Abiotic Factors In ecology and biology, abiotic components (also called abiotic factors) are nonliving chemical and

physical factors in theenvironment, which affect ecosystems. Abiotic phenomena underlie all of biology. In biology, abiotic factors can be include light, radiation, temperature, water, atmospheric gases, and soil. The macroscopic climateoften influences each of the above. Pressure and sound waves may also be considered in the context of marine or subterrestrial environments.[1] All of these factors affect different organisms to different extents. If there is little or no sunlight then plants may wither and die from not being able to get enough sunlight to do photosynthesis. Many archaebacteria require very high temperatures, or pressures, or unusual concentrations of chemical substances such as sulfur, because of their specialization into extreme conditions. Certain fungi have evolved to survive mostly at the temperature, the humidity, and stability of their environment.[2] For example, there is a significant difference in access to water as well as humidity between temperate rainforests and deserts. This difference in water access causes a diversity in the types of plants and animals that grow in these areas. Humidity Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. Water vapor is the gas phase of water and is invisible.[1] Humidity indicates the likelihood of precipitation, dew, or fog. Higher humidity reduces the effectiveness of sweating in cooling the body by reducing the rate of evaporationof moisture from the skin. This effect is calculated in a heat index table, used during summer weather. There are three main measurements of humidity: absolute, relative and specific. Absolute humidity is the water content of air.[2] Relative humidity, expressed as a percent, measures the current absolute humidity relative to the maximum for that temperature.Specific humidity is a ratio of the water vapor content of the mixture to the total air content on a mass basis.

Animals and plants[edit]
Humidity is one of the fundamental abiotic factors that defines any habitat, and is a determinant of which animals and plants can thrive in a given environment. [15] The human body dissipates heat through perspiration and its evaporation. Heat convection to the surrounding air, and thermal radiationare the primary modes of heat transport from the body. Under conditions of high humidity, the rate of evaporation of sweat from the skin decreases. Also, if the atmosphere is as warm as or warmer than the skin during times of high humidity, blood brought to the body surface cannot dissipate heat by conduction to the air, and a condition called hyperpyrexia results. With so much blood going to the external surface of the body, relatively less goes to the active muscles, the brain, and other internal organs. Physical strength declines, and fatigue occurs sooner than it would otherwise. Alertness and mental capacity also may be affected, resulting in heat stroke orhyperthermia.

20.[28] Stratospheric ozone depletion is believed to be caused by air pollution (chiefly from chlorofluorocarbons). Some kinds of animals. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor. and they do so in various ways. and is responsible for the sense of sight.09% nitrogen. and seals need to surface periodically to breathe air. Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals. with longer wavelengths and the invisible ultraviolet. but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state. air suitable for the survival of terrestrial plants and terrestrial animalscurrently is only known to be found in Earth's troposphere and artificial atmospheres. and reducing temperature extremes between day andnight (the diurnal temperature variation). and small amounts of other gases. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected bycovalent bonds. Dry air contains roughly (by volume) 78. Water also exists in a liquid crystal state nearhydrophilic surfaces. otters. 0. Water is a liquid at standard ambient temperature and pressure. and gaseousstate (water vapor or steam). Aquatic vertebrates must obtain oxygen to survive. Marine mammals. such as dolphins and whales. ice. Invertebrates exhibit a wide range of modifications to survive in poorly oxygenated waters including breathing tubes (see insect andmollusc siphons) and gills (Carcinus).93% argon. although some species of fish. and there are many types of marine mammals. . Some amphibians are able to absorb oxygen through their skin. Plankton is generally the foundation of the ocean food chain. Fish have gillsinstead of lungs. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation. spend portions of their lives in water and portions on land. While air content and atmospheric pressure vary at different layers. whales.Water Water is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H 2O. with shorter wavelengths. 0. on average around 1%. The common name given to the atmospheric gases used in breathing andphotosynthesis is air. Aquatic life forms Earth surface waters are filled with life. However as invertebrate life evolved in an aquatic habitat most have little or no specialisation for respiration in water. Atmospheric gas The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earththat is retained by Earth's gravity.039% carbon dioxide. Plants such as kelp and algae grow in the water and are the basis for some underwater ecosystems. such as dolphins. The earliest life forms appeared in water. warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect). have both. orbiological materials that cause harm or discomfort to organisms. nearly all fish live exclusively in water. particulate matter. such as amphibians. Light Visible light (commonly referred to simply as light) is electromagnetic radiation that isvisible to the human eye. to about 740 nanometres – between the invisible infrared.95% oxygen. or 380×10−9 m.[1] Visible light has awavelength in the range of about 380 nanometres (nm). such as the lungfish.

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