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Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia e Tecnologie Fisiche Avanzate, Università di Messina, Salita Sperone 31, I-98166 Messina, Italy. Address for correspondence: Istituto di Astronomia, Università degli studi di Catania, Città Universitaria, Viale Andrea Doria 6, I-95125 Catania, Italy, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
(Received 18 March, 1998; accepted 25 March, 1998)
Abstract. Before reaching our telescopes, stellar radiation passes through Earth’s atmosphere. This interaction causes the formation of a number of telluric lines in registered stellar spectra. In this paper an atlas of atmospheric lines is reported. Observations have been carried out at the 91 cm cassegrain telescope of the M. G. Fracastoro observing station of the Catania Astrophysical Observatory equipped with a Czerney-Turner echelle spectrograph. The spectral region examined is between 6800 Å and 7800 Å. The possibility of using this atlas either to recognize telluric lines or as a wavelength calibration source is also discussed.
1. Introduction The Earth’s atmosphere is the major agent of degradation of astronomical images. Its effects on photometric and spectroscopic observations are important. The natural light of the night sky consists mostly of airglow, zodiacal light and integrated starlight. At a ground-based observatory, there is also an artiﬁcial component, which, at the best observing sites, may be only a small fraction of the natural sky brightness or, at urban sites, many times larger. Moreover, particulates and aereosols present in our atmosphere increase both the extinction locally and the scattering of outdoor lighting. All these effects are deleterious for photometric observations. Many natural gases constitute the Earth’s atmosphere, so when light originating from a star passes through it, some spectral lines are formed and these lines will be registered together with those formed in the star’s atmosphere. If one does not take into account the presence of telluric lines, the results may be distorted. The adverse effects of atmospheric lines on spectroscopy are the introduction of errors into wavelength and line strength measurements. An error will be introduced into both the measured wavelength and the measured line strength if a contaminating sky line is blended with the feature to be measured. This atlas has two main goals. First of all, to show the red region of a typical spectrum is very useful for observers to avoid confusion between telluric and stellar lines. In fact, while the spectrum of hot stars has few features in this region,
Astrophysics and Space Science 257: 161–170, 1998. © 1998 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.
The CCD’s pixel size was 22 × 22 µm. Furthermore.. 1997. Spectroscopic observations have been performed in the 6800–7800 Å range at the 91 cm cassegrain telescope of the M.g. in their paper the authors show the emission lines of the sky observed at the Pic du Midi within the range between 381. it is too difﬁcult to calibrate an astronomical spectrum. 1997). The emission lines of the wavelength calibration lamp show that R = 13000.1 nm. 2. A possible use of this atlas is as a wavelength calibration data source. This allowed me to get easily recognizable lines in comparison with the ones created in the night sky and therefore more easily usable both as reference for telluric lines identiﬁcation and as a calibration source. I had to combine orders belonging to different frames to collect the spectral region as large as possible. Since an echelle order contains about 200 Å.. Osterbrock et al. see Jones (1973).28 3. 1987)..99 2. G. Spectral type (Sp) and V magnitudes are from SIMBAD database Star HD 135742 144470 Sp Teff K 12100 24500 log g V ve sin i km s−1 230 140 B8V B1V 3. since atmospheric lines are registered on every order of the echelle spectrum and taken automatically in the same exposure.162 G.96 cool stars show an opposite behaviour. Observations and Data Analysis The normal stars listed in Table I have been observed to detect atmospheric lines.0 nm and 660. Oliva and Origlia. while the region extending from λ7600 Å to λ7690 Å derives . CATANZARO TABLE I Observed stars. For a complete review on the infrared spectrum of the airglow. 1992. The region extending from λ6860 Å to λ7350 Å derives from the frame taken in June 1997 when the observed star was HD 144470. The achieved S/N was about 150. Osterbrock et al.61 3. The visual region has been discussed by Louistisserand et al. wavelength calibration lamps commonly used do not have enough lines in this spectral region. Fracastoro observing station of the Catania Astrophysical Observatory equipped with a Czerney-Turner echelle spectrograph. their work considered only the night sky emission lines in the spectral region extending out to 10000 Å (see e. In fact. Some authors have already published similar atlases. but in most cases. To build this atlas I have used the absorption lines formed from interaction between light coming from hot stars and our atmosphere. they represent a potential wavelength calibration source.
. to avoid confusion.HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTRAL ATLAS OF TELLURIC LINES 163 Figure 1. I have calculated the synthetic spectrum using the parameters listed in Table I. Besides. For the program stars. The photometric colours have been de-reddened with Moon’s algorithm (1985). Behaviour of air mass vs hour angle for the observed stars. It should be noted that missing parts of the spectral region are due to no overlap between orders. spectral features belonging to them differ from those belonging to the Earth’s atmosphere in their width: the former are wider than the latter. points represent the instants of each observations. while hour angles less than 24:00 refer to observations before meridian. Data have been reduced and analysed using IRAF package. As the program stars have a high value of ve sin i . Dotted line refers to HD 144470. dashed line to HD 135742. The resulting spectrum extends from λ6860 Å to λ7690 Å. the trend of the air mass versus hour angle is reported in Figure 1. as coded by Moon (1985). The reduction procedure consisted of subtracking a dark from each frame and dividing it by a ﬂat ﬁeld obtained in the same region. Each star was observed at several hour angles to investigate the inﬂuence of air mass on spectral features. In any case. from the frame taken in February 1997 when the observed star was HD 135742. Then I normalized the resulting spectrum by ﬁtting the continuum with a spline function. The source of the Strömgren data was SIMBAD database. The points represent the instants of each observations. I determined the effective temperature and gravity from Strömgren photometry according to the grid of Moon and Dworetsky (1985). the observed stars are early-type stars with few features in the red region. This has been done in three steps: – ﬁrst of all. Hour angles greater than 24:00 refer to observations after meridian.
164 G. Units as in Figure 2. . Figure 3. Stellar spectrum taken at Catania Astrophysical Observatory when the observed star was HD 144470. Stellar spectrum taken at Catania Astrophysical Observatory when the observed star was HD 144470. CATANZARO Figure 2. Units are residual ﬂux vs wavelength.
Stellar spectrum taken at Catania Astrophysical Observatory when the observed star was HD 144470.HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTRAL ATLAS OF TELLURIC LINES 165 Figure 4. Figure 5. Units as in Figure 2. Units as in Figure 2. The HeI λ7065 Å is the only feature belonging ot the star’s atmosphere. Stellar spectrum taken at Catania Astrophysical Observatory when the observed star was HD 144470. .
Units as in Figure 2. CATANZARO Figure 6. Units as in Figure 2. Stellar spectrum taken at Catania Astrophysical Observatory when the observed star was HD 144470. Stellar spectrum taken at Catania Astrophysical Observatory when the observed star was HD 144470.166 G. . Figure 7.
HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTRAL ATLAS OF TELLURIC LINES 167 Figure 8. . Stellar spectrum taken at Catania Astrophysical Observatory when the observed star was HD 135742. Units as in Figure 2. Units as in Figure 2. Figure 9. Stellar spectrum taken at Catania Astrophysical Observatory when the observed star was HD 144470.
10 0. 3.06 0. is reported in Table II.17 7216.12 λ (Å) 6939.93 7264.53 0.51 6961.79 7670.24 0.31 0.11 0.46 6959.61 7184.87 6873.03 6890.11 0.45 6933.68 0.84 7240.20 0.31 7187.03 7177.22 0.88 6885.16 0.82 6874.73 7665.25 0.25 0.34 7200. 1993). using SYNTHE (Kurucz and Avrett. WATER VAPOUR One of the most common and important constituents of our atmosphere is water vapour.23 0.97 6931.25 6868.89 7009.54 7317.53 7186.58 0.14 0.96 7299.21 7294.27 7158.31 0.27 0.1.05 7237.53 W (Å) 0.62 6876.58 7633.59 7227.21 0.65 6956.39 7209.05 7232.24 0. I computed the atmosphere models.53 0.34 7637.26 0.04 0.41 7265.43 7172.94 6871.44 0.37 0.51 6949.14 0.86 6953.37 7039.43 6896.10 0.40 0.37 0.38 0.46 7269.63 6989.51 6893.79 6997.85 7677.01 6892.19 0.83 7272.23 7206.01 7642.10 0.14 0.12 0.04 0.54 6981.13 0.25 0.16 7164.02 0.21 0.46 0.06 7248.09 0.93 6977.67 7261.43 0.12 0.06 0.63 W (Å) 0.06 0.75 6947. except for the HeI λ7065 Å.74 0.84 7643.05 0.21 7167.24 0.18 0.15 6943.07 0.93 7639.26 7634.56 7243.07 7280.04 6990.12 0.21 0.09 7678.49 7231.08 7223.85 7275.11 0.73 7312.27 7020.38 0.19 0.28 7004.12 0.18 0.35 0.68 6875.34 W (Å) 0.43 0.18 6896.10 0.42 0. A complete list of the observed telluric lines.22 0.33 7287.09 0.05 0.91 7195.09 0.33 0.77 7011.04 0.81 W (Å) 0.78 7052.93 7162.13 0.91 7290.39 7658.76 W (Å) 0.84 7250.88 7335.15 0.14 7683.31 W (Å) 0.71 7176.64 7170.75 6877.19 0.82 7023.99 6869.07 0.56 7056.12 0.05 0.09 0.43 0.04 0. Lines Identiﬁcation Lines identiﬁcation has been done using the table of solar spectrum published by Moore et al.03 0.57 0.54 7260.11 0.44 0.04 0.47 0.35 7330.24 0.44 0.09 6879.31 0.11 0.43 7282.28 0.38 7198. 1981) I identiﬁed spectral lines belonging to the star’s atmosphere.54 7245.75 7173.49 7310. using ATLAS9 (Kuruck.59 7236.15 0.34 λ (Å) 7320. CATANZARO TABLE II List of observed atmospheric lines with their equivalent width λ (Å) 6867.82 7671.13 7050.51 7027.64 7194.05 – moreover.98 6883. From comparison between observed and synthetic spectra I have excluded the presence of stellar lines in this region.14 7327.86 6998.51 0.30 0.64 6970.21 0.73 7315.25 0.48 0.08 0.84 6886. with their equivalent width.52 7197.24 0.49 0.59 0.26 0.94 7659.19 0.94 7002.18 0.21 7318.57 7247.96 6941.10 0.87 7088.23 0.19 0.49 7211.08 7309.23 0.09 0.22 0.17 6942.22 0.31 6964.19 0. Its importance is due not only to its determining effects on weather development within the troposphere.20 0.26 0.18 0.94 7324.19 7252.14 7333.17 0.30 0. (1966).06 0.68 6879.59 6993.47 7218.11 7156.05 0.28 0.13 7304.71 7262.33 7257.31 7191.11 0.52 7201.15 0.74 0.07 0.14 0.36 0.96 7649.21 0. 3.06 0.32 7037.04 0.75 7303.65 6935.09 0.91 7333.92 7647.168 G.13 0.33 0.10 0.29 7204.16 0.66 7046.68 7684.31 7292.29 0.10 0.11 0.09 0.38 0.30 0.34 7654.24 7016.13 0.15 0. – and ﬁnally.29 7277.14 6937.05 6950.13 6872.59 λ (Å) 7193.72 0.37 λ (Å) 7253.48 0.23 0.12 0.12 0. but also to the role as an important partner in the photochemical reactions and important agent of the heat exchange and of at- .38 6868.21 0.39 7181.26 7287.11 0.33 0.82 6889.24 0.25 6872.48 0.22 λ (Å) 7019.96 7664.07 6986.33 0.04 7653.25 0.17 0.62 6985.93 7049.72 7234.21 0.08 0.26 0.26 0.13 0.
The features present in the spectral region extending from 7150 Å to 7340 Å (Figures 5 and 6) are due to the water vapour (Panchuk et al. OXYGEN Oxygen is supplied to the atmosphere from formation of sedimentary rocks and as a result of photodisintegration of water vapour in the upper atmosphere layers. Acknowledgements This research has made use of the SIMBAD database. These lines due to rotational tranasition of molecular oxygen of the Earth’s atmosphere can be observed in detail so that they offer an excellent opportunity to determine the temperature of the layers where they are effectively formed (Meinel. Conclusions When light coming from a star passes through the Earth’s atmosphere. These lines have been collected to provide a high resolution spectral atlas. Fracastoro observing station of the Catania Astrophysical Observatory. G.0). . 1950). This paper discusses the possibility of using this atlas as a data calibration source to calibrate spectra of astronomical objects and to avoid the errors due to the presence of telluric lines blended with features observed. a lot of spectral lines are formed. Study of the correlation between water vapour and temperature is most important to understand the greenhouse effect.2.HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTRAL ATLAS OF TELLURIC LINES 169 mospheric motions. Two oxygen bands have been observed in this spectral region: the band λ6884 Å. G. 4.. It also stresses the importance of using a star as a light source to obtain deeper lines instead of only night sky emission lines. The results are presented in Figure 2 to 9. transition (0. Due to the bent structure of its molecule. Using these lines the troposphere humidity proﬁle can be reconstructed. transition (0. Observations were carried out at the M. Fracastoro observing station of the Catania Astrophysical Observatory using the 91 cm cassegrain telescope equipped with a Czerny-Turner spectrograph.1) and the band λ7621 Å. France. 3. 1996). To make an accurate identiﬁcation I used hot stars with high rotational velocity in such a way to avoid confusion between lines originating in the star’s atmosphere and those originating in the Earth’s atmosphere. operated at CDS. Strasbourg. This paper is based on observations collected at the M. water vapour exhibits a very large number of absorption lines.
and Lamy. Soc.M. Not.: 1966.: 1973. 112.. R. 355.. A new opacity-sampling model atmosphere program for arbitrary abundances. Kurucz.E. Astrophys. T. Astron. Paciﬁc 109. 464. A. A. Kurucz.V. Fulbright. Astrophys. 87. 78. T. Mon. CATANZARO References Jones.P.. T. . Publ. 305. A.V. and Basri. Oliva. 68. p. F.: 1985. R. National Bureau of Standard Monograph 61. Louistisserand. and Avrett. (eds. and Dworetsky. R. A. Publ. 614. L. 466.A. R. Soc. V.. C. M. Conferences Series.: 1985. Bücher. Astrophys. Rev.J. D.R. and Bida. Paciﬁc 108. Astron. in: Communications from the University of London Observatory. S. M. No.M. A. Soc.: 1996.: 1987.P. Vol. Fulbright. Spec. N...: 1992.E. 539. Castelli. Bull. Astron.. Ph.: 1996. S. Astrophys.H. Moon.: 1997. E. and Houtgast.L. Panchuk.: 1993. Osterbrock. and Chepizhko.170 G. Suppl.T. SAO Special Rep. 15.B.: 1950.. M. 154. Koutchmy. E. IAU Col. and Faraggiana.T. A. Moore.P. Tavolzhanskaya.. Meinel. Obs. 254. Moon.). J. D. 138. 277. and Origlia. J. 44. 391. In: Dworetsky. Astron. J. 41. Martel.: 1981.E. Keane.G. Astron. Space Sci. Peculiar versus normal phenomena in A-type and related stars.E.L. J. M. 217. Minnaert.S. Osterbrock. G.S.
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