Cyrillization

A Cyrillization is a system for rendering words of a language that normally uses a writing system other than the Cyrillic script into a (version of) Cyrillic alphabet. A Cyrillization scheme needs to be applied, for example, to transcribe names of German, Chinese, or American people and places for use in Russian, Serbian, Macedonian or Bulgarian newspapers and books. Cyrillization is analogous to romanization, when words from a non-Latin-script-using language are rendered in the Latin alphabet for use e.g. in English, German, or Francophone literature. Just like with various Romanization schemes, each Cyrillization system has its own set of rules, depending on:
• • •

The source language or writing system (English, French, Arabic, Hindi, Kazakh in Latin alphabet, Chinese, Japanese, etc.), The destination language or writing system (Russian, Bulgarian, Kazakh in Cyrillic, etc.), the goals of the systems:
o o o

to render occasional foreign words (mostly personal and place names) for use in newspapers or on maps; to provide a practical approximate phonetic transcription in a phrase book or a bilingual dictionary; or to convert a language to a Cyrillic writing system altogether (e.g. Moldavian, Dungan, Kazakh)

Linguistic and/or political inclinations of the designers of the system (see, for example, the use—or disuse—of the letter Ґ for rendering the "G" of foreign words in the Ukrainian).

When the source language uses a fairly phonetic spelling system, a Cyrillization scheme may often be adopted that almost amounts to a transliteration, i.e. using a mapping scheme that simply maps each letter of the source alphabet to some letter of the destination alphabet, sometimes augmented by position-based rules. Among such schemes are several schemes universally accepted in Russia:
• • •

Cyrillization of Chinese Cyrillization of Japanese Cyrillization of Korean

Similarly simple schemes are widely used to render Spanish, Italian, etc. words into Russian etc. When the source language uses a not particularly phonetic writing system — most notably English and French — its words are typically rendered in Russian or other Cyrillic-based languages using an approximate phonetic transliteration system, which aims to allow the Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, etc. readers to approximate the sound of the source language as much as it is possible within the constraints of the destination language and its alphabet. Among the examples is the Practical transcription of English into Russian (Russian: Правила англо-русской практической транскрипции), which aims to render English words in

Russian based on their sounds and Transliteration of foreign words by a cyrillic alphabet (Ukrainian: Транслітерація іншомовних слів кирилицею) in case with Ukrainian. While this scheme is mostly accepted by a majority of Russian authors and publishers, transcription variants are not uncommon. A transliteration system for the Bulgarian Cyrillization of English has been designed by the Bulgarian linguist Andrey Danchev. Similarly phonetic schemes are widely adopted for Cyrillization of French.

See also
• •

Volapuk encoding Транскрипция (Russian) - the articles on Transcription in the Russian Wikipedia
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Rules for practical English-Russian transcription (Russian) Transcription of German into Cyrillic (Russian)

Транскрипція (Ukrainian) - the articles on Transcription in the Ukrainian Wikipedia
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Transliteration of English and German words by a Cyrillic alphabet (Ukrainian)

Транскрибиране на български език (Bulgarian) - Transcription into the Bulgarian

External links

Cyrillization of Polish

References
• •

A. Danchev, Bulgarian transcription of English names, Narodna Prosveta, Sofia, 1982 (in Bulgarian) R.S. Gilyrevsky (Гиляревский Р. С.), editor: "Practical Transcription of Personal and Family Names" (Практическая транскрипция фамильноименных групп.) Moscow, Fizmatliz, 2004. ISBN 5-9221-0480-2. — (covers 6 European languages, as well as Arabic, Chinese, Turkish, and Japanese)
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same, 2nd edition; Moscow, Nauka, 2006, 526. ISBN 5-02-033718-8. (11 European languages, as well as Arabic, Chinese, Turkish, Hindi, Vietnames, Korean, and Japanese)

R.S. Gilyrevsky (Гиляревский Р. С.), B.A. Starostin (Старостин Б. А.) "Foreign Names in the Russian Text: A Handbook" ( Иностранные имена и названия в русском тексте: Справочник). 3rd edition. Moscow, Vysshaya Shkola, 1985.

Ermolovich (Ермолович Д. 2005. И. Valent. ISBN 5-93439-046-5.• • • D. It is the Russian official standard for transcribing Chinese into Russian. 1998. a Russian sinologist and monk who spent 30 years in China and was also known by his monastic name Palladius (Палладий). Valent.A.I. R. Vneshsigma. ISBN 5-86290-378-0. Spelling and pronunciation. Cyrillization of Chinese The Cyrillization of Chinese is effected using the Palladius system for transcribing Chinese characters into the Cyrillic alphabet. Practical transcription into Russian: Dictionary Handbook" (Иностранные фамилии и личные имена. Ermolovich (Ермолович Д. ISBN 5-93439-153-4.) "Personal Names at the Junction of Languages and Cultures" (Имена собственные на стыке языков и культур). Практическая транскрипция на русский язык: Словарьсправочник) Moscow. Написание и произношение. Moscow. И. А). It was created by Pyotr Ivanovich Kafarov (Пётр Ива́нович Кафа́ров). "Foreign family names and personal names.I. R.) "Personal Names: Theory and Practice of Interlanguage Transmission at the Junction of Languages and Cultures" (Имена собственные: теория и практика межъязыковой передачи на стыке языков и культур. Moscow. (23 languages) D. 2001. Lidin (Лидин Р. R. System Cyrillic IPA Pinyin Wade–Giles Bopomofo Cyrillic IPA Pinyin Wade–Giles Bopomofo б p b p ㄅ п pʰ p p' ㄆ м ф д m f t m f d m f t ㄇ ㄈ ㄉ а a a a ㄚ т tʰ t t' ㄊ Consonants н л г к х n l k kʰ x n l g k h n l k k' h ㄋ ㄌ ㄍ ㄎ ㄏ Rhymes ай эй ао aɪ eɪ ɑʊ ai ei ao ai ei ao ㄞ ㄟ ㄠ цз ц с ʨ ʨʰ ɕ j q x ch ch' hs ㄐ ㄑ ㄒ оу oʊ ou ou ㄡ чж ʈʂ zh ch ㄓ ань an an an ㄢ ч ʈʂʰ ch ch' ㄔ ш ж цз ʂ ʐ/ɻ ʦ sh r z sh j ts/tz ㄕ ㄖ ㄗ ан ɑŋ ang ang ㄤ ц с ʦʰ s c s ts'/tz' s ㄘ ㄙ эн ɤŋ eng eng ㄥ эр əɻ er erh ㄦ -и/-ы ʅ/ɿ -i ih/û ㄭ э ɤ e o/ê ㄜ энь ən en en ㄣ .

Cyrillic IPA Pinyin Wade–Giles Bopomofo Cyrillic IPA Pinyin Wade–Giles Bopomofo Cyrillic IPA Pinyin Wade–Giles Bopomofo и i i i ㄧ у u u u ㄨ юй y ü ü ㄩ я iä ia ia ㄧㄚ уа ва uä ua ua ㄨㄚ е iɛ ie ieh ㄧㄝ о во uǫ/uɔ uo uo ㄨㄛ юэ yœ̜ üe üeh ㄩㄝ уай вай uäɪ uai uai ㄨㄞ уй вэй ueɪ ui ui ㄨㄟ яо iɑʊ iao iao ㄧㄠ ю iǫʊ iu iu ㄧㄡ янь iɛn ian ien ㄧㄢ уaнь вaнь uan uan uan ㄨㄢ юaнь yœn ̜ üan üan ㄩㄢ инь in in in ㄧㄣ унь вэнь uən un un ㄨㄣ юнь yn ün ün ㄩㄣ ян iɑŋ iang iang ㄧㄤ уaн вaн uɑŋ uang uang ㄨㄤ ин iŋ ing ing ㄧㄥ ун вэн ɔŋ/uɤŋ ong ung ㄨㄥ юн iɔŋ iong iung ㄩㄥ Comparison chart This table establishes correspondence between the Palladius system together with the two Romanization systems most commonly used in English-speaking countries: Pinyin and Wade–Giles. Б/B Cyrillic Pinyin WG ба бай бан бань ba bai bang ban pa pai pang pan П/P MPS Cyrillic Pinyin WG ㄅㄚ ㄅㄞ ㄅㄤ ㄅㄢ па пай пан пань pa pai pang pan p'a p'ai p'ang p'an М/M MPS Cyrillic Pinyin WG ㄆㄚ ㄆㄞ ㄆㄤ ㄆㄢ ма май ман мань ma mai man ma mai man Ф/F MPS Cyrillic Pinyin WG MPS ㄇㄚ ㄇㄞ ㄇㄤ ㄇㄢ фан фань fang fang ㄈㄤ fan fan ㄈㄢ фа fa fa ㄈㄚ mang mang .

бао бе би бин бинь бо bao bie bi bing bin bo pao ㄅㄠ пао пе пи пин пинь по поу pao pie pi ping pin po pou pu p'ao ㄆㄠ мао ме ми мин минь мо моу му мэ mao mie mi ming min mo mou mu me mei mao ㄇㄠ pieh ㄅㄧㄝ pi ㄅㄧ p'ieh ㄆㄧㄝ p'i ㄆㄧ mieh ㄇㄧㄝ mi ㄇㄧ ping ㄅㄧㄥ pin po ㄅㄧㄣ ㄅㄛ p'ing ㄆㄧㄥ p'in p'o p'ou p'u ㄆㄧㄣ ㄆㄛ ㄆㄡ ㄆㄨ ming ㄇㄧㄥ min ㄇㄧㄣ mo mou mu me mei ㄇㄛ ㄇㄡ ㄇㄨ ㄇㄜ ㄇㄟ ㄇㄥ ㄇㄣ фэй фэн фэнь fei fei ㄈㄟ фо фоу фу fo fou fu fo fou fu ㄈㄛ ㄈㄡ ㄈㄨ бу bu pu ㄅㄨ пу бэй бэн бэнь bei beng ben pei peng pen ㄅㄟ ㄅㄥ ㄅㄣ пэй пэн пэнь pei peng pen p'ei p'eng p'en ㄆㄟ ㄆㄥ ㄆㄣ мэй мэн мэнь мю meng meng men miu mian miao men feng feng ㄈㄥ fen fen ㄈㄣ miu ㄇㄧㄡ mien ㄇㄧㄢ miao ㄇㄧㄠ Л/L MPS Cyrillic Pinyin WG MPS ㄋㄚ ㄋㄞ ㄋㄤ ㄋㄢ ㄋㄠ ла лай лан лань лао la lai la lai ㄌㄚ ㄌㄞ бянь бяо bian biao pien ㄅㄧㄢ piao ㄅㄧㄠ пянь пяо pian piao p'ien ㄆㄧㄢ p'iao ㄆㄧㄠ мянь мяо Д/D Cyrillic Pinyin WG да дай дан дань дао da dai dang dan dao ta tai tang tan tao Т/T MPS Cyrillic Pinyin WG ㄉㄚ ㄉㄞ ㄉㄤ ㄉㄢ ㄉㄠ та тай тан тань тао ta tai tang tan tao t'a t'ai t'ang t'an t'ao Н/N MPS Cyrillic Pinyin WG ㄊㄚ ㄊㄞ ㄊㄤ ㄊㄢ ㄊㄠ на най нан нань нао na nai nang nan nao na nai nang nan nao lang lang ㄌㄤ lan lao lan lao ㄌㄢ ㄌㄠ .

де ди дин die di ding tieh ㄉㄧㄝ ti ㄉㄧ те ти тин tie ti ting t'ieh ㄊㄧㄝ t'i ㄊㄧ не ни нин нинь nie ni ning nin nuo nou nu nuan nieh ㄋㄧㄝ ni ㄋㄧ ле ли лин линь ло лоу лу lie li ling lin luo lou lu lieh ㄌㄧㄝ li ㄌㄧ ting ㄉㄧㄥ t'ing ㄊㄧㄥ ning ㄋㄧㄥ nin no nou nu ㄋㄧㄣ ㄋㄨㄛ ㄋㄡ ㄋㄨ ling ㄌㄧㄥ lin ㄌㄧㄣ lo ㄌㄨㄛ lou lu ㄌㄡ ㄌㄨ до доу ду дуань дуй дун дунь дэ дэй дэн дэнь дю duo dou du duan dui dong dun de dei deng den diu to tou tu ㄉㄨㄛ ㄉㄡ ㄉㄨ то тоу ту tuo tou tu tuan tui tong tun te tei teng t'o t'ou t'u ㄊㄨㄛ ㄊㄡ ㄊㄨ но ноу ну tuan ㄉㄨㄢ туань tui ㄉㄨㄟ туй тун тунь тэ тэй тэн t'uan ㄊㄨㄢ нуань t'ui ㄊㄨㄟ нун nuan ㄋㄨㄢ луань luan luan ㄌㄨㄢ tung ㄉㄨㄥ tun tê tei teng ten tiu ㄉㄨㄣ ㄉㄜ ㄉㄟ ㄉㄥ ㄉㄣ ㄉㄧㄡ t'ung ㄊㄨㄥ t'un t'ê t'ei t'eng ㄊㄨㄣ ㄊㄜ ㄊㄟ ㄊㄥ nong nung ㄋㄨㄥ лун лунь long lung ㄌㄨㄥ lun le lei lun ㄌㄨㄣ lê lei ㄌㄜ ㄌㄟ нэ нэй нэн нэнь ню нюй нюэ ne nei neng nen niu nü nue nê nei neng nen niu nü ㄋㄜ ㄋㄟ ㄋㄥ ㄋㄣ ㄋㄧㄡ ㄋㄩ лэ лэй лэн leng leng ㄌㄥ лю люй люэ ля liu lü lue lia liu ㄌㄧㄡ lü ㄌㄩ nüeh ㄋㄩㄝ lüeh ㄌㄩㄝ lia ㄌㄧㄚ дя dia tia ㄉㄧㄚ нян niang niang ㄋㄧㄤ nian niao nien ㄋㄧㄢ niao ㄋㄧㄠ лян лянь ляо liang liang ㄌㄧㄤ lian liao lien ㄌㄧㄢ liao ㄌㄧㄠ дянь дяо dian diao tien ㄉㄧㄢ tiao ㄉㄧㄠ тянь тяо tian tiao t'ien ㄊㄧㄢ t'iao ㄊㄧㄠ нянь няо Г/G К/K Х/H .

Cyrillic га гай ган гань гао го гоу гу гуа гуай гуан гуань гуй гун гунь гэ гэй гэн гэнь Cyrillic цзе цзи цзин цзинь цзю цзюань цзюй цзюн цзюнь цзюэ цзя Pinyin WG ga ka gai kai gang kang gan kan gao kao guo kuo gou kou gu ku gua kua guai kuai guang kuang guan kuan gui kui gong kung gun kun ge ko gei kei geng keng gen ken ЦЗ / J Pinyin WG jie chieh ji chi jing ching jin chin jiu chiu juan chüan ju chü jiong chiung jun chün jue chüeh jia chia MPS Cyrillic Pinyin WG MPS ㄍㄚ ㄎㄚ ка ka k'a ㄍㄞ ㄎㄞ кай kai k'ai ㄍㄤ кан kang k'ang ㄎㄤ ㄍㄢ кань kan k'an ㄎㄢ ㄍㄠ као kao k'ao ㄎㄠ ㄍㄨㄛ ко kuo k'uo ㄎㄨㄛ ㄍㄡ коу kuo k'ou ㄎㄡ ㄍㄨ ㄎㄨ ку ku k'u ㄍㄨㄚ куа kua k'ua ㄎㄨㄚ ㄍㄨㄞ куай kuai k'uai ㄎㄨㄞ ㄍㄨㄤ куан kuang k'uang ㄎㄨㄤ ㄍㄨㄢ куань kuan k'uan ㄎㄨㄢ ㄍㄨㄟ куй kui k'ui ㄎㄨㄟ ㄍㄨㄥ кун kong k'ung ㄎㄨㄥ ㄍㄨㄣ кунь kun k'un ㄎㄨㄣ ㄍㄜ ㄎㄜ кэ ke k'o ㄍㄟ ㄍㄥ кэн keng k'eng ㄎㄥ ㄍㄣ кэнь ken k'en ㄎㄣ Ц/Q MPS Cyrillic Pinyin WG MPS ㄐㄧㄝ це qie ch'ieh ㄑㄧㄝ ㄐㄧ ㄑㄧ ци qi ch'i ㄐㄧㄥ цин qing ch'ing ㄑㄧㄥ ㄐㄧㄣ цинь qin ch'in ㄑㄧㄣ ㄐㄧㄡ цю qiu ch'iu ㄑㄧㄡ ㄐㄩㄢ цюань quan ch'üan ㄑㄩㄢ ㄐㄩ цюй qu ch'ü ㄑㄩ ㄐㄩㄥ цюн qiong ch'iung ㄑㄩㄥ ㄐㄩㄣ цюнь qun ch'ün ㄑㄩㄣ ㄐㄩㄝ цюэ que ch'üeh ㄑㄩㄝ ㄐㄧㄚ ця qia ch'ia ㄑㄧㄚ Cyrillic Pinyin WG ха ha ha хай hai hai хан hang hang хань han han хао hao hao хо huo huo хоу hou hou ху hu hu хуа hua hua хуай huai huai хуан huang huang хуань huan huan хуэй hui hui хун hong hung хунь hun hun хэ he ho хэй hei hei хэн heng heng хэнь hen hen С/X Cyrillic Pinyin WG се xie hsieh си xi hsi син xing hsing синь xin hsin сю xiu hsiu сюань xuan hsüan сюй xu hsü сюн xiong hsiung сюнь xun hsün сюэ xue hsüeh ся xia hsia MPS ㄏㄚ ㄏㄞ ㄏㄤ ㄏㄢ ㄏㄠ ㄏㄨㄛ ㄏㄡ ㄏㄨ ㄏㄨㄚ ㄏㄨㄞ ㄏㄨㄤ ㄏㄨㄢ ㄏㄨㄟ ㄏㄨㄥ ㄏㄨㄣ ㄏㄜ ㄏㄟ ㄏㄥ ㄏㄣ MPS ㄒㄧㄝ ㄒㄧ ㄒㄧㄥ ㄒㄧㄣ ㄒㄧㄡ ㄒㄩㄢ ㄒㄩ ㄒㄩㄥ ㄒㄩㄣ ㄒㄩㄝ ㄒㄧㄚ .

jiang chiang ㄐㄧㄤ цян qiang ch'iang ㄑㄧㄤ сян xiang hsiang ㄒㄧㄤ jian chien ㄐㄧㄢ цянь qian ch'ien ㄑㄧㄢ сянь xian hsien ㄒㄧㄢ jiao chiao ㄐㄧㄠ цяо qiao ch'iao ㄑㄧㄠ сяо xiao hsiao ㄒㄧㄠ ЧЖ / ZH Ч / CH Ш / SH Ж/R Cyrillic Pinyin WG MPS Cyrillic Pinyin WG MPS Cyrillic Pinyin WG MPS Cyrillic Pinyin WG MPS ㄕㄚ чжа zha cha ㄓㄚ ча cha ch'a ㄔㄚ ша sha sha чжай zhai chai ㄓㄞ чай chai ch'ai ㄔㄞ шай shai shai ㄕㄞ чжан zhang chang ㄓㄤ чан chang ch'ang ㄔㄤ шан shang shang ㄕㄤ жан rang jang ㄖㄤ чжань zhan chan ㄓㄢ чань chan ch'an ㄔㄢ шань shan shan ㄕㄢ жань ran jan ㄖㄢ чжао zhao chao ㄓㄠ чао chao ch'ao ㄔㄠ шао shao shao ㄕㄠ жао rao jao ㄖㄠ ㄓ ㄔ ㄕ ㄖ чжи zhi chih чи chi ch'ih ши shi shih жи ri jih чжо zhuo cho ㄓㄨㄛ чо chuo ch'o ㄔㄨㄛ шо shuo shuo ㄕㄨㄛ жо ruo jo ㄖㄨㄛ чжоу zhou chou ㄓㄡ чоу chou ch'ou ㄔㄡ шоу shou shou ㄕㄡ жоу rou jou ㄖㄡ чжу zhu chu ㄓㄨ чу chu ch'u ㄔㄨ шу shu shu ㄕㄨ жу ru ju ㄖㄨ чжуа zhua chua ㄓㄨㄚ чуа chua ch'ua ㄔㄨㄚ шуа shua shua ㄕㄨㄚ жуа rua jua ㄖㄨㄚ чжуай zhuai chuai ㄓㄨㄞ чуай chuai ch'uai ㄔㄨㄞ шуай shuai shuai ㄕㄨㄞ чжуан zhuang chuang ㄓㄨㄤ чуан chuang ch'uang ㄔㄨㄤ шуан shuang shuang ㄕㄨㄤ чжуань zhuan chuan ㄓㄨㄢ чуань chuan ch'uan ㄔㄨㄢ шуань shuan shuan ㄕㄨㄢ жуань ruan juan ㄖㄨㄢ чжуй zhui chui ㄓㄨㄟ чуй chui ch'ui ㄔㄨㄟ шуй shui shui ㄕㄨㄟ жуй rui jui ㄖㄨㄟ чжун zhong chung ㄓㄨㄥ чун chong ch'ung ㄔㄨㄥ жун rong jung ㄖㄨㄥ чжунь zhun chun ㄓㄨㄣ чунь chun ch'un ㄔㄨㄣ шунь shun shun ㄕㄨㄣ жунь run jun ㄖㄨㄣ ㄕㄜ чжэ zhe chê ㄓㄜ чэ che ch'ê ㄔㄜ шэ she shê жэ re jê ㄖㄜ чжэй zhei chei ㄓㄟ шэй shei shei ㄕㄟ чжэн zheng cheng ㄓㄥ чэн cheng ch'eng ㄔㄥ шэн sheng sheng ㄕㄥ жэн reng jeng ㄖㄥ чжэнь zhen chen ㄓㄣ чэнь chen ch'en ㄔㄣ шэнь shen shen ㄕㄣ жэнь ren jen ㄖㄣ ЦЗ / Z Ц/C С/S Cyrillic Pinyin WG MPS Cyrillic Pinyin WG MPS Cyrillic Pinyin WG MPS ㄗㄚ ㄘㄚ ㄙㄚ цза za tsa ца ca ts'a са sa sa ㄘㄞ ㄙㄞ цзай zai tsai ㄗㄞ цай cai ts'ai сай sai sai цзан zang tsang ㄗㄤ цан cang ts'ang ㄘㄤ сан sang sang ㄙㄤ ㄙㄢ цзань zan tsan ㄗㄢ цань can ts'an ㄘㄢ сань san san ㄙㄠ цзао zao tsao ㄗㄠ цао cao ts'ao ㄘㄠ сао sao sao цзо zuo tso ㄗㄨㄛ цо cuo ts'o ㄘㄨㄛ со suo so ㄙㄨㄛ цзян цзянь цзяо .

less often. Older documents contain variants мэн — мын. much as Peking and Nanking were still used in English speaking countries until recently. Hong Kong (pinyin: Xianggang) may be both Сянга́н (Xianggang) and Гонко́нг (Hong Kong). фэн — фын. мэнь — мынь. the latter is more common. Most modern texts contain э. hence Aomen (Macao) is traditionally spelled Аомынь in Russian. Аньхой) for aesthetic reasons. with some exceptions. . as хой (Anhui. Хуэйцзу) or. since хуй (chuj) is a taboo word for "penis" (a lot more strict than "cock" in usage) in Russian and several other Slavic languages.цзоу zou цзу zu цзуань zuan цзуй zui цзун zong цзунь zun цзы zi цзэ ze цзэй zei цзэн zeng цзэнь zen tsou tsu tsuan tsui tsung tsun tzu tsê tsei tseng tsen ㄗㄡ цоу ㄗㄨ цу ㄗㄨㄢ цуань ㄗㄨㄟ цуй ㄗㄨㄥ цун ㄗㄨㄣ цунь ㄗ цы ㄗㄜ цэ ㄗㄟ ㄗㄥ цэн ㄗㄣ цэнь cou cu cuan cui cong cun ci ce ceng cen ts'ou ts'u ts'uan ts'ui ts'ung ts'un tz'u ts'ê ts'eng ts'en ㄘㄡ соу ㄘㄨ су ㄘㄨㄢ суань ㄘㄨㄟ суй ㄘㄨㄥ сун ㄘㄨㄣ сунь ㄘ сы ㄘㄜ сэ sou su suan sui song sun si se sou su suan sui sung sun ssu sê ㄙㄡ ㄙㄨ ㄙㄨㄢ ㄙㄨㄟ ㄙㄨㄥ ㄙㄨㄣ ㄙ ㄙㄜ ㄙㄥ ㄙㄣ MPS Cyrillic Pinyin WG ㄛ юй yu yü ㄡ юн yong yung ㄨ юнь yun yün ㄜ юэ yue yüeh ㄟ я ya ya ㄣ яй yai yai ㄦ ян yang yang ㄧㄡ янь yan yen ㄩㄢ яо yao yao MPS ㄩ ㄩㄥ ㄩㄣ ㄩㄝ ㄧㄚ ㄧㄞ ㄧㄤ ㄧㄢ ㄧㄠ Cyrillic Pinyin WG а a a ай ai ai ан ang ang ань an an ао ao ao ва wa wa вай wai wai ван wang wang вань wan wan MPS Cyrillic Pinyin WG ㄚ во wo wo ㄞ вэй wei wei ㄤ вэн weng weng ㄢ вэнь wen wen ㄠ е ye yeh ㄨㄚ ё yo yo ㄨㄞ и yi i ㄨㄤ ин ying ing ㄨㄢ инь yin in ㄘㄥ сэн seng seng ㄘㄣ сэнь sen sen Others MPS Cyrillic Pinyin WG ㄨㄛ о o o ㄨㄟ оу ou ou ㄨㄥ у wu wu ㄨㄣ э e ê ㄧㄝ эй ei ei ㄧㄛ энь en en ㄧ эр er êrh ㄧㄥ ю you yu ㄧㄣ юань yuan yüan Exceptions The names of the cities of Beijing and Nanjing are transcribed as Пеки́н (instead of Бэйцзин) and Нанки́н (instead of Наньцзин). Syllable hui is transcribed not as хуй but as хуэй (Huizu. пэн — пын. фэнь — фынь.

.See also • • • Dungan language Romanization of Chinese Cyrillization of Japanese External links • • Automatic Cyrillic transliteration of pinyin Annotation of Chinese with Palladius and other phonetic systems Cyrillization of Arabic System Consonants Cyrillic б д дь ж тжь ф г х хь й к л м н тд кь р с сь ш т ть в хх г IPA b d dˤ d͡ʒ ð f g h ħ j k l m n θ q r s sˤ ʃ t tˤ w χ ɣ Vocals Cyrillic аъ аь аэ ы и о IPA æ ɑ ɐ ɪ i o Example Cyrillic ьаьраьбиййаэ маърхьаьбаэ маьнаэзаъл викибиаэ жөжл аэлрөсиаэ ʕɑrɑˈbijjɐ ( mær'ħɑbɐ ( mɑ'nɐzæl ( wikibidiɐ ( d͡ʒʊd͡ʒl ( ɐlrʊsiɐ ( IPA ‫)عربية‬ ‫)مرحبا‬ ‫)منازل‬ ‫)ويكيبيديا‬ ‫)جوجل‬ ‫)الروسية‬ г з ь ъ ʁ z ʕ ʔ ө ʊ сьөраэ sˤʊrɐ ( ‫)صقر‬ Cyrillization of Greek Cyrillization of Greek refers to the transcription or transliteration of text from the Greek alphabet to the Cyrillic script.

or οι г Γερμανία Германиа γι. γει. ρ or a vowel эв ευ before θ. σ. αϊ. μ. λ. φ. ψ эф ζ з Ζαγορά Загора η и θ т Θεωδόρας Тэодорас ι и ι before a vowel й κ к λ л μ м Greek note . δ. γ. or a vowel ав αυ before θ. ν. τ. κ. ει. τ. σ. φ. χ. γ. γυ before vowels й Γιατρός Ятрос γγ нг Άγγελος Ангелос γκ word-initial г Γκάνα Гана γκ within a word before a voiced consonant or a vowel нг γκ within a word before an unvoiced consonant нк γχ нх δ д Δανία Даниа ε э Έλβας Элвас ει и ει before a vowel й εϊ эи ευ before β. π.Modern Greek to Russian The following system has been used for Cyrillization of modern Greek into Russian. ζ. χ.[1][2] Cyrillic example α а αι э άι. λ. δ. ι. or ψ аф β в γ г γ before ε. άυ аи αυ before β. ζ. ξ. ρ. υ. κ. μ. αι. ξ. ν. η. π.

ψ. pp. 8–10. Moscow: Корона. δ. (2004). φ. ς τ υ υ φ χ ψ ω word-initial within a word word-initial within a word before a vowel before θ. σ. ν. λ. Греческий без репетитора [Greek Without a Tutor]. or ζ before a vowel б мп н д нт кс о й и ои ой у п р с з т и й ф х пс о See also • • Cyrillization Romanization of Greek References 1. τ. A. 2. Moscow: Русский язык Медиа. τ. V. ^ Borisova. (2005).μπ μπ ν ντ ντ ξ ο οι οι όι οϊ ου π ρ σ σ. A. ISBN 5-89-815-482-5. γ. ρ. κ. μ. B. π. Греческо-русский и русско-греческий словарь [Greek–Russian and Russian–Greek Dictionary] . ISBN 59576-0124-1. χ. ^ Salnova. ζ. or a vowel before β. . ξ.

for single/modified kana. It is commonly accepted in Russia. rōmaji. Note that it has its own spelling conventions and does not necessarily constitute a direct phonetic transcription of the pronunciation into the standard Russian usage of the Cyrillic alphabet.[citation needed] Kana Cyrillic Hepburn あア а a か カ ка ka さ サ са sa た タ та ta な ナ на na は ハ ха ha ま マ ма ma やヤ я ya ら ラ ра ra わ ワ ва wa ん ン -н/-м -n Kana Cyrillic Hepburn い イ и/й i き キ ки ki し シ си shi ち チ ти chi に ニ ни ni ひ ヒ хи hi み ミ ми mi りリ ゐヰ ри и/й ri i Kana Cyrillic Hepburn うウ у u く ク ку ku す ス су su つ ツ цу tsu ぬ ヌ ну nu ふ フ фу fu む ム му mu ゆユ ю yu る ル ру ru Kana Cyrillic Hepburn えエ э e け ケ кэ ke せ セ сэ se て テ тэ te ね ネ нэ ne へ ヘ хэ he め メ мэ me れレ ゑヱ рэ э re e Kana Cyrillic Hepburn おオ о o こ コ ко ko そ ソ со so と ト то to の ノ но no ほ ホ хо ho も モ мо mo よヨ ё yo ろ ロ ро ro をヲ о o が ガ га ぎ ギ ги ga ざ ザ дза じ ジ дзи za だ ダ да ぢ ヂ дзи da ば バ ба び ビ би ba ぱ パ па ぴ ピ пи pa Kana Cyrillic Hepburn Kana ぐ グ гу gi ず ズ дзу ji づ ヅ дзу ji ぶ ブ бу bi ぷ プ пу pi Cyrillic Hepburn Kana げ ゲ гэ gu ぜ ゼ дзэ zu で デ дэ zu べ ベ бэ bu ぺ ペ пэ pu Cyrillic Hepburn ge ze de be pe ご ぞ ど ぼ ぽ ゴ ゾ ド ボ ポ го дзо до бо по go zo do bo po .Cyrillization of Japanese Cyrillization of Japanese is the practice of expressing Japanese sounds using Cyrillic characters. The Japanese term for the resulting transliteration is kiriji (キキキ?) — cf. Main table Hiragana and Katagana to Polivanov cyrillization correspondence table. Below is a cyrillization system for the Japanese language known as the Yevgeny Polivanov system.

きゃ しゃ ちゃ にゃ ひゃ みゃ りゃ ぎゃ じゃ ぢゃ びゃ ぴゃ キャ シャ チャ ニャ ヒャ ミャ リャ ギャ ジャ ヂャ ビャ ピャ кя ся тя ня хя мя ря гя дзя дзя бя пя kya sha cha nya hya mya rya gya ja ja bya pya きゅ キュ しゅ シュ ちゅ チュ にゅ ニュ ひゅ ヒュ みゅ ミュ りゅ リュ ぎゅ ギュ じゅ ジュ ぢゅ ヂュ びゅ ビュ ぴゅ ピュ кю сю тю ню хю мю рю гю дзю дзю бю пю kyu shu chu nyu hyu myu ryu gyu ju ju byu pyu きょ キョ しょ ショ ちょ チョ にょ ニョ ひょ ヒョ みょ ミョ りょ リョ ぎょ ギョ じょ ジョ ぢょ ヂョ びょ ビョ ぴょ ピョ кё сё тё нё хё мё рё гё дзё дзё бё пё kyo sho cho nyo hyo myo ryo gyo jo jo byo pyo Geminate Consonants Consonants are geminated exactly as they are in romaji: e. before vowels and y it is transcribed as нъ in order to indicate syllable boundary. in all other cases it is transcribed as н. -kk.[citation needed] Examples Japanese Hepburn Cyrillic しんぶん shinbun симбун さんか sanka санка かんい kan'i канъи ほんや hon'ya хонъя Common errors In English texts.g. similar to Railway Standard (鉄道掲示基準規程) in romanization of Japanese. and м the syllabic ん is transcribed as м according to pronunciation. Syllabic n Before п.> -кк-. б. Japanese names are written with the Hepburn system. .[1] People then try to transcribe Japanese names as if they were English.

тю.[citation needed] Many anime fandom members intentionally use the cyrillized Hepburn system and other alternative transcriptions because they believe the system distorts the Russian reading of Japanese pronunciation too much. Ниппон 日本 (にほん. ironically.[1] This is tolerable only for the words that are in general use (e. чо. cho as ча. for historical reasons. Toshiba – Тошиба (not Тосиба). the spelling "йо" is not common in Russian words. but for reasons of consistency. chu. do not follow the above rules. чи.g. чу. Russian щи is pronounced like Japanese sshi. It would probably be closer to Japanese to write щи. sushi is spelled "суси" and "суши". Тоёта -> Тойота (Toyota). kamikaze > камикадзе instead of камикадзэ). even though there are Roman transliterations such as "yen" and "Yedo" which one might expect to be written as ен and Едо). ти. This is incorrect. which has the same pronunciation: Ёкосука -> Йокосука (Yokosuka).[1] One should. is often written as йо (yo). This is acceptable phonetically. not at the beginning of a word.[1] Despite the rules. Those include but are not limited to:[citation needed] Examples Russian spelling English (Rōmaji) Japan (Nihon.[citation needed] Exceptions Some proper names. some Japanese words either are now spelled without following the system or have alternative spellings: Hitachi – Хитачи (the corporation. chi. Actually. it is better to follow the rules and write тя.Very often people[1] want to transcribe shi as ши and ji as джи.[1] Sometimes э is replaced with е (but. тё. Although. never replace ё (yo) with е (ye) — it will change the Japanese word too much. however. because in Russian ши is pronounced as шы and джи as джы. but the system uses си and дзи. these are more generally accepted for Japanese names than the transliterations using "ё". The Russian sound /ɨ/ is in fact closer to Japanese /u/ than to Japanese /i/. にっぽん) 東京 (とうきょう) Токио То:кё: 京都 (きょうと) Киото Кё:то 横浜 (よこはま) Иокогама (also Йокохама) Ёкохама 横須賀 (よこすか) Йокосука Ёкосука トヨタ (originally: 豊田) Тойота (Тоёта in older publications) Тоёта 柔術 (じゅうじゅつ) джиу-джитсу дзю:дзюцу 円 (えん) иена (also йена) эн . Preference of a cyrillization system often becomes a matter of heated debates. while the city is Хитати). Nippon) Tokyo (Tōkyō) Kyoto (Kyōto) Yokohama Yokosuka Toyota jujitsu (jūjutsu) yen (en) Cyrillization Japanese Япония Нихон. The initial ё (yo) or after a vowel.[1] Equally often people transcribe cha. the latter is more common.

External links • • • • • • Online romaji<->kiriji converter Proposal for a coordinated Japanese transcription system for several Slavic languages Суси or Суши (Susi or Sushi) – Cyrillization of し (and others) controversy (Russian) Automatic cyrillization of hiragana and katakana Say no to romaji!. .susi. Вадим (21 апреля 1999).Some personal names beginning with "Yo" (or used after a vowel) are written using "Йо" instead of "Ё" (e. contains a discussion between students and teachers of Japanese on the subject of rōmaji and kiriji. but Ёко for Yoko Kanno and all other Yoko's). Последний раз о дилемме "СИ" и "ШИ"". but professional translators use ё mandatory. Виртуальные суси. The letter "Ё" is not often used in Japanese Cyrillization due to its facultative use in the Russian language (and possible substitution with the letter "Е" which would affect the pronunciation). Retrieved 2011-03-13.[citation needed] See also • • Japanese language education in Russia Romanization of Japanese Referens 1. Йоко for Yoko Ono. ^ a b c d e f g Смоленский. It is currently the main system of transcribing Korean words into the Russian language.g.ru/SiOrShi3. http://www. a resource promoting the use of kana in the Japanese learning industry. Kiriji and Yevgeny Polivanov Kontsevich system The Kontsevich system (Russian: Система Концевича/Sistema Kontsevicha) for the Cyrillization of the Korean language was created by the Russian scholar Lev Kontsevitch (Russian: Лев Концевич) on the basis of the earlier system designed by Aleksandr Holodovich (Russian: Александр Холодович).html. "Как гайдзин гайджынам.

Next initial→ Previous ending↓ ㄱ к ㄱ к кк ㄴ н нн ㄷ т кт ㄹ р нн ㅁ м нм ㅂ п кп ㅅ с кс ㅈ ч кч ㅊ чх кчх ㅋ кх ккх ㅌ тх ктх ㅍ пх кпх ㅎ х кх ㅇ г . the transcription is based primarily on the pronunciation of a word.Introduction Cyrillization systems for Korean were developed domestically in both North and South Korea. Kontsevich carried out work on the systemisation of these rules. In contrast with some systems of romanization of Korean. rather than on its spelling. Consonants Initial Hangul Cyrillic McCune–Reischauer Revised Romanization ㄱ к k g ㄴ н n n ㄷ т t d ㄹ р r r ㅁ м m m ㅂ п p b ㅅ с s s ㅈ ч ch j ㅊ чх ch' ch ㅋ кх k' k ㅌ тх t' t ㅍ пх p' p ㅎ х h h ㄲ кк kk kk ㄸ тт tt tt ㅃ пп pp pp ㅆ сс ss ss ㅉ чч tch jj ㅇ - Final Hangul Cyrillic McCune–Reischauer Revised Romanization ㄱ к k k ㄴ н n n ㄷ т t t ㄹ ль l l ㅁ м m m ㅂ п p p ㅅ т t t ㅈ т t t ㅊ т t t ㅋ к k k ㅌ т t t ㅍ п p p ㅎ х h h ㄲ к k k ㄸ ㅃ ㅆ т t t ㅉ ㅇ нъ ng ng Medial consonant rules Some letters are transcribed differently in the middle of a word when following certain other letters.

ㄴ ㄹ ㅁ ㅂ ㅇ н ль м п нъ нг льг мг пк нг нн лл мн мн нн нд льтт мд пт нд лл лл мн мн нн нм льм мм мм нм нб льб мб пп нб нс льсс мс пс нс ндж льчч мдж пч ндж нчх льчх мчх пчх нчх нкх лькх мкх пкх нкх нтх льтх мтх птх нтх нпх льпх мпх ппх нпх нх рх мх пх нх н р м б нъ Vowels Hangul Cyrillic McCune–Reischauer Revised Romanization ㅏ а a a ㅑ я ya ya ㅓ ㅕ о ё ŏ yŏ eo yeo ㅗ о o o ㅛ ё yo yo ㅜ у u u ㅠ ю yu yu ㅡ ы ŭ eu ㅣ и i i ㅐ э ae ae ㅒ ㅔ ㅖ ㅚ ㅟ ㅢ ㅘ ㅝ ㅙ ㅞ йя е йе/-е ве ви ый/-и ва во вэ ве yae e/-ë ye oe wi ŭi wa wŏ wae we yae e ye oe wi ui wa wo wae we Examples English “wall” “on the wall” “outside” (uninflected) Hangul (Hanja) 벽 (壁 ) 벽에 밖 밖에 부엌 RR (RR transliteration in parentheses) Kontsevich (Latin transliteration in parentheses) “outside” “kitchen” byeok (byeog) byeoge (byeog-e) bak (bakk) bakke (bakk-e) bueok (bueok) пёк (pyok) пёге (pyoge) пак (pak) пакке (pakke) пуок (puok) .

(Russian) Russian and Latin Transcription of Korean Words. 사계절(四季節)이 뚜렷하다. by Lev Kontsevich. by K. (Won-ha-si-neun seon saegkkal-gwa gulg-gie 체크하시면 됩니다. letter” “(an) easy” (+ noun) “Four seasons are distinct.” “Just check the line colour and width you want. Automatic transcription of Korean based on the Kontsevich system "Cyrillization" • Cyrillization C .” bueoke (bueok-e) wikibaekgwa 위키백과(百科) (wikibaeggwa) hangeul or han-geul 한글 (han-geul) hancha or han-cha 한자 (漢字) (han-ja) geulja 글자( . (Sagedzhori tturyothada) Вонхасинын сон сэкккальгва куккие чхекхыхасимён твемнида.) External links • • • • (Russian) Degrees of Courtesy and Communication Styles in the Korean Language.) Wonhasineun seon saekkkalgwa gukgie 원(願)하시는 선(線) 색(色)깔과 굵기에 chekeuhasimyeon doemnida. (Vonhasinyn son se`kkal'gva kukkie chhekhyhasimyon tvemnida.“to the kitchen” “Wikipedia” “Hangul” “Hanja” “character. (Sa-gye-jeol-i ttu-lyeoshada.字) (geul-ja) swiun… 쉬운… (swiun…) Sagyejeori tturyeotada. Kurotchenkо. (Russian) Entry for Lev Kontsevich on the Institute of Oriental Studies. che-keu-ha-si-myeon doebni-da. B.) 부엌에 пуокхе (puokhe) викхибэкква (vikhibekkva) хангыль (hangyl') ханча (hancha) кыльчча (kyl'chcha) свиун… (sviun…) Сагеджори ттурётхада.

and Cyrillic. than Polish and the Latin alphabet. and therefore is perfectly suited for it. Polish phonology differs from that of the other Slavic languages in several ways. was made especially to fit Cyrillic phonology. Toying around with Polish. That's what happens when you spend half of your life working on language projects that one way or another are related to Polish or the Slavic languages in general. I am convinced that Polish and Cyrillic are a perfect match. Granted. Latin orthographies of Slavic languages always have one of the following two disadvantages: either . I disagree with that opinion. Or not. but these two facts remain: Polish is a completely Slavic language by any standard. it is hard not to think about the possibilities of a Cyrillic orthography for Polish. Many people have argued that Cyrillic would be unsuitable for Polish. Much more so. as well as with several Slavic orthographies. unlike the Latin alphabet. I have. Therefore.• • Cyrillization of Chinese Cyrillization of Arabic G • Cyrillization of Greek J • Cyrillization of Japanese K • Kontsevich system Ортографя цырылицка для ѩзыка польскего Ortografia cyrylicka dla języka polskiego A Cyrillic orthography for the Polish language Ever wondered what Polish would look like if it were written in Cyrillic? Perhaps you have. in fact. Slavic. In any case.

пóйдзьце вшистке разэм За място подъ слупъ на взгóрэкъ. and therefore my Cyrillic orthography of Polish should by no means be treated as a serious proposal to replace Polish orthography.. Тато не враца ранки и вечоры Сына и Духа свęтэго. is not new at all. the use of ць and дзь where Polish has ć and dź. Цалуя̨ земę. is primarily a thought experiment. Бąдзь похвалёна пренайсьвęтша ̌ Трóйца Розлялы реки. ź. The idea. ę. therefore. И зачиная̨ пацёрэкъ. I would be the first to stand up against it. Besides. ž and č. Мицкевича Слышąцъ то дзятки бегнą вшистке разэмъ Пóйдзьце о дзятки. the fact that Polish ó remains untouched. Polish in addition tends to favour digraphs like sz and ie. Slovene manages best. although at last nothing came of his plans. This project. За място.) A few pecularities in this text deserve our attention: • • • • • the use of the letter р̌ for Polish rz. so Polish words tend to be appear longer than they actually are. ż. Russia's czar Nikolay I intended to cyrillify Polish in the mid-19th century as a means for russification. Тамъ предъ ̌ цудовнымъ клęкая̨ образемъ. ć. but still has š. Polish orthography has managed to avoid hačeks. ó. презъ ̌ А. ś. Here is a sample: Поврóтъ Таты. Other languages have more of those babies. If we have to believe Wikipedia. my answer to the question if such an orthography would be possible at all. . потэмъ въ Имę Ойца. Вэ Лзах го чекамъ и трводзэ. ł. ̌ пэлнэ звера ̌ боры. подъ слупъ на взгóрэкъ. Тэразъ и часу вшелькего. Тамъ предъ ̌ цудовнымъ клęкнийце образэмъ. the hard sign ъ at the end of many words (a feature common in prerevolutionary Russian).(. Now. or they look horribly like English or another Western language. but has a whole bunch of other diacritics instead: ą. a feature also present in contemporary Belarusian. this orthography inherits the Polish ogonek and adds it to Cyrillic letters. I am quite fond of Polish orthography. Побожне змóвце пацёрэкъ.. ń. If anyone would ever make such a proposal.they are full of diacritical marks. by the way. И пэлно збóйцóвъ на дродзэ.

it should be noted that the transcription quoted above is not the only attempt at a Cyrillic alphabet for Polish. which is unambiguously rendered as ця. because Old Church Slavonic has precisely four Cyrillic characters for exactly these four sounds: ѫ. э̨. while ż comes from softened g. but there are a few differences as well. since it is pronounced as nasalised o. after all ć/dź are the softened equivalents of t/d. я̨ and е̨ (the latter two representing ją and ję respectively). ri is a rare sequence in Polish that occurs only in foreign words. Etymologically speaking. by using ць and дзь. they are uncommon. ѧ. Therefore. we could use the hard sign and write радъио and тъиара. As far as I am concerned. if we want to be really sure that the t will not be softened in these cases. seriously or less seriously. And then we have the letter e. but I've decided to follow the Russian model. An interesting example is Jusowica (Юсовица). Several people have played with the idea. Another common source of spelling errors. But since these letters are around. Since miasto alternates with mieście (and not with miæście or something). I wouldn't propose transcribing it to ж. ѭ and ѩ. but I'd much prefer ть and дь. this is more correct. Same goes for the digraphy rz. Besides. The fact that it sounds very different does not change that fact. By the way. In these rare cases. because the only living Slavic language that preserved these sounds is Polish. nor do they correspond closely with anything else that exist in them: the nasal vowels ą and ę. for the same etymological reasons: rz comes from softened r. Also. sz or ż we write и instead of ы – just like Russian does. Using ть/дь instead of ць/дзь has one more advantage: now at least will not have to worry about the sequence cja. mixing up those two is the most common spelling mistake in Polish. But why would we? It has no pronunciation of its own. when preceded by cz. The choice for other Cyrillic letters is merely a matter of picking an option. we simply use рь (and not this weird creation from the 19th century. we will use Cyrillic e for the former (usually rendered as je or ie) and э for the latter. Incidentally. р̌). there is no reason to keep it. which I will describe below. how do we represent i and y? Do we follow the Russian model and pick и/ы or do we prefer the Ukrainian model and pick і/и? Both are possible. they exist. thus producing four characters that have never seen before in Cyrillic: а̨. Or. .My own Cyrillic orthography for Polish is largely based on the same premises. a matter of etymology. This is also what the 19th century version does. the choice for а̨ and я̨ is equally unlogical as the Polish letter ą itself. The 19th century Russian solution is in fact a pretty funny one: it simply teleports the ogonek to Cyrillic. Because in Polish palatalising e is way more numerous than its non-palatalising equivalent. True. Just like ti and di. pronounced as [u] (its Czech equivalent is ů). A funny solution indeed! And an unnecessary one to that. it is not for nothing that the Latin transcription of Old Church Slavonic uses ǫ. Again. so I propose the same solution for it as well. The transcription mentioned above conveniently keeps it. not of c/dz. The characters ć and dź could of course be rendered like Belarusian (and in a way. a language that happens to be written in Latin alphabet. and are indefinitely more Cyrillic than Cyrillic letters with ogoneks beneath them. For example. Yet. we could write радио and тиара (a Pole will know that they are to be read as radio and tiara and not like radzio or ciara). Another specifically Polish letter is the ó. Sequences like ti and di are rare in Polish and occur only in foreign words. why can't grud alternate with grodzie? So let's be bold and use у instead. the only thing that distinguishes it from u is that it alternates with o. The biggest problem related with the Cyrillisation of Polish are sounds that do not exist in other languages. created by Szymon Pawlas. Polish) does. why shouldn't we simply use them? After all. which in Polish is pronounced like ż.

So. or it doesn't (in that case it is either wordinitial or after another vowel). let's see now what Cyrylica Polska looks like. in Cyrillic all vowels come in pairs. and y. Just like i and y form a pair. Here goes: Latin p п Cyrylica sz Latin ш Cyrylica . Both can occur in two possitions: either it follows a consonant. the consonants have suddenly become very simple to handle. non-palalalised consonant has been resolved by the vowels that follow them. it is preceded by i. as you can see in the table below: Latin hard a e y o ó u ą ę ia/ja ie/je i io/jo ió/jó iu/ju ią/ją ię/ję soft а э ы о у ѫ ѧ Cyrylica hard soft я е и ë ю ѭ ѩ Consonants Now that the question of palatalised vs. Alphabet Cyrylica Polska has 37 letters. unless the consonant in question is inherently soft. Exactly the same as the 33 letters of the Russian alphabet. In Polish orthography. when a softening vowel follows a consonant. which is softening by definition. with four additional characters for the nasals: АБВГДЕËЖЗИЙКЛМНОПРСТУФХЦЧШЩЪЫЬЭЮЯѦѪѨѬ Vowels Every vowel has a hardening and a softening version. In other positions this vowel is preceded by j. The only exceptions are i. which is never softening.

де should be read as dzie. For example. If a soft consonant is not followed by a vowel. but that is just an arbitrary choice. However. to make this fact predictable.e. and р. • • • • . When declined. zjeść is written зъесть. Therefore. Serbian and Macedonian manage without it. д. rz j ь ъ ж ч щ ц м н л р й soft sign hard sign Most consonants can be soft (palatalised) or hard. ć d. When a hard consonant is followed by a palatalising vowel. Russian. i. Ukrainian and Bulgarian have this letter. although that wouldn't affect pronunciation. in some dialects strz/zdrz or rś/rź) are treated as sr/zr + palataliser: środa therefore becomes срëда. and not сьмялосьть. when it is word. because зесть would be read as zieść. This alphabet contains the Cyrillic letters щ for szcz. the hard sign is used to prevent it from being palatalised.b f w t. л. In reality. it is followed by the soft sign: bat becomes бат. the soft sign will occur only after т. l r. dź s. and so their genitives are Krakowa and Wrocławia respectively. źródło becomes зрюдло. śmiałość is written смялость.or syllable-final.> srze-/zrze-. we could easily write Вроцлавь for "Wrocław". ź k g ch h A few notes: • • • б ф в т д с з к г х ż cz szcz c m n ł. Belarusian. the latter a soft w. Most consonant clusers as palatalised as a whole. For example. the former has a hard w. Whether a Cyrillic д should be read as d or dź is decided by the consonant that follows it: дэ should be read as de. In Cyrillic. and only in a few cases consonants in such a cluster are palatalised individually. The consonant clusters śr and źr (historically from ser-/zer. н. in a few cases it can be placed after another consonant as well. take these two Polish cities: Kraków and Wrocław. ś z. bać becomes бать.

(. И пэлно збуйцув на дродзэ.. Мицкевича Пуйдьте о дятки.) Transcription Wpisz tutaj swój tekst źródłowy: Впиш тутай свуй тэкст зрюдловы: Insert your source text here: ѫ/ѧ/ѭ/ѩ а/э/я/е ̨ ̨ ̨ ̨ Result: Rezultat: Рэзультат: . Całują ziemię. pełne zwierza bory. (. przez A. потэм в Имѩ Ойца. Mickiewicza Pójdźcie o dziatki. Розлялы реки.) Поврут Таты...Example To give an example of Polish Cyrillic. Rozlały rzeki. пэлнэ зверя боры. пуйдьте вшистке разэм За място. Там пред цудовным клѩкаѭ образэм. през А. Syna i Ducha świętego. potem w Imię Ojca. Побожне змувте патëрэк. Бѫдь похвалëна пренайсвѩтша Труйца Тэраз и часу вшелькего. Цалуѭ земѩ. Pobożnie zmówcie paciorek. И зачинаѭ патëрэк.Słysząc to dziatki biegną wszystkie razem Za miasto pod słup na wzgórek.. I zaczynają paciorek. pod słup na wzgórek. Bądź pochwalona przenajświętsza Trójca Teraz i czasu wszelkiego. Там пред цудовным клѩкнийте образэм. I pełno zbójców na drodze. Tam przed cudownym klękają obrazem. Tam przed cudownym klęknijcie obrazem. let's use the same text as the one quoted above: Powrót Taty. под слуп на взгурэк. Сына и Духа свѩтэго. pójdźcie wszystkie razem Za miasto. Tato nie wraca ranki i wieczory we łzach go czekam i trwodze.Слышѫц то дятки бегнѫ вшистке разэм За място под слуп на взгурэк. Тато не враца ранки и вечоры вэ лзах го чекам и трводзэ.