characteristics are determined by Vela X-1 derived by Kaper et al. (1997),
not work very well for the [O Ill] image the efficiency of the different physical arbitrarily turning off some of the rele-
due to the colour difference). The fila- processes operating in the interstellar vant physical processes in the gas in or-
mentary structure of the wind bow shock gas. Proceeding away from the star, one der to estimate their relative impor-

tance. The frame in the middle shows this case, the bow shock becomes un- References
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Oph 2320.8–1721,
a Young Brown Dwarf in the ρ Ophiuchi Cluster:
Views from the Ground and from Space
P. CLAES, ESA, Villafranca del Castillo, Spain
G. RIEKE, Steward Observatory, Tucson, Arizona, USA
A variety of observational techniques tion down to substellar masses. One of the luminosity of a very low mass object
have provided over the last few years the best-studied very young, nearby with time requires a precise knowledge
the first reliable identifications of brown clusters is the one near ρ Ophiuchi, usu- of the age for a reliable mass estimate.
dwarfs and extrasolar planets, detected ally referred to as “the ρ Ophiuchi clus- However, this is not so demanding in the
either by direct observations or by the ter”. Its proximity to the Sun (160 pc) and case of brown dwarfs, due to the tempo-
gravitational effects on the stars they or- its age (a few million years) places its rary stability in the luminosity output by
bit. The list of the best brown-dwarf can- brown dwarfs well within the reach of deuterium burning in the core, which can
didates known so far includes members arrays operating in the near-infrared, last for a time comparable to the dura-
of multiple systems, cluster members, where the abundant dust in which the tion of the embedded stage. These prob-
and free-floating objects, as well as cluster members are still embedded is lems were considered by Comerón et al.
moderately young and more evolved ob- much more transparent than at visible (1993, 1996), who were able to derive
jects. Likewise, the list of probable extra- wavelengths. The dust also helps by mass functions down to p 0.04 MA for
solar planets, although still short, al- providing a natural screen against back- both ρ Ophiuchi and NGC 2024 using
ready includes objects covering a fairly ground sources unrelated to the cluster, mostly J, H and K band photometry.
large range of masses, distances to the whose density per unit area is already Nevertheless, the masses of individual
central star, and eccentricities, thus sug- reduced by the relatively large distance objects in each of those aggregates was
gesting the existence of several different of the cluster to the galactic equator. rather poorly constrained, due to the dif-
scenarios for their formation and orbital In practice, the identification of a ficulty of reconstructing the intrinsic
evolution. The combination of new ob- brown dwarf in an embedded cluster is spectral energy distribution from the
servational data and theoretical devel- complicated by several factors. Such an available JHK photometry alone.
opments is leading to a vigorous activity identification has to be done based on The possible substellar character of
in this field (Rebolo, 1997). the luminosity, which allows an estimate one of the most promising brown-dwarf
The observation of brown dwarfs in of the mass by means of theoretical candidates identified in ρ Ophiuchi,
their earliest evolutionary stages is an models (Burrows et al., 1993, D’Antona Oph 2320.8–1721, was already pointed
important ingredient in our understand- & Mazzitelli, 1994) provided that the age out by Rieke & Rieke (1990), who tenta-
ing of the formation and the characteris- of the object is known. Unfortunately, the tively assigned to it a mass of 0.06 MA.
tics of substellar objects. These objects luminosity is difficult to assess, as the This estimate was further reduced by
sample a particular region of the tem- foreground dust absorbs most of the en- Comerón et al. (1993), based on the
perature-surface gravity diagram, al- ergy emitted at short wavelengths, in- need of assuming a moderate circum-
ready abandoned by the more evolved cluding the near-infrared where the in- stellar infrared excess to fit the available
objects discovered so far. They are still trinsic spectral energy distribution of the photometry. A major step in supporting
bright and hot, emitting most of their lu- object peaks. Also, a part of the luminos- the brown-dwarf nature of Oph 2320.8–
minosity in the near-infrared. Their pres- ity of the object can be reprocessed by a 1721 came from its spectrum in the 2 µm
ence in clusters allows the study of coe- circumstellar disk or envelope, which is region presented by Williams et al.
val samples with well-constrained ages, a common feature in very young objects. (1995), whose features clearly con-
and the determination of the mass func- On the other hand, the rapid decrease of firmed the low photospheric temperature

(below 3000 K) inferred from the fits to
the broad-band photometry. Those au-
thors set an upper limit of 0.05 MA on the
mass of this object.
Oph 2320.8–1721 was included in a
list of targets prepared by us for obser-
vations with the Infrared Space Observ-
atory (ISO). The purpose of these obser-
vations was to extend the photometry of
the best brown-dwarf candidates in
ρ Ophiuchi into longer wavelengths, and
to probe the region where their luminos-
ities would be dominated by circumstel-
lar emission in case that moderate
amounts of circumstellar material were
present. The observations were carried
out in March 1996 with ISOCAM, the im-
aging camera on board of ISO, in wave-
lengths ranging from 3.6 to 6 µm. We
could also perform observations of
Oph 2320.8–1721 with the NTT in the R
and I bands in April 1997, and new ob-
servations in the JHK bands with IRAC2
at the ESO-MPI 2.2-m telescope, also in
April 1997. The latter were intended to
check for a suspected variability of the
object suggested by Williams et al.
(1995), which was not confirmed.
These observations sample the spec-
trum of Oph 2320.8–1721 from 0.7 to
6 µm. This extended coverage enables
us to disentangle in a reliable way the
reddening of the spectral energy distri-
butions of the embedded objects caused
by foreground dust from that caused by
the circumstellar material. As a conse-
quence, we can now obtain a much
more solid estimate of the luminosity of
this object, and therefore also of its
mass. Selected images taken with the
telescopes mentioned above in different
bands are presented in Figure 1, where
Oph 2320.8–1721 appears near the
centre of the frames. The magnitude of
the object ranges from 24.41 in R to 10.1
at 6 µm (ISOCAM filter LW4). In addition,
the object was detected from the ground
at 10.6 µm (Rieke & Rieke, 1990), with
an approximate magnitude of 8.7.
To derive the intrinsic spectral energy
distribution of Oph 2320.8–1721, we
have used new theoretical pre-main- Figure 1: A mosaic of images of Oph 2320.8–1721 (pointed with an arrow) from 0.7 to 6 µm.
sequence evolutionary tracks (Burrows North is at the top and east to the left in the NTT and 2.2-m images; the ISO images are slightly
et al., 1997, in preparation), which yield rotated clockwise.
essentially the same best fitting parame-
ters as the models of Burrows et al., (Adams et al., 1987, Lada & Adams, ground dust. Most of the difference be-
1993 for this particular object. The fore- 1992, Calvet et al., 1997). Finally, the tween the two curves arises from light
ground extinction is assumed to follow photospheric fluxes at each band have originally emitted by the central object at
the wavelength dependence described been corrected for spectral features, visible wavelengths which has been ab-
by Rieke & Lebofsky (1985); although mostly flux redistribution by wide molec- sorbed by the circumstellar disk, and
important deviations from a universal ular absorption bands, using approxi- then re-emitted in the mid-infrared. The
law are known to exist in star-forming mate corrections to blackbody fluxes de- rather poor fit of the measurements at R
regions such as ρ Ophiuchi, they are un- rived from the models of Allard & and I is probably due to the combined
likely to be important in the far-red and Hauschildt (1995). effect of the broad passband of those fil-
infrared wavelengths used here (Mathis, Our best fit to the overall spectrum of ters, the steep continuum spectral ener-
1990). To model the circumstellar ex- Oph 2320.8–1721 is shown in Figure 2, gy distribution of the object, and the
cess, we have used a power law form and is represented by the solid line cor- complexity of the absorption features in
characterised by a single parameter, n, responding to a stellar photosphere plus that region. The best fit shown in Fig-
as defined by Adams et al. (1987). This a circumstellar disk reddened by fore- ure 2 is obtained for a luminosity of
approximation is found to reproduce to a ground extinction. The dotted line repre- 0.011 LA, corresponding to a mass of
good degree of accuracy the models of sents the contribution to the luminosity 0.04 MA. This mass estimate does not
disks around low-mass stars and cir- from the stellar photosphere alone, red- change if the assumed age of the object
cumstellar envelopes around protostars dened by the same amount of fore- is changed between 1.5 and 9 million

with the rather flat shape of the log(νƒν)
curve at longer wavelengths. New, high
signal-to-noise spectra of Oph 2320.8–
1721 in the H and K regions obtainable in
the near future with SOFI at the NTT
would help to further constrain the sur-
face temperature and gravity of this ob-
ject, thus giving independent estimates
of its temperature and luminosity. In the
meantime, however, we can say that the
identification of Oph 2320.8–1721 as a
young brown dwarf is already supported
by a very considerable amount of obser-
vational material.
Acknowledgements: We wish to
thank Jason Spyromilio for making a part
of his service observing time at the NTT
available to us, as well as to the ESO
staff providing support to the observa-
tions at the NTT and the 2.2-m telescope.
Based on observations with ISO, an ESA
project with instruments funded by ESA
Member States (especially the PI coun-
tries: France, Germany, the Netherlands
and the United Kingdom) with the partici-
Figure 2: Best fit to the available photometry of Oph 2320.8–1721. The data points correspond pation of ISAS and NASA.
from left to right to the following filters: R. I, J, H, K, L′, ISOCAM LW1, ISOCAM LW4, and N. The
solid line includes the contributions from the photosphere and the circumstellar excess, with the References
dotted line being the photospheric contribution alone. Both curves include a foreground redden-
ing of AV = 10 mag. Adams, F.C., Lada, C.J., Shu, F.H., 1987,
ApJ, 312, 788.
years, and keeps below the stellar limit consistent with the spectral features dis- Allard, F., Hauschildt, P.H., 1995, ApJ, 445, 433.
provided that the object is younger than cussed by Williams et al. (1995). On the Burrows, A., Hubbard, W.B., Saumon, D., Lu-
other hand, due to the deuterium burn- nine, J.I., 1993, ApJ, 406, 158.
15 million years, which is more than the Calvet, N., Hartmann, L., Strom , S.E., 1997,
expected lifetime of an embedded clus- ing phase which Oph 2320.8–1721 is ApJ, 481, 912.
ter and several times the estimated age presumably undergoing, its age is prac- Comerón, F., Rieke, G.H., Burrows, A., Rieke,
of the ρ Ophiuchi cluster. The circum- tically unconstrained by our fits. M.J. 1993, ApJ, 416, 185.
stellar excess, characterised by a spec- The long baseline in wavelength avail- Comerón, F., Rieke, G.H., Rieke, M.J., 1996,
tral index n = –1.6 (where n = –3 would able with the new measurements, plus ApJ, 473, 294.
correspond to a central source without the insensitivity of the fit to the assumed D’Antona, F., Mazzitelli, I., 1994, ApJS, 90, 467.
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protostar totally embedded in its enve- more robust than the ones presented in Mathis, J.S., 1990, ARA&A, 28, 37.
previous stages of this work. A signifi- Rebolo, R. (ed.), 1997, “Brown dwarfs and ex-
lope) further supports the youth of trasolar planets”, ASP Conf. Series, in press.
Oph 2320.8–1721. The required fore- cantly larger mass exceeding the stellar Rieke, G.H., Lebofsky, M.J., 1985, ApJ, 228, 618.
ground extinction to produce a good fit is limit, implying a greater luminosity, would Rieke, G.H., Rieke, M.J., 1990, ApJ, 362, L21.
AV = 10 mag, much less than the aver- require a substantial increase in the Williams, D.M., Comerón, F., Rieke, G.H.,
age extinction, AV p 50, deduced from amount of foreground extinction, which 1995, ApJ, 454, 144.
CO maps of the area, suggesting that would be incompatible with the detection
Oph 2320.8–1721 is placed near the of the object in R. Moreover, this would
front edge of the cloud. The effective decrease the required amount of circum- F. Comerón
temperature of the object, T = 2650 K, is stellar excess, making it inconsistent

PMS Binaries in Southern Molecular Clouds

Observed with ADONIS + COMIC
Laboratoire d’Astrophysique – Observatoire de Grenoble, France

1. Introduction T Tauri stars (TTS) have companions. tems because of the limited angular
Therefore, the study of Pre-Main- resolution of the available instruments
The process of low-mass star forma- Sequence (PMS) binary systems ap- (cameras, spectrographs, and polarime-
tion is now well known for producing a pears as a crucial key in understanding ters), or the limited signal-to-noise ratio
large fraction of binary and multiple sys- the process of star formation. However, of the observations. For instance, some
tems. This result is confirmed by many due to the increasing number of multiple observations of PMS binaries have al-
surveys (e.g. Reipurth & Zinnecker, systems at small projected separations, ready been performed in Speckle at
1993; Ghez et al., 1993; Leinert et al., the basic data do not exist for most of 2.2 µm (Ghez et al., 1993), but this was
1993), showing that most, if not all, the the individual members of these sys- mainly for a study of the binary-star fre-

Figure 1: Example of 5. The weather was excellent during the
successive (128 × overall run and the experiment ran
128) image planes smoothly during its first scientific run,
recorded in the L band thanks to the help of the ADONIS team.
alternatively on the
From the adaptive optics point of view,
source (ON chopping
mirror position) and TTS represent a tough challenge for the
on the nearby sky correction system since they are often
(OFF chopping mirror dimmer than V = 12 and most interest-
position). The image ing objects are often around V = 14. We
pattern is dominated have benefited from a new quadrant of
by the sky + telescope the ADONIS EBCCD and we have been
+ instrument thermal able to close the loop on the primary
background emission, (i.e. brighter) component of all our
with a large amplitude
sources, even one with a magnitude as
of several thousands
ADU over the image; high as V = 14.9 in the literature (V 536
no source is visible in Aql, Herbig and Bell, 1988). Every
the images at this source was observed using the primary
point of the data as a reference star. This solution ap-
reduction process. peared to work correctly for most of our
North is to the right, objects since there was high enough a
east down. Field of magnitude difference ∆m between the
view is 4.6 arcsec. primary and its companion. We had
some correction problems only once, on
a source with a ∆m too close to zero. In
such a case, the use of a numerical filter
quency and above all, the speckle ob- masses and ages through the use of an allows to reject the signal from the close
servations do not provide such a high HR diagram. At the same time, we will companion and to restore a good cor-
dynamical range as adaptive optics study the distribution of the circumstellar rection. We also observed PSF refer-
does. and circumbinary environment of our ence stars every other observation, i.e.
The bulk of the emission from TTS PMS targets, in order to study how the within 5 or 10 minutes on the average.
peaks in the near-infrared. The 1–5 µm eventual left-over material is distributed These PSF measurements will be used
range is therefore particularly well suited after contraction. as deconvolution calibrators to study the
for studying the Spectral Energy Dis- In this paper, we report on preliminary presence of dim circumstellar environ-
tribution of such objects and estimate results of an observing run that took ment around our objects. We also ob-
their luminosity and temperature. In- place in May 1996 and was the first sci- served photometric calibration stars
deed, the recent availability of a 3–5 µm entific observing run with COMIC. We every hour or so, so that we were able
window provided by COMIC allows to give some details of the observing pro- to determine the absolute photometry of
measure IR excesses at a high angular cedure with COMIC at 3 and 5 µm, both components in all the observed
resolution, thus giving access to circum- which appears non trivial because of the systems. We used approximately the
stellar accretion disks. Moreover, the high level of thermal emissivity of the same integration times in the JHK
separation distribution of PMS binaries close instrumental environment in these bands (during SHARP observations)
peaks at P 50 AU, corresponding to an wavebands. We compute an on-the- and LM bands (COMIC observations).
angular separation of P 0.3″ at the near- spot estimation of the limiting magnitude The large integration capacity of the
est star-forming region observable from that one can hopefully attain at L and M. COMIC detector allowed integration
ESO La Silla. We present some images and SEDs that times as high as 10 seconds in L and 6
The availability of the instrument have been obtained. The complete re- seconds in M. In fact, we always ad-
ADONIS + (SHARP / COMIC), which al- sults of this work will be presented in a justed the integration time to get ap-
lows to obtain images with a resolution forthcoming paper. proximately half of the saturation level in
down to P 0.2 arcsec or less in the the detector. In this configuration, the
range 1 to 5 µm (J, H, K, L and M 2. Observations read-out noise is limited by the sky
bands), with a field of view of the order of background statistical noise and the de-
10 arcsec, therefore provides a unique We have used ADONIS + COMIC on tector can be considered as perfect. The
opportunity to study the binarity among 3 nights in 1996, May 1 and 2 and May long integration times are not essential
PMS TTS. In practice, binaries with lin-
ear projected distance from 1500 AU
down to 30 AU at the ρ Oph cloud dis-
tance, can be resolved and imaged with Figure 2: Residual
close instrumental
a high signal-to-noise ratio. At such a background emission
distance, images can be obtained of bi- pattern after ON-OFF
naries with companion stars separated subtraction. The sky
by less than the canonical predicted size background contribu-
of an accretion disk (P 100 AU). tion has been
We have started a series of observa- subtracted and the
tions of PMS binary systems in order to source is now visible,
study the precise photometry of the bi- approximately in the
nary components from 1 to 5 µm in middle of the image.
The amplitude of the
these – often recently discovered – bi- residual background
nary systems. From these measure- pattern is only a few
ments we will characterise the stellar tens of ADU (scale at
Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of the right of the
the primary and its companion, adjust a image). Same
blackbody model to estimate their orientation and scale
luminosities and temperature, hence as Figure 1.

Figure 3: Line-by-line background emission that varies on
residual background short times, the close instrumental envi-
fitting and subtrac-
ronment emission is relatively stable (as
tion. Upper panel: the
source can be seen is its temperature) and does not need to
superimposed on the be measured very often.
background. This Data reduction has been performed
background signal is using the ECLIPSE package developed
fitted as a polynomial by N. Devillard at ESO (Devillard, 1997),
function (green line) and some other classical data reduction
outside the source packages (GRAPHIC and CLASS, two
position (red softwares developed in the Grenoble
window). The lower
panel shows the
Observatory, and also IRAF).
source and its We have removed the residual back-
companion after ground pattern in our images by fitting
background subtrac- a polynomial baseline on every line of
tion. The residual the image. We found that this was more
rms noise is of the efficient than trying to fit a 2-D surface
order of 1 ADU. on the overall image. In any case, this
implies that one defines some part of
the image or line where the fit proce-
dure must ignore the signal. We illus-
trate these various operations in Fig-
ures 1 to 3.

4. On Sky Performances

We have used our data to estimate

from the signal-to-noise point of view (3) double chopping: the mirror the image quality and the limiting mag-
but are very convenient to increase the moves successively to ON, OFF1, OFF2 nitude one can attain in the L and the M
acquisition efficiency (integration time positions in order to measure the sky bands. Figure 4 shows the image of a
compared to read-out time). background emission on two symmetri- binary (V 536 Aql, Monin et al., 1997),
cal positions around the star. This allows together with its associated PSF refer-
3. Some Hints for High Back- us to remove any sky emission gradi- ence star, obtained with COMIC in the L
ground COMIC Data Reduction ents, but doubles the close environment band. The images have been flat-
emission problem and we do not recom- fielded and corrected for bad pixels, but
The ADONIS bench allows us to use a mend to use it. Clearly, the double chop- no deconvolution was applied. The im-
tilt mirror to measure the sky emission ping cannot replace the beam-switching. age correction was incomplete, but two
on a nearby position. Three choices are Note that for extended sources where diffraction rings can be seen on the ob-
possible. the close background baseline emission ject and on the PSF, and the correction
(1) no chopping: then one has to move cannot easily be disentangled from the errors are the same on both images.
the telescope to measure the sky emis- source emission, the use of the simple Photometric measurements are already
sion. This is slow and we didn’t use it. chopping appears mandatory, and it is possible, and deconvolution will provide
(2) simple chopping: the mirror moves also required to measure the thermal a clean image of the binary. The L mag-
every few images to allow the camera to emission pattern of the close warm envi- nitude of the primary and the secondary
measure the sky emission. This allows ronment by performing a long enough are 7.1 and 8.2 respectively, and the
us to measure the sky emission if there is integration (with simple chopping) on an separation of the binary is 0.5″. These
no sky emission gradient. The main in- empty part of the sky. Contrary to the sky observations have been obtained with
convenient of this method is that the
close environment thermal emission pat-
tern changes between the ON and OFF
position of the mirror. As a consequence,
the sky emission is correctly suppressed
in the ON-OFF operation but a new
(lower) background pattern appears.
This effect is well known in thermal infra-
red imaging and requires a beam-switch-
ing technique (nodding) to be cancelled.
However, the ADONIS bench has been
mainly designed for visible and “optical”
near infrared (1–2.5 µm) observations,
and beam-switching is not currently
available. To cancel this effect, a solution
consists of storing images of an empty
part of the sky and record the close envi-
ronment thermal emission pattern, in or-
der to subtract it later from the observa-
tions. Unfortunately, we didn’t measure Figure 4: V536 Aql (left, LA = 7.1, LB = 8.2) image in the L band together with the PSF reference
star (right). Two diffraction rings are visible both on the main component of the binary on the
such a pattern during our observations right part of the image and on the PSF. One diffraction ring is visible around the dim secondary
and we only used the simple chopping of V536 Aql (the projected separation is 0.5 ″ at P.A. 17 °). North is to the right, east is down, and
mode on all our sources. This obliged us each image field of view is 2.2 ″. Note that the correction errors have not been “CLEANed” and
to estimate a posteriori the “baseline” are the same on the object and on the reference star. As an example, the small bright feature in
background in every image after pre- the first diffraction ring on top of each source (main component and psf, to the West) is an
processing with the ECLIPSE package. artifact.

lished in a forthcoming paper. We
present here some of the images after
global reduction process, including the
fit of the background baseline, but with-
out any deconvolution applied (see Fig-
ure 5). Our background fitting procedure
is equivalent to the spectral baseline fit-
ting and removal in radio line observa-
tions, and we did use the dedicated
CLASS package, developed at Greno-
ble Observatory and IRAM, for this pur-
Note that we have not yet co-added
all the available frames so that the sig-
nal-to-noise ratio can be upgraded in
some images, especially the ones
where the secondary is about ten times
fainter than the primary.
We have also obtained detailed SEDs
for the first time in the 1–5 µm range for
both components on close binary sys-
tems. We show one example of such re-
sults in Figure 6.
Most of our objects have never been
observed separately in the visible range.
Still, in some cases, when the luminosity
difference is large enough between both
components, we attributed the visible
magnitude value to the brighter one (i.e.
the primary). Then we fitted a blackbody
curve and a common visual absorption
to the SEDs of both components, as-
suming interstellar characteristics for the
dependence of the absorption on wave-
Figure 5: Sample images of close PMS binaries (V536 Aql, sep. 0.5 ″, SR9, sep. 0.6 ″, WSB20, length (this was the case for the SR9
sep. 0.7 ″). The orientation (north to the right and east down) and the image scale (field of view system shown in Figure 6). Another pos-
of 2.2 ″) are the same as in Figure 4. The respective name of the sources together with the
corresponding IR photometric band are indicated in the figure. In every image, the circle traces
sibility is to fit a blackbody to the J, H
the first diffraction ring around the secondary component. and K SED points of the fainter compo-
nent, and to subtract the corresponding
(fitted) V, R and I flux contribution from
the primary (brighter) component, be-
an integration time per frame of 8–10 5. First Binary Images and SEDs fore fitting this latter SED from R to H
second and the total integration time is (this was the case for the WSB20 sys-
of the order of 30 s. We have estimated The detailed data reduction is in tem, where both components have iden-
the limiting magnitude in the L band by progress; some preliminary results have tical flux to within a factor of two in the
comparing the background noise in the been published by Monin et al. (1997) range F to K).
image with the amplitude of the signal and the complete results, together with a In the case shown in Figure 6 (SR9),
on a photometric reference star. deeper analysis of our data will be pub- the components of the binary can be ap-
On HR 4523 (L = M = 3.3), we obtain
Llim(1 s, 1 σ) = 11. Marco et al. (1997)
have computed the theoretical limiting
performances of the COMIC camera
from laboratory measurements at
(900 s, 5 σ). If we scale their results to
(1 s,1 σ), we find Llim = 11.9. These two
estimates have been obtained with
completely different methods and ap-
pear very consistent. In the M band on
the same reference star, we obtain a
limiting magnitude of the order of Mlim =
8. This is a bit smaller than the theoreti-
cal estimates of Marco et al. (1997) and
can be explained by
(1) the fact that we have observed in
M with the objective optimised for JHK
which gives a resolution of 0.036″/pixel,
similar to that of SHARP1, but which
oversamples the image in M (Lacombe
et al., 1997).
(2) The influence of the close back-
ground thermal emission is strong and
can hardly be taken into account in a Figure 6: Spectral Energy Distribution of the components of the binary system SR9 (full trian-
priori performance estimations. gles) together with their corresponding fitted blackbody curves (see text for details).

proximately described by the respective observations, but this is not possible with been possible without the constant help
parameters: LA = 2.5 LA, TA = 3900 K, AV the current ADONIS setting. We there- and support of the ESO ADONIS team,
= 0.9 (same value for both components), fore recommend to calibrate the close and we are happy to thank here the ESO
LB = 0.25 LA, TB = 3800 K. There ap- background emission by measuring it ADONIS team for its great help and en-
pears to be an infrared excess over a regularly (less than every hour or so) on a thusiasm during the run. Hervé Geoffray
blackbody photosphere on the primary sky position empty of sources close to acknowledges one year of ESO
component of SR9, indicating the pres- the object position. This appears particu- studentship during which this study has
ence of a probable accretion disk. This larly important if one wishes to observe been performed.
example illustrates the advantage of a extended sources like galaxies. The
high angular resolution 3–5 µm imaging SED fitting procedure provides an ap- References
detector. proximate value for the visual absorption
and the effective temperature. The ac- Devillard, N., 1997, The Messenger, 87, 19.
6. Conclusion cess of the COMIC instrument to the 3– Ghez et al. 1993, AJ, 106, 200.
Herbig, G.H., and Bell, K.R, 1988, Third Cata-
5 µm window will allow us to detect the
We have used ADONIS + SHARP / log of Emission-Line Stars of the Orion Pop-
presence of accretion disks around close ulation, Lick Observatory Bulletin series.
COMIC to determine the SED of close binary components and study the rela- Lacombe et al., 1997, submitted.
PMS binaries in the full 1–5 µm range. tion of these disks with separation. A Leinert et al. 1993, A&A, 278, 12.
This new instrument available at the 3.6- more precise determination of the spec- Marco et al., 1997, submitted.
m telescope at ESO is very well suited for tral type of our binary targets will await Monin et al., 1997, in Poster Proceedings of
such scientific programmes. We have the availability of the GraF adaptive op- IAU Symp. No. 182, eds. Malbet &
used this result to determine the physical tics infrared spectrometer currently un- Castets, (1997), p. 230.
characteristics of both components of der tests at ESO. Reipurth & Zinnecker, 1993. A&A. 278, 81.
these close binaries. To take full advan-
tage of the 3–5 µm window on ADONIS + Acknowledgements. The adaptive E-mail address:
COMIC would require beam-switching optics observations would not have

An ESO 3.6-m/Adaptive Optics Search for Young

Brown Dwarfs and Giant Planets
1University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
2Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli, Italy
3Astronomisches Rechen-Institut Heidelberg, Germany
4Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, Germany

1. Extrasolar Planets and the mospheres, the energy distribution of poral luminosity evolution similar to
Brown Dwarf Gliese 229 B late-type dwarfs (and thus of young brown dwarfs. However, their luminosity
brown dwarfs and giant planets) is very LPMS decreases much slower than that
Only two years ago, the century-old peculiar. The molecular opacities that of brown dwarfs (e.g. LPMS Y t–0.7 for a
paradigm that other planetary systems globally define the continuum cause the pre-main-sequence star with a mass of
would be similar to our own solar system spectral energy distribution to peak 0.5 MA and an age between 105 and 108
started to change. The discovery of around 1.1 µm for solar metallicities, al- yr, D’Antona & Mazzitelli, 1994).
extrasolar giant planets and brown most independently of the effective tem- Figure 2 illustrates the evolution of the
dwarfs by monitoring radial velocities of perature. luminosity ratio of a 0.02 MA brown
nearby stars revealed that giant planets In Figure 1 we show on top a low- dwarf and a 0.50 MA star. Whereas at an
are not necessarily 5 to 30 AU away resolution spectrum of Gl 229 B (Op- age of 106 yr to 107 yr the luminosity ra-
from their sun but may orbit at much penheimer et al., 1995). Below, adaptive tio is in the range of P 0.1 to 0.03, it will
smaller (<< 1 AU) separations (Mayor & optics images obtained with ADONIS/ be two orders of magnitude smaller at an
Queloz, 1995, Marcy & Butler, 1996). SHARP and the circular variable filter (λ/ age of 109 yr. It will become increasingly
While radial velocity surveys are most ∆λ P 60) at three distinct wavelength harder to detect a brown dwarf next to
successful for discovering close com- bands on and off molecular absorption an “older” pre-main-sequence star or
panions, direct imaging allows one to bands are shown. The image scale was even a main-sequence star than next to
probe systems with larger separations 0.035″/pixel. Four two-minute expo- a young pre-main-sequence star – al-
for which radial velocity methods are not sures were coadded for each frame. No ways assuming that the star and the
sensitive. Indeed, Gl 229B, the first image deconvolution has been applied. brown dwarf are coeval. Studies of the
brown dwarf to be identified unambigu- individual components of pre-main-se-
ously, has a separation of 45 AU from quence binaries revealed that most of
the central star. It was discovered with 2. The Luminosity Evolution of them are indeed coeval (Hartigan et al.,
an adaptive optics coronograph at the Young Brown Dwarfs and 1994, Brandner & Zinnecker, 1997).
Palomar 1.5-m telescope (Nakajima et Giant Planets Because of the smaller brightness dif-
al., 1995, Oppenheimer et al., 1995). Di- ference, it should be much easier to de-
rect imaging of resolved objects also al- Younger brown dwarfs will have a
lows one to study their spectral features higher luminosity, their bolometric lumi- 1Note that these calculations did not consider
in detail. nosity LBD evolves with time t as LBD Y the fact that brown dwarfs with masses ≥ 13 MJupiter
As inferred by Allard & Hauschildt t–1.2 (Black, 1980, Burrows et al., 19951) will start Deuterium burning and might be consider-
(1995) from computations of model at- Pre-main-sequence stars exhibit a tem- ably brighter over a short period of time.

Figure 1: Top: Low-resolution spectrum of Gl 229 B (Oppenheimer et al., 1995). Bottom: Gl 229 B observed with adaptive optics (ADONIS) at the
ESO 3.6-m telescope on March 24, 1997 in wavelength bands centred on molecular absorption bands and in the continuum. At the wavelength
of a strong CH4 absorption band (1.64 µm), Gl 229 B is about 2 mag fainter than in the nearby “continuum” (1.57 µm). North is up and east is to
the left.

tect and resolve young brown dwarfs the associations. In the course of follow- (Brandner et al., 1996, Covino et al.,
and young giant planets as companions up observations visual and spectro- 1997, Köhler et al., in prep.) and ex-
to TTauri stars than their more evolved scopic binary stars were identified cluded from our final list as the complex
(older) counterparts. As explained
above, observations in the near-infrared
between 1.0 µm and 2.5 µm are suited

3. The Sample
Contrary to classical TTauri stars,
weak-line TTauri stars no longer pos-
sess massive circumstellar disks (e.g.
Beckwith et al., 1990). In weak-line
TTauri stars, the circumstellar matter
was either accreted onto the central star
or redistributed to form planetesimals or
– via disk fragmentation – to form di-
rectly giant planets or brown dwarfs.
Based on photometric and spectros-
copic studies of ROSAT sources (Alcalá
et al., 1995, Kunkel et al., in preparation)
we have selected an initial sample of
200 weak-line TTauri stars in the
Chamaeleon T association (cf. Fig. 3)
and the Scorpius-Centaurus OB asso-
ciation. Proper-motion studies (e.g.
Frink et al., 1997) as well as radial-ve- Figure 2: Temporal evolution of the luminosity ratio of a 0.02 MA brown dwarf and a 0.50 MA star
locity measurements (e.g. Covino et al., (“primary”), which after P 108 yr (dashed line) eventually settles on the main sequence as an
1997) helped to select member stars of M0-type star. The current location of Gl 229 B is indicated by a black dot.

be surveyed for faint brown dwarf or gi-
ant planet companions with HST/
First results of our survey are shown
in Figure 4. Follow-up observations are
necessary in order to verify that the T
Tauri star and its presumed companion
form a common proper-motion pair.
Adaptive-optics images in and out of
molecular bands (cf. Figure 1, see also
Rosenthal et al., 1996) will then provide
a first estimate of the effective tempera-
ture of the companion
Depending on the brightness differ-
ence between the primary and the low-
mass companion, our survey will be
sensitive to separations down to 0.20″,
i.e. 30 AU (comparable to the semi-ma-
jor axis of the orbit of Neptune) at a dis-
tance of 150 pc.
The new generation of 8-m- to 10-m-
class telescopes in combination with
adaptive optics will enable us to extend
Figure 3: Spatial distribution of classical (black dots) and weak-line (turquoise dots) T Tauri
stars in the Chamaeleon T association. Proper motions are indicated by blue arrows. IRAS this survey to substellar companions
100 µm contours indicate the location of the dark clouds. situated even closer to their central star.
From 1998 on, the Keck II telescope will
be equipped with adaptive optics (dif-
dynamics and gravitational interactions • When does planet formation take fraction limited at 2 µm) and thus be able
in binary systems might aggravate or place? to resolve separations as small as 15 AU
even completely inhibit the formation of • How common are young planetary at a distance of 150 pc. Adaptive optics
planets (depending on physical separa- systems? at the first VLT telescope should become
tion of the binary components and their • What type of environment encour- on-line in 2000. Diffraction limited
mass-ratio). We ended up with a final ages the formation of planetary sys- imaging at 1 µm would give a spatial
sample of about 70 presumably single tems? (T or OB associations?) resolution for faint companions of about
weak-line T Tauri stars. In Period 58 we started a systematic 8 AU at 150 pc.
search for substellar companions to Also in 2000, the first segment of the
4. Observations with Adaptive single weak-line T Tauri stars using VLTI as well as the Keck interferometer
Optics and HST ADONIS/SHARP at the ESO 3.6-m te- (equipped with adaptive optics) should
lescope. In total, about 50 G- and K- become operational. Both interferom-
The big questions are: type weak-line TTauri stars will be ob- eters will ultimately provide a resolution
• What are the time scales for disk dis- served. In addition, from July 1997 on, of 3 mas at 2 µm (less than 1 AU at 150
sipation? 24 M-type weak-line T Tauri stars will pc). Thus, also the inner region of young

Figure 4: Candidates for substellar companions of two weak-line T Tauri stars in Chamaeleon (ADONIS/ESO 3.6-m, March 1997). Follow-up
observations are necessary to discern physical companions from chance projections and to probe the physical properties of the companions.
North is up and east is to the left.

planetary systems will finally become re- Beckwith S.V.W., Sargent A.I., Chini R.S., Hartigan P., Strom K.M., Strom S.E. 1994,
solvable. Guesten R. 1990, AJ 99, 924. ApJ 427, 961.
Acknowledgements: We would like Black D.C. 1980, ICARUS 43, 293. Mayor M., Queloz D. 1995, Nature, 378, 355.
to thank Drs. Eva K. Grebel and Hans Brandner W., Alcalá J.M., Kunkel M., Moneti Marcy G.W., Butler R.P. 1996, ApJ 464, L147.
A., Zinnecker H. 1996, A&A 307, 121. Nakajima T., Oppenheimer B.R., Kulkarni
Zinnecker for helpful discussions and Brandner W., Zinnecker H. 1997, A&A 321, S.R. et al. 1995, Nature 378, 463.
comments. 220. Oppenheimer B.R., Kulkarni S.R., Matthews
Burrows A., Hubbard W.B., Lunine J.L. et al. K., Nakajima T. 1995, Science 270,
References 1995, Nature 375, 299. 1478.
Covino E., Alcalá J.M., Allain S., et al. 1997, Rosenthal E.D., Gyrwell M.A., Ho P.T.P. 1996,
Alcalá J.M., Krautter J., Schmitt J.H.M.M. et A&A, in press. Nature 384, 243.
al. 1995, A&AS 114, 109. D’Antona F., Mazzitelli I. 1994, ApJS, 90, 467.
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433. M.F. 1997, A&A, 325, 613. brandner@astro.uiuc-edu

The ESO Exhibition at the IAU General Assembly

in Kyoto, Japan
Like at previous IAU General Assem- of the VLT project. A scale model of the the e-mail terminals, the 35-square-
blies, ESO maintained an information VLT was on display and the stand also metre ESO stand quickly evolved into “a
stand with up-to-date information about featured daily screenings of ESO vid- meeting place at the meeting”, serving
the organisation and the current status eos. Located in the Event Hall next to as a venue for many informal discus-
sions as well as a contact point for ESO
staff and a steady stream of visitors
wishing to learn more about ESO’s ac-
Other exhibitors included the Gemini
Project, the National Astronomical Ob-
servatory of Japan (including SUBARU),
Space Agency of Japan) as well as com-
mercial exhibitors such as Carl Zeiss,
Toshiba, Kluwer Academic Publishers,
Cambridge University Press, etc.
Figure 1: With the Emperor and the Empress
in attendance, IAU President Prof. L. Woltjer
opens the General Assembly.
Figure 2: ESO’s stand was located be-
tween the National Observatory of Japan and
NASDA, in the huge “Event Hall”.

Figure 1 Figure 3: The ESO information stand – “a

meeting place at the meeting”.

Figure 2 Figure 3

Enhanced Resolution
with Two-Channel Deconvolution Codes
1. Deconvolution Codes formidable S/N barrier against achieving suspect that independent workers will
high resolution with such codes (Lucy, not find the same “simplest” solution.
In the last issue of The Messenger, 1992). Thus, if an astronomer concludes Clearly, procedures need to be formal-
Magain et al. (1997) presented impres- from a restored image that a factor 2 ised and preferably automated.
sive results obtained with a new de- improvement in resolution is required by
convolution code. In this code, the novel the science, then he must return to the 4. HST Proposals
idea of deconvolving with a narrower telescope and acquire an image with a
PSF (Snyder, 1990; Lucy, 1990) is com- factor 28 = 256 increase in signal. When evaluating proposals for HST
bined with an astrometric capability to For given S/N, there is a separation A2 time, the TAC Review Panels are in-
construct a more powerful two-channel above which deconvolution can resolve structed to ask themselves whether the
code than that developed at the ST-ECF a double star, and another separation A3 project can be done from the ground and
some years ago (Lucy, 1993, Hook & < A2 below which the image does not to reject proposals when the answer is
Lucy, 1993). In the ST-ECF code, the differ significantly from that of a single yes. As they stand, the strong claims by
artefact of ringing around stars super- star. For intermediate separations, the Magain et al. will therefore impact nega-
posed on diffuse emission was elimi- slightly elongated image can be decom- tively on future proposals to use HST to
nated by adding a second channel com- posed into two stars with a 2-channel resolve star fields in nearby galaxies.
prising only point sources, with the first code by suitably initiating the 2nd chan- Accordingly, astronomers interested in
channel then restricted to modelling the nel with two δ-functions. But one is then such studies need to test whether what
distributed emission. The great merit of making the hypothesis or introducing is possible in principle on the basis of
this innovation was that the code is no prior information that the object is dou- photon statistics is in fact achievable in
longer faced with the impossible task of ble. In contrast, when a double star is practice. There must be many fields that
reconstructing δ-functions: the investi- resolved at the telescope or with single- could be decomposed into stars with the
gator designates certain objects (stars, channel deconvolution, no hypothesis or Liège code and then compared to
AGN) as δ-functions and the code then prior information is required. “ground truth” in the form of an image
proceeds to fit the data using its exact Having decomposed an elongated from the HST archive. Such tests should
knowledge of their profiles in the image stellar image into two δ-functions, we be carried out and evaluated by inde-
plane. Test calculations show that the can construct a “restored” image by pendent users.
amplitudes of these δ-functions yield convolving with a PSF of our choice. For The above concern does not arise for
high-precision, unbiased magnitudes, example, we could choose the Airy func- HST proposals to resolve structure in
even for crowded fields (Hook & Lucy, tion with 1st zero at 0.014″ and claim the nebulae and galaxies. For such objects,
1993; Magain et al., 1997). imaging capability of a perfect 10-m we lack a physical model – the equiva-
In an ST-ECF Newsletter article space telescope – and the diffraction lent of the δ-functions for stars – and so
(Hook at al., 1994), we applied our code rings would be proof! In reality, of ground-based images cannot be de-
to an image of 3C 48 and found that the course, the space telescope, by reveal- composed in the same way. We are
nuclear regions hosting the AGN were ing additional stars or extended emis- therefore then left with the modest reso-
indeed restored free from the ringing sion, might well disprove the hypothesis lution enhancement achievable with a
strongly evident in a Richardson-Lucy underpinning the decomposition. single-channel code, and this is not seri-
restoration. In their Figure 1, using a ously competitive with post-COSTAR
simulated image, Magain et al. similarly 3. Compact Star Clusters HST images.
exhibit their two-channel code’s superi-
ority relative to an R-L restoration. The degenerate case of a compact
Note that the successful elimination of cluster is a close double star. For this References
ringing derives fundamentally from giv- case, numerical experiments at the ST-
ing the code, via the 2nd channel, prior ECF indicate that, if the only limitation is Lucy, L.B. 1990, in The Restoration of HST
information that the image contains photon statistics, decomposition into Images and Spectra, eds. R.L. White &
point sources. A single-channel code R.J. Allen, p. 80.
components is achievable with precision
Lucy, L.B. 1992, Astron. J. 104, 1260.
that deconvolves with a narrower PSF and without bias, even for sub-pixel Lucy, L.B. 1993, in The Restoration of HST
and with an appropriately finer pixel- separations. Images and Spectra – II, eds. R.J. Hanisch
lation than the observed image – i.e., Accordingly, the decomposition of & R.L. White, p. 79.
with “correct” sampling – is still prone to ground-based images of compact clus- Hook, R.N., & Lucy, L.B. 1993, in The Resto-
this artefact, though with reduced ampli- ters with a 2-channel code is potentially ration of HST Images and Spectra – II,
tude and angular scale (Lucy, 1990). a powerful technique, even without an eds. R.J. Hanisch & R.L. White, p. 86.
HST image as a guide as earlier envis- Hook, R.N., Lucy, L.B., Stockton, A., & Ridg-
way, S. 1994, ST-ECF Newsletter, No. 21,
2. Resolution aged (Lucy, 1993). Nevertheless, such p. 16.
decompositions are not unique, since Magain, P., Courbin, F., & Sohy, S. 1997, The
Astronomers define the resolution of any star can be replaced by two fainter Messenger, No. 88, p. 28.
a telescope as the separation A1 of an ones with negligible separation. In this Snyder, D.L., 1990, in The Restoration of
equal component double star that is just circumstance, we of course seek the HST Images and Spectra, eds. R.L. White
discernible as double. With the same simplest solution consistent with the & R.J. Allen, p.56.
definition, one finds that single-channel data. However, if the decomposition is
deconvolution codes can indeed en- made interactively and sequentially and L. Lucy
hance resolution. However, there is a results in several tens of stars, one may


Staff Astronomers on La Silla
Two staff astronomer positions at the La Silla Observatory are available starting in 1997 to integrate the teams responsible for the
operation of the New Technology Telescope (NTT) and the medium-size telescopes (MPI 2.2-m, ESO 1.5-m, Danish 1.5-m, and Dutch
0.9-m) The telescope teams are multidisciplinary teams of 10–15 persons including astronomers, technicians, engineers, and night assist-
ants. They are fully responsible for operations and are supported in the specialised technical areas by technicians and engineers from the
so-called support teams (Optics, Detectors, IR, Mechanics, Electronics, and Software). There are 4 telescope teams in total. The scientific
staff of each team consists of 2 staff astronomers and 2–4 post-doctoral fellows. Staff astronomers and fellows share the responsibilities of
instrument support, acting as instrument scientists in charge of direct support of visiting astronomers at the telescope, documentation,
upgrades, calibration plans and on-line data reduction facilities.
La Silla staff astronomers are based at the ESO centre in Santiago, and are required to spend at least 105 nights per year at La Silla. In
addition to providing full services to support scientific research (library, computers, seminars, etc.), the ESO centre in Vitacura maintains a
graduate student programme which provides funds for students of European universities to spend up to 2 years in Chile working towards
their Ph.D. theses, in collaboration with astronomers from the ESO staff.
One of the staff astronomers acts, on a rotating basis, as Team Leader and as such assumes the task of providing supervision and
motivation to all members of the team. Team Leaders are responsible for administrating the Team’s budget and monitoring the performance
of the team members. Team Leaders report to the Observatory Director and are members of the Observatory Management Team. They
receive managerial and administrative support from the Observatory Management for budgeting and personnel issues.
A Ph.D. in astronomy or equivalent degree and several years of post-doctoral experience in the areas of high dispersion optical
spectroscopy, infrared imaging and/or spectroscopy, faint object photometry/spectroscopy, or adaptive optics is required. Staff astronomers
must be able to provide sound scientific judgements on the many technical issues facing a modern observatory, and ESO therefore requires,
and strongly supports and encourages staff astronomers to carry out dynamic and independent research programmes, using La Silla
telescopes as well as facilities at other observatories. Active publication in leading journals is considered essential. Staff astronomers use up
to 50 % of their time on research and are supported with excellent facilities and generous travel grants to attend conferences, work with
collaborators and visit other observatories. Proven capability of working (or leading) in multidisciplinary teams will be an advantage.
Staff Astronomer contracts are for an initial period of 3 years, which may be extended up to another three years, with the possibility of an
indefinite contract offer after the fifth contractual year.
Applications and four letters of recommendation should be submitted to ESO Personnel Services, Garching, by November 28, 1997.


Proceedings International Staff (1 July – 31 October)
The proceedings of the following ESO Astrophysics Symposia ARRIVALS
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(Ed. H.U. Käufl and R. Siebenmorgen) SLIJKHUIS, Remco (NL), Student
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• “Quasar Hosts – Low to High Redshift” (Eds. D. Clements EUROPE
and I. Perez-Fournon) BALLEMANS, Irma (NL), Adm. Asst. (Archives)
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MÜLLER, Karen (ZA), Student
ANDERSEN, Torben (DK), Senior Systems Analyst Uzbek Astronomy Looking
EISENHUTH, Dorothea (D), Secretary to the DG
EMSELLEM, Eric (F), Fellow Ahead Towards the Future
YAN, Lin (RC), Fellow
A co-operation agreement between ESO, Nice University, Mos-
CHILE cow Sternberg Institute and Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute of
MARTIN, Pierre (CDN), Fellow the Uzbek Academy of Science will be funded by INTAS (Interna-
ATTERSJÖ, Hans (S), Electronics Engineer tional association for the promotion of co-operation with scien-
METANOMSKI, Agnès (F), Student tists from the New Independent States of the former Soviet Union
PRIETO, Eric (F), Optical Engineer (NIS)). The accepted proposal aims at the ‘Characterisation of
STORM, Jesper (DK), Astronomer Maidanak Observatory among the Major International Ground
PANTIN, Eric (F), Fellow Based Astronomical Facilities of the Future’ and covers the pe-
riod 1998–1999 during which a number of site monitoring cam-
paigns are planned and local instrumentation will be developed.
Local Staff (1 July – 31 October) Launched in 1983 in answer to the financial difficulties faced by
many NIS scientists and in order to allow them to pursue their
work, INTAS initiative is jointly financed by the EU and its Mem-
ARRIVALS ber States, Norway, Switzerland and Israel. Together with the
332 newly selected projects of the INTAS Call 1996 for 19 million
CAMUZET, Blanca (RCH), Data Handling Operator ECU, more than 1,500 research projects covering natural and
AGUAYO, Ana Maria (RCH), Application Programmer exact sciences as well as social sciences have already received
IBSEN, Jorge (RCH), Application Programmer INTAS support (source European Commission RTD Info Issue 16
RIVEROS, Ivonne (RCH), Purchasing Assistant and
Contacts between ESO and Uzbek astronomy were initiated in
DEPARTURES March 1996 in the frame of the ESPAS (ESO Search for Potential
Astronomical Sites) Working Group. A probe survey started in
LEVIN, Cristian (RCH), Informatics Engineer August 1996 confirmed the excellent seeing quality of Maidanak
GONZALEZ, Germán (RCH), Administrative Assistent Paranal Observatory (38°41′ North, 65°55′ East, 2600 m altitude) and
Logistics prompted the joint funding request. Thanks to the INTAS grant,
MELLA, Sergio (RCH), Electrician five young Uzbek scientists will receive financial support during
ROJAS, Waldo (RCH), Driver the next two years. M. SARAZIN
PEREZ, José (RCH), Photograph Unit Technician

List of Scientific Preprints 1231. S. Benetti et al.: Supernova 1994AJ: A Probe for Pre-Super-
nova Evolution and Mass Loss from the Progenitor. M.N.R.A.S.
(March–September 1997) 1232. P. Martin, D. Friedl: Star Formation in Bar Environments. I. Mor-
phology, Star Formation Rates and General Properties. A&A.
1213. L. Pasquini and P. Molaro: Lithium Observations in 47 Tuc. 1233. P. François, J. Danziger, R. Buonanno, M.N. Perrin: Metallicity
A&A. of the Young Halo Globular Cluster Ruprecht 106. A&A.
1214. F. Comerón, J. Torra, F. Figueras: Understanding some Moving 1234. L. Kaper et al.: Coordinated Ultraviolet and Hα Spectroscopy of
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IRAS Candidates. A&A. Young Stellar Objects Discovered by Near-Infrared Speckle
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Galaxies. III. M/L Determinations Based on Triaxial Models. 1236. F. Comerón: Dynamical Evolution of Wind-Driven HII Regions
A&A. in Strong Density Gradients. A&A.
1217. M. Scodeggio, R. Giovanelli, M.P. Haynes: An Economical 1237. P.-A. Duc, E. Brinks, J.E. Wink, I.F. Mirabel: Gas Segregation in
Technique for the Estimate of Galaxy Distances: The Photomet- the Interacting System Arp 105. A&A.
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1218. T. Böhm, G.A. Hirth: Forbidden Lines in Herbig Ae/Be Stars. From Discovery to HST. To appear in IAU Symposium No. 182
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Evidence for a Recently Formed Bar in an Archetype Barred with the Photoelectric Scanner CORAVEL. VIII. Observations of
Spiral Galaxy. M.N.R.A.S. 471 Giant Stars in ω Centauri.
J.R. Walsh, J.-R. Roy: The O/H Distribution in the Transition 1240. D. Merritt, G. Meylan, M. Mayor: The Stellar Dynamics of
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Massive Disk Galaxy Accreting Its Satellites? AJ. 1242. J.R. Walsh, G. Dudziak, D. Minniti, A.A. Zijlstra: Chemical Abun-
1222. L. Pasquini, S. Randich, R. Pallavicini: Lithium in M67: Evi- dances of Planetary Nebulae in the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical
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ESO, the European Southern Observa- ESO Conference Proceedings Still Available
tory, was created in 1962 to . . . establish
A number of ESO conference and workshop proceedings are still available. To permit you to
and operate an astronomical observatory
complete the series or simply to inform you about any volume that you may have missed, we
in the southern hemisphere, equipped reproduce here a list of some of the more recent ones.
with powerful instruments, with the aim of
furthering and organising collaboration in
No. Title Price
astronomy . . . It is supported by eight
countries: Belgium, Denmark, France, 45 ESO/EIPC Workshop “Structure, Dynamics and Chemical Evolution DM 90.—
Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden of Elliptical Galaxies”, 1993
and Switzerland. It operates the La Silla 46 Second ESO/CTIO Workshop on Mass Loss on the AGB and DM 70.—
observatory in the Atacama desert, 600 Beyond, 1993
km north of Santiago de Chile, at 2,400 m 47 5th ESO/ST-ECF Data Analysis Workshop, 1993 DM 30.
altitude, where fourteen optical telescopes 48 ICO-16 Satellite Conference on “Active and Adaptive Optics”, 1994 DM 90.—
with diameters up to 3.6 m and a 15-m 49 ESO/OHP Workshop on “Dwarf Galaxies”, 1994 DM 90.—
submillimetre radio telescope (SEST) are 50 ESO/OAT Workshop “Handling and Archiving Data from Ground- DM 35.—
now in operation. The 3.5-m New Technol- based Telescopes”, 1994
ogy Telescope (NTT) became operational 51 Third CTIO/ESO Workshop on “The Local Group: Comparative and DM 50.—
in 1990, and a giant telescope (VLT = Very Global Properties”, 1995
Large Telescope), consisting of four 8-m 52 European SL-9/Jupiter Workshop, 1995 DM 80.—
telescopes (equivalent aperture = 16 m) is 53 ESO/ST-ECF Workshop on “Calibrating and understanding HST and DM 60.—
under construction. It is being erected on ESO instruments”, 1995
Paranal, a 2,600 m high mountain in 54 OSA/ESO Topical Meeting on “Adaptive Optics”, 1996 DM 80.—
northern Chile, approximately 130 km
south of Antofagasta. Eight hundred sci-
entists make proposals each year for the
use of the telescopes at La Silla. The ESO Contents
Headquarters are located in Garching,
near Munich, Germany. It is the scientific, TELESCOPES AND INSTRUMENTATION
technical and administrative centre of
ESO where technical development pro-
A. Kaufer, B. Wolf, J. Andersen, L. Pasquini: FEROS, the Fiber-fed
grammes are carried out to provide the La
Silla observatory with the most advanced Extended Range Optical Spectrograph for the ESO 1.52-m
instruments. There are also extensive fa- Telescope .................................................................................................. 1
cilities which enable the scientists to ana- M. Sarazin: ESO Internal Workshop on Forecasting Astronomical
lyse their data. In Europe ESO employs Observing Conditions — 29–30 May 1997. Predicting Observing
about 200 international Staff members, Conditions at ESO Observatories – Reality and Perspectives .................. 5
Fellows and Associates; at La Silla about Sunset on Paranal ............................................................................................ 10
50 and, in addition, 150 local Staff mem- G. Mathys: News from the NTT ......................................................................... 11
bers. C. Madsen: ESO at the Leipzig Fair ................................................................. 13


times a year: normally in March, June,
September and December. ESO also pub- P.-A. Duc, I.F. Mirabel: Tidal Dwarf Galaxies ..................................................... 14
lishes Conference Proceedings, Preprints, M.C. Festou, M. Gunnarsson, A. Winnberg, H. Rickman, G. Tancredi:
Technical Notes and other material con- The Activity of Comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 Monitored
nected to its activities. Press Releases in- Through the CO J(2–1) Emission Line at 230 GHz ................................... 18
form the media about particular events. V. de Lapparent, G. Galaz, S. Arnouts, S. Bardelli, M. Ramella: The ESO-
For further information, contact the ESO
Sculptor Faint Galaxy Survey: Large-Scale Structure and Galaxy
Information Service at the following ad-
Populations at 0.1 l pzl p 0.5 .................................................................... 21
L. Kaper, F. Comerón, J. Th. van Loon, A.A. Zijlstra: Massive Stars Running
EUROPEAN Through Space .......................................................................................... 28
SOUTHERN OBSERVATORY F. Comerón, P. Claes, G. Rieke: Oph 2320.8–1721, a Young Brown Dwarf
Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2 in the ρ Ophiuchi Cluster: Views from the Ground and from Space ......... 31
D-85748 Garching bei München J.-L. Monin, H. Geoffray: PMS Binaries in Southern Molecular Clouds
Germany Observed with ADONIS + COMIC ............................................................ 33
Tel. (089) 320 06-0 W. Brandner, J.M. Alcalá, S. Frink, M. Kunkel: An ESO 3.6-m/Adaptive
Telex 5-28282-0 eo d Optics Search for Young Brown Dwarfs and Giant Planets ...................... 37
Telefax (089) 3202362 C. Madsen: The ESO Exhibition at the IAU General Assembly in Kyoto, (internet)
Japan ........................................................................................................ 40
ESO::IPS (decnet)


The ESO Messenger:
Editor: Marie-Hélène Demoulin L.B. Lucy: Enhanced Resolution with Two-Channel Deconvolution Codes ...... 41
Technical editor: Kurt Kjär

Druckbetriebe Lettner KG
Georgenstr. 84 ESO Astrophysics Symposia Proceedings ....................................................... 42
D-80799 München Personnel Movements ...................................................................................... 42
Germany List of Scientific Preprints .................................................................................. 42
M. Sarazin: Uzbek Astronomy Looking Ahead Towards the Future .................. 43
ISSN 0722-6691 ESO Publications Still Available ........................................................................ 43