You are on page 1of 8

SOCIETY OF MINING ENGINEERS

OF
CALLER NO. Dl LITTLETON, COLORADO 80127

PREPRINT NUMBER
83-77

AIME

VELOCITY - CLEARANCE CURVES FOR MOBILE M I N I N G EQUIPMENT

G. T . L i n e b e r r y

U n i v e r s i t y of Kentucky L e x i n g t o n , Kentucky

Lawrence A d l e r West E i r g i n i a U n i v e r s i t y Morgantown, West V i r g i n i a

For p r e s e n t a t i o n a t t h e SME-AIME Annual Meeting A t l a n t a , Georgia - March 6-10, 1983

Permission i s hereby given to publish with appropriate acknowledgments, excerpts or summaries not to exceed one-fourth of the entire text of the paper. Permission to print in more extended form subsequent to pubiication by the Institute must be obtained from the Executive Director of the Society of Mining Engineers of AIME. If and when this paper is published by the Society of Mining Engineers of AlME, it may embody certain changes made by agreement between the Technical Publications Committee and the author, so that the form in which it appears here is not necessarily that in which it may be published later. These preprints are available for sale. Mail orders to PREPRINTS, Society of Mining Engineers, Caller No. D, Littleton, Colorado.80127. PREPRINT AVAILABILITY LIST IS PUBLISHED PERIODICALLY IN MINING ENGINEERING

VELOCITY

CLEAMNCE CURVES

FOR MOBILE M I N I N G EQUIPMENT

G.T. L i n e b e r r y A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r of Mining E n g i n e e r i n g U n i v e r s i t y of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky Lawrence Adler P r o f e s s o r of Mining E n g i n e e r i n g West V i r g i n i a U n i v e r s i t y Morgantown, West V i r g i n i a

B b , b ? Reduced c l e a r a n c e i s o n e of t h e most i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of encumbered s p a c e i n underground c o a l mining. A n o t h e r key v a r i a b l e i s t h e maximum v e l o c i t y a t w h i c h a p i e c e of mobile mining equipment can o p e r a t e i n t h i s l i m i t e d space. Typical v e l o c i t y c l e a r a n c e c u r v e s f o r d i f f e r e n t mine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s a r e developed and characterized. A p p l i c a t i o n s of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e examined, emphasizing t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e d e s i g n and c o n t r o l of mine m a t e r i a l s h a n d l i n g systems.
Introduction The m i n i n g i n d u s t r y h a s l o n g r e c o g n i z e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r o d u c t i o n and s a f e t y . While once t h o u g h t t o b e a n t i t h e t i c a l , t h e r e i s now t h e common s e n t i m e n t t h a t " a s a f e m i n e i s a p r o d u c t i v e mine." The o b j e c t i v e s of material t r a n s p o r t include: 1) t o achieve the maximum operating velocity, maximizing production, 2 ) t o m a i n t a i n s t a b l e work f l o w , and 3) t o s a f e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y o p e r a t e t h e m o b i l e equipment. To h e l p m e e t t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s , a study of velocity-clearance T h i s paper r e l a t i o n s h i p s is e s s e n t i a l . w i l l i n t r o d u c e t h i s key p r i n c i p l e , develop velocity-clearance curves f o r common p i e c e s o f m o b i l e m i n i n g equipment, and d i s c u s s the potential u s e s of t h e curves. Emphasis w i l l be p l a c e d on t h e u s e of t h e s e c u r v e s t o p r e d i c t p r o d u c t i o n and t o a i d i n d e s i g n and c o n t r o l , n o t o n l y of a p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e of equipment, b u t a l s o of t h e work p l a c e . These p r i n c i p l e s can be a p p l i e d both t o underground and s u r f a c e equipment, b u t underground m o b i l e h a n d l i n g equipment i s t a r g e t e d f o r subsequent research,

Background One l a r g e l y u n t r e a t e d p o t e n t i a l decrement t o mine s a f e t y and p r o d u c t i v i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i n underground mining, i s t h e problem of t i g h t c l e a r a n c e s , a c o n d i t i o n which h a s been t e r m e d "encumbered s p a c e n i n an e a r l i e r s t u d y by A d l e r a n d L i n e b e r r y ( 1 9 8 2 ) . I n no o t h e r i n d u s t r y i s s p a c e a t s u c h a d i s t i n c t premium, where f a s t - m o v i n g , cumbersome m o b i l e equipment must o p e r a t e where c l e a r a n c e s can be l e s s t h a n one f o o t ( 3 0 cm). When c l e a r a n c e s a r e t i g h t , t h e tendency i s f o r t h e equipment o p e r a t o r t o i n s t i n c t i v e l y reduce operating velocity, resulting i n a proportional decrease i n productivity. Should an e x c e s s i v e speed be maintained, t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of c o l l i s i o n s and g l a n c i n g blows i n c r e a s e s , e s c a l a t i n g t h e r i s k s of p e r s o n a l i n j u r y , equipment f a i l u r e , and d e t e r i o r a t i o n of t h e working c o n d i t i o n s . Reduced c l e a r a n c e s can r a d i c a l l y a f f e c t production, safety, or both. Underground mining i s p r i m a r i l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c l e a r a n c e s t h a t a r e v e r y s m a l l , n o t o n l y on t h e s i d e s , b u t a l s o overhead. There e x i s t s , therefore, a tradeo f f between o p e r a t i n g a p i e c e of equipment w i t h a l a r g e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a and r e l a t i v e l y low v e l o c i t y v e r s u s o n e w i t h a small c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a and h i g h e r v e l o c i t y . T h i s t r a d e - o f f is more s t r o n g l y e v i d e n c e d i n t h r e e dimensions, c r e a t i n g volume, which can A t h e n b e d e s c r i b e d by u n i t w e i g h t . s i m p l e a n a l y s i s i s recommended b e o r e selecting a haulage vehicle t o ensure t h a t t h e model c a n t r a n s p o r t t h e r e q u i r e d tonnage. When comparing two o r more f e a s i b l e models, a c o n v e n i e n t measure is Tmph, o r , t o n - m i l e s p e r hour. T h i s combined f a c t o r p e r m i t s comparison of s i m i l a r e q u i p m e n t m o d e l s w i t h d i f f e r e ~ to p e r a t i n g v e l o c i t i e s a n d c a p a c i t s.

Functionally linking t h e clearances of t h e work p l a c e and t h e v e l o c i t y of t h e mobile equipment a r e t h e longneglected "velocity-clearancen curves. I t i s a common e x p e r i e n c e i n h i g h w a y d r i v i n g t h a t t h e maximum s p e e d l i m i t i s h i g h e r w i t h a m p l e pavement w i d t h s t h a n w i t h narrow ones. Also, o f t e n speed l i m i t s a r e lower f o r l a r g e highway trucks than for automobiles with the A hypothetical same pavement width. velocity-clearance curve for a s p e c i f i c t y p e of v e h i c l e a p p e a r s i n F i g u r e 1. A n envelope i s i n c l u d e d f o r a f a m i l y of c u r v e s d e p e n d i n g on h a u l w a y s u r f a c e a n d human e n v i r o n m e n t . The v e l o c i t y c l e a r a n c e curve could be l i n e a r l y o r n e g a t i v e l y a c c e l e r a t i n g , i n s t e a d of t h e positively accelerating curve represented here. Poor surface c o n d i t i o n s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r o u g h and r u t t e d h a u l r o a d s , w i t h h i g h r o l l i n g r e s i s t a n c e s and poor t r a c t i o n . Poor human e n v i r o n m e n t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i r t inestation, darknessp blocked l i n e s of s i g h t , n o i s e , a n d cramped space. The o p e r a t o r s k i l l , t r a i n i n g , and e x p e r i e n c e can a l s o b e i n c l u d e d . These nonideal conditions, when combined, r a d i c a l l y r e d u c e v e l o c i t y , r e s u l t i n g i n depressed production r a t e s . Theory Velocity-clearance curves can be used t o e s t i m a t e p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s , b u t s e v e r a l b a s i c p r o p o r t i o n a l i t i e s must f i r s t be examined. The c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a o f t h e box o f a p i e c e o f m o b i l e m i n i n g e q u i p m e n t i n t w o dimensions i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e c a p a c i t y of t h e box. Therefore,

established baseline. Derating f a c t o r s a r e available for estimating the effect 1) p h y s i c a l on p r o d u c t i o n by: c o n d i t i o n s , 2) equipment o p e r a t i n g e f f i c i e n c y , 3) o p e r a t i n g e f f i c i e n c y , and 4) job-management e f f i c i e n c y , f o l l o w i n g work by D r e v d a h l (1961) a n d H a v e r s a n d S t u b b s (1971). A t y p i c a l range f o r t h e g e n e r a l f a c t o r i s 0.20 t o 0.30 (Lineberry, 19791, r e p r e s e n t i n g a d e r a t i n g of p r o d u c t i o n f o r mobile mining e q u i p m e n t o f b e t w e e n 70 a n d 8 0 % b e l o w t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l production rate. The e f f e c t of i n d i v i d u a l d e r a t i n g f a c t o r s a s t h e y c o m b i n e i s e v i d e n c e d by t h e s i m p l i f i e d v e l o c i t y - c l e a r a n c e c u r v e of F i g u r e 1. Curve Development Unfortunately, &locity-clearance c u r v e s do n o t a p p e a r i n l i t e r a t u r e a n d must be c o n s t r u c t e d from e x i s t i n g data. Where c l e a r a n c e i n f o r m a t i o n c a n b e o b t a i n e d , t h e g i v e n maximum v e l o c i t y h a s been used i n developing t h e curves. Preliminary velocity-clearance curves f o r highway a n d o f f - h i g h w a y t r u c k s w i l l be developed here. For comparison, t e n t a t i v e curves w i l l a l s o be presented f o r h o i s t s , r a i l haulage, and s h u t t l e cars.

where:
EX0 l o o s e mean o u t p u t (TPB) W = c a p a c i t y (T) [ W b: c r o s s - s e c t i o n of box] T = c y c l e time (h) C = general factor

='

and

The o v e r a l l w i d t h s of highway vehicles can vary appreciably, but the mean w i d t h o f s i n g l e - u n i t t r u c k s a n d s e m i - t r a i l e r s , a c c o r d i n g t o The American A s s o c i a t i o n o f S t a t e Highway O f f i c i a l s ( 1 9 6 5 ) , i s 8.5 f t . ( 2 . 4 m ) . From a r e p o r t b y t h e N e w York D e p a r t m e n t o f P u b l i c Works ( 1 9 5 1 ) c o n t a i n i n g s e v e r a l thousand speed samples, including a l l t y p e s of v e h i c l e s t a k e n a t 23 s i t e s s it was f o u n d t h a t t h e a v e r a g e s p e e d of h i g h w a y t r u c k s i n c r e a s e s 0.2 mph (0.094 m / s ) f o r e a c h a d d i t i o n a l f o o t (0.305 m ) o f w i d t h o v e r 2 0 f t . ( 6 . 0 9 6 ml. No d i f f e r e n c e i n speed due t o t h e road s u r f a c e was o b s e r v e d i n t h e same r o u t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and w i t h t h e same pavement w i d t h . Figure 2 graphically presents t h i s A normal minimal design information. s p e e d o f 45 mph ( 2 0 m / s ) w a s a s s u m e d . Although an i n c r e a s e i n pavement w i d t h h a s a r e l a t i v e l y small i n f l u e n c e on highway s p e e d f o r w i d t h s g r e a t e r t h a n 20 f t . , t h e e f f e c t of r e d u c e d w i d t h s was n o t studied.

where:

D = d i s t a n c e d t r a v e l l e d (mi,km) V = v e l o c i t y (mph, m / s )
I f the velocity-clearance curve f o r a g i v e n t y p e o f e q u i p m e n t i s known, t h e maximum p r o d u c t i o n c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d . T h e g e n e r a l f a c t o r * C, i s a combined d e r a t i n g f a c t o r t h a t a c t s t o d e c r e a s e t h e p r o d u c t i o n r a t e b e l o w some

O v e r a l l w i d t h s a n d maximum v e l o c i t i e s of off-highway h a u l u n i t s can vary widely. T a b l e 1 i s a summary o f velocity-clearance data (Chironis, 1978a) f o r 53 c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e o f f highway t r u c k models. C l e a r a n c e s w e r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d g u i d e l i n e (Chironis, 1978b) t h a t i n determining haulroad l a n e dimensions,

each l a n e of t r a v e l should p r o v i d e c l e a r a n c e l e f t and r i g h t e q u i v a l e n t t o b velocityone-half t h e v e h i c l e width. c l e a r a n c e c u r v e u s i n g t h i s grouped d a t a i s shown i n F i g u r e 3. A p r o b a b l e r e a s o n f o r t h e lower v e l o c i t y a t o v e r a l l widths g r e a t e r t h a n 2 0 5 i n . (5.21 m ) i s t h e d e c r e a s i n g maximum v e l o c i t i e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g g r o s s v e h i c l e weights. This i m p l i e s i n c r e a s e d r u g g e d n e s s and l a c k of maneuverability.

Preliminary velocity-clearance c u r v e s f o r h o i s t i n g , r a i l h a u l a g e , and s h u t t l e c a r h a u l a g e have been d e r i v e d i n an e a r l i e r study (Lineberry, 1979). These curves, i n addition t o the p r e v i o u s l y developed c u r v e s f o r highway and off-highway t r u c k s , a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Of i m p o r t a n c e h e r e i s t h e F i g u r e 4. o r d e r of m a g n i t u d e r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n of t h e s e c u r v e s . By t h i s comparison, i t i s shown t h a t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g e q u i p m e n t m o b i l i t y and o p e r a t o r c o n t r o l comes a need f o r improved system d e s i g n and control. Discussion With a b e t t e r knowledge of velocity-clearance curves, operating c o n d i t i o n s c a n be upgraded t o i n c r e a s e velocity while holding clearance c o n s t a n t (See Figure I). T h i s can b e s t b e a c h i e v e d by e i t h e r i m p r o v i n g t h e h a u l w a y s u r f a c e o r by s u p p r e s s i n g t h e v a r i a b i l i t y of o p e r a t i o n . T h i s would make t h e e q u i p m e n t o p e r a t i o n l e s s d e p e h d e n t on c o m b i n a t i o n s o f i n h e r e n t mining c o n d i t i o n s and more d e p e n d e n t on w e l l d e l i n e a t e d and defined v a r i a b l e s which i n f l u e n c e d e s i g n and c o n t r o l . The c a r e f u l development of velocityc l e a r a n c e c u r v e s c a n be s e e n a s t h e f i r s t s t e p i n recognizing t h e v i t a l l i n k between encumbered s p a c e and t h e s a f e and e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n of m o b i l e equipment, The v e l o c i t y - c l e a r a n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s were d e v e l o p e d from w i d e l y v a r y i n g sources, w i t h i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and even c o n t r a d i c t i o n s noted. T h i s r e f l e c t s on t h e poor c u r r e n t d e s i g n p r a c t i c e , which must be remedied.

Material concerns include the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e work p l a c e The roadway and i t s environment. surface requires c a r e f u l consideration, A s would be e x p e c t e d , F i g u r e 4 shows t h a t t h e velocity-clearance curve is i m p r o v e d by u p g r a d i n g t h e r o a d w a y surface. The s a m e c a n b e e x p e c t e d by i m p r o v i n g t h e human environment. I t is a l s o i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e e q u i p m e n t be properly designed. S i g n i f i c a n t design 1) r e s e r v e power f o r f e a t u r e s include: responsiveness, 2) cab l a y o u t and p o s i t i o n of c o n t r o l s , 3 ) c h a s s i s a r t i c u l a t i o n , and 4 ) i n h e r e n t s t a b i l i t y . Once t h e g e o m e t r i c a n d m a t e r i a l concerns have been addressed, economic design can begin. Economic d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n v o l v e t h e p r o p e r match b e t w e e n key e q u i p m e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A criterion for and job conditions. design or s e l e c t i o n must be adopted, such a s m i n i m i z i n g h a u l a g e c o s t p e r ton. Care must be taken i n choosing t h e optimizing function, with special concern toward organizational c a p a b i l i t i e s , l i m i t a t i o n s , and goals. An e c o n o m i c a n a l y s i s f a c i l i t a t e s equipment s e l e c t i o n , evaluation, o r d e s i g n by p r o v i d i n g a common b a s i s of I t a l s o provides for the comparison. e v a l u a t i o n and d e s i g n of t h e work p l a c e .

Design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f a l l i n t o three categories: 1) g e o m e t r i c , 2 ) m a t e r i a l , a n d 3 ) economic. Geometric c o n c e r n s match t h e p h y s i c a l d i m e n s i o n s of t h e work p l a c e t o t h e g e o m e t r i e s o f The t h e equipment o p e r a t i n g i n it. s p e c i f i c gcomctric design g o a l is t o p r o v i d e t h e optinum combination of v c l o c i t y and c l c n r a n c e i n two and t h r e e dincnniona. Minimum ~ a f e clcaranccn n u n t bc m a i n t a i n e d a n d maximum s a f e operating npeedn ( s p e e d I i m i t o ) munt n o t bc cxcccdcd,

Control considerations f a l l i n t o t h r e e broad c a t e g o r i e s : 1) g e o m e t r i c and material control, 2) operational c o n t r o l , a n d 3 ) e c o n o m i c c o n t r o l . Once a d e q u a t e l y d e s i g n e d and implemented, l t i s v i t a l t h a t t h e work p l a c e d i m e n s i o n s , haulway s u r f a c e , t h e human e n v i r o n m e n t , and t h e e q u i p m e n t i t s e l f be m a i n t a i n e d and c o n t r o l l e d . Upgrading of t h e roadway and equipment m a i n t e n a n c e must be r e g u l a r l y c a r r i e d out, and t h e g e o m e t r y of t h e work p l a c e m u s t be c o n t r o l l e d by g r a d i n g , r o o f a n d s l o p e s u p p o r t , and a l l e v i a t i o n of equipment c o n g e s t i o n and i n t e r f e r e n c e . O p e r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l i n c l u d e s human f a c t o r s concerns, t r a f f i c c o n t r o l , and Eiuch o f t h e u l t i m a t e management. s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e of a mining system depends on t h i s c o n t r o l f u n c t i o n . Buman f a c t o r s a s p e c t s a r e p o s s i b l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t of all. o p e r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l s , Among t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e t h e 1) t r a i n i n g , e x p e r i e n c e , e f f e c t s of: f a t i g u e , m o t i v a t i o n , and s k i l l , 2) t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t , i n c l u d i n g c o n t r o l of d u s t , n o i s e , g a s e s , and fumes and 3 ) t h e w o r k - l o a d i n t e n s i t y , a m e a s u r e of t h e e f f e c t of e x c e s s i v e t a s k s and s t r e s s o r s on performance. T r a f f i c c o n c e r n s r e s u l t from c o n g e s t i o n a t t h c work p l a c e , s i n c e l a r g e , f a s t , and cumbersome equipment m u s t operate in t i g h t clearance areas. I n t e r f e r e n c e a l n o r e s u l t s from normal nupport f n c i l i t i c s , including m a t e r i a l s hanjling, l i f e support Eacilitieo,

including v e n t i l a t i o n , drainage, and ground c o n t r c l , and p e r s o n n e l i n t h e work a r e a . These a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e c o n t r o l of underground mine workings. Economic c o n t r o l i s m i n i m i z e d i f an e c o n o m i c a l l y sound d e s i g n h a s been implemented. However, t h e s y s t e m must b e c o n t i n u a l l y m o n i t o r e d and p r o v i s i o n s made f o r i t s m o d i f i c a t i o n i f s u c c e s s f u l operation i s t o be maintained. Management d e c i s i o n s a s t o w h e t h e r t o replace, repair, o r allow t o d e t e r i o r a t e a r e important throughout t h e operating l i f e of t h e s y s t e m . Again, economic a n a l y s e s p e r m i t e v a l u a t i o n of alternatives. Recornendati o n s Several areas require further i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o improve p r o d u c t i v i t y and s a f e t y i n mining, w h i l e f u r t h e r e x p l o r i n g t h e u s e of v e l o c i t y - c l e a r a n c e relationships. These include: h) improved velocity-clearance c u r v e s t h r o u g h f i e l d and l a b o r a t o r y measurements, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r s h u t t l e c a r s , f r o n t end l o a d e r s , and s c o o p s , 2) developing b e t t e r derating f a c t o r s f o r production e s t i m a t i o n caused by n o n i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s , 3) incorporating a threedimensional a n a l y s i s i n t o t h e velocityclearance study, 4) determining the various economic trade-offs between t h e e q u i p m e n t s i z e , haulway c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and o p e r a t i n g l i f e , and 5) d e v e l o p i n g f a i l u r e modes t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of o v e r o r u n d e r u t i l i z a t i o n of space. Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s
A s t u d y of m o b i l e equipment velocity-clearance curves indicates t h a t improperly s e l e c t e d c l e a r a n c e s can have a d r a m a t i c a l l y a d v e r s e e f f e c t on production. Without t h e s e curves, s a f e t y i s a l s o a f f e c t e d by p o s s i b l y exceeding a l l o w a b l e speed l i m i t s . Preliminary velocity-clearance curves f o r highway and off-highway t r u c k s were derived and curves f o r h o i s t s , r a i l haulage, and s h u t t l e c a r It is evident, haulage were presented. however, t h a t a d d i t i o n a l work i s r e q u i r e d on o t h e r t y p e s of e q u i p m e n t and under v a r i o u s haulway c o n d i t i o n s . Engineering design must be e m p h a s i z e d i n any m i n i n g system. S y s t e m c o n t r o l i s l a r g e l y t h e f u n c t i o n of t h e mine manager and w a r r a n t s s p e c i a l consideration, particularly a s v a r i a b i l i t y of o p e r a t i o n i s i n t r o d u c e d . Once u n d e r s t o o d , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t many t r a d i t i o n a l e n g i n e e r i n g c o n t r o l s can be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o design, l e s s e n i n g t h e b u r d e n on e q u i p m e n t o p e r a t o r s a n d mine managers.

Velocity-clearance curves a r e e s s e n t i a l t o t h e mining engineer f o r a f u l l a p p r e c i a t i o n of c o n d i t i o n s a n d t o p r o p e r l y e v a l u a t e t h e production output. They c a n a l s o i n d i c a t e t h e b e n e f i t o f improving mining c o n d i t i o n s , and t h e y a r e r e c o g n i z e d f o r t h e i r i m p a c t on t h e Velocitys a f e t y of t h e system. clearance curves should therefore warrant f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r use i n t h e d e s i g n and c o n t r o l of m a t e r i a l s handling systems. References 1. A d l e r , L. a n d L i n e b e r r y , G.T., 1 9 8 2 , "Encumbered S p a c e i n Mining and Ground C o n t r o l , " P r e p r i n t Number 82-5, SMEAIME, D a l l a s , Texas.
2. American A s s o c i a t i o n of S t a t e H i g h w a y O f f i c i a l s , 1 9 6 5 , A Eolicv_ pn
GSD&L.L.iS

AASHO, W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.,

W Q Rural i

W I i X y L S r

p. 86.

3. Chironis, N.P., ed., 1978a, "Equipment Roundupp" SLggd. a g e r a w

H z u d U 2 k a I ; s n l - N - a
WmdfiQn,

Vol. 2 , M c G r a w - H i l l , York, pp* 266-269.

Mew

4. C h i r o n i s , N.P., ed., 1 9 7 8 b , "How t o B u i l d B e t t e r H a u l R o a d s , " GggL SR9uUAna Ba&h~Qk ~f C a n l S_raxlkut &&xbg zmd -*" Vol. 2, McGrawH i l l , New York, pp. 244-249.

5.

Drevdahl, Inc.,

Qf Excavation Eauigment,

tories, 6.

1961, p r o f it&& D e s e r t LaboraTuscon, Arizona,pp. 1-7-8.

E.R.,

H.mdamA e f &suy

H a v e r s , J.A. a n d S t u b b s , P.W., 1 9 7 1 , 2nd ed., McCiraw-Mill, New York, p. 6-75.

w,

7. L i n e b e r r y , G.T., 1 9 7 9 , " E n c u m b e r e d Space and I t s E f f e c t on Mine T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , " M.S. T h e s i s , VPI & SU, Blacksburg, Virginia.

8. New York D e p a r t m e n t of P u b l i c Works, 1951, " V e h i c l e O p e r a t i o n Speed S t u d i e s ; Normal S p e e d s a n d Speed D i s t r i b u t i o n on R u r a l Highways."

5
Table 1. Summary o f velocity-clearance data Eor 53 currently available a<:-hlqhway ircck models. (soutce: chiionis, Ref. 3)

Range

Overall Width (in) (a1

yo of Average ~ l d t h Observations (in)

Velocity (mph) [ m , ' s l

Clearance f c !ltli

- -9 11 11 11 11 129.4 (3.29) 146.1 161.7 194.1 229.5 (3.71) [4.11] (4.931 (5.83) 32.7 37.0 37.2 (14.61 !16.51 (16.61 5.39 6.09 6.79 (1.641 (1.G4I [2.071

(120-138) (3.05-3.511 (139-156) (3.53-3.961 (157-180) (3.99-4.571 (181-104) (4.60-5.18) (205+) [5.21+i

40.8 (18.21 35.3 li5.61

6 - 0 9 (2.471 9.56 (2.31)

Good Suriace and Human Environment

Average Surface and Human Environment

Clearance Figure I. Hypothetical Velocity -Clearance Curve.

1.5

'

I
20

I 2.5

3.0 n

Gearonce Figure 2 . Veloctly Cleatance Curve for dtqhway Trucks.

Shuttle-Car

0
0

2
i.0

1 0 ft
30 m

2.0
Cleamnce

Figure 4. Cornpar~son of Velocity -Clearance Curves for V ~ r i o u shltne Haulage Eauipmant.