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# 1.0 Introduction Tension is one of the important studies in a mechanics of material field.

It can contribute to failure if not handle carefully. For us to determine how will material react to tension, a simple test know as tensile stress was carried out. In this test, specimen (for our case, we will be using mild steel as our specimen) will be locked the jaw grip and it will be pulled until break. From this test also we can determine its elongation as well as its other properties such as tensile stress or strain and modulus of elasticity. From the curve, we will be able to point out characteristics of sample when reacted to tension. For the specimen we uesed, it has I shape. For our test, we were using mild steel strip.It has two shoulders and a gauge between them. Failure will happen in the gauge area. Via tensile test, ductility of metal can be accurately determined as it is related to the change of length in gage divided by original length of gage. By referring to a book, the experimental results were compared to theoritical results. 2.0 Theory For the characteristics of material to be determined when tension is applied to it, tensile test was done. Tensile test is a test where the specimen or material is being pull until it is break. From this test, some characteristics such as yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, Youngs modulus, and strain can be determined. Tensile stress can be found by using

Where P =Load or stress applied A= cross-sectional area Tensile stress is a stress that occured when load is being applied tends to cause specimen to elongate in the axis where load is being applied. When a material being loaded in tension are susceptible to stress concentraion. However ductile material can withstand some defects unlike brittle material where it can fail under their ultimate strength.Yield stress can be defined as a stress where the plastic deformation is starting to take place as the specimen or material being loaded. Ultimate tensile stress can be defined as the maximum load that material can withstand and its depending on material used in the test. Young modulus of elasticity, E is the measure of stiffness and only occured or applied in the linear region of the Hookes law. Linear region is a region where the specimen or material can return to its original condition after load being removed and this is where Hookes law is being applied. A condition where specimen cant return to its original condition and where deformation might occur is known as proprotional limit. From here, the specimen reacts plastically to further increment of load or stress and it also can be in unstressed form if loadbeing removed. Strain can be defined as absolute changes in length. It can be divided into two types which are engineering strain where the changes of length is being divided by original length and true strain where its based on the instantaneous length of the specimen as in test progression.

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## , Engineering Strain where L = final length L = initial length L = instantaneous length

, True strain

Another factor that plays important role in this test is stress-strain curve. From this curve many useful infromations can be found such as type of material used, modulus of elasticity, E and modulus of rigidity,G, yield stress and more.

## Figure1. Example of common stress-strain curve

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As we can see in the elastic region, stress is directly proportional to strain and they are doing well. Here, slope can be found thus E can be obtained as it is a product of stress divided by strain. In this region also specimen can return to its original form when load is released. In the yielding region, plastic behaviors starts to take place. In yielding region, defromtaion started to occur and continue as the stress increases as it reached ultimate stress. After ultimate stress, the stress reading started to decrease and here necking process takes place until fracture happened. Stress-strain curve can be divided into two groups which are ductile material stressstrain curve and brittle material stress-strain curve. Ductile materials consist of steel, alloys, iron and as wellas other metals meanwhile brittle material consistof ceramics, concrete, carbon fiber and more. One thing that distinguish ductile from brittle stressstrain curve is brittle stress-strain curved does not has yield strength.

Figure2. Example of ductile and brittle material stress-strain curved Well-defined yield point is hard to be found in less ductile material as compared to high ductile material. There are two types of yield points which are upper and lower yield points.

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The ductility of material is an important factor that should be taken into account especially when forming operations are about to be done. It can be defined as a measure of the extent to which a deformation of material will occur before it ruptures. Ductility can be measured by measured by elongation and reduction of area at the fractire region. Elongation can be defined as change in axial length divided by the original length of the specimen or portion of the specimenand normally expressed in percentage. As an appreciable fraction of the plastic deformation will be concentrated in the necked region of the tensile specimen, the value of elongation depending upon the gage length over which the measurement is taken. The smaller the gage length the greater the large localized strain in the necked region will factor into the calculation. 3.0 Experimental Procedure 3.1 Apparatus* PICTURE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1.0 Instron tensile test machine 2.0 Mild Steel 3.0 Vernier Calliper 3.2 Procedure* PICTURES!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1.0 The initial length of specimen and the thickness of specimen were taken by using vernier calliper. 2.0 Universal magnetic joint the being placed near to where specimen being located. Note that the pin securely attached. 3.0 Specimen then added into the jaw and securely tight until it cant move by applying some load. The load was applied by streering the wheel anticlockwise. 4.0 The load gauge and the extension gauge both then being reset into zero. 5.0 First load being applied is zero. Then the wheel was rotate in anticlockwise direction to 20mm. Note that the extension reading then being times with 0.01 mm. 6.0 Load reading at the large gauge is being recorded. Note that load is being multiples with 0.05kN. 7.0 After that, the extension value being up to 0.04 mm and the load reading is being recorded. Step 7.0 was repeated by increase the extension reading by 0.02 mm until specimen fracture. Note that although that some points the load readings may be constant, keep on recording the data. 8.0 The fracture specimen was attached together and the final length was record.

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## Initial length Figure Specimen Final Condition:

Width

Width Final length Specimen 4.2 Dimensions 1.0 Initial length: 38.012 mm 2.0 Final length: 50.006 mm 3.0 Width: 3.048 mm 4.0 Thickness: 1.016 mm

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4.3 Tabulation of data Load, kN 0 0.300 0.500 0.550 0.600 0.625 0.650 0.700 0.725 0.750 0.775 0.800 0.800 0.700 0.825 0.825 0.825 0.825 0.825 0.850 0.875 0.875 0.875 0.875 0.900 0.900 0.900 0.900 0.900 0.900 0.900 0.900 0.900 0.900 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925
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Extension,mm 0 0.200 0.400 0.600 0.800 1.000 1.200 1.400 1.600 1.800 2.000 2.200 2.400 2.600 2.800 3.000 3.200 3.400 3.600 3.800 4.000 4.200 4.400 4.600 4.800 5.000 5.200 5.400 5.600 5.800 6.000 6.200 6.400 6.600 6.800 7.000 7.200 7.400 7.600 7.800 8.000 8.200 8.400 8.600 8.800 9.000

Stress, MPa 0 96.874 161.457 177.603 193.748 201.821 209.894 226.040 234.113 242.185 250.258 258.331 258.331 226.040 266.404 266.404 266.404 266.404 266.404 274.477 282.550 282.550 282.550 282.550 290.622 290.622 290.622 290.622 290.622 290.622 290.622 290.622 290.622 290.622 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695

Strain 0 0.005 0.010 0.016 0.021 0.026 0.032 0.037 0.042 0.047 0.053 0.058 0.063 0.064 0.074 0.079 0.084 0.089 0.094 0.100 0.105 0.110 0.115 0.121 0.126 0.131 0.137 0.142 0.147 0.152 0.158 0.163 0.168 0.174 0.179 0.184 0.189 0.195 0.200 0.205 0.210 0.215 0.221 0.226 0.231 0.237

0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.925 0.900 0.875 0.825 0.750 4.4 Sample of Calculation

9.200 9.400 9.600 9.800 10.000 10.200 10.400 10.600 10.800 11.000 11.200 11.400 11.600 11.800 12.000 12.200 12.400 12.600 12.800 13.000 13.200

298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 298.695 290.622 282.550 266.404 242.185

0.242 0.247 0.252 0.258 0.263 0.268 0.273 0.279 0.284 0.289 0.295 0.300 0.305 0.310 0.315 0.321 0.326 0.331 0.337 0.342 0.347

## A = 3.048 mm 1.016 mm = 3.0968 mm or 3.0968 10^6 m

Load = 0.3kN = (0.3k) / (3.0968 10^6) = 96.8742 MPa Strain, = (L-L ) / L Load = 0.3kN = (0.0002 ) / (0.0380) = 5.2632E-3

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## 4.5 Graph 4.5.1 Load vs Extension

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 10 20 30 40 Extension,mm 50 60 70 80

1 Indicators:

1 : Proportional Limit = 0.550 kN 2: Yield Point = 0.625kN 3: Ultimate load = 0.925kN 4: Fracture point = 0.750kN

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## Stress, MPa vs Strain

350 300 Stress, MPa 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 Strain 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4

1 Indicators:

1 : Proportional Limit = 177.603 MPa 2: Yield Point = 201.821 MPa 3: Ultimate stress or load =298.695 MPa 4: Fracture point = 242.185 MPa Youngs Modulus, E = 16.146 GPa Plastic region occurs after number 1 until number 4 for both graphs meanwhile elastic region in a region between 0 to number 1

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4.6 Actual characteristic of material tested From the graphs plotted, we can say that our tested material is a dcutile material. This is because the form of stress versus strain obtained is nearly the same with theoritical ductile material stress-strain diagram. For ductile material, the region of plastic deformation is bigger compared to elastic region. The cracking process occurs slowly and only extended if stress being applied to specimen. Besides that, as the test goes on we observed that before specimen breaks into two, it undergoes large necking surface and has yield strength. Apart from that, we were using mild steel as our specimen and as we know, mild steel is one of the ductile material. Ductile material made up from steel, aluminium and other metal and alloy. After fracture happened, we can see that the surface of fracture is rough and irregular. 4.7 Actual energy needed Actual energy needed = Force Distance = 0.75Kn 13.200mm = 9.9 Joule 4.8 Pictures of specimen before and after fracture PICTURES!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Before: After: 5.0 Discussion Nurul Ain bt Norhisham (2012684918) PICTURE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! The tested specimen is following international standards. This is because the tested specimen has the same shape where it has two shoulders and a gauge in between. Besides that standardized specimens were manufactured with a around or square section along the gauge length depeinding on standard used. The specimens ends also frimly gripped the jaws during testimg which shows that it follows the given standard.

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In doing experiment, errors may occur as due to many factors such as machine fatigue, misreading the information, wrong procedure done, and more. We can minimize these errors by taking these steps. For parallax errors we can avoid them by placing our eys vertically above the marking on the scale to be read, placing our metre-rule on the edge besides the object to be measured in order for the scale to touch it and use a thin rule so tat the scale can touch the object. Besides that, we also can compare our result with others so that we can detect any peculiar readings. If possible, we should calibrate our apparatus and procedure in one test on a know quantity similar in size and type with our unknown quantities. Using a linear-measurement apparatus or specimen also can help in minimizing errors. From the broken specimen we can say that the surface are rough and irregular. This is because cracking process happened slowly which cause plastic region large. Becasue it is a ductile material, we can see there is necking in the gauge. 6.0 Conclusion Nurul Ain Binti Norhisham (2012684918) As a conclusion we can conclude that our test is a success as we able to obtained stress-strain curve, Youngs modulus and other infromations and the specimen does break at load of 0.750kN at 13.200 mm. Besides that, we also able to identify that our specimen is a ductile material.

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