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Summer Training Report 20 May to 15 June 2013

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Submitted by: Sanket Kinage B.Tech. 2 VT0733 IIT Jodhpur



With profound respect and gratitude, I take the I do extend my heartfelt thanks to Ms. Rachna Singh Bhal

opportunity to convey my thanks to complete the training here.

for providing me this opportunity to be a part of this esteemed organization.

NTPC for their co-operation and guidance that has helped me a lot during the course of training. I have learnt a lot working under them and I will always be indebted of them for this value addition in me.

I am extremely grateful to all the technical staff of BTPS /



Indias largest power company, NTPC was set up in 1975 to accelerate power development in India. NTPC is emerging as a diversified power major with presence in the entire value chain of the power generation business. Apart from power generation, which is the mainstay of the company, NTPC has already ventured into consultancy, power trading, ash utilization and coal mining. NTPC ranked 337 in the 2012,

Forbes Global 2000 ranking of the Worlds biggest companies.

NTPC became a Maharatna company in May, 2010, one of the only four companies to be awarded this status.

The total installed capacity of the company is 41,184 MW (including JVs) with 16 coal based and 7 gas based stations, located across the country. In addition under JVs, 7 stations are coal based & another station uses naphtha/LNG as fuel and 2 renewable energy projects. The company has set a target to have an installed power generating capacity of 1, 28,000 MW by the year 2032. The capacity will have a diversified fuel mix comprising 56% coal, 16% Gas, 11% Nuclear and 17% Renewable Energy Sources(RES) including hydro. By 2032, non-fossil fuel based generation capacity shall make up nearly 28% of NTPCs portfolio. NTPC has been operating its plants at high efficiency levels. Although the company has 17.75% of the total national capacity, it contributes 27.40% of total power generation due to its focus on high efficiency.

In October 2004, NTPC launched its Initial Public Offering (IPO) consisting of 5.25% as fresh issue and 5.25% as offer for sale by Government of India. NTPC thus became a listed company in November 2004 with the Government holding 89.5% of the equity share capital. In February 2010, the Shareholding of Government of India was reduced from 89.5% to 84.5% through Further Public Offer. The rest is held by Institutional Investors and the Public.


VISION To be the worlds largest and best power producer,

powering Indias growth.

MISSION Develop and provide reliable power, related products and services at competitive prices, integrating multiple energy sources with innovative and ecofriendly technologies and contribute to society.


Business Ethics Environmentally & Economically Sustainable Customer Focus Organizational & Professional Pride Mutual Respect & Trust Motivating Self & others Innovation & Speed



Total Quality for Excellence Transparent & Respected Organization Enterprising Devoted

Badarpur Thermal Power Station is located at Badarpur area in NCT Delhi. The Badarpur Thermal Power Station has an installed capacity of 705 MW. It is situated in south east corner of Delhi on Mathura Road near Faridabad. It was the first central sector power plant conceived in India, in 1965. It was originally conceived to provide power to neighboring states of Haryana, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, U.P., Rajasthan, and Delhi. But since year 1987 Delhi has become its sole beneficiary. It was owned and conceived by Central Electric Authority. Its construction was started in year 1968, and the First unit was commissioned in 26 July 1973. The coal for the plant is derived from the Jharia Coal Fields. This was constructed under ownership of Central Electric Authority, later it was transferred to NTPC.

It supplies power to Delhi city. It is one of the oldest plant in operation. Its 100 MW units capacity have been reduced to 95 MW. These units have indirectly fired boiler, while 210 MW units have directly fired boiler. All the turbines are of Russian Design. Both turbine and boilers have been supplied by BHEL. The boiler of Stage-I units are of Czech design. The boilers of Unit 4 and 5 are designed by combustion engineering (USA). The instrumentation of the stage I units and unit 4 are of The Russian design. Instrumentation of unit5 is provided by M/S Instrumentation Ltd. Kota, is of Kent design.

Installed capacity
Stage Unit Number Installed Capacity (MW) Date of Commissioning Status



July, 1973




August, 1974




March, 1975




December, 1978



Unit Number

Installed Capacity (MW)

Date of Commissioning




December, 1981



Scarcity of water resources: Water resources are not
abundantly available and are geographically unevenly distributed. Thus hydro power plants cannot be installed with ease and are limited to certain locations. Widely available alternate flues: Many alternate fuels such as coal, diesel, nuclear fuels, geo-thermal energy sources, solarenergy, and biomass fuels can be used to generate power using steam cycles. Maintenance and lubrication cost is lower: Once installed, these require less maintenance costs and on repairs. Lubrication is not a major problem compared to hydro power plant.

Coal is abundant: Coal is available in excess quantities in India

and is rich form of energy available at relatively lower cost.

Working fluid remains within the system, and need not be replaced every time thus simplifies the process.


The conversion from coal to electricity takes place in three stages.

The first conversion of energy takes place in the boiler. Coal is burnt in the boiler furnace to produce heat. Carbon in the coal and Oxygen in the air combine to produce Carbon Dioxide and heat.

The second stage is the thermodynamic process. The heat from combustion of the coal boils water in the boiler to produce steam. In modern power plant, boilers produce steam at a high pressure and temperature. The steam is then piped to a turbine. The high pressure steam impinges and expands across a number of sets of blades in the turbine. The impulse and the thrust created rotates the turbine. The steam is then condensed to water and pumped back into the boiler to repeat to the cycle. This cycle in ideal case is known as Rankine cycle.

In the third stage, rotation of the turbine rotates the generator rotor to produce electricity based of Faradays Principle of electromagnetic induction.

The Rankine cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle of a heat engine that converts heat into mechanical work. The heat is supplied externally to a closed loop, which usually uses water as the working fluid. The Rankine cycle, in the form of steam engines generates about 90% of all electric power used throughout the world.



Process 1-2: The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure. As the fluid is a liquid at this stage the pump requires little input energy.

Process 2-3: The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapor. The input energy required

can be easily calculated using steam tables.

Process 3-4: The dry saturated vapor expands through a and pressure of the vapor, and some condensation may

turbine, generating power. This decreases the temperature occur. The output in this process can be easily calculated

using the Enthalpy-entropy chart or the steam tables. Ideally during this process, but in actual case there is increase in entropy of steam due to irreversibility and hence work

this process is isentropic i.e. entropy of steam doesnt change

extracted from turbine is less than the work in ideal case. Process 4-1: The wet vapor then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a constant pressure to become saturated liquid.


In a real power plant cycle (the name 'Rankine' cycle used only for the ideal cycle), the compression by the pump and the expansion in the turbine are not isentropic. In other words, these processes are non-reversible and entropy is increased during the two processes. This somewhat

increases the power required by the pump and decreases the power generated by the turbine.

Isentropic efficiency of the Turbine is defined as the ratio of the work extracted out of turbine to the ideal work considering isentropic process.



Boiler and Its Description
The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 ft (15 m) on a side and 130 ft (40 m) tall. Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2.3 inches (60 mm) in diameter. Pulverized coal is air-blown into the furnace from fuel nozzles at the four corners and it rapidly burns, forming a large fireball at the centre. The thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter. The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput and is typically driven by pumps. As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes into steam at 700 F (370 C) and 3,200 psi (22.1MPa). It is separated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace.

Boiler Side of the Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi

The saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest part of the combustion gases as they exit the furnace. Here the steam is superheated to 1,000 F (540 C) to prepare it for the turbine. The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity, pressure and temperature

required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator. The generator includes the economizer, the steam drum, the chemical dosing equipment, and the furnace with its steam generating tubes and the superheater coils. Necessary safety valves are located at suitable points to avoid excessive boiler pressure. The air and flue gas path equipment include: forced draft (FD) fan, air preheater (APH), boiler furnace, induced draft (ID) fan, fly ash collectors (electrostatic precipitator or baghouse) and the flue gas stack. For units over about 210 MW capacity, redundancy of key components is provided by installing duplicates of the FD fan, APH, fly ash collectors and ID fan with isolating dampers. On some units of about 60 MW, two boilers per unit may instead be provided.

Schematic diagram of a coal-fired power plant steam generator Specifications of the boiler 1. Main Boiler (AT 100% LOAD): i. Evaporation ii. Feed water temperature iii. Feed water leaving economizer 700 tons/hr 247C 276C

2. Steam Temperature:

i. Drum ii. Super heater outlet iii. Reheat inlet iv. Reheat outlet

341C 540C 332C 540C

3. Steam Pressure:
i. Drum design kg/cm



ii. Drum operating kg/cm



iii. Super heater outlet kg/cm



iv. Reheat inlet v. Reheat outlet

26.35 kg/cm 24.50 kg/cm

2 2

4. Fuel Specifications

A) Coal
i. Fixed Carbon ii. Volatile Matter iii. Moisture iv. Ash v. Grind ability vi. High Heat vii. Coal size to Mill 28% 55HGI 4860 Kcal/Kg 20 mm 38% 26% 8.0%

B) Oil
i. Low Heat value ii. Sulphur iii. Moisture iv. Flash point v. Viscosity 1500 redwood at vi. Sp. Weight

10000 kcal/kg 4.5% w/w 1% w/w 66 C. 37.8 C. 0.98 at 38 C.

0 0

5. Heat Balance
i. Dry gas loss ii. Carbon loss iii. Radiation loss iv. Unaccounted loss v. H2 in air and H2O in fuel vi. Total loss vii. Efficiency 4.63% 2% 0.26% 1.5% 4.9% 13.3% 86.7%


1. Furnace
Furnace is primary part of boiler where the chemical energy of the fuel is converted to thermal energy by combustion. Furnace is designed for efficient and complete

combustion. Major factors that assist for efficient combustion are amount of fuel inside the furnace and turbulence, which causes rapid mixing between fuel and air. In modern boilers, water furnaces are used.

2. Boiler drum
Drum is of fusion-welded design with welded

hemispherical dished ends. It is provided with stubs for welding all the connecting tubes, i.e. downcomers, risers, pipes, saturated steam outlet. The function of steam drum internals is to separate the water from the steam generated in the furnace walls and to reduce the dissolved solid contents of the steam below the prescribed limit of 1 ppm and also take care of the sudden change of steam demand for boiler.

The secondary stage of two opposite banks of closely spaced thin corrugated sheets, which direct the steam and force the remaining entertained water against the corrugated plates. Since the velocity is relatively low this water does not get picked up again but runs down the From the secondary separators the steam flows upwards to the series of screen dryers, extending in layers across the length of the drum. These screens perform the final stage Once water inside the boiler or steam generator, the process
of adding the latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy is underway. The boiler transfers energy to the water by the The water enters the boiler through a section in the chemical reaction of burning some type of fuel.

plates and off the second stage of the two steam outlets.

of the separation.

convection pass called the economizer. From the

economizer it passes to the steam drum. Once the water enters the steam drum it goes down the down comers to the lower inlet water wall headers. From the inlet headers the water rises through the water walls and is eventually turned into steam due to the heat being generated by the burners located on the front and rear water walls (typically). As the water is turned into steam/vapour in the water walls, the steam/vapour once again enters the steam drum.

External View of an Industrial Boiler at BTPS, New Delhi

The steam/vapour is passed through a series of steam and water separators and then dryers inside the steam drum. The steam separators and dryers remove the water droplets from the steam and the cycle through the water walls is repeated. This process is known as natural circulation.

The boiler furnace auxiliary equipment includes coal feed nozzles and igniter guns, soot blowers, water lancing and observation ports (in the furnace walls) for observation of the furnace interior. Furnace explosions due to any accumulation of combustible gases after a tripout are avoided by flushing out such gases from the combustion The steam drum (as well as the superheater coils and headers) have air vents and drains needed for initial startup. The steam drum has an internal device that removes moisture from the wet steam entering the drum from the steam generating tubes. The dry steam then flows into the superheater coils. Geothermal plants need no boiler since they use naturally occurring steam sources. Heat exchangers may be used where the geothermal steam is very corrosive or contains excessive suspended solids. zone before igniting the coal.

Nuclear plants also boil water to raise steam, either directly passing the working steam through the reactor or else using an intermediate heat exchanger.

3. Water walls
Water flows to the water walls from the boiler drum by natural circulation. The front and the two side water walls constitute the main evaporation surface, absorbing the bulk of radiant heat of the fuel burnt in the chamber. The front and rear walls are bent at the lower ends to form a watercooled slag hopper. The upper part of the chamber is narrowed to achieve perfect mixing of combustion gases. The water wall tubes are connected to headers at the top and bottom. The rear water wall tubes at the top are

grounded in four rows at a wider pitch forming g the grid tubes.

4. Reheater
Reheater is used to raise the temperature of steam from which a part of energy has been extracted in highpressure turbine. This is another method of increasing the cycle efficiency. Reheating requires additional equipment i.e. heating surface connecting boiler and turbine pipe safety equipment like safety valve, non return valves, isolating valves, high pressure feed pump, etc: Reheater is composed of two sections namely the front and the rear pendant section, which is located above the furnace arc between water-cooled, screen wall tubes and rear wall tubes.

Tubes of a reheater

5. Superheater
Whatever type of boiler is used, steam will leave the water at its surface and pass into the steam space. Steam formed above the water surface in a shell boiler is always saturated and become superheated in the boiler shell, as it is constantly. If superheated steam is required, the saturated steam must pass through a superheater. This is simply a heat exchanger where additional heat is added to the steam. In water-tube boilers, the superheater may be an additional pendant suspended in the furnace area where the hot gases

will provide the degree of superheat required. In other cases, for example in CHP schemes where the gas turbine exhaust gases are relatively cool, a separately fired superheater may be needed to provide the additional heat.

6. Economizer
The function of an economizer in a steam-generating unit is to absorb heat from the flue gases and add as a sensible heat to the feed water before the water enters the evaporation circuit of the boiler. Earlier economizer were introduced mainly to recover the heat available in the flue gases that leaves the boiler and provision of this addition heating surface increases the efficiency of steam generators. In the modern boilers used for power generation feed water heaters were used to

increase the efficiency of turbine unit and feed water temperature.

An economizer Use of economizer or air heater or both is decided by the total economy that will result in flexibility in operation, maintenance and selection of firing system and other related equipment. Modern medium and high capacity boilers are used both as economizers and air heaters. In low capacity, air heaters may alone be selected.

Stop valves and non-return valves may be incorporated to keep circulation in economizer into steam drum when there is fire in the furnace but not feed flow. Tube elements composing the unit are built up into banks and these are connected to inlet and outlet headers.

7. Air preheater
Air preheater absorbs waste heat from the flue gases and transfers this heat to incoming cold air, by means of continuously rotating heat transfer element of specially formed metal plates. Thousands of these high efficiency elements are spaced and compactly arranged within 12 sections. Sloped compartments of a radially divided cylindrical shell called the rotor. The housing surrounding the rotor is provided with duct connecting both the ends

and is adequately scaled by radial and circumferential scaling.

An air preheater
Special sealing arrangements are provided in the provided in the air preheater to prevent the leakage between the air and gas sides. Adjustable plates are also used to help the sealing arrangements and prevent the leakage as expansion occurs. The air preheater heating surface elements are provided with two types of cleaning devices, soot blowers to clean normal devices and washing devices to clean the

element when soot blowing alone cannot keep the element clean.

8. Pulverizer
A pulverizer is a mechanical device for the grinding of many types of materials. For example, they are used to pulverize coal for combustion in the steam-generating furnaces of the fossil fuel power plants.

A Pulverizer
Types of Pulverizer

i. Ball and Tube mills

A ball mill is a pulverizer that consists of a horizontal cylinder, up to three diameters in length, containing a charge of tumbling or cascading steel balls, pebbles or steel rods. A tube mill is a revolving cylinder of up to five diameters in length used for finer pulverization of ore, rock and other such materials; the materials mixed with water is fed into the chamber from one end, and passes out the other end as slime.

ii. Bowl mill

It uses tires to crush coal. It is of two types; a deep bowl mill and the shallow bowl mill.

An external view of a Coal Pulverizer

Advantages of Pulverized Coal

Pulverized coal is used for large capacity plants. It is easier to adapt to fluctuating load as there are no limitations on the combustion capacity. Coal with higher ash percentage cannot be used without pulverizing because of the problem of large amount ash deposition after combustion.







The use of secondary air in the combustion chamber along with the powered coal helps in creating turbulence and therefore uniform mixing of the coal and the air during Greater surface area of coal per unit mass of coal allows faster combustion as more coal is exposed to heat and The combustion process is almost free from clinker and The boiler can be easily started from cold condition in case Practically no ash handling problem. of emergency. slag formation. combustion. combustion.


The furnace volume required is less as the turbulence caused aids in complete combustion of the coal with minimum travel of the particles.


1. Water circulation system

Theory of Circulation
Water must flow through the heat absorption surface of the boiler in order that it be evaporated into steam. In drum type units (natural and controlled circulation), the water is circulated from the drum through the generating circuits and then back to the drum where the steam is separated and directed to the super heater. The water leaves the drum through the down corners at a temperature slightly below the saturation temperature. The flow through the furnace wall is at saturation temperature. Heat absorbed in water wall is latent heat of vaporization creating a

mixture of steam and water. The ratio of the weight of the water to the weight of the steam in the mixture leaving the heat absorption surface is called circulation ratio. Types of Boiler Circulating System i. Natural circulation system ii. Controlled circulation system iii. Combined circulation system


Natural Circulation System

Water delivered to steam generator from feed water is at a temperature well below the saturation value corresponding to that pressure. Entering first the economizer, it is heated to about 30-40C below saturation temperature. From economizer the water enters the drum and thus joins the circulation system. Water entering the drum flows through the down corner and

enters ring heater at the bottom. In the water walls, a part of the water is converted to steam and the mixture flows back to the drum. In the drum, the steam is separated, and sent to superheater for superheating and then sent to the highpressure turbine. Remaining water mixes with the incoming water from the economizer and the cycle is repeated. As the pressure increases, the difference in density between water and steam reduces. Thus the hydrostatic head available will not be able to overcome the frictional resistance for a flow corresponding to the minimum requirement of cooling of water wall tubes. Therefore natural circulation is limited to the boiler with drum operating pressure around 175 kg/ cm ii. Controlled Circulation System


Beyond 80 kg/ cm of pressure, circulation is to be assisted with mechanical pumps to overcome the frictional losses. To regulate

the flow through various tubes, orifices plates are used. This system is applicable in the high sub-critical regions (200 kg/ cm ). 2. Ash handling plant The widely used ash handling systems are: i. ii. Mechanical Handling System Hydraulic System

iii. Pneumatic System iv. Steam Jet System

Ash Handling System at Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi The Hydraulic Ash handling system is used at the Badarpur Thermal Power Station. Hydraulic Ash Handling System
The hydraulic system carried the ash with the flow of water with high velocity through a channel and finally dumps into a sump. The hydraulic system is divided into a low velocity and high

velocity system. In the low velocity system the ash from the boilers falls into a stream of water flowing into the sump. The ash is carried along with the water and they are separated at the sump. In the high velocity system a jet of water is sprayed to quench the hot ash. Two other jets force the ash into a trough in which they are washed away by the water into the sump, where they are separated. The molten slag formed in the pulverized fuel system can also be quenched and washed by using the high velocity system. The advantages of this system are that its clean, large ash handling capacity, considerable distance can be traversed, absence of working parts in contact with ash.

Fly Ash Collection

Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators or fabric bag filters (or sometimes both) located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced

draft fan. The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators or bag filters. Generally, the fly ash is pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or railroad cars.

Bottom Ash Collection and Disposal

At the bottom of every boiler, a hopper has been provided for collection of the bottom ash from the bottom of the furnace. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site.

3. Water treatment plant As the types of boiler are not alike their working pressure and operating conditions vary and so do the types and methods of

water treatment. Water treatment plants used in thermal power plants used in thermal power plants are designed to process the raw water to water with a very low content of dissolved solids known as demineralized water. No doubt, this plant has to be engineered very carefully keeping in view the type of raw water to the thermal plant, its treatment costs and overall economics.

A water treatment plant The type of demineralization process chosen for a power station depends on three main factors:

i. ii.

The quality of the raw water. The degree of de-ionization i.e. treated water quality.

iii. Selectivity of resins. Water treatment process is generally made up of two sections: Pretreatment section.

Demineralization section

Pretreatment Section
Pretreatment plant removes the suspended solids such as clay, silt, organic and inorganic matter, plants and other microscopic organism. The turbidity may be taken as two types of suspended solid in water; firstly, the separable solids and secondly the nonseparable solids (colloids). The coarse components, such as sand, silt, etc: can be removed from the water by simple sedimentation. Finer particles, however, will not settle in any reasonable time

and must be flocculated to produce the large particles, which are settle able. Long term ability to remain suspended in water is basically a function of both size and specific gravity.

This filter water is now used for demineralizing purpose and is fed to cation exchanger bed, but enroute being first dechlorinated, which is either done by passing through activated carbon filter or injecting along the flow of water, an equivalent amount of sodium sulphite through some stroke pumps. The residual chlorine, which is maintained in clarification plant to remove organic matter from raw water, is now detrimental to action resin and must be eliminated before its entry to this bed.

A demineralization tank A DM plant generally consists of cation, anion and mixed bed exchangers. The final water from this process consists essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions which is the chemical composition of pure water. The DM water, being very pure, becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of its very high affinity for oxygen absorption. The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. However, some

storage is essential as the DM plant may be down for maintenance. For this purpose, a storage tank is installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler makeup. The storage tank for DM water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water, such as PVC. The piping and valves are generally of stainless steel. Sometimes, a steam blanketing arrangement or stainless steel doughnut float is provided on top of the water in the tank to avoid contact with atmospheric air. DM water make-up is generally added at the steam space of the surface condenser (i.e., the vacuum side). This arrangement not only sprays the water but also DM water gets deaerated, with the dissolved gases being removed by the ejector of the condenser itself.

4. Draught system

There are four types of draught system: i. Natural Draught ii. Induced Draught iii. Forced Draught iv. Balanced Draught

Natural Draught System

In natural draft units the pressure differentials are obtained have constructing tail chimneys so that vacuum is created in the furnace. Due to small pressure difference, air is admitted into the furnace.

A natural draught system

Induced Draft System

In this system, the air is admitted to natural pressure difference and the flue gases are taken out by means of Induced Draught (I.D.) fans and the furnace is maintained under vacuum.

An induced draught system

Forced Draught System

A set of forced draught (F.D.) fans is made use of for supplying air to the furnace and so the furnace is pressurized. The flue gases are taken out due to the pressure difference between the furnace and the atmosphere.

A forced draught system

Balanced Draught System

Here a set of Induced and Forced Draft Fans are utilized in maintaining a vacuum in the furnace. Normally all the power stations utilize this draft system.

5. Industrial fans

ID Fan
The induced Draft Fans are generally of Axial-Impulse Type. Impeller nominal diameter is of the order of 2500 mm. The fan consists of the following sub-assemblies: Suction Chamber Inlet Vane Control

Impeller Outlet Guide Vane Assembly

An ID fan

FD Fan
The fan, normally of the same type as ID Fan, consists of the following components: Silencer Inlet Bend Fan Housing Impeller with blades and setting mechanism

An FD fan The centrifugal and setting forces of the blades are taken up by the blade bearings. The blade shafts are placed in combined radial and axial anti-friction bearings, which are sealed off to the outside. The angle of incidence of the blades may be adjusted during operation. The characteristic pressure volume curves of the fan may be changed in a large range without essentially modifying the efficiency. The fan can then be easily adapted to changing operating conditions.
The rotor is accommodated in cylindrical roller bearings and an inclined ball bearing at the drive side absorbs the axial thrust.

Lubrication and cooling these bearings is assured by a combined oil level and circulating lubrication system.

Primary Air Fan

PA Fan if flange-mounted design, single stage suction, NDFV type, backward curved bladed radial fan operating on the principle of energy transformation due to centrifugal forces. Some amount of the velocity energy is converted to pressure energy in the spiral casing. The fan is driven at a constant speed and varying the angle of the inlet vane control controls the flow. The special feature of the fan is that is provided with inlet guide vane control with a positive and precise link mechanism.

It is robust in construction for higher peripheral speed so as to have unit sizes. Fan can develop high pressures at low and medium volumes and can handle hot-air laden with dust particles.

Primary air fan

6. Compressor house Instrument air is required for operating various dampers, burner tilting, devices, diaphragm valves, etc: in the 210 MW units. Station air meets the general requirement of the power station such as light oil atomizing air, for cleaning filters and for various maintenance works. The control air compressors and station air compressors have been housed separately with separate receivers and supply headers and their tapping.

A compressor house

Instrument Air System

Control air compressors have been installed for supplying moisture free dry air required for instrument used. The output from the compressors is fed to air receivers via return valves. From the receiver air passed through the dryers to the main instrument airline, which runs along with the boiler house and turbine house of 210 MW units. Adequate numbers of tapping have been provided all over the area.

Air-Drying Unit

Air contains moisture which tends to condense, and causes trouble in operation of various devices by compressed air. Therefore drying of air is accepted widely in case of instrument air. Air drying unit consists of dual absorption towers with embedded heaters for reactivation. The absorption towers are adequately filled with specially selected silica gel and activated alumina while one tower is drying the air.

An air drying unit

Service Air Compressor

The station air compressor is generally a slow speed horizontal double acting double stage type and is arranged for belt drive.

The cylinder heads and barrel are enclosed in a jacket, whih extends around the valve also. The intercooler is provided between the low and high pressure cylinder which cools the air between tag and collects the moisture that condenses.

A service air compressor

Air from L.P. cylinder enters at one end of the intercooler and goes to the opposite end wherefrom it is discharged to the highpressure cylinder; cooling water flows through the nest of the tubes and cools the air. A safety valve is set at rated pressure.

Two selector switches one with positions auto load/unload and another with positions auto start/stop, non-stop have been provided on the control panel of the compressor. In auto startstop position, the compressor will start.



1. Impulse turbine:
In impulse turbine steam expands in fixed nozzles. The high velocity steam from nozzles does work on moving blades, which causes the shaft to rotate. The essential features of impulse turbine are that all pressure drops occur at nozzles and not on blades.

2. Reaction turbine:
In this type of turbine pressure is reduced at both fixed and moving blades. Both fixed and moving blades act like nozzles. Work done by the impulse effect of steam due to reverse the direction of high velocity steam. The expansion of steam takes place on moving blades.

A 95 MW Generator at BTPS, New Delhi

Several problems occur if energy of steam is converted in single step and so compounding is done. Following are the type of compounded turbine:


Velocity Compounded Turbine

Like simple turbine it has only one set of nozzles and entire steam pressure drop takes place there. The kinetic

energy of steam fully on the nozzles is utilized in moving blades. The role of fixed blades is to change the direction of steam jet and too guide it.


Pressure Compounded Turbine

This is basically a number of single impulse turbines in series or on the same shaft. The exhaust of first turbine enters the nozzles of next turbine. The total pressure drop of steam does not tae on first nozzle ring but divided equally on all of them.

iii. Pressure Velocity Compounded Turbine

It is just the combination of the two compounding and has the advantages of allowing bigger pressure drops in each stage and so fewer stages are necessary. Here for given pressure drop the turbine will be shorter length but diameter will be increased.

MAIN TURBINE The 210MW turbine is a cylinder tandem compounded type machine comprising of H.P. and I.P and L.P cylinders. The H.P. turbine comprises of 12 stages the I.P turbine has 11 stages and the L.P has four stages of double flow. The H.P and I.P. turbine rotor are rigidly compounded and the I.P. and L.P rotor by lens type semi flexible coupling. All the 3 rotors are aligned on five bearings of which the bearing number is combined with thrust bearing.
The main superheated steam branches off into two streams from the boiler and passes through the emergency stop valve and control valve before entering the governing wheel chamber of the H.P. Turbine. After expanding in the 12 stages in the H.P. turbine then steam is returned in the boiler for reheating.

The reheated steam from boiler enters I.P. turbine via the interceptor valves and control valves and after expanding enters the L.P stage via 2 numbers of cross over pipes. In the L.P. stage the steam expands in axially opposed direction to counteract the thrust and enters the condenser placed directly below the L.P. turbine. The cooling water flowing through the condenser tubes condenses the steam and the condensate the collected in the hot well of the condenser. The condensate collected the pumped by means of 3x50% duty condensate pumps through L.P heaters to deaerator from where the boiler feed pump delivers the water to the boiler through H.P. heaters thus forming a closed cycle.

STEAM TURBINE A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and converts it into useful mechanical work. From a mechanical point of view, the turbine is ideal, because the propelling force is applied directly to the rotating element of the machine and has not as in the reciprocating engine to be transmitted through a system of connecting links, which are necessary to transform a reciprocating motion into rotary motion. Hence since the steam turbine possesses for its moving parts rotating elements only if the manufacture is good and the machine is correctly designed, it ought to be free from out of balance forces. If the load on a turbine is kept constant the torque developed at the coupling is also constant. A generator at a steady load offers

a constant torque. Therefore, a turbine is suitable for driving a generator, particularly as they are both high-speed machines. A further advantage of the turbine is the absence of internal lubrication. This means that the exhaust steam is not contaminated with oil vapour and can be condensed and fed back to the boilers without passing through the filters. It also means that turbine is considerable saving in lubricating oil when compared with a reciprocating steam engine of equal power. A final advantage of the steam turbine and a very important one is the fact that a turbine can develop many time the power compared to a reciprocating engine whether steam or oil.

OPERATING PRINCIPLES A steam turbines two main parts are the cylinder and the rotor. The cylinder (stator) is a steel or cast iron housing usually

divided at the horizontal centerline. Its halves are bolted together for easy access. The cylinder contains fixed blades, vanes and nozzles that direct steam into the moving blades carried by the rotor. Each fixed blade set is mounted in diaphragms located in front of each disc on the rotor, or directly in the casing. A disc and diaphragm pair a turbine stage. Steam turbines can have many stages. A rotor is a rotating shaft that carries the moving blades on the outer edges of either discs or drums. The blades rotate as the rotor revolves. The rotor of a large steam turbine consists of large, intermediate and low-pressure sections. In a multiple-stage turbine, steam at a high pressure and high temperature enters the first row of fixed blades or nozzles through an inlet valve/valves. As the steam passes through the fixed blades or nozzles, it expands and its velocity increases. The high velocity jet of stream strikes the first set of moving blades. The kinetic energy of the steam changes into mechanical energy,

causing the shaft to rotate. The steam that enters the next set of fixed blades strikes the next row of moving blades.

As the steam flows through the turbine, its pressure and temperature decreases while its volume increases. The decrease in pressure and temperature occurs as the steam transmits energy to the shaft and performs work. After passing through the last turbine stage, the steam exhausts into the condenser or process steam system.
The kinetic energy of the steam changes into mechanical energy through the impact (impulse) or reaction of the steam against the blades. An impulse turbine uses the impact force of the steam jet on the blades to turn the shaft. Steam expands as it passes through thee nozzles, where its pressure drops and its velocity increases. As the steam flows through the moving blades, its pressure remains the same, but its velocity decreases. The steam does not expand as it flows through the moving blades.

STEAM CYCLE The thermal (steam) power plant uses a dual (vapor+liquid) phase cycle. It is a closed cycle to enable the working fluid (water) to be used again and again. The cycle used is Rankine cycle modified to include superheating of steam, regenerative feed water heating and reheating of steam.

The 210 MW turbine is a tandem compounded type machine comprising of H.P. and I.P. cylinders. The H.P. turbines comprise

of 12 stages, I.P. turbine has 11 stages and the L.P. turbine has 4 stages of double flow. The H.P. and I.P. turbine rotors are rigidly compounded and the L.P. motor by the lens type semi flexible coupling. All the three rotors are aligned on five bearings of which the bearing no. 2 is combined with the thrust bearing The main superheated steam branches off into two streams from the boiler and passes through the emergency stop valve and control valve before entering the governing wheel chamber of the H.P. turbine. After expanding in the 12 stages in the H.P. turbine the steam is returned in boiler for reheating. The reheated steam for the boiler enters the I.P> turbine via the interceptor valves and control valves and after expanding enters the L.P. turbine stage via 2 nos of cross-over pipes. In the L.P. stage the steam expands in axially opposite direction to counteract the trust and enters the condensers placed below

the L.P. turbine. The cooling water flowing throughout the condenser tubes condenses the steam and the condensate collected in the hot well of the condenser. The condensate collected is pumped by means of 3*50% duty condensate pumps through L.P. heaters to deaerator from where the boiler feed pump delivers the water to boiler through H.P. heaters thus forming a close cycle.

The Main Turbine


Fresh steam from the boiler is supplied to the turbine through the emergency stop valve. From the stop valves steam is supplied to control valves situated in H.P. cylinders on the front bearing end. After expansion through 12 stages at the H.P. cylinder, steam flows back to the boiler for reheating steam and reheated steam from the boiler cover to the intermediate pressure turbine through two interceptor valves and four control valves mounted on I.P. turbine. After flowing through I.P. turbine steam enters the middle part of the L.P. turbine through cross-over pipes. In L.P. turbine the exhaust steam condenses in the surface condensers welded directly to the exhaust part of L.P. turbine.

The Turbine Cycle

The selection of extraction points and cold reheat pressure has been done with a view to achieve a high efficiency. These are two extractors from H.P. turbine, four from I.P. turbine and one from L.P. turbine. Steam at 1.10 and 1.03 g/sq. cm. Abs is supplied for the gland sealing. Steam for this purpose is obtained

from deaerator through a collection where pressure of steam is regulated. From the condenser, condensate is pumped with the help of 3*50% capacity condensate pumps to deaerator through the low-pressure regenerative equipments. Feed water is pumped from deaerator to the boiler through the H.P. heaters by means of 3*50% capacity feed pumps connected before the H.P. heaters.

SPECIFICATIONS OF THE TURBINE Type: Tandem compound 3 cylinder reheated type. Rated power: 210 MW. Number of stages: 12 in H.P., 11 in I.P. and 4*2 in L.P. cylinder.

Rated steam pressure: 130 kg /sq. cm before entering the stop valve.

Rated steam temperature: 535C after reheating at inlet.

Steam flow: 670T / hr. H.P. turbine exhaust pressure: 27 kg /sq. cm., 327C Condenser back pressure: 0.09 kg /sq. cm. Type of governing: nozzle governing. Number of bearing: 5 excluding generator and exciter. Lubrication Oil: turbine oil 14 of IOC. Gland steam pressure: 1.03 to 1.05 kg /sq. cm (Abs) Critical speed: 1585, 1881, 2017. Ejector steam parameter: 4.5 kg /sq. cm. Condenser cooling water pressure: 1.0 to 1.1 kg /sq.

Condenser cooling water temperature: 27000 cu. M /hr. Number of extraction lines for regenerative heating

of feed water: seven.

TURBINE COMPONENTS Casing. Rotor. Blades. Sealing system. Stop & control valves. Couplings and bearings. Barring gear.


HP Turbine Casings
Outer casing: a barrel-type without axial or radial flange. Barrel-type casing suitable for quick startup and loading. The inner casing- cylindrically, axially split. The inner casing is attached in the horizontal and vertical planes in the barrel casing so that it can freely expand radially in all the directions and axially from a fixed point (HP- inlet side).

IP Turbine Casing:
The casing of the IP turbine is split horizontally and is of double-shell construction.

Both are axially split and a double flow inner casing is supported in the outer casing and carries the guide blades. Provides opposed double flow in the two blade sections and compensates axial thrust. Steam after reheating enters the inner casing from Top & Bottom.

LP Turbine Casing:
The LP turbine casing consists of a double flow unit and

has a triple shell welded casing.

The shells are axially split and of rigid welded construction.

The inner shell taking the first rows of guide blades is attached kinematically in the middle shell. Independent of the outer shell, the middle shell, is supported at four points on longitudinal beams.

Steam admitted to the LP turbine from the IP turbine flows into the inner casing from both sides.


HP Rotor:
The HP rotor is machined from a single Cr-Mo-V steel forging with integral discs. In all the moving wheels, balancing holes are machined to reduce the pressure difference across them, which results in reduction of axial thrust. First stage has integral shrouds while other rows have shroudings, riveted to the blades are periphery.

IP Rotor:
The IP rotor has seven discs integrally forged with rotor while last four discs are shrunk fit.

The shaft is made of high creep resisting Cr-Mo-V steel forging while the shrunk fit discs are machined from high strength nickel steel forgings. Except the last two wheels, all other wheels have shrouding riveted at the tip of the blades. To adjust the frequency of thee moving blades, lashing wires have been provided in some stages.

LP Rotor:
The LP rotor consists of shrunk fit discs in a shaft. The shaft is a forging of Cr-Mo-V steel while the discs are of high strength nickel steel forgings. Blades are secured to the respective discs by riveted fork root fastening.

In all the stages lashing wires are provided to adjust the frequency of blades. In the last two rows, satellite strips are provided at the leading edges of the blades to protect them against wet-steam erosion.

Most costly element of the turbine. Blades fixed in stationary part are called guide blades/ nozzles and those fitted in moving part are called rotating/working blades. Blades have three main parts: o Aerofoil: working part. o Root. o Shrouds.

Shroud are used to prevent steam leakage and guide steam to next set of moving blades.

This comprises of: Condenser: 2 for 200 MW unit at the exhaust of LP turbine. Ejectors: One starting and two main ejectors connected to the condenser locared near the turbine.
C.W. Pumps:

Normally two per unit of 50% capacity.

There are two condensers entered to the two exhausters of the L.P. turbine. These are surface-type condensers with two pass

arrangement. Cooling water pumped into each condenser by a vertical C.W. pump through the inlet pipe. Water enters the inlet chamber of the front water box, passes horizontally through brass tubes to the water tubes to the water box at the other end, takes a turn, passes through the upper cluster of tubes and reaches the outlet chamber in the front water box. From these, cooling water leaves the condenser through the outlet pipe and discharge into the discharge duct. Steam exhausted from the LP turbine washes the outside of the condenser tubes, losing its latent heat to the cooling water and is connected with water in the steam side of the condenser. This condensate collects in the hot well, welded to the bottom of the condensers.

A typical water cooled condensor EJECTORS There are two 100% capacity ejectors of the steam eject type. The purpose of the ejector is to evacuate air and other noncondensating gases from the condensers and thus maintain the vacuum in the condensers.
The ejector has three compartments. Steam is supplied generally at a pressure of 4.5 to 5 kg /cm to the three nozzles in the three compartments. Steam expands in the nozzle thus giving a high2

velocity eject which creates a low-pressure zone in the throat of the eject. Since the nozzle box of the ejector is connected to the air pipe from the condenser, the air and pressure zone. The working steam which has expanded in volume comes into contact with the cluster of tube bundles through which condensate is flowing and gets condensed thus after aiding the formation of vacuum. The non-condensing gases of air are further sucked with the next stage of the ejector by the second nozzle. The process repeats itself in the third stage also and finally the steam-air mixture is exhausted into the atmosphere through the outlet.

This contains the following

i. Condensate Pumps: 3 per unit of 50% capacity each located near condenser hot well. ii. LP Heater: Normally 4 in number with no.1 located at the upper part of the condenser and nos. 2,3 & 4 around 4m level.
iii. Deaerator: one per unit located around 181 M level in CD


Condensate Pumps
The function of these pumps is to pump out the condensate to the desecrator through ejectors, gland steam cooler and LP heaters. These pumps have four stages and since the suction is at a negative pressure, special arrangements have been made for providing sealing. The pump is generally rated for 160 m / hr at a pressure of 13.2 kg/ cm .
2 3

L.P. Heaters
Turbine has been provided with non-controlled extractions, which are utilized for heating the condensate, from turbine bleed steam. There are 410 W pressure heaters in which the last four extractions are used. L.P. Heater-1 has two parts LPH1A and LPH-1B located in the upper parts of the condenser A and condenser B, respectively. These are of horizontal type with shell and tube construction. L.P.H. 2,3 and 4 are of similar construction and they are mounted in a row of 5m level. They are of vertical construction with brass tubes the ends of which are expanded into tube plate. The condensate flows in the U tubes in four passes and extraction steam washes the outside of the tubes. Condensate passes through these four L.P. heaters in succession. These heaters are equipped with necessary safety

valves in the steam space level indicator for visual level indication of heating steam condensate pressure vacuum gauges for measurement of steam pressure, etc.

The presence of certain gases, principally oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia, dissolved in water is generally considered harmful because of their corrosive attack on metals, particularly at elevated temperatures. One of the most important factors in the prevention of internal corrosion in modern boilers and associated plant therefore, is that the boiler feed water should be free as far as possible from all dissolved gases especially oxygen. This is achieved by embodying into the boiler feed system a deaerating unit, whose function is to remove the dissolved gases from the feed water by mechanical means. Particularly the unit

must reduce the oxygen content of the feed water to a lower value as far as possible, depending upon the individual circumstances. Residual oxygen content in condensate at the outlet of deaerating plant usually specified are 0.005/ litre or less.

A Deaerator PRINCIPAL OF DEAERATION It is based on following two laws.

Henrys Law Solubility

The Deaerator comprises of two chambers: Deaerating column Feed storage tank

Deaerating column is a spray cum tray type cylindrical vessel of horizontal construction with dished ends welded to it. The tray stack is designed to ensure maximum contact time as well as optimum scrubbing of condensate to achieve efficient deaeration. The deaeration column is mounted on the feed storage tank, which in turn is supported on rollers at the two ends and a fixed support at the centre. The feed storage tank is fabricated from boiler quality steel plates. Manholes are provided on deaerating column as well as on feed storage tank for inspection and maintenance.

The condensate is admitted at the top of the deaerating column flows downwards through the spray valves and trays. The trays are designed to expose to the maximum water surfaces for efficient scrubbing to affect the liberation of the associated gases steam enters from the underneath of the trays and flows in counter direction of condensate. While flowing upwards through the trays, scrubbing and heating is done. Thus the liberated gases move upwards alongwith the steam. Steam gets condensed above the trays and in turn heats the condensate. Liberated gases escapes to atmosphere from the orifice opening meant for it. This opening is provided with a number of dlflectors to minimize the loss of steam.

FEED WATER SYSTEM The main equipments coming under this system are:

Boiler feed Pump: Three per unit of 50% capacity each located in the 0 meter level in the T bay. High Pressure Heaters: Normally three in number and are situated in the TG bay. Drip Pumps: generally two in number of 100% capacity each situated beneath the LP heaters. Turbine Lubricating Oil System: This consists of the Main Oil Pump (MOP), Starting Oil Pump (SOP), AC standby oil pumps and emergency DC Oil Pump and Jacking Oil Pump (JOP). (one each per unit) Boiler Feed Pump This pump is horizontal and of barrel design driven by an Electric Motor through a hydraulic coupling. All the bearings of pump and motor are forced lubricated by a suitable oil

lubricating system with adequate protection to trip the pump if the lubrication oil pressure falls below a preset value.
The high pressure boiler feed pump is a very expensive machine which calls for a very careful operation and skilled maintenance. Operating staff must be able to find out the causes of defect at the very beginning, which can be easily removed without endangering the operator of the power plant and also without the expensive dismantling of the high pressure feed pump.

The water with the given operating temperature should flow continuously to the pump under a certain minimum pressure. It passes through the suction branch into the intake spiral and from there; it is directed to the first impeller. After leaving the impeller it passes through the distributing passages of the diffuser and thereby gets a certain pressure rise and at the same

time it flows over to the guide vanes to the inlet of the next impeller. This will repeat from one stage to the other till it passes through the last impeller and the end diffuser. Thus the feed water reaching into the discharge space develops the necessary operating pressure.

Booster Pump
Each boiler feed pump is provided with a booster pump in its suction line which is driven by the main motor of the boiler feed pump. One of the major damages which may occur to a boiler feed pump is from cavitation or vapor bounding at the pump suction due to suction failure. Cavitation will occur when the suction pressure of the pump at the pump section is equal or very near to the vapor pressure of the liquid to be pumped at a particular feed water temperature. By the use of booster pump in the main pump suction line, always there will be positive

suction pressure which will remove the possibility of cavitation. Therefore all the feed pumps are provided with a main shaft driven booster pump in its suction line for obtaining a definite positive suction pressure.

Lubricating Pressure All the bearings of boiler feed pump, pump motor and hydraulic coupling are force lubricated. The feed pump consists of two radial sleeve bearings and one thrust bearing. The thrust bearing is located at the free end of the pump.

High Pressure Heaters These are regenerative feed waters heaters operating at high pressure and located by the side of turbine. These are generally vertical type and turbine based steam pipes are connected to them.

HP heaters are connected in series on feed waterside and by such arrangement, the feed water, after feed pump enters the HP heaters. The steam is supplied to these heaters to form the bleed point of the turbine through motor operated valves. These heaters have a group bypass protection on the feed waterside. In the event of tube rupture in any of the HPH and the level of condensate rising to dangerous level, the group protection devices divert automatically the feed water directly to boiler, thus bypassing all the 3 H.P. heaters.

An HP heater