1

An Analysis of Urbanization in India during the Period of 1981 to 2001

MS Irfana Samdani*

Introduction Urbanization is the transformation of traditional rural economics to modern industrial one. In 1800, only 2 percent of the world population lived in urban areas. According to latest report of United Nation the number has grown to 3 billions and in 2007, it crossed another milestone, more than half of the world population lives is urban area. If this movement continues in 2050, nearly 2/3 rd of world population live in cities. In present time urbanization is differ from region to region and from country to country. The process of economic liberalization and associated structure reforms would speed - up Rural-Urban (RU) migration and boost the pace of urbanization. Linking the Indian Economy to Global Economic would lead to massive inflow of foreign capital as also rise indigenous investment relating in an increase in employment opportunities with in and around the existing urban centers. However there is an argument on the employment generation in urban economy is not due to capital intensive nature of industrialization but due to the low rate of investment in public sector in an attempt to control the budgetary deficit would result in slowing down the agriculture and agro-industrial growth which could result in high rate of unemployment in rural areas. It would result in high growth of population in urban areas leads to unregulated expansion of informal sectors. Recent data of population in urban centers, question the preposition of accelerated urban population growth. Objectives In this article an attempt are made to study and examine some issues related with the urbanization India over a century during the period of 1901- 2001 census. Its try to analysis the trend and pattern of urbanization to the extend of city development plans and its effect on urban government. *Ms Irfana Samdani, PhD Scholar Osmania University. Working as faculty with Cygmax Institute of Management, S.R Nagar Hyderabad.

Urbanization pattern: Interstate Analysis

2 The important feature of urbanization in India Is – urban growth at macro level is slow but the expansion of cities is rapid. It’s analyzed that the distribution of urban population across size categories revels that the process of urbanization in India had been large city oriented. This an evident from the table number 1 that the high percentage of urban population being concentrated in cities, which has gone up systematically in the last century. The details are given in table number 1 Table Number 1 Statement Showing Average Monthly Per Capita Expenditure And Percentage Poor In Different Sixe Classes Of Cities/ Towns during the period 198788,1993-94 and 1999-2000 Sl. No 1 Million – Plus Cities 2 Medium Towns(50,000 To One Million) 3 Small Towns(Less Than 50,000) 4 5 All Urban Centers Rural Areas 246 158 458 281 Percentage Poor 1 Million – Plus Cities 2 Medium Towns(50,000 To One Million) 3 Small Towns(Less Than 50,000) 4 5 All Urban Centers Rural Areas 41.2 47.6 31.4 41.0 27.4 35.7 19.9 23.9 45.3 36.2 33.2 24.2 40.3 32.2 27.6 20.4 35.2 22.6 18.4 14.2 465 26 855 486 210 378 382 700 242 445 453 831 City/Town Size 1987-88 URP 324 1993-94 URP 606 1993-94 MRP 608 1999-2000 MRP 1070

3 Note: the NSS data on consumption expenditure were collected in 1987-88 using uniform reference period (URP) of one month for all commodity groups. In case of 1999- 2000, different reference periods were used for commodity groups and hence the term mixed reference period (MRP) fro 1993-94, information has been presented by both the reference period for facilitating comparison. Source: the estimates are based on unit record data pertaining to 50ht and 55 th rounds of consumption expenditure survey of the national sample survey organization

As neo classical economists view urban centers as the engines of growth for the region or the country. Concentration of population and economic activity in space has been considered crucial fro leveraging certain external economics that provide a base for improvement in efficiency, technological innovation and access to global market. The fact that growth impulses originates from the cities and towns is supposedly confirmed by the fact that per capita urban income is generally higher than that of rural areas. The data support for this in Indian context is not very robust since income data with rural urban break-ups are not available at regular basis. Some important attempts are made to provide such breaks- ups it was mention in the task force on urban development which had estimated that urban income exceed rural by 182 percent in 1980-81(GOI 1983)1. The Patten of urban growth across states is significantly different from that of the level of urbanization. Since independence until 1991, the development states that have high percentage of people in urban growth has however been registered in relatively underdeveloped sate are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. This implies that the relation ship between urban growth and economic development is generally negative. However some of the developed states like Maharashtra and Haryana are exceptions as they record urban growth rates higher than the country average. The detail is given in table number 2. Table number -2 Pattern Of Urbanization And Growth Of Urban Population Across States/ UTs Percentage Urban Population Sl.No State 1971 1981 1991 2001 1971 Annual Exponential Growth Rate 198 1991 to

4 to 1981 1 to 199 1 1 Andhra Pradesh 19.3 1 2 Arunachal Pradesh 3 Assam 8.82 9.88 3.70 23.2 5 3.32 26.8 4 12.2 1 11.0 9 4 Bihar 7.97 9.84 10.4 0 5 Chhattisgarh 10.3 8 6 Delhi 89.7 0 7 Goa 26.4 4 8 Gujarat 28.0 8 9 Haryana 17.6 6 10 Himachal Pradesh 11 Jammu & Kashmir 12 Jharkhand 18.5 9 16.0 1 13 Karnataka 24.3 1 14 Kerala 16.2 4 15 Madhya Pradesh 18.5 8 16 Maharashtra 31.1 7 21.0 5 20.2 9 28.9 1 18.7 8 22.3 4 35.0 3 22.7 6 21.2 5 30.9 1 26.4 4 25.2 7 38.7 3 24.8 8 22.2 5 33.9 8 25.9 7 26.6 7 42.4 3.35 3.27 2.95 4.25 3.63 2.71 3.19 4.76 0.74 4.08 2.55 2.53 4.51 2.61 2.55 3.80 3.44 3.44 6.99 14.6 9 92.8 4 32.4 6 31.0 8 21.9 6 7.72 17.4 0 89.9 3 41.0 2 34.4 0 24.7 9 8.70 27.0 8 20.4 1 12.7 2 10.4 7 20.0 8 93.0 1 49.7 7 37.3 5 29.0 0 9.79 3.02 3.11 2.81 4.65 3.58 4.11 3.42 2.90 2.8 4.37 3.96 3.32 4.56 3.79 4.14 5.33 4.00 3.09 4.27 2.66 2.37 3.29 3.29 3.09 8.32 9.28 7.00 3.94 3.55 1.37 2000

5 17 Manipur 13.1 9 18 Meghalaya 14.5 5 19 Mizoram 11.3 6 20 Nagaland 9.95 26.4 4 18.0 3 25.1 7 15.5 4 21 Orissa 8.41 11.8 2 22 Punjab 23.7 3 23 Rajasthan 17.6 3 24 Sikkim 9.37 27.7 2 20.9 3 16.2 3 25 Tamil Nadu 30.2 6 26 Tripura 10.4 3 27 Uttar Pradesh 14.0 2 28 Uttaranchal NA 32.9 8 10.9 8 18.0 1 NA 15.2 6 16.8 9 NA 34.2 43.8 6 17.0 2 20.7 8 25.5 9 29 West Bengal 24.7 5 26.4 9 27.3 9 28.0 3 2.75 2.54 1.84 NA NA 2.84 4.78 3.27 2.84 3.26 6.19 2.53 2.45 17.2 8 13.4 3 29.7 2 22.8 8 9.12 17.7 4 14.9 7 33.9 5 23.3 8 11.1 9.55 3.23 1.76 3.56 4.83 4.52 3.31 2.71 3.62 2.55 3.19 5.21 3.08 2.61 27.6 9 18.6 9 46.2 23.8 8 19.6 3 49.5 11.7 9 8.49 5.58 5.27 9.57 3.27 4.87 3.10 3.16 9.70 2.98 1.21

Union Territories 1 Andaman & Nicobar 2 Chandigarh 90.55 22.77 26.3 6 93.6 89.6 9 3 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 4 Daman & --46.8 36.2 -4.93 1.87 -6.67 8.47 26.8 32.6 7 89.7 8 22.8 9 -5.28 14.59 5.92 3.07 3.40 6.38 4.10 4.40

6 Diu 5 Lakshadwe ep 6 Pondicherry 42.04 -46.3 1 52.3 2 All India 20.22 23.7 3 6 56.2 9 64.0 5 25.7 2 6 44.4 7 66.5 7 27.7 8 3.79 3.09 4.66 4.92 2.26 -4.46 -0.77

Note: (a) the figure for the state Uttar Pradesh for the 1970s and 1980s pertain to the undivided state as existed during that time. The figure for the 1990s is, however for the new state and hence these figures are not temporally comparable.(b) In the absence of the census data for total and urban population for the year 1981 in case if Assam, the urban and total population growth rates have been assumed to be constant during 1970s and 1980s. The same has been assumed for 1980s and 1990s for Jammu and Kashmir. The percentage of urban population has been arrived at for Assam (1981) and Jammu and Kashmir (1991) based on these assumptions. ( c)Goa in 1971 and 1981 corresponds to a Goa, Daman and Diu. SOURCE: CENSUS OF INDIA 91981.1991,and 2001)

Urbanization Trends: India have more characteristic features of urbanization in the developing countries number of towns has grown from 1827 in 1901 to 5161 in 2001number of total population has increased to 23.84 crores in 1901 to 102.7 crores in 2001 where as number of population residing in urban area increased from 2,50 in 1901 crores to 28.53 in 2001. The details of which is given in table number -3 Table Number -3 Statement Showing The Population Of India By Residence During The Period 1901-2001 (population is crores)) Census Number Of Urban Total Urban Rural

7 Years Agglomeration/To wn 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 1827 1825 1949 2072 2250 2843 2363 2590 3378 3768 5161 238396327 252093390 251321213 278977238 318660580 361088090 439234771 598159652 683329097 844324222 1027015247 25851873 25941633 28086167 33455989 44153297 62443709 78936603 109113977 159462547 217177625 28354954 212544454 226151757 223235046 245521249 274507283 298644381 360298168 489045675 523866550 627146597 741660293 Population Population Population

Source: Various Census Reports

City development plans Lord Ripon, who is considered as the founder and father of urban local government in India, devised the concept of municipal authorities as units of self-government. Since then the structure of municipal bodies has remained by and large the same their problems have become more and more complex. Recent year have witnessed an increasing interest and self- government as a provider of services to the community as well as an instrument of democratic self government. Local government is an integral part of the national government to involve them in the decision-making process of improving their living conditions and to make use of their knowledge and capabilities in the promotion of all round development. In order to remove the key roadblocks in improving service delivery, the central government has formulated the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Mission (JNNURM) for large cities, reflecting a significant shift in public policy toward delivery of urban serves from funding asset creation to promoting improved management of assets by accountable service provider agencies5. Conclusion In view of the conflict claims an attempt is made to assess the rate and pattern of urbanization and their implication for accessing urban resources and overall

8 economic growth by analyzing urbanization trends and fractionalizing urban growth into various components at the macro level. An analysis of changes in the system of governance particularly in the context of access to land , labor capital resources for urban centers in different size and functional categories show that large Indian cities through physical planning control on location of economic activities and urban land-use, imposed by way master plans , law and building by laws, etc. have created rigidities in the functioning of the market leading to fixation of uneconomic prices and emergence of sub- optimal solutions especially in large cities. REFRENCES 1. “Trends and patterns of urbanization and their economic implications” by Amitabh Kundu published in urbanization insights and experiences. ICFAI books. 2. Census of India (1981), page no 2(1981) Rural – Urban Distribution of population Government of India publication, New Delhi 3. Census of India (1991), page no 2(1991) Rural – Urban Distribution of population Government of India publication, New Delhi 4. Census of India (2000), page no 2(2000) Rural – Urban Distribution of population Government of India publication, New Delhi “5. Governance framework for delivery of urban services “by David Savage And Shubhagato Dasgupts-Published by ICFAI university press -www.books.iupindia.org

9

An Analysis of Urbanization in India during the Period of 1981 to 2001 • MS Irfana Samdani* ABSTRACT Urbanization is the transformation of traditional rural economics to modern industrial one. In 1800, only 2 percent of the world population lived in urban areas. According to latest report of United Nation the number has grown to 3 billions and in 2007, it crossed another milestone, more than half of the world population lives is urban area. If this movement continues in 2050, nearly 2/3 rd of world population live in cities. In present time urbanization is differ from region to region and from country to country. The process of economic liberalization and associated structure reforms would speed - up Rural-Urban (RU) migration and boost the pace of urbanization. Linking the Indian Economy to Global Economic would lead to massive inflow of foreign capital as also rise indigenous investment relating in an increase in employment opportunities with in and around the existing urban centers. However there is an argument on the employment generation in urban economy is not due to capital intensive nature of industrialization but due to the low rate of investment in public sector in an attempt to control the budgetary deficit would result in slowing down the agriculture and agro-industrial growth which could result in high rate of unemployment in rural areas. It would result in high growth of population in urban areas leads to unregulated expansion of informal sectors. Recent data of population in urban centers, question the preposition of accelerated urban population growth.

10 In this article an attempt are made to study and examine some issues related with the urbanization India over a century during the period of 1901- 2001 census. Its try to analysis the trend and pattern of urbanization to the extend of city development plans and its effect on urban government. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Ms Irfana Samdani PhD scholar Osmania University. Working as faculty with Cygmax Institute of Management, S.R Nagar Hyderabad.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful