1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.


Religion of
A standard book

Dr. Ahmed A. Galwash, Ph. D., litt. D

Volume One

F Fo or r f fr re ee e b bo oo ok k s se er rv vi ic ce e p pl le ea as se e w wr ri it te e t to o: :- -
C Co on nv ve ey yi in ng g I Is sl la am mi ic c M Me es ss sa ag ge e
S So oc ci ie et ty y
P P. .O O. . B Bo ox x A Al le ex xa an nd dr ri ia a, ,
E Eg gy yp pt t
C Ci im ms s_ _e eg g@ @y ya ah ho oo o. .c co om m - - W WW WW W. .i is sl la am mi ic cm me es ss sa ag ge e. .n ne et t
R Re eg gi is st te er re ed d C Ch ha ar ri it ty y N No o. .

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

The Religion of Islam
A standard book
Volume One
Dr. Ahmed A. Galwash, Ph. D., litt. D
Table of Contents


a-d 1able oí Contents
1 A loreword
2 Comments, Reports and Letters on the Book
5 1 1h he e R Re el li ig gi io on n o oí í I Is sl la am m Preíace
6 I In nt tr ro od du uc ct ti io on n

16 B Bo oo ok k I I: : H Hi is st to or ry y o of f 1 1h he e A Ar ra ab bs s A A S Su um mm ma ar ry y
19 1 1h he ei ir r R Re el li ig gi io on n
21 1 1h he ei ir r C Ch ha ar ra ac ct te er r a an nd d M Ma an nn ne er rs s
22 1 1h he ei ir r A Ac cc co om mp pl li is sh hm me en nt ts s
24 1 1h he e B Br ra an nc ch he es s o oí í K Kn no ow wl le ed dg ge e C Cu ul lt ti i· ·a at te ed d b by y t th he e A Ar ra ab bs s b be eí ío or re e
I Is sl la am m
25 1 1h he e C Ci it ty y o oí í M Me ec cc ca a

26 B Bo oo ok k I II I: : 1 1h he e L Li if fe e o of f P Pr ro op ph he et t M Mo oh ha am mm me ed d
26 I I. . B Bi ir rt th h a an nd d L La ar rl ly y D Da ay ys s
28 I II I 1 1h he e B Be eg gi in nn ni in ng g o oí í M Mo oh ha am mm me ed d R Re e· ·e el la at ti io on n
30 I II II I M Mo oh ha am mm me ed d` `s s M Mi is ss si io on n
36 I IV V 1 1h he e P Pa ag ga an n A Ar ra ab bs s S Sa ac cr re ed d I Id do ol ls s
41 V V 1 1h he e P Pr ro op ph he et t a at t M Me ed di in na a
4¯ V VI I 1 1h he e P Pe ea ac ce e o oí í l lu ud de ei ib bi iy ya a
50 V VI II I 1 1h he e C Co on nq qu ue es st t o oí í M Me ec cc ca a
59 V VI II II I 1 1h he e P Pe er rs so on n a an nd d C Ch ha ar ra ac ct te er r o oí í t th he e P Pr ro op ph he et t M Mo oh ha am mm me ed d
59 Personal Appearance and Gait ,oí the Prophet,:
59 lis labits:
59 Simplicity oí his liíe:
60 Urbanity and Kindness oí Disposition
60 lriendship:
61 Moderation and Magnanimity
63 Con·iction oí Special Pro·idence
64 Unwa·ering Steadíastness at Mecca
65 Denunciation oí Polytheism and Idolatry
65 Larnestness and lonesty oí Mohammed at Mecca
66 lis disposition:
66 lumility:
66 Attitude at Prayers:

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
6¯ I IX X 1 1h he e R Re ea al l M Mo ot ti i· ·e es s o oí í t th he e P Pr ro op ph he et t
69 X X A At tt ta ac ck ks s o oí í C Ch hr ri is st ti ia an n D Di i· ·i in ne es s a ag ga ai in ns st t t th he e P Pr ri i· ·a at te e C Ch ha ar ra ac ct te er r o oí í t th he e
P Pr ro op ph he et t
¯0 XI. 1he Social Changes Brought about by the prophet
¯0 X XI II I. . 1 1h he e P Po ol li it ti ic ca al l O Or rg ga an ni iz za at ti io on n \ \r ro ou ug gh ht t b by y t th he e A Ad d· ·e en nt t o oí í I Is sl la am m
¯1 X XI II II I 1 1h he e P Po ol li it ti ic ca al l S Sy ys st te em m o oí í I Is sl la am m
¯3 X XI IV V 1 1h he e S So oc ci ia al l O Or rg ga an ni is sa at ti io on n o oí í I Is sl la am m
¯5 X XV V R Re eí íu ut ta at ti io on n o oí í C Ce er rt ta ai in n l la al ls se e C Ch ha an ng ge es s b by y P Pr re ej ju ud di ic ce ed d \ \r ri it te er rs s
a ag ga ai in ns st t I Is sl la am m
¯5 1.lorce and Compulsion were Lmployed íor the Dissemination
oí Islam
¯8 2. Mohammedanism: A Religion oí Sex-Indulgence`
80 3- Islam and Polygamy
85 Polygamy is not essential in Islam
85 Polygamy is not an institution originated by Islam
85 X XV VI I 1 1h he e S St ta at tu us s o oí í \ \o om me en n i in n I Is sl la am m
89 1. 1he Object oí Marriage
90 2. Marriage and Di·orce
92 3. 1he Guardian and the Consent oí the Bride
92 4. 1he Inequality oí the 1wo Sexes with regard to Di·orce
93 5. Limitations oí Di·orce
96 6. Islam`s Suggestions íor Reconciliation
98 ¯. 1he lorm oí Separation- A Check on Separation
101 8. Kholaa Di·orce`
104 9. lemale Seclusion

B Bo oo ok k I II II I L Lx xp po os si it ti io on n o of f t th he e R Re el li ig gi io on n o of f I Is sl la am m

110 Section I. Belieís
110 Section II. De·otion
110 Section III. 1ransactions
110 Section IV. Moralities
111 Section V. Punishments

111 Digest of Islam Creed
111 J. Belief in God
111 \hat God is not
112 God`s Liíe and Power
112 God`s Knowledge
113 God`s will
113 God`s learing and Sight
113 God`s \ord
114 God`s \orks

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
115 1he Unity oí God.

115 J. Proofs of His Lxistence:
115 God`s Omnipresence asserted
116 God`s Omnipotence
116 Creator oí all things
116 Períect in lis \orks.
116 1he Light oí lea·en and Larth
11¯ Pro·ides íor All
11¯ lis \ords are Countless.
11¯ las no Oííspring
11¯ Created all Beings to Adore lim
118 low le Speaketh with Man
118 God is Creator oí Good and L·il Deeds and \et Good is írom
lim, but L·il is írom Man in Consequence oí his Ignorance or
118 Omniscient and Omnipotent
118 All-Seeing but Unseen
119 God`s Lo·e and Mercy
120 1he Lxistence oí God

126 2. Belief in the Angels of God

12¯ 3. Belief in the Scriptures of God
130 1he Koran
134 1.Calling the Jews and Christians to come to agreement with the
134 2. Ordering the Prophet to Praise God
134 3. Right and \rong
134 4. Belieí oí the laithíul

136 Islam and the Iour Gospels
136 1. St. Luke`s Gospel
138 2.1he Gospel oí St. Matthew and that oí St. Mark
139 1he lour Gospels
140 Gospels:
141 Some Important Discrepancies
142 Interpolations
143 Ascension

144 1he Koran
14¯ 1he Koranic Conception oí Man
149 1he lrailties oí luman Nature
151 1he Koran and the Doctrine oí Personal loliness

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
153 4. Belief in the Apostles of God
155 ,1, Promised to Mary
155 ,2, Birth oí Jesus
156 One oí the Miracles oí Jesus
15¯ 1he Mission oí Jesus
15¯ Jesus not Cruciíied
158 Jesus and the Di·inity
158 1he 1rinity Condemned
159 C Co on nt tr ra ad di ic ct to or ry y 1 1e ea ac ch hi in ng gs s o oí í C Ch hr ri is st ti ia an ni it ty y í ír ro om m M Mo os sl le em m` `s s P Po oi in nt t o oí í
V Vi ie ew w
160 1 1h he e G Go od dh he ea ad d o oí í J Je es su us s C Co on nd de em mn ne ed d b by y I Is sl la am m
162 \hat Jesus Says about himselí in Relation to his Alleged Di·inity
163 Priestcraít and Islam
164 Supposed Di·inity oí Jesus
165 Canon Barnes on the Old 1estament
165 \as Christ Di·ine·
16¯ Biblical Prophecies as Reíerring to the Ad·ent oí the Prophet-

1¯1 S. 1he Belief in the Day of Resurrection

1¯¯ 6. Predestination
185 Conclusion
186 Reíerences

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
The Religion of Islam
A standard book
Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b, Pb. D., titt. D
. íorerora
owe a hea·y debt oí gratitude to his Lxcellency the Consul General oí
Lgypt íor India who íirst brought me into contact with the intellectual liíe
oí his country by sending me some numbers oí the Al-Azhar Uni·ersity
Magazine which contains contribution írom the most eminent Lgyptian
scholars, and reílects the trend oí Lgyptian thought. 1hese journals ga·e me
some idea oí the ·aluable work which modern Lgypt was doing to re·i·e the
glorious achie·ements oí Islam in science and art, and to relight the torch oí
learning which, in the Middle Ages, illumined e·ery dark corner oí the world,
and brought about the Luropean Renaissance.

It was in the pages oí this journal that I came across Dr. Galwash`s
Religion oí Islam` which appeared there in serial parts. I was greatly struck by
the author`s scholarly handing oí his subject, the breadth oí his outlook and his
command o·er the Lnglish language. I requested his Lxcellency to ía·our me
with the name and address oí a book seller írom whom this book could be
obtained, but instead oí supplying me this iníormation, he con·eyed my
admiration íor the Religion oí Islam` to the author, who sent me a
sumptuously bound copy oí the book as a generous present.

It is a lamentable íact that no Muslim scholar oí established reputation has
yet written in any Luropean language a standard book on the liíe oí the
Prophet or the teachings oí Islam. Ií an Luropean wants to be enlightened
about Islam, he is compelled to consult the works oí non Muslim authors who
are ne·er tired oí re·iling the Prophet and misinterpreting the doctrines oí the
Muslim íaith. According to these authors Islam represents all that is e·il in
human nature, and legalizes the worst íorms oí brutality, moral corruption, and
carnal lust. 1he Muslim world was badly in need oí a writer who might
counteract these misrepresentations and paint Islam as it is without
extenuating anything or setting down aught in malice`. 1his long íelt want has
now been supplied by Dr. Galwash, whose Religion oí Islam`, oí which only
the íirst ·olume has appeared up till now, will be an authoritati·e work oí
Islamic religion, and expose the deliberate distortion oí Koranic teaching by the
non-Muslim exponents oí Islam, either by the use oí wrong premises as the
basis oí their conclusions oí íallacious logic.

Dr. Galwash begins his look with a brieí sur·ey oí Arabia and its people at
the time oí the Prophet`s birth. le then proceeds to gi·e outline to the
Prophet`s liíe, his immaculate character, the Di·ine call which he recei·ed to
deli·er his message his early trials and tribulations, the reíorms which his
monotheistic íaith brought about in the social and moral condition oí the
Arabs, his migration írom Mecca to Medina, and the deíensi·e wars which he

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
had to íight with the Koraish in·aders who were determined to kill him and
crush his mo·ements.

Aíter touching on the Prophet`s liíe, which illustrates the practical
application oí Koranic precepts to human aííairs, the author deals with the
teachings oí the Koran about the attributes oí God, the spiritual side oí human
nature, and the regulation oí man`s dealings with his íellow men in the social
political and economic spheres oí liíe. le gi·es the raisons d`etre oí all these
Koranic commandments which are generally used as targets oí hostile criticism
by the ad·ersaries oí Islam. lis explanations, which are based not on re·elation
or tradition, but on rational arguments, clearly show that the charges íramed
against Islam ha·e no íoundation in íact.

Dr. Galwash has also made a study oí comparati·e religion, and specially the
Bible, which is so necessary íor a thorough understanding oí the Koran. lis
írequent comparisons oí the Biblical and Koranic texts in regards to matters
mentioned in both the Christian and Muslim Scriptures, and his reíerence to
the Biblical prophecies about the ad·ent oí the Prophet indicate the wide range
oí his reading and research. lis work must ha·e been greatly íacilitated by his
good íortune in ha·ing access to the world-íamous libraries oí Cairo, which are
store house oí Lastern learning, and enshrine the rarest and most ·aluable
books on e·ery branch oí knowledge which ha·e been written either in ancient
or modern times. Dr. Galwash has done a great ser·ice to Islam by writing a
book, which will be helpíul to e·ery Muslim in understanding his religion and
guiding his íootsteps along the right path according to the injunctions oí the

Sir Liakat Ali Kt, M.A., LLB
Retired Minister, Bhopal State, India

Comments, Reports and Letters
on the Book.
A letter írom Mr. \illiam M. Johnson ,Pussyíoot, oí the USA:
I was much interested in the manuscript oí your book. I read it íar into the
right and got pretty good idea oí its contents.
In regards to your remarks on plain speaking in your preíace, I could not
íind anything in the book that need oííend the most sensiti·e.
It is, oí course, and properly so, written írom the Moslem standpoint, and I
should like see it, published. I would like to ha·e Christians generally read it, íor
it would gi·e them a new concept oí what Islam really is....
Ií there is anything that I could do in London to promote the project oí
publishing the book I would be glad indeed to do so.


1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Lxtracts oí a letter írom Mr. L. V. linbert, editor oí the worthy re·iew Les
Messages d`Orient,` Paris:
Many oí our íriends who are specialized in religious problems are delighted
with the substantial documentation and specially with the íer·our and sincerity
oí your writing. I would ask you to send me as soon as possible the manuscript
I already had the pleasure to read with the greatest interest. I would start
translating into lrench and ha·e it published in our selection oí modern eastern
I am always with you in spirit and communion oí what constitutes the
highest oí liíe.

Copy oí a letter írom Major 1. l Stern, Ad·iser, Irrigation Oííice,
Alexandria, Lgypt:
I ha·e read your book 1he religion oí Islam` with much interest and íeel
that the objects set íorth in the preíace ha·e been ·ery ably pursued.
Iníormation about the religion which numbers such a ·ast proportion oí the
world`s inhabitants among its adherents cannot but be oí ·ery real ·alue.
Many oí the Lnglish speaking races will, I íeel sure, welcome the
opportunity to read a book which gi·es such a restrained and well balanced
account oí the teachings oí Islam.
In your book you ha·e collated and compiled in a most interesting manner
the rele·ant íacts about Mohammedanism. 1he Person oí Mohamed must
always be a subject oí great interest and the gathering oí so much iníormation
between two co·ers íorms most illuminating reading.
\hile many readers may ha·e a general idea as to the teaching oí Islam, this
book presents an opportunity to authentic their knowledge and appreciate the
religious attitude oí present day Moslems, on such matters as polygamy, status
oí women, etc.
1he pre·ailing tendency oí the world is to judge a religion by its íollowers
instead oí íirst enquiring what the religion taught by the íounder was. I think
the present book will do much to present the teachings oí the Prophet
Mohamed in a reasonable and enlightened manner to all who by inclination or
circumstances come in contact with his íollowers and read it.
I must congratulate you on the excellence oí the diction and the general
tone oí moderation which per·ades the book.

Copy oí a letter írom Proíessor Gerald Brackenbury oí the ligher 1raining
College, Ministry oí Lducation Cairo.
I ha·e read Ahmed Galwash`s book on Islam with the greatest interest. It
presents the case íor Islam in a ·ery striking way, and shows a deep knowledge
oí the ligher Criticism oí the Bible and oí the most recent arguments used by
the chieí Anglican Di·ines against the literal inspiration oí the Scriptures. By
his quotations írom Christian writers he shows himselí independent oí mere

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
It is Important in these days oí íree thought íor all liberal-minded Christians
to escape írom their prejudices inherited írom the Crusades and to learn the
spirit oí Islam as it exists in the mind oí a de·out Moslem.
I hope the book will be published and will ha·e the success it deser·es. 1he
Mastery oí Lnglish shown is remarkable.

Copy oí a letter írom Dr. l. L. Morton lowell, Minister and
Plenipotentiary oí the united States oí America to Lgypt:
I ha·e, with ·ery great interest , read the manuscript oí the Religion oí
Islam and the liíe oí the Prophet Mohammed.`
I should say: 1hat as a de·out íollower and belie·er in the Koran and the
source oí its inspiration, the prophet Mohammed, you ha·e in this treatise set
íorth such an interpretation oí it as shall make more easily understood the
íundamentals oí this prophet`s teaching.
A íine charitable spirit` accompanied by lucid expression and diction,
per·ades the whole text.

Copy oí a letter írom Mr. lermann Besser, Orientalist, Cairo:
I ha·e just íinished the reading oí your book and I should like to express to
you the deep impression it perusal has made upon me. As one, to whom the
study oí Lastern religions has been a matter oí great attraction during more
than íorty year and whom the ·arious works on the Prophet and lis Mission
are not altogether unknown, I will say that I ha·e ne·er seen this great subject
treated with more sincerity, dispassionateness, lucidity, íairness and, at the same
time, with a nobler con·iction oí the truth oí the author`s own íaith, that the
work could not ha·e been better described than that oí a true Moslem.
As such, it should be inestimable ·alue to all searchers aíter 1ruth
throughout the worldand this particularly in an age when materialism threatens
to discredit and o·ercome, in the minds oí mankind, those 1hings 1hat Really
1hat a book oí this nature cannot but call íorth criticism and opposition
írom the part oí orthodox adherents oí other creeds is certain, but as long as
these íollow the exampleoí tolerance set in your book and no other can matter,
the great ·alue oí your book and its leading idea oí helping men íorward,
howe·er little, in the way oí right understanding, will, I truly belie·e be in
nowise, aííected.

Copy oí a letter írom Colonel A. S. John Cooks, oí London:
I ha·e read your book with great interest. I am íully ali·e to the need oí a
better understanding by Christian Nations oí the basic íacts oí the Islamic
Religion and I wish your book e·ery success in consequence.
1here is a great new mo·ement in all Moslem Countries, tending towards
the de·elopment oí Character and the Substitution oí deeds íor words. 1here

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
is, at the same time, a determination to use all the best that the scientiíic
de·elopments oí the \est ha·e períected. I thereíore, hope that someone
equally giíted and de·out may write a Companion Volume to bring out the
good points oí Christianity in the íormation oí right thinking and action, so
that a study oí the two may lead to a still better íeeling between the íollowers oí
the two great Religions, which ha·e done so much to help world de·elopment,
Islam by its great brotherhood under the One God as expounded by Mohamed,
and Christianity by its indi·idualistic responsibility to imitate as íar as possible,
the liíe oí Christ.
A íull and accurate knowledge oí each other`s aspirations must lead to that
good understanding you claim as the goal oí your book.

Lxtracts oí a Report submitted to l. L, the Minister oí Lducation, Cairo by
Proíessor J. \alker oí the Ministry:
1he book is a work oí considerable literary merit.
1he style is excellent. Ií the book is published I recommend that copies be
placed in the school Libraries as it would be read by the Luropean member oí
the staíí with proíit.
I ha·e gone through this Book, 1he religion oí Islam.` It embodies
authentic illustrations oí a good deal oí Islamic questions. As such, it ser·es as a
guide to the religion oí Islam.

R Re el li ig gi io on n o of f I Is sl la am m
he general interest aroused by the íirst edition oí this book and its rapid
exhaustion, ha·e called íor the printing oí second.
1he purpose oí the book is to gi·e to Lnglish readers a concise and íair
history oí the Prophet Mohammad ,Peace and blessing oí Allah be Upon him,
and to present an accurate account oí the religion oí Islam wrongly called
,Mohammedanism, which he taught a religion which has became the íaith oí
hundreds oí millions oí people throughout the world. I ha·e been mo·ed to
undertake this work because I írequently met Lnglishmen brought to Lgypt
connection with the Great \ar ,1914 - 1919, who e·inced a real desire to
acquire a certain knowledge oí the principles oí Islam, the dominant religion oí
the country.
I tried to satisíy their curiosity just as much as my limited intercourse with
them permitted. linally it was suggested to me that I should write a treatise on
the subject íor the use oí Lnglish speaking inquirers to íamiliarize millions oí
British subjects. I considered it a duty to comply with the suggestion - íirst in
regard to the religion oí Islam, as I ha·e as yet hardly íound a single treatise
which properly explains the essence oí that creed and is at the same time íree
írom deíects or misrepresentations, and secondly in regard to the members oí
the Anglo- Saxon race, through whose language I was able to pursue my studies
Apparently Lnglish writers, or rather writers oí the Christian persuasion
who dealt with Islam, seem either to ha·e obtained their knowledge oí that

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
religion haphazardly írom untrustworthy sources, or to ha·e allowed their
judgment to ha·e been biased by their own Christian outlook, and this partiality
has, consciously or otherwise changed them írom honest historians to critics -
and at times malignant critics. In compiling this book, I ha·e set beíore me a
high ideal, to be a true historian and a conscientious writer, to obtain not only
írom eulogy and partisanship, but also írom scoííing and misplaced criticism.
My sole ende·our is to gi·e the reader a true account oí the liíe oí the Prophet
Mohammad ,Peace and blessing oí Allah be Upon him, and a íair exposition oí
the religion oí Islam.
As the history oí the Arabs has a ·ery close connection with the liíe oí the
Arabian Prophet and the rise and de·elopment oí Islam, I ha·e dedicated part 1
oí the Book to a summary oí that history and the exposition oí the social
moral, political and religious conditions oí the Arabs prior to the ad·ent oí
Islam. \ith regard to the present work, the author who is an Lgyptian Muslim
lays no claim to the art oí elegant composition in Lnglish. But íurther he is oí
opinion that ií this ability were within his reach, it would ha·e been misplaced
in a work oí this nature, the principal merit oí which is simple íidelity. I desire
abo·e all things, that in a humble way, this book may be the ambassador oí
good will and understanding between Muslims and those oí other íaiths. 1he
two supplements present my theses oííered íor the degrees oí Ph., and Litt. D,
at the Uni·ersity oí Brussels and lelsinki respecti·ely

Ahmed A. Galwash
Cairo, April 1940

I In nt tr ro od du uc ct ti io on n
he diííusion oí knowledge all-o·er the world and the spread ci·ilisation
ha·e ·ery largely lessened the diííerence between one nation and another
and ha·e almost subdued the ílames oí animosity kindled in men`s bosoms by
blind íanaticism e·oked by religion or creed.

listory related many awíul wars waged in the name oí religion.
1oday, howe·er, men are largely imbued with the spirit oí toleration and
lo·e oí truth and liberty. 1he more enlightened do respect the doctrines and
principles oí their íellow men, howe·er widely they oííer írom their own. 1he
íollowers oí diííerent religions make earnest endea·ours to spread their own
íaith and to plant their standards e·ent íarther a íield. It is leít to reason to
examine and judge the respecti·e merits oí each. Christian missionaries in the
Orient may be heard loudly preaching Christianity to íollowers oí Moses and
Mohammad ,Peace and blessing oí Allah be upon them, without the least
apprehension oí any unlawíul opposition on the part oí their hearers.
lrom time to time, we read oí some distinguished person who has
abandoned the religion oí his íoreíathers to adopt a diííerent persuasion,
which, in the light oí reason he has íound more acceptable. lurther the spirit oí
intelligent curiosity has been so íully de·eloped in human beings by education,
that books are eagerly read which deal with the dogmas and tenets oí diííerent

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
nations. 1he widest possible knowledge oí these is sought and at time an
attachment to new belieís is not hidden, nor a readiness to adopt them.

On the other hand, the more highly a nation is ci·ilized, the more it is
inclined to make known its customs, habits and national or religious character.
Although some ·ague knowledge oí the laws and tenets oí Islam may be
obtained írom treatises and books which ha·e been composed by certain
westerners, yet he who desires to thoroughly comprehend their spirit must trace
them to the íountain head. In the ordinary intercourse oí liíe, he who is
desirous oí gaining the esteem and aííection oí those with whom he con·erses,
will be careíul not to oííend against their religious precepts and notions oí right
and wrong, with which precepts and notions he can become acquainted by
consulting their own records.

lurthermore, it beha·es those ministers and missionaries oí the Christian
íaith whose zeal leads them to labour in the propagation oí their own doctrines
and in attempts to reíute the tenets and precepts oí other religions, to be well
acquainted with those things which they undertake to impugn.
1he learned Roland
has shown that Christian writers oí no small
eminence in point oí learning and reputation ha·e egregiously misrepresented
the doctrines oí Muslim íaith, and bestowed much useless labour, in coníuting
opinions which the íollowers oí the Arabian Prophet ne·er maintained, thus
exposing themsel·es to the charge oí ignorance and the contempt oí their
ad·ersaries and injuring the cause they had undertaken to deíend, by making it
appear to stand in need oí íalse allegations íor its support`.

Indeed, it is misrepresentation and misiníormation, írom which Muslims
chieíly suííer. 1hey ha·e had imputed to them that which has no existence
whate·er in their teachings and policy, baseless charges ha·e been ad·anced
against Islam, nay, the ·ery beauties which Muslims account amongst their
exclusi·e possessions ha·e been denied them, and the ·ery e·ils which Islam
came to eradicate and did succeed in so doing are ascribed to it. It is certainly a
great pity that, with all this outpouring oí learning and literature, e·ery little real
eííort has been made to clear away the clouds oí misrepresentation and
deíecti·e knowledge which still en·elop the religion oí the Arabian Prophet in
Lurope and America. It is happy sign, howe·er, to íind plans íor a uni·ersal
religion being discussed in certain ad·anced circles in both continents, and a
desire to create a better understanding among the adherents oí the ·arious
denominations oí the world. 1o achie·e this desirable end, it is inconsistent
with the ad·anced culture oí enlightened Luropean or American inquirers that
iníormation on Islam- a religion which at present is a poweríul íactor in
humanizing millions hitherto li·ing in ignorance barbarity- should come
through any adulterated channels and írom the writings and works oí
propagandists hostile to Islam. Undoubtedly a true knowledge oí the liíe oí the
Prophet and oí his principal teachings is íull oí interest to those who desire to
increase their general stock oí iníormation. Indeed the doctrines oí Islam tend

, De Relig. Mohamammedica L II.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
in general to promote the welíare and property oí mankind, in as much as they
culti·ate charity and good will to all people.

1he prophet said: No man`s íaith shall be períect unless he wishes íor his
brother whatsoe·er he wishes íor himselí`.
1hat Islam was admittedly the torch-bearer oí light and learning in the \est
when Lurope was enshrouded in ignorance and darkness, and that the
íollowers oí the Prophet were undoubtedly among the ·ery íew íactors creating
the conditions leading to present culture and ad·ancement, are in themsel·es
cogent reasons to justiíy an appeal to the \esterner`s sense oí duty and justice
in judging Islam and the Muslims.

An honest student oí the tenets oí Islam and the labours oí Muslims íor the
regeneration and ediíication oí mankind, especially oí Lurope, cannot íail to
íind much íor which Islam should be thanked.
I quote Major Arthur Glyn Leonard in this connection:
Ne·er to this day has Lurope acknowledged in an honest and
wholehearted manner the great and e·erlasting debt she owes to Islamic culture
and ci·ilisation. Only in a lukewarm and períunctory way has she recognized
that when, during the dark ages, her people were sunk in íeudalism and
ignorance Muslim ci·ilisation under the Arabs reached a high standard oí social
and scientiíic splendour that kept the ílickering embers oí Luropean society
írom utter decadence.

Do not we, who consider oursel·es on the topmost pinnacle e·er reached
by culture and ci·ilisation, recongnise that, had it not been íor the high culture,
the ci·ilisation and intellectual, as well as the social splendours oí Arabs and
soundness oí their school system, Lurope would to this say ha·e remained
sunk in the darkness oí ignorance· la·e we íorgotten that the Muslim maxim
was that the real learning oí man is oí more public importance than any
particular religious opinion he may entertain`, that Muslim liberality was in
striking contrast with the then intolerant state oí Lurope· Does the magniíicent
·alour oí the Arabs, inspired as it was by atheism as loíty as it was pure, not
appeal to us· Does not the moderation and comparati·e toleration shown by
them to the conquered not with standing the íierce and burning ardour to
regenerate mankind that impelled them onward to conquest also appeal to us·
Does it not all the more appeal to us when we contrast this with the bitterness
oí the attitude oí the Christian sects towards one another· Lspecially when we
consider that in Christendom, as it was then constituted, extortion tyranny and
imperial centralisation, combining with ecclesiastical despotism and
persecution, had practically extinguished patriotism, by substituting in its place
schismatic and degenerate Church·

lurther the same writer continues to say: -
Is it possible that Lurope is unmindíul oí, and has the ingratitude to
ignore, the splendid ser·ices oí the scientists and philosophers oí Arabic· Are

, Bosworth Smith: Mohamed and Mohammedanism`.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
the names oí Assamh, Abu Othman, Alberuni, Alberithar Abu Ali Ibn Sina
,A·icenna, the great physician and philosopher, Ib Rushd ,A·erroes, oí
Cordo·a, the chieí commentator oí Aristotle, Ib Bajja ,Anempace, besides a
host oí others but dead letters· Is the great work that they ha·e done and the
íame they ha·e leít behind them in their books to be consigned to the limbo oí
obli·ion, by an ungrateíul but antipathetic Lurope·

It cannot be that already we ha·e lost sight oí the amazing intellectual
acti·ity oí the Muslim world during the earlier part oí the Abbaside period
more especially. It cannot be that we ha·e quite íorgotten the irreco·erable loss
that was inílicted on Arabian literature, and on the world at large, by the went
on destruction oí thousands oí books that was promoted by Christian bigotry
and íanaticism. It cannot be surely said oí Christian Lurope that íor centuries
now she has done her best to hide her obligation to the Arabs, yet most
assuredly obligations such as these are íar too sacred to lie much longer

lor íurther enlightment as to the íar-reaching beneíicial eííects oí Islam I
quote Bosworth Smith, M.A., Asst master in larrow School and late íellow oí
1rinity College, Oxíord:
Nor does Islam lack other claims on our attention. Its ultimate acceptance
by the Arabs, the new direction gi·en to it by the later re·elations to
Mohammad, its rapid conquests, the literature and ci·ilisation it brought in it
train, the way in which it crumpled up the Roman Lmpire on one side and the
Persian on the other, how it dro·e Christianity beíore it on the \est and North
and íire worship on the Last and South, how it crushed the íalse prophets that
always íollow in the wake oí a true one, as the jackals do the trail oí a lion, how
it spread o·er two continents, and how it settled in a third and at one time all
but o·erwhelmed the whole.... all this is matter oí history, at which I can only

And what is the position now·
It numbers at this day more than one hundred millions, probably one
hundred and íiíty millions
oí belie·ers as sincere, as de·out, as true to their
creed, as are the belie·ers in any creed whate·er. It still has its grip on three
continents extending írom Morocco to the Malay Peninsula, írom Zanzibar to
the Kirghis horde...

... Aírica which had yielded so early to Christianity, nay, which had gi·en
birth to Latin Christianity itselí, the Aírica oí Cyprian and 1ertullian, oí Antony
and Augustine yielded still more readily to Mohammad`, and írom the Straits oí
Gibraltar to the Isthmus oí Suez may still be heard the cry which with them is
no ·ain repetition oí Allah Akbar`, God is Great, there is no God but God
and Mohammad ,Peace and blessing oí Allah be upon him, is his Prophet.

, Islam` ler Moral and Spiritual Value` By Major Arthur Glyn Leonard.
, 1he number is assumed at present ,2002, to be about 1100 millions

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
And ií it be said, as it oíten is, that Islam has gained nothing since the íirst
ílame or religious enthusiasm íanned, as it then oíten was, by the lust oí
conquest has died out, I answer that this is íar írom the truth. In the extreme
Last, Islam has since then won and maintained íor centuries a moral supremacy
in the important Chinese pro·ince oí \un-Nan, and has thus actually succeeded
in thrusting a wedge between the two great Buddhist empires oí Burma and oí

1hroughout the Chinese Lmpire there are scattered Mussulman
communities who ha·e higher hopes than Buddhism or Coníucianism, and a
purer morality than 1aoism can supply. 1he Panthays themsel·es, it is belie·ed,
still number a million and a halí and the unity oí God and the mission oí God`s
Prophet are attested day by day by a continuous line oí worshippers írom the
Atlantic to the Paciíic Ocean.
Nay, e·en beyond, in the Last Indian Archipelago, beyond the straits oí
Malacca ií I may ·enture just now so to call them, in Ja·a and Sumatra, in
Borneo and Celebes, ISLAM has raised many oí the nati·es abo·e their íormer
sel·es and has long been the dominant íaith...

It cannot oí course, be supposed that among races so low in the scale oí
humanity as are most oí the Indian islanders, Islam would be able to do what it
did originally íor the Arabs or íor the 1urkish hordes` but it has done
something e·en íor them. It was propagated by missionaries who carea rer,
vvcb for tbe .ovt. tbe, covta riv, ava votbivg for tbe ¡tvvaer tbe, covta carr, off.
1hey conciliated the nati·es learned their language, intermarried with them and
in larger islands their success was rapid and, so íar as nature would allow,

1he Philippines and the Molaccas, with were conquered by Spain and
Portugal respecti·ely did not become Muslim, íor they had to surrender at once
their liberty and their religion. It is no wonder that the religion known to the
nati·es chieíly through the unblushing rapacity oí the Dutch has not extended
itselí beyond the reach oí their swords. lere, as elsewhere in the Last, the most
íatal hindrance to the spread oí Christianity has been the li·es oí Christians.

In Aírica again Islam is spreading itselí by giant strides almost year by year.
L·eryone knows that within halí a century oí the Prophet`s death, the richest
states oí Aírica, and those most accessible to Christianity and to Luropean
Ci·ilisation, were torn away írom both, by the armies oí the íaithíul, with
hardly a struggle or a regret, but íew except those who ha·e studied the subject,
are aware that e·en since then Islam has been gradually spreading o·er the
northern halí oí the continent.

, Crawíord`s Indian Archipelago` II, 2¯5 and 315
, lor the cruelties oí the Portuguese, see Craíord, II, 403 and íor the Dutch see
especially II, 425 and 441. lor some startling íacts as to the comparati·e morality oí
some nati·e and Christian communities in India, see a paper by Re·. J.N. 1hoburn in
the Report íor the Allahabad Missionary Coníerence, held in 18¯2-¯3 p. 46¯-4¯0.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Starting írom the north west corner, it íirst marched southwards írom
Morocco, and by the time oí the Norman Conquest had reached the
neighbourhood oí 1imbuctoo, and had got íirm hold oí the Mandingoes,
thence it spread southwards again to the loulahs, and then eastward by the
thirteenth century to Lake Chad, where íinally the Arab missionaries írom the
\est joined hands with those írom the Last in the ·ery heart oí Aírica...
\e hear oí whole tribes laying aside their de·il- worship or immemorial
letish and springing at a bound, as it were írom the ·ery lowest to one oí the
highest íorms oí religious belieí. Christian tra·elers with e·ery wish to think
otherwise, ha·e remarked that the Negro who accepts Islam, acquires at once a
sense oí the dignity oí human nature not commonly íound e·en among those
who ha·e been brought to accept Christianity.
It is also pertinent to obser·e here, that such progress as any large part oí
the Negro race has hitherto made, is in exact proportion to the time that has
elapsed, or the degree oí íer·our, with which they originally embraced, or ha·e
since clung to Islam. 1he Mandingoes and the loulahs are salient instances oí
this, their unquestionable superiority to other Negro tribes is as unquestionably
owing to the early hold that Islam got upon them, and to the ci·ilisation and
culture that is has always encouraged. 1he Go·ernment Blue Books on our
\est Aírican settlements, and the reports oí missionary societies themsel·es,
are quite at one on this head. 1he Go·ernor oí our \est Aírican Colonies, Mr.
Pope lennesay, remarks that the liberated Aíricans are always handed o·er to
Christian missionaries íor instruction, and that their children are baptized and
brought up at the public expense in Christian schools, and are, thereíore, in a
sense ready made con·erts, yet the total number oí proíessing Christians 35.000
out oí a population oí 513.000, ·ery íew e·en oí these, as the Go·ernor says,
and as we can uníortunately well belie·e írom our experience in countries that
are not Aírican, being practical Christians - íalls íar short oí the original
number oí liberated Aíricans and their descendents.
On the other hand the
Re·. James Johnson, a nati·e clergyman, and a man oí remarkable energy and
intelligence, as well as oí ·ery Catholic spirit, deplores the íact that oí the total
number oí Muslims to be íound in Sierra Leone and its neighbourhood three
íourths were not born Muslims, but ha·e become so by con·ersion, whether
írom a nominal Christianity or írom Paganism.

\e are assured on all hands that the Muslim population has an almost
passionate desire íor education, and those in the neighbourhood oí our

, Papers relating to ler Majesty`s Colonial Possessions Part. II 18¯3 2
, Papers relating to ler Majesty`s Colonial Possessions Part. II 18¯3 2
p.15. As Mr. Pope lennessy`s Report has been much criticized, chieíly on the ground
that he is a Roman Catholic, and as I ha·e based some statements upon it, it may be
worth mentioning that I ha·e had a con·ersation with Mr. Johnson, who is a strong
protestant himselí, and that he bore testimony to the bonaíides oí the Report and to its
accuracy e·en on some points which ha·e been most questioned, le told me that Islam
was introduced into Sierra Leone not many years ago, by three zealous missionaries
who came írom a great distance. It seems now to be rapidly gaining the ascendancy, in
spite oí all the Luropean iníluence at work.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

colonies would through our schools, íirst ií the practical education gi·en was
worth ha·ing, and secondly, ií the teachers would reírain írom needlessly
attacking their cherished and oíten harmless customs. \here·er Muslims are
numerous, they establish schools them-sel·es, and there are not a íew who
tra·el extraordinary distances to secure the best possible education. Mr. Pope
lennessy mentions the case oí one young Muslim Negro who is in the habit oí
purchasing costly books írom 1rubner in London and who went to loulah,
two hundred and íiíty miles away, to obtain an education better than he could
íind in sierra Leone itselí. Not is it an uncommon thing íor newly con·erted
Muslims to make their way right across the desert írom Bornu or írom Lake
Chad, or down the Nile írom Daríour or \adi, a journey oí o·er one thousand
miles that they may carry on their studies in Ll-Azhar, the great collegiate
Mosque at Cairo, and they may thence bring back the results oí their training to
their nati·e country, and íorm so many centers oí Muslim teaching and

Nor as to the eííects oí Islam when íirst embraced by a Negro tribe can
there be any reasonable doubt. Polytheism disappears almost instantaneously,
sorcery with it attendant e·ils, gradually dies away, human sacriíice becomes a
thing oí the past. 1he general moral ele·ation is most marked, the nati·e begins
íor the íirst time in their history to dress and that neatly. Squalid íilth is
replaced by a scrupulous cleanliness, in hospitality becomes a comparati·ely
rare exception. 1hough polygamy is allowed by the Koran, it is not common in
practice, and, beyond the limits laid down by the Prophet, incontinence is rate,
chastity is looked upon as one oí the highest and becomes in íace one oí the
commoner ·irtues. It is idleness henceíorward that degrades, instead oí the
re·erse. Oííences are henceíorward measured by a written code instead oí the
arbitrary caprice oí a chieítain - a step, as e·eryone will admit, oí ·ast
importance in the progress oí a tribe. 1he Mosque gi·es an idea at all e·ents
higher than any the Negro has yet had. A thirst íor literature is created, and that
íor works oí science and philosophy, as well as íor commentaries on the
Koran. 1here are whole tribes, as the Jaloís on the ri·er Gambia and the
laussas, whose manly qualities we ha·e had occasions to test in Ashantee,
which ha·e become to a man Muslims and ha·e raised themsel·es iníinitely in
the process, and the ·ery name salt-water- Muslims gi·en to those tribes along
the coast, who, írom admixture with Luropean settlers, ha·e relaxed the
se·erity oí the Prophet`s laws is a striking prooí oí the extent, to which the
stricter íorm oí the íaith pre·ails in the íar interior.
It is melancholy to contrast with these wide spread beneíicial iníluences oí
Islam, the little that has been done íor Aírica till ·ery lately by the Christian
nations that ha·e settled in it, and the still narrower limits within which it has
been coníined. 1ill a íew years ago the good eííects produced beyond the
immediate territories occupied by them were absolutely nothing.
1he message that Luropean traders ha·e carried íor centuries to Aírica has
been one oí rapacity, oí cruelty and oí bad íaith. It is a remark oí Dr.
that the only art that the nations oí Aírica ha·e acquired írom

, Li·ingstone`s Lxpedition to the Zambesi` page 240.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
their 500 years` acquaintance with the Portuguese, has been the art oí distilling
spirits írom a gun - barrel, and that the only permanent belieí they owe to
them, is the belieí that man may sell his brother man, íor this, he says
emphatically, is not a nati·e beneíit to Aírica, but ií we except the small
number oí con·erts made within the limits oí their settlements, it has been the
only beneíit coníerred by Luropeans.

1ruly ií the question must be put, whether it is Muslim or Christian nations
that ha·e as yet done most íor Aírica, the answer must be that it is not the

I think I can occupy no more space in this introduction by making íurther
quotations to discuss the relation oí Islam to modern ci·ilisation and the
position which it holds among the recognized religions oí the world. It is a
matter oí pure history that Islam has been beneíicial to humanity in general and
that it had, and still has, an e·erlasting iníluence on the de·elopment oí human
1he Muslim School embraces all branches oí human knowledge and
research: -theology, medicine, history, astronomy, grammar, economics,
physics, racial philosophy and racial psychology and ethics. It is an important
educator on all systems oí purely human origin, and its creed most sublime
loítiest and di·ine expression, ne·er to be íound in the liturgy oí other
religions. 1he Islamic conception oí God is that le is Allah` and there is no
deity beside lim, le alone is to be worshipped. le begets not and le is not
begotten. le was beíore time began its race. le is Allah` \ho hath raised
diííerent Prophets oí men throughout the ages. lis Greatness is immeasurable.
Allah is le that abideth írom eternity to eternity. 1his is but a íractional part oí
the Muslim Creed - a creed that strictly íorbids the worship oí images and the
artistic representation oí anything that resembles the human íorm. \et in
Christian literature periodicals and other publications Muslims ha·e been
alluded to, and spoken oí, as pagans idolaters, polygamists, sun-worshippers
and what not. Out sacred ediíice has been characterized as the Mosque oí
swords our hea·en as a hea·en oí sensual bliss, and that aíter death we sink
into space soul less and ha·e no account to gi·e. In the romance oí 1rpin`
quoted by Renan, Mohammad, the íanatical destroyer oí all idolatry, is turned
himselí into an idol oí gold and under the name oí Mawment, is reported to be
the object oí worship at Cadiz. In the song oí Roland, the National Lpic oí
lrance, Mohammad` appears with the chieí oí the pagan gods on one side oí
him and the chieí oí the De·ils on the other. luman sacriíices are supposed to
ha·e been oííered to him, in imagination and assertions oí Christian writers oí
the tenth and ele·enth centuries under the ·arious names oí Baíum, or
Maphomet, or Mawment, Malaterra, in his history oí Sicily describes that island
as being, when under Saracenic rule, and land wholly gi·en up to idolatry.
It is
not a little curious that both the Lnglish and lrench languages still bear witness

, R. Bosworth Smith Mohamed and Mohammedanism`.
, \hich people were the great idolaters, any candid reader oí the Italian annalists oí
this time, collected by Muratori, can say` Bosworth - Mohammed and

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
to the popular misapprehension, the lrench by the word Mahomerie`, the
Lnglish by the word Mummery`, still used íor absurd or superstitious rites.

Mammetry`, a contraction oí Mahometry was used in early Lnglish íor any
íalse religion, especially íor worship oí idols, insomuch that Mammet` or
Mawmet: came to mean an idol. In Shakespeare the name is extended to a
mean doll: a Juliet, íor instance, is called by her íather A whinning mammet`
In the twelíth century the god Mawmet` passes into the heresiarch Mahomet,
and as such, oí course he occupies a conspicuous place in the Iníerno.`

Dante places him in his ninth circle among the showers oí religious discord,
his companions being lra Dolimo a communist oí the íourteenth century, and
Bertrand de Born, a íighting 1roubadour.
1he Romances oí Baphomet, so common in the íourteenth and íiíteenth
centuries, attribute any and e·ery crime to him, just as the Athanasians did to
Arius. le is a debauchee, a camel stealer, a cardinal, who ha·ing íailed to obtain
the object oí e·ery cardinal`s ambition, in·ents a new religion to re·enge
himselí on his brethren.

\ith the leaders oí the Reíormation, Mohammad the greatest oí
meets with little sympathy, and their hatred oí him, as perhaps was
natural, seems to be proportionate with their knowledge Luther doubts whether
he is not worse than Leo, Melanchton belie·es him to be either Gog or Maggog
and Probably both.

In the imagination oí the Biblical commentators, the Arabian Prophet
di·ides with the Pope the credit or discredit, oí being the subject oí special
prophecy in the books oí Daniel and the Re·elation. le is Antichrist, the Man
oí Sin, the Little lorn` and I know not what besides, nor do I think that a
single writer, till towards the middle oí the eighteenth century, treats oí him as
otherwise than a rank impostor and íalse prophet.

Lngland and lrance were the íirst to take a diííerent ·iew and to ha·e
begun that critical study oí Arabian history or literature which in the hands oí
Gibbon and oí Muir, oí Caussin de Perce·al and oí St. lilaire, oí \eil and oí
Springer has pro·ided some material íor a comparati·ely íair and unbiased
judgment within the reach oí e·eryone. But most other writers oí the 18

century such as Dean Prideaux and the Abbe Maracci, Boulain·illiers and
Voltaire ha·e approached the subject only to pro·e a thesis. \ith them the
Prophet was to be either a hero or an impostor. lrom them is learnt much

, See 1rench on \ords` p.112.
, Mawmet ,countr.ír. Mahomet, a puppet, a doll, originally an idol, because in the
Middle Ages was generally belie·ed that the Moslems worshipped images representing
Mohammed`. See \ebster`s Dictionary.
, Renan Ltudes d`listoire Religieuse` p. 223, note.
, Bosworth Smith.
, See Quarterly Re·iew` Art. Islam, by Detsch, No. 254, p.296.
,Bosworth Smith.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
that has been said about Mohammad, but comparati·ely little oí Mohammad

Gagnier has then proceeded to write a history oí the Prophet claimed to
ha·e been based on the work oí Abul leda. Gagnier`s history was still not íree
írom wrong iníerences and erroneous allusions.

1hen íollowed the translations oí the Koran by Sale and Sa·ary into
Lnglish and lrench respecti·ely. Gibbon has then written his three master-
pieces oí biography`: Athansaius, Juian, and Mohammad. Gibbon`s treatment
oí Islam is considered to be generally íair and philosophic, in spite oí
occasional uncalled-íor sarcasms and characteristic innuendoes.
It seems that
Gibbon`s so called uníair treatment oí Christianity pre·ented the Christian
world írom doing justice to his generally íair treatment oí Islam: and
consequently most Lnglishmen who do not condemn the Arabian Prophet
unheard, deri·e what ía·ourable notions oí him they ha·e not írom Gibbon,
but írom Carlyle.`

It was really a great surprise and an epoch in Lnglish intellectual and
religious liíe, as Bosworth Smith has rightly obser·ed, when it was íound that
Caryle chose íor his lero as Prophet` not Moses or Llijah or Isaiah, but the
so called impostor Mohammed`

Now it is time to conclude this my introduction. 1he reader will see and
judge íor himselí the extent to which Luropean writers oí ·arious reputations
and in ·arious ages ha·e, in their diííerent treatment oí the Prophet
Mohammed ,Peace and blessing oí Allah be Upon him, and oí Islam, been
either misleading or themsel·es misled.
In conclusion I wish to express my heart-íelt-obligation to my numerous
íriends both in Lgypt and abroad íor their kind assistance and encouragement
which enabled me to bring this work to completion. I wish it were possible íor
me to name them all, but certain considerations pre·ent my doing so.
My special gratitude is due to lis Lminence Shiekh Mohammed Mustapha
Ll Maraghi Grand Rector oí Al Azhar Uni·ersity through whose personal
suggestion the book has been accredited by that great Muslim Institution íor
publication as a supplement to Al Azhar Oííicial Monthly Re·iew.
In my human endea·ours I humbly implore the Almighty God, the God oí
all mankind, to grant that my labour may ser·e as a basis, ií not íor an ultimate
agreement between Christendom and Islam, at all e·ents íor mutual
understanding and íorbearance, íor sympathy and respect.

Ahmed Galwash


, Bosworth Smith.
, Ibid.
, Bosworth Smith.
, Bosworth Smith.
, Ibid.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
rabia is the great western peninsula oí Asia. Its area is about 1,230,000
square miles, i.e. about one third oí Lurope. 1he name is said to be
deri·ed írom Araba`, a small district in the south east oí the pro·ince oí
1ehama, to which \arab the son oí Kahtan ,1he Biblical Joktna`,, the íather
oí the ancient Arabs ga·e his name, and where some ages aíter dwelt Ishmail,
the son oí Abraham and lagar.
1he chieí pro·ince in connection with the history oí Islam is known as the
lidjaz, which occupies the western strip oí Arabia to the east oí the Red Sea
and contains the íamous cities oí Mecca and Median. 1he íormer oí these
claims the distinction oí being the birth place oí the Prophet and possesses the
celebrated sanctuary oí the Kaaba, and the second was the home oí the
Prophet íor the last ten years oí his liíe, and in it he was laid to rest.
1he shrine oí Kaaba is stated to ha·e been originally built by Abraham and
Ismail íor the worship oí the true God, but in aíter times it became the
common pantheon oí pagan Arabia. 1he peninsula oí Arabia has always been
inhabited by two -classes - town dwellers and those who li·e in tents. 1he
íormer li·e by tillage, the culti·ation oí palm-trees, cattle breeding, and the
exercise oí trades, and e·en in the time oí Jacob, were íamous as merchants.
1he members oí the tribe oí Koreish, the wealthiest and most distinguished oí
the Arabian tribes, were especially engaged in commerce, and Mohammed in
his youth was brought up as a trader, as it was the Arabian customs íor sons to
carry on the business oí their íathers. 1he Arabs who dwelt in tents were
occupied with the pasturing oí their ílocks, ·aried by the raiding oí cara·ans
and pillaging oí tra·elers. 1hey li·ed chieíly on milk, dates and camel ílesh, they
changed their habitation as the con·enience oí water and oí pasture required
staying no longer in one place when these íailed.
\hether townsmen or tent-dwellers, the Arabs ha·e always been di·ided
into tribes and clans, each ha·ing its own habits, customs, mental outlook and
peculiarities and being more or less distinct írom the other in mode oí worship,
in culture and de·elopment. 1his di·ersity oí culture was mainly due to
di·ersity oí origin. Various races had inhabited the peninsula in ·arious ages.
Many oí these had passed away, but their íailure or success to add luster to the
Arab race was e·er íresh in the memory oí successi·e generations, and on this
tradition the early history oí the nation was based.
1he most íamous tribes oí the ancient Arab were those oí Aad, 1hamoud
and Amalik. 1he destruction oí the íirst two tries by God íor reíusing to
acknowledge the missions oí his prophets to them or to obey them, is
írequently reíerred to in the Koran as instances oí God`s Judgment on
obstinate unbelie·ers and a warning to the Quraishites, the tribe oí
Muhammad, who were his most poweríul and in·eterate enemies.
According to tradition, the Adites appeared at one time to ha·e been
poweríul and conquering people. 1hey are said to ha·e in·aded Babylonia 2000
years B.C.
1he 1hamudites were people who li·ed in houses car·ed in the

, George Sale`s translation oí the Koran, preliminary Discourse.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
rock. 1he ruins oí these habitations are described in Sir lenry Layard`s Larly
1ra·els`. 1he tribe oí Amalik rendered itselí so poweríul that beíore the time
oí the Prophet Joseph it conquered the middle oí Lower Lgypt and íurnished
se·eral oí her Kings, known to history as the Shepherd Kings.`
Aíter they
had possessed the throne oí Lgypt íor some generations, they were expelled by
the inhabitants and íinally were destroyed utterly by the Israelites.

1he Arabs oí today are descended írom two stocks Kahtan ,Biblical Joktan,,
son oí Lber and Adnan, descended in a direct line írom Ishmael, the son oí
Abraham and lagar. 1he íormer are considered as pure Arabs, the latter as
naturalized Arabs. 1he posterity oí Ishmael had intermarried and settled among
the Kahtanic Arabs and had become amalgamated with them into one nation.
1he Arabians were íore some centuries go·erned by descendants oí Kahtan,
\arab one his sons, íounding the kingdoms oí \emen in the south and Jorham,
another that oí lidjaz in the north.
1he descendants oí \arab known as the kings oí limyar continued to reign
undisturbed o·er \emen until the time oí Alexander the Great. 1he íirst great
calamity that beíell the tribes who settled there, was the inundation oí Arem
which happed about 340 B.C., one oí the leading e·ents in the history oí
Many tribes had to abandon their dwellings on this occasion, and írom the
scattered tribes rose two other kingdoms, known as Ghassan and lira.
According to the story oí the inundation reíerred to abo·e. Abd Shams,
surnamed Saba, one oí the íamous kings oí the tribe oí limyar ha·ing built the
city oí Saba ,íirst named aíter him and aíterwards called Marat,, constructed a
·ast reser·oir to store up the water oí the mountain torrents íor the use oí
inhabitants in the years oí drought. 1he dam was so íirmly built that there
seemed no probability oí its bursting. 1he water rose to the height oí twenty
íathoms and was kept in on e·ery side by masonry so solid that many oí the
inhabitants oí the pro·ince had their houses built on its walls. Lach íamily had
a certain portion oí this water distributed by aqueducts. But at last ,according to
tradition,, God being highly displeased at their great pride and insolence, and
resol·ing to humble and disperse them, caused a mighty ílood to break down
by night and carry away the whole city, with the neighbouring towns and

1he tribes which remained in \emen aíter this terrible occurrence still
continued under the rule oí the original princes till about ¯0 years beíore the
birth oí Mohammed, when the King oí Lthiopia sent o·er íorces to assist the
Christians oí \emen against the cruel persecution oí their King Zul Nowas, a
bigoted Jew. 1hey attacked him so closely that he íorced his horse into the sea,
and so lost his liíe, and the country was then go·erned by íour Lthiopian
Princes in turn till Seií Ibn Zi \azan, oí the tribe oí lumyar, ha·ing obtained
assistance írom Khosrou Anushirwan, King oí Persia, assistance which had
been denied him by the Lmperor leraclius, reco·ered the throne and dro·e

, Sir. lenry Layard`s Larly 1ra·els`.
, G. Sale.
, Abulíeda.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
out the Lthiopians, but was himselí slain by some oí the enemy who had been
leít behind.
1he Persians appointed the succeeding princes till \emen íell into the hands
oí the Prophet Mohammed, to whom Bazan, the last oí them, submitted
embracing Islam at the same time.
1he kingdom oí the limyarites is said to
ha·e lasted 2000 years.

It has already been obser·ed that two kingdoms were íounded by those who
leít their country on account oí the inundation oí Arem. 1hey were neither
írom Arabia properly so called. One was the kingdom oí Ghassan. 1he
íounders oí this kingdom were oí the tribe oí Azd, settled in Syria Damascena,
near a spring called Ghassan, whence they took their name. 1his kingdom,
according to Abulíeda, lasted 600 years, until the Khaliía Omar subjugated the
whole oí Syria to the rule oí Islam.
1he other kingdom was that oí lira which was íounded in Chaldea oí Iraq.
1his kingdom was better known as the kingdom oí Mondhirs oí the tribe oí
Lakhm. 1hese princes retained their throne ,except íor a short period during
which the Persians held the reins oí go·ernment, till the time oí the Khaliía,
Abu Bakr, when al Mondhir el Maghrour, the last oí them, lost his throne and
luíe in battle with Khaled Ibn el \aled the Muslim conqueror oí Syria. 1his
kingdom lasted 620 years.
1he kingdom oí lidjaz as already obser·ed was íounded by Jorham, the
son oí Kahtan, and remained in the hands oí this íamily until the time oí
Ismael. 1he latter married the daughter oí Modar, one oí the Jorhamite kings,
and she bore him twel·e sons, one oí whom, Kidar by name, inherited the
crown írom his uncle. 1he descendants oí Kidar expelled the Jorhamite tribe
who, retiring to Johainah, was aíter ·arious íortunes at last destroyed by an
linally the go·ernment oí lidjaz was shared by the heads oí tribes
almost in the same way as the Arabs oí the desert are go·erned at present.
Mecca was in the hands oí an aristocracy that controlled aííairs oí state until
the time oí the Prophet Mohammed, to whose tribe the custody oí the íamous
pantheon oí Kaaba was transíerred.
1hus ha·e the Arabs preser·ed their liberty and independence, oí which íew
nations can show so glorious and unbroken a record, e·en írom the ·ery
Deluge, íor though great armies ha·e been sent against them, all attempts to
subdue them ha·e íailed.
Neither the Assyrian nor the Median Lmpires e·er íound a íooting in
Arabia, and the Persian rulers ne·er succeeded in making her tributary and were
so íar írom being her masters that Combyses, on his expedition against Lgypt,
was obliged to ask permission to pass through her territories.
\hen Alexander the Great conquered Lgypt, the Arabians held him in so
little awe that alone oí all the neighbouring nations, sent no ambassadors to
him at any time. 1his want oí respect and the desire oí possessing so rich a
country, made him íorm a design against it, and had he not died beíore he

, Ld. Pocock.
, Pocock, p. ¯4

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
could put it into execution, this people might possible ha·e con·inced him that
he was not in·incible.

T Th he ei ir r R Re el li ig gi io on n
he religion oí the Arabs beíore Islam was in the main gross idolatry,
the Sabian religion or idolatry being the most widely extended among
the whole nation, though there were also considerable numbers oí Christians,
Jews and Magians among them. 1he Sabians belie·ed in God howe·er, they
worshipped also stars and planets and angels as well as images, they honoured
them as deities and they begged íor their intercession with God. 1hey did not
consider the idols to be direct agents, though they oííered sacriíices and
oííerings to them, as well as to God, who was oíten put oíí with the lesser
portion. 1hus when they planted íruit trees, or sowed a íield, they di·ided their
culti·ation by a line into two parts, setting aside one part íor their idols and the
other íor God, ií any oí the íruits happened to íall írom the idols` parts, into
God`s they made restitution, but ií írom God`s part into the idols` they made
no restitution. Also when they watered the idol`s land, ií the water broke o·er
the channels made íor that purpose, and ran on God`s part, they dammed it up
again, but ií the water ran into the idol`s part they let it run on, saying they ,the
idols, wanted what was God`s but he wanted nothing. In the same manner, ií
the oííering designed íor God happened to be better than that designed íor the
idols, they made an exchange, but not otherwise. It was írom this gross idolatry
or worship oí iníerior deities or the companions oí God` as the Arabs used to
call them, that the Prophet Mohammed reclaimed his nation by establishing
among them the undi·ided worship oí the true God.

1here were seen celebrated temples, dedicated to the se·en planets, adored
by the whole nation, though each tribe had chosen one planet as the peculiar
object oí its worship. 1he tribe oí limyar worshipped in general the sun, the
tribe oí Misam the Bull`s eye the tribes oí Lakhm and Joham, Jupiter, the tribe
oí Keis, Sirius or the Dog star, that oí Assad, Mercury, the tribe oí 1ay
worshipped Canopus, while the temple oí Mecca was dedicated to Sturn. lor
the worship oí angels and intelligences there were other celebrated, peculiar
idols, ten oí which are mentioned in the Koran, they are: Al Lat, Al-Uzza and
Manata which were called Goddesses` and Daughters oí God. Al Lat was the
idol oí the tribe oí 1hakií, Al-Uzza was the deity oí Ghatían, Manata was the
ía·ourite idol oí Kuzaah and luzail. 1here were two other celebrate idols,
namely Al Jibt and 1aghout which are also reíerred to in the Koran. 1hey were
oí the chieí idols oí the tribe oí Koreish. Special mention is also made in the
Koran oí íi·e idols, namely \add, Suwaa, \agoutha, \auka and Nassra. 1hese
were common idols among the pagan Arabians besides the idols reíerred to
abo·e the Arabs worshipped a great number oí other. Almost e·ery
housekeeper had his household god. 1here was a íamous idol called lobbal,
which was supposed by the Arabs to supply them with rain, a ·ery important
consideration in their dry land. 1hereíore, it was an object oí common worship

, G. Sale.
, G. Sale.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
among them. It had by accident lost a hand, which the Koreish repaired with
one oí gold. A great number oí idols were no more than large rude stones, the
worship oí which was íirst introduced by the prosperity oí Ishmael, íor when
they increased in number and the territory oí Mecca grew too narrow íor them,
large numbers oí them emigrated to other localities. It was usual íor them on
such emigrations to take with them some oí the stones oí the re·ered loly
Land oí Mecca, and to set them up in their new abodes and to pay them
de·otion. But this de·otion ended at last in rank idolatry, the Ishmaelites
íorgetting the religion oí their íathers so íar as to pay di·ine worship to rude
pieces oí stone. As to the worship oí the stars, the Arabs might be easily led
into it írom their obser·ing the changes oí weather happening at the rising and
setting oí certain oí them which aíter a long course oí experience induced them
to ascribe a di·ine power to those stars, and to think themsel·es indebted to
them íor their rain, they used to say that their rain came írom such or such a
star. 1he Koran particularly takes notices oí this superstition.
Magian religion or íire-worship, was introduced by the Persian Zoroastrians
through their írequent intercourse with the Arabs.
Judaism was introduced among the idolatrous Arabs by the Jews who íled in
great numbers into Arabia írom the íearíul destruction oí their country by the
Romans. 1hey made proselytes among se·eral tribes and in time became ·ery
poweríul, and possessed oí se·eral towns and íortresses in the Arabian
Peninsula. But o·er a century at least beíore, the Jewish religion was not
unknown to the Arabs. Abu Carb Assab who was king oí \emen about ¯00
years beíore Islam, is said to ha·e introduced Judaism among the idolatrous
limyarties. Some oí his successors also embraced the same religion, one oí
whom, \ousseí, surnamed Zul Nowas, was remarkable íor his zeal and terrible
persecution oí all who would not turn Jew, putting them to death by ·arious
tortures, the most common oí which was throwing them into a glowing pit oí
íire whence he acquired the sinister title oí Lord oí the Pit`. 1his persecution
is also reíerred to in the Koran.

Christianity had likewise made good progress among the Arabs beíore
Islam. 1he persecutions and disorders which darkened the eastern church soon
aíter the beginning oí the third century, obliged great numbers oí Christians to
seek shelter in Arabia, that country oí liberty. 1hese were íor the most part oí
the Jacobite community, a sect that was widely distributed throughout Lgypt,
Arabia and Mesopotamia.
1he abo·e mentioned were the principal religions that pre·ailed among the
Arabs, though the chieí religion was gross idolatry. Some oí the pagan Arabs
belie·ed neither in a creation oí Di·ine origin nor in a resurrection, attributing
the existence oí things and their dissolution to nature.
Some belie·ed that when the soul separated itselí írom the body, it took the
shape oí a bird, called lama` or Sada`. Ií the deceased person was the ·ictim
oí ·iolent death, the bird remained ho·ering o·er the gra·e crying Iskouni` i.e.,
Gi·e me drink`, till his death was a·enged and then it ílew away. 1his belieí
was íorbidden by the Koran. Belieí in Spirits and lairies and Oracles rendered
by their idols whom they consulted by means oí headless arrows which they

, Koran Chap. 85

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
called Azlam` was uni·ersal. Lach tribe had its particular idols and particular
temples. 1he hierophants attending these temples recei·ed rich oííerings írom
the de·otees and oíten there arose sanguinary conílicts among the worshippers
oí diííerent temples. But the celebrated temple oí the Kaaba at Mecca, the
Chapel oí Abraham and Ishmael, was considered sacred by all. 1he Jews and
Sabians sent oííerings there. 1he custody oí the Kaaba was the object oí great
jealousy among the tribes, as it coníerred on the custodians the most
honourable íunctions and pri·ileges. At the time oí the birth oí Mohammed
the custody oí the Kaaba was in the hands oí his íamily, the lashimites.
As íor the Christian religion at the ad·ent oí Mohammed, though it
ílourished and had a large number oí íollowers among the Arabs, its true and
pure doctrines were exceedingly and abominably corrupted.
Some oí the
Christians belie·ed the soul died with the body, and was to be raised again with
it on the last day. Others substituted the Virgin Mary íor God or worshipped
her as such. 1hese who belie·ed in the di·inity oí the Virgin Mary were named
the Mariamites.
1his conception is condemned in the Koran.
Re·iewing the religious aspect oí the Arabs beíore Islam, Sir \illiam Muir
says: Aíter íi·e centuries oí Christian L·angelization, we can point to put a
sprinkling here and there oí Christians, the Bau larith oí Najran, the Banu
laniía oí 1amama, some oí Banu 1ay oí 1ayma and hardly any more. Judaism,
·astly more poweríul had exhibited a spasmodic eííort oí proselytism under
Zul Nowas, but as an acti·e and con·erting agent, the Jewish íaith was no
longer operati·e. In íine, ·iewed thus in a religious aspect, the suríace oí Arabia
had been now and then gently rippled by the íeeble eííorts oí Christianity, the
sterner iníluences oí Judaism had been occasionally ·isible in deeper and more
troubled current írom e·ery quarter with an unbroken and unebbing surge
towards the Kaaba, ga·e ample e·idence that the íaith and worship oí Mecca
held the Arab mind in a thralldom ·igorous and undisputed.

T Th he ei ir r C Ch ha ar ra ac ct te er r a an nd d M Ma an nn ne er rs s
rabia during the pre-Islamic days was in ·ery low state oí ci·ilisation.
Awíul superstition and idolatry pre·ailed e·erywhere. Gross
licentiousness was indulged in. grimes oí iníanticide and human sacriíices were
common. 1he ·arious tribes were in constant and perpetual waríare with each
1he absence oí any stable go·ernment had led to the pre·alence oí
anarchism and criminal excesses. 1he whole peninsula was in a pitiíul state sí
chaos, sin, impurity and wickedness.
1he sacred the chapel oí antiquity erected
by their ancestor Abraham and Ishmael íor the worship oí the One God, the
Almighty, was con·erted into a temple containing o·er three hundred idols
representing superstitious gods and goddesses. 1he great and di·ine religions,
which the Prophets oí yore had brought down írom lea·en, had lost their

, Sale, Prelim. Disc.
, Lpiphon.
, Sir \illiam Muir: 1he Liíe oí Mohammad, Vol. 1, int.
, G. Sale.
, Abu leda. Ibn Athir. Sale, Muir etc.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

originality íidelity and purity. Opposition, persecution and e·en brutal íorce
were e·ery day`s occurrences. It seems that the reign oí Islam alone with its
teachings and morals was re·ealed at a time, when need íor guidance was most
íelt, as will be dealt with later in this book.

T Th he ei ir r A Ac cc co om mp pl li is sh hm me en nt ts s
he accomplishments the Arabs prided themsel·es on, were:-
,1, Lloquence and a períect skill in their own tongue, ,2, Lxpertness in
the use oí arms and horsemanship, and ,3, lospitality. 1he íirst they exercised
themsel·es in by composing orations and poems. 1heir orations were oí two
sorts, metrical and prosaic, the one being compared to pearls strung, and the
other to loose ones. 1hey endea·oured to excel in both and whoe·er was able,
in an assembly, to persuade the people to a great enterprise, or dissuade them
írom a dangerous one or ga·e them other wholesome ad·ice, was honoured
with the title oí Khateeb` or orator poetry was held in such great esteem
among them that was a great accomplishment and a prooí oí ingenious
extraction, to be able to express oneselí in ·erse with ease and elegance, on any
extraordinary occurrence and, e·en in their common discourse, they made
írequent applications to celebrated passages oí their íamous poets. In their
poems were preser·ed the historical e·ents, the rights oí tribes, the memory oí
great actions and the progress oí their language, íor which reason an excellent
poet reílected so great an honour on his tribe that, as soon as anyone began to
be admired íor his períormances oí this kind in a tribe, the other tribes sent
publicly to congratulate it on the occasion, and his own tribe made
entertainments at which the women assisted, dressed in their nuptial
ornaments, singing to the sound oí tambourines the happiness oí their tribe
who had now one to protect their honour, to preser·e their genealogies and the
purity oí their language, and to transmit their actions to posterity: íor this was
all períormed by their poems. 1hus they were solely indebted to their poems
íor knowledge and instructions, moral and economical, and to them they had
recourse, as to an oracle, in all doubts and diííerences. No wonder, then, that a
public congratulation was made on this account, which honour they yet were so
íar írom making cheap that they ne·er did it, except on one oí these three
occasions which were reckoned great points oí íelicity, to wit on the birth oí a
boy, the rise oí a poet and the íoal oí a she-camel oí a generous breed.
1o keep up emulation among their poets, the tribes had once a year a
general assembly at Okaaz, a place íamous on that account and where they held
a weekly íair. 1his annual meeting lasted a whole month, during which time
they employed themsel·es not only in trading, but also in repeating their
poetical compositions, contending and ·ying with each other íor the prize. 1he
poems that were judged to excel, were kept in their king`s treasuries and hung
on the Kaaba as were the se·en celebrated poems called Al-Moaallacat`.

As to the exercise oí arms and horseman-ship the Arabs were in a manner
obliged to practice and encourage this by reason oí the independence oí their

, Pocock.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
tribes, whose írequent quarrels made wars almost continual, and they usually
ended their disputes in pitched battle.

lospitality was so habitual to the Arabs, and so much esteemed, that the
examples oí this ·irtue among them exceed whate·er can be cited among other
nations. Nor were the Arabs less addicted to liberality aíter the coming oí their
Prophet than their ancestors had been.
Many remarkable instances oí this
commendable quality among them can be quoted. Sale in his Preliminary
discourse, aííixed to his 1ranslation oí the Koran has contented himselí with
reproducing the íollowing occurrence: 1hree men were disputing in the Court
oí the Kaaba, as to which was the most liberal person among the Arabs. One
ga·e the preíerence to Abdallah, the son oí Jaaíar, the uncle oí the Prophet
Mohammed, another to Kais Lbn Obadah, and the third ga·e it to Arabah, oí
the tribe oí Aws. Aíter much debate, one that was present, to end the dispute,
proposed that each oí them should go to his íriend and ask him íor assistance
that they might see what each one ga·e, and íorm a judgment accordingly. 1his
was agreed to, and Abdallah`s champion, going to him, íound him with his íoot
in the stirrup, just mounting his camel íor a journey, and thus accosted him:
Son oí the uncle oí the Apostle oí God, I am tra·eling and in necessity,` upon
which Abdallah alighted and bade him take the camel, with all that was upon it,
but desired him not to part with a sword which happened to be íixed to the
saddle, because it had belonged to Ali, the son oí Abu-1alib. So he took the
camel and íound on it some ·ests oí silk and 4000 pieces oí gold, but the thing
oí greatest ·alue was the sword. 1he second went to Kais Lbn Saad. \hose
ser·ant told him, that his master was asleep, and desired to know his business.
1he íriend answered that he came to ask kais`s assistance, being in want on the
road. \hereupon, the ser·ant said that he had rather supply his necessity than
wake his master, and ga·e him a purse oí ¯000 pieces oí gold, assuring him that
it was all the money then in the house. le also directed him to go to those who
had the charge oí the camels with a certain token, a camel and a sla·e and
return home with them. \hen Kais awoke and his ser·ant iníormed him oí
what he had done, he ga·e him his íreedom and asked him, why he did not call
him· lor`, said he, I would ha·e gi·en him more. 1he third man went to
Arabah and met him coming out oí his house to go to prayers and leaning on
two sal·es, because his eyesight íailed him. 1he íriend no sooner made known
his case than Arabah let go the sal·es, and, clapping his hands together, loudly
lamented his misíortune in ha·ing no money, but desired him to take the two
sla·es which the man reíuse to do, till Arabah protested, that ií he did not
accept them, he would gi·e them their íreedom and, lea·ing the sla·es, groped
his way along by the wall. On the return oí the disputants, judgment was
unanimously, and with great justice gi·en by all who where present, that Arabah
was the most generous oí the three.
Nor were these the only good qualities oí the Arabs. 1hey are commended
by ancient historians íor being most exact to their world
and íor being
respectíul to their senior, and they ha·e always been celebrated íor their

, Idem.
, Sale. Prelim. Disc.
, lerodotus.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
quickness oí apprehension and the ·i·acity oí their wit, especially those the

T Th he e B Br ra an nc ch he es s o of f K Kn no ow wl le ed dg ge e
C Cu ul lt ti iv va at te ed d b by y t th he e A Ar ra ab bs s B Be ef fo or re e
I Is sl la am m
he chieí branches oí knowledge the Arabs culti·ated beíore the rise oí
Islam, were their history and the genealogical descent oí íamilies such a
knowledge oí the stars as to be able to íoretell the changes oí weather, and the
interpretation oí dreams.

1hey used to pride themsel·es ·ery much on the nobility oí their íamilies
and so many disputes arose in respect oí this, that it is no way surprising that
took great pains in recording the genealogies oí their íamilies.
1heir knowledge oí the stars was procured through long experience and not
írom regular study oí astronomy.
1he stars or planets, by which they most
usually íorecast the weather, were called Al-Anwaa` or the houses oí the
moon`. 1hey are 28 in number and di·ide the Zodiac into as many parts,
through one oí which the moon passes e·ery night. As some oí them set in the
morning, other rise opposite to them, which happens e·ery thirteenth night and
írom their rising and setting, the Arabs by long experience obser·ed, what
change happened in the air, and at length came to ascribe to them di·ine
power, saying that their rain came írom such or such a star. 1his expression the
Prophet condemned, and he absolutely íorbade them to use it in the old sense,
unless they meant no more by it then that God has so ordained that, when the
moon was in such or such a house` or at the setting or rising oí such a star, it
should rain or be windy, or be hot or cold.

1he early Arabs, thereíore, seem to ha·e made no íurther progress in
astronomy, although they aíterwards culti·ated this science so successíully that
they were able to obser·e the iníluence oí stars on the weather, and to gi·e
them names, and it was only natural that they should do this, when we consider
their pastoral mode oí liíe, spent íor the greater part under the open sky.
names they ascribed to the stars, generally were connected with cattle or ílocks
and they were so nice in distinguishing them, that no language has so many
names íor stars and hea·enly bodies as Arabic, íor though they ha·e since
borrowed the names oí se·eral constellations írom the Greeks, yet íar greater
numbers are oí their own íinding and much more ancient, particularly those oí
the more conspicuous stars and those oí the lesser constellations which are
contained within the greater, and were not obser·ed or named by the Greeks.

, D.lerberlot.
, Al Shahristani.
, Abul larag.
, G. Sale. Prelim. Disc.
, Ibid.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
T Th he e C Ci it ty y o of f M Me ec cc ca a
ecca is the chieí city oí Arabia. It deri·es its wealth írom the
prodigious concourse oí people who assemble there yearly as
pilgrims írom all parts oí the world where Islam ílourishes. Ad·antage is taken
oí this to hold a great íair íor kind oí merchandise. 1he possession oí the
temple oí Kaaba ga·e Mecca special sanctity and predominance o·er all the
other cities oí the peninsula. 1he soil about Mecca is so barren that it produces
nothing but what grows in the desert. la·ing, thereíore, no corn or grain oí
their own growing, the Meccans are obliged to bring it írom other places, and
lashim, Mohammed`s great grandíather, then prince oí his tribe, in order to
secure adequate supply oí pro·isions íor his tribe, appointed two cara·ans to
set out yearly íor that purpose, the one in summer and the other in winter.
1hese cara·ans oí pur·eyors are reíerred to in the Koran. 1his Mecca írom
the earliest time was the center, not only oí the religious associations oí pagan
Arabia, but also oí its commercial acti·ity.

During the period prior to the birth oí Mohammed, the go·ernment oí
Mecca was an oligarchy composed oí the leading members oí the house oí
Kossat, the Prophet`s ancestor. 1he go·erning body consisted oí ten senators
who were styled Sheieís. 1hese decem·irs occupied the íirst place in the state,
and their oííices were hereditary in ía·oure oí the eldest member oí each
íamily. 1heir íunctions were: ,1, 1he guardianship oí the keys oí the temple oí
the Kaaba, ,2, 1he administration oí the water supplied by the wells in Mecca
and its neighbourhood, ,3, 1he ci·il and criminal magistracy, ,4, 1he control oí
íoreign aííairs, ,5, 1he custody oí the standard under which the nation
marched against its enemies, ,6, 1he administration oí the poor-tax deri·ed
írom the alms oí the nation and employed in pro·iding íood íor the poor
pilgrims, ,¯, 1he presidency oí the national assembly, ,8, 1he guardianship oí
the council chamber which oííice coníerred upon its holders the right oí
con·oking the assembly, ,9, 1he administration oí the public íinances and ,10,
1he guardianship oí the di·ining arrows, by which the judgment oí the gods
and goddesses was obtained. At the same time, it was an established custom
that the oldest member exercised the greatest iníluence, and bore the little oí
chieí and lord par excellence. At the time oí the Prophet, his uncle Abbas was
the senior member oí these Senators.

ohammed, literally, the highly praised, is the chieí name oí the great
Arabian Prophet and íounder oí the religion oí Islam, wrongly called
aíter him Mohammedanism. le was born at Mecca, the chieí town oí Arabia,
in the year 5¯0 A.D. le was the posthumous son oí Abdullah who belonged to
the íamily oí lashim, the noblest íamily oí the Koreish section oí the Arabian

, Sayed Amir Aly, 1he Spirit oí Islam`.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
race. lis grandíather Muttalib who was directly descended írom Ishmael held
the high oííice oí custodian oí the Kaaba, the common Pantheon oí pagan
Arabia and was ·irtual head oí the Mecca Commonwealth.
1he birth oí Mohammed is stated to ha·e been attended by many
remarkable portents.

Beíore the child completed the 6
year oí his age, his mother died and the
doubly orphaned Mohammed was under the charge oí his grandíather Abdul
Muttalib who took the most tender care oí him. But the old chieí died two
years aíterwards. On his deathbed he coníided to his son Abu 1alib the charge
oí the orphan. \hen Mohammed was twel·e years old, he accompanied his
uncle Abu 1alib on a mercantile journey to Syria and they proceeded as íar as
Busra. 1he journey lasted íor some months. It was at Busra that the Christian
monk Bahira met Mohammed and he is related to ha·e said to Abu 1alib
Return with this boy and guard him against the hatred oí the Jews, íor a great
career awaits with your nephew.` Aíter this tra·el, the youth oí Mohammed
seems to ha·e been passed une·entíully, but all authorities agree in ascribing to
him such correctness oí manners and purity oí morals as were rare among the
people oí Mecca. 1he íair character and the honourable bearing oí the
unobtrusi·e youth won the approbation oí the citizens oí Mecca, and by
common consent he recei·ed the title oí Al Amin`, the íaithíul.

In his early years, Mohammed was not íree írom the cares oí liíe. le had to
watch the ílocks oí his uncle, who like the rest oí the lashimites, had lost the
greater part oí his riches. lrom youth to manhood he led an almost solitary liíe.
1he lawlessness, riíe among the Meccans, the sudden outbursts oí causeless
and sanguinary quarrels among the tribes írequenting the íair oí Okaz ,the
Arabian Olympia,, the immorality and scepticism oí the Koreishites naturally
caused íeelings oí pity and sorrow in the heart oí the sensiti·e youth. Such were
to him scenes oí social misery and religious degradation characteristic oí a
depra·ed age.

\hen Mohammed was 25 years old, he tra·eled once more to Syria as the
íactor oí a noble and rich Koreishite window named Khadija, and ha·ing
pro·ed himselí íaithíul in the commercial interests oí that lady, was soon
rewarded with her hand in marriage. 1his marriage pro·ed íortunate and
singularly happy. Khadija was much the senior oí her husband, but in spite oí
the disparity oí age between them, the lo·ing heart oí a woman who was e·er
ready to console him in his despair and to keep ali·e within him the íeeble,
ílickering ílame oí hope when no man belie·ed in him- not e·en himselí and
the world appeared gloomy in his eyes.

1ill he reached the 30
year oí his age, Mohammed was almost a stranger to
the outside world. Since the death oí his grandíather, authority in Mecca was
di·ided among the ten senators who constituted the go·erning body oí the

, Ibn Athir, Ibn lisham etc.
, lugh`s Dictionary oí Islam, pp. 368 - 369.
, lugh`s Dictionary oí Islam

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Arabian Common-wealth. 1here was no such accord among them as to ensure
the saíety oí indi·idual rights and property. 1hough íamily relations aííorded
some degree oí protection to citizens, yet strangers were írequently exposed to
persecution and oppression. In many cases they were robbed, not only oí their
goods, but e·en oí their wi·es and daughters. At the instigation oí the íaithíul
Mohammed, an old league, called the lederation oí íudul`, i.e. ía·ours, was
re·i·ed with the object oí repressing lawlessness and deíending e·ery weak
indi·idual, whether Meccan or stranger, íree or sla·e, against any wrong or
oppression, to which he might be the ·ictim, within the territories oí Mecca.

\hen Mohammad reached the 35
year oí his age, he settled by his
judgment a gra·e dispute, which almost threatened to plunge the whole oí
Arabia into a íresh series oí her oít- recurring wars. In rebuilding the sacred
temple oí the Kaaba, in 605 A.D., the question arose as to who should ha·e the
honour oí raising the black stone, the most holy relic oí that temple, into its
proper place. Lach tribe claimed that honour. 1he senior citizen ad·ised the
disputants to accept íor their umpire in this diííiculty the man who would be
the íirst to enter írom a certain gate. 1he proposal was agreed upon, and the
íirst man who entered the gate, was Mohammad, 1he Ameen` Mohammed
ga·e them an ad·ice, which ser·ed to satisíy all the contending parties. le
ordered the stone to be placed on a piece oí cloth, and each tribe to share the
honour oí liíting it up, by taking hold oí a part oí the cloth. 1he stone was thus
deposited in its place, and the rebuilding oí the temple was completed without
íurther interruption.
It is related that, about this period, a certain Osman son
oí lowairith, supported by Byzantine hold, made an attempt to con·ert the
territory oí ligaz into a Roman dependency, but the attempt íailed, chieíly
through the instrumentality oí Mohammed.

1hese are nearly all the public acts related by historians, in which
Mohammed had taken part within the 15
years aíter his marriage with
Khadija. As íor his pri·ate liíe he is described to ha·e been e·er helpíul to the
needy and the helpless. lis uncle Abu 1alib had íallen into distress through his
endea·ours to maintain the old position oí his íamily, and Mohammed, being
rather rich at his time by his alliance with Khadija, tried to discharge part oí the
debt oí gratitude and obligation which he owed to his uncle, by undertaking the
bringing up and education oí his son Ali, and a year later he adopted Akil,
another oí his uncle`s sons.

Khadija had born Mohammed three sons and íour daughters, all oí the
males died in childhood, but in lo·ing Ali he íound much consolation.
About this time Mohammed set a good example oí humanity which created
a salutary eííect upon his people. lis wiíe Khadija, to gratiíy her husband,
made him a present oí a young sla·e, named Zaid son oí laritha` who had
been brought as a capti·e to Mecca and sold to Khadija. \hen laritha heard
that Mohammed possessed Zaid, he came to Mecca and oííered a large sum íor

, Sale
, Ibid.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
his ransom, whereupon Mohammed said, Let Zaid come hither, and ií he
chooses to go with you` addressing the boy`s íather, take him without ransom,
but ií it be his choice to stay with me, why should I not keep him· And Zaid,
being brought into Mohammed`s presence, declared that he would stay with his
master who treated him, as ií he were his only son. Mohammed no sooner
heard this, than he took Zaid by the hand and led him to the black stone oí
Kaaba where he public adopted him as his son and constituted him his heir, to
which the íather acquiesced, and he then returned home well satisíied.
lenceíorward Zaid was called the son oí Mohammed.

Mohammed was now approaching his 40
year and his mind was e·er
engaged in proíound contemplation and reílection. Beíore him lay his country,
bleeding and torn by íratricidal wars and intolerable dissensions, his people,
sunk in barbarism, addicted to the obser·ation oí rites and superstitions, were,
with all their desert ·irtues, lawless and cruel. lis two ·isits to Syria had opened
to him a scene oí unutterable moral and social desolation, ri·al creeds and sects
tearing each other to pieces, wrangling o·er the body oí the God they
pretended to worship carrying their hatred to the ·alleys and deserts oí lidjaz
and rending the townships oí Arabia with their quarrels and bitterness.

ir \illiam Muir, in his Liíe oí Mahomet` remarks: 1he idolatry and moral
debasement oí his people, pressed hea·ily upon him and the dim and
imperíect shadows oí Judaism and Christianity excited doubts without
satisíying them, and his mind was perplexed with uncertainty as to what was the
true religion.

Mohammed had been wont, íor years aíter his marriage, to seclude himselí
in a ca·e in Mount lira, a íew miles írom Mecca. 1o his ca·e he used to betake
himselí íor prayer and meditation, sometimes alone and at others with his
íamily. 1here he oíten spent whole nights in deep thought and proíound
communion with the unseen, yet all-per·ading God oí Uni·erse. It was during
one oí those retirements and in the still hours oí the night, when no human
sympathy was near, that Mohammed belie·ed that an angel came to him, to tell
him, that he was the Apostle oí God, sent to reclaim a íallen people to the
knowledge and ser·ice oí their God.

Renowned compliers oí authentic traditions oí Islam agree in the íallowing
account oí the íirst re·elations recei·ed by the Prophet:
It was in true dreams that Mohammed recei·ed the íirst re·elations. le
ne·er dreamt, but it came to pass as regularly as the dawn oí the day.`

, Sale.
, Sayed Ameer Ali.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Aíter this Mohammed continued to seclude himselí in the ca·e oí Mount
lira and to worship there day and night. le would, whene·er he wished,
return to his íamily at Mecca and then go back again, taking with him the
necessaries oí liíe. 1hus he continued to return to Khadija, írom time to time,
until one day the re·elation came down to him and the angel appeared to him
and said Read`, but as Mohammed was an illiterate man, ha·ing ne·er
recei·ed any instruction in reading or writing he said to the Angel: I am not a
reader`. 1he Angel took hold oí him and squeezed him as much as he could
bear, and then said again: Read`, and the Prophet said, I am not a reader.`
1hen the Angel again seized the Prophet and squeezed him íor the third time
and said: Read, in the name oí thy Lord who created, created man oí
congealed blood. Read thou íor thy Lord is the most Beneíicent, who hath
taught the use oí the pen, who taught man that which he knoweth not.` 1hen
the Prophet repeated the words with a trembling heart. And he returns to
Khadija ,namely írom Mount lira, and said: \rap me up, wrap me up`. And
he was wrapped up in a garment until his íear was dispelled. And he told
Khadija what had occurred, and that he was becoming either a soothsayer or
one smitten with madness. She replied: God íorbid. le will surely not let such
a thing happen. lor you speak the truth, you are íaithíul in trust, you bear the
aíílictions oí the people, you spend in good works what you gain in trade, you
are hospitable and you assist your íellowmen. la·e you seen aught terrible·`
Mohammed replied: \es`. And told her what he had seen. \hereupon
Khadija said Rejoice, O dear husband and be cheeríul. le, in \hose hands
stands Khadija`s liíe, bears witness to the truth oí this íact, that thou wilt be the
prophet to this people. 1hen she arose and went to her cousin \araqa, son oí
Nouíal, who was old and blind and who knew the scriptures oí the Jews and
Christians, and is stated to ha·e translated them into Arabic. \hen she told
him oí what she had heard, he cried out: loly! loly! loly! Verily, this is the
Namus ,the loly Spirit, who came to Moses. le will be the prophet oí his
people. 1ell him this and bid him be oí bra·e heart`. And when the two men
met subsequently in the street, the blind old student oí the Jewish and Christian
Scriptures spoke oí his íaith and trust. I swear by lim, in \hose hand
\araga`s liíe is,` said the old man, God has chosen thee to be the prophet oí
this people. 1hey will call thee a liar, they will persecute thee, they will banish
thee, and they will íight against thee. Oh, that I could li·e to those days. I
would íight íor thee. And he kissed him on his íorehead.

1he íirst ·ision was íollowed by a considerable period, during which
Mohammed suííered much mental depression. During this period, the
commentators state, the Prophet was seized with so much melancholy that he
wished to throw himselí when the Angel oí God recalled him to his duty to
mankind. 1he Angel spoke to the grie·ed heart oí hope and trust, oí the bright
íuture, when he should see the people oí the earth crowding into the one true
íaith. lis destiny was uníolded to him when, wrapt in proíound meditation,
melancholy and sad, he íelt himselí called by a ·oice írom hea·en to arise and
preach. O thou who art wrapped in thy mantle, rise and warn and gloriíy thy

, Ibn lisham, Ibn Ll Athir, Mishkat-ul-Massabeeh etc.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
And he arose and engaged himselí in the work to which he was called.
Khadija was the íirst to accept his mission. She was to belie·e in the re·elation,
to abandon the idolatry oí her people and to join him in purity oí heart in
oííering up prayers to the Almighty God.

t the beginning oí his mission, Mohammed, ,hereinaíter called the
Prophet,, opened his soul only to those who were attached to him and
tried to íree them írom the gross practices oí their íoreíathers. Aíter Khadija,
Ali his cousin, was the next disciple. 1he Prophet used oíten to go into the
desert around Mecca with his wiíe and young cousin, that they might together
oííer their heart-íelt thanks to the God oí all nations íor lis maniíold
blessings. Once they were surprised by Abu 1alib, the íather oí Ali. And he said
to the Prophet: O son oí my brother, what is this religion thou art íollowing·`
It is the religion oí God, oí lis Angels, oí lis Apostles and our ancestor
Abraham,` answered the Prophet. God has sent me to lis ser·ants, to direct
them towards the truth and thou, O my uncle, art the most worthy oí all. It is
meet that I should thus call upon thee and it is meet that thou shouldst accept
the truth and help in spreading it.` Son oí my brother,` replied Abu 1alib, I
cannot abjure the religion oí my íathers, but by the Supreme God, whilst I am
ali·e, non shall dare to injure thee.` 1hen turning towards Ali, his son, the
·enerable chieí asked what religion was his. O íather,` answered Ali, I
belie·ed in God and lis Prophet and go with him.` \ell my son` said Abu
1alib, le will not call thee to aught, sa·e what is good, whereíore thou art íree
to cling to him.`

Aíter Ali Zaid, Mohammed`s adopted son, become a con·ert to the new
íaith. le was íollowed by Abu Bakr, a leading member oí the Koreish tribe and
an honest wealthy merchant who enjoyed great consideration among his
compatriots. le was but two years younger than the Prophet. lis adoption oí
the new íaith was oí great moral eííect. Soon aíter, íi·e notables presented
themsel·es beíore the Prophet and accepted Islam. Se·eral proselytes also came
írom lower classes oí the Arabs to adopt the new religion. lor three weary long
years, the Prophet laboured ·ery quietly to deli·er his people írom the worship
oí idols. Polytheism was deeply rooted among the people. It oííered attractions,
which the new íaith in its purity did not possess. 1he Korieshites had personal
material interests in the old worship, and their prestige was dependent upon its
maintenance, the Prophet had to control with the idolatrous worship oí its
íollowers and to oppose the ruling oligarchy, which go·erned its destinies.

Aíter three years oí constant but quiet struggle, only thirty íollowers were
secured. An important change now occurred in the relations oí the Prophet
with the citizens oí Mecca. lis compatriots had begun to doubt his sanity,
thought him crazy or possessed by an e·il spirit. litherto he had preached

, Koran ¯4: 1-3

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
quietly and unobtrusi·ely. le now determined to appeal publicly to the
Meccans to abandon their idolatry. lor this he arranged a gathering on a
neighbouring hill, and there spoke to them oí their íolly in the sight oí God, in
oííering worship to pieces oí stone which they called their gods. le in·ited
them to abandon their old impious worship and adopt the íaith oí tore and trvtb
and ¡vrit,. le warned them oí the íate that had o·ertaken in the past, races
who had not heeded the preaching oí íormer prophets. But the gathering had
departed without listening to the warning gi·en to them by the Prophet. la·ing
thus íailed to induce his íellow-citizens to listen to him, he turned his attention
to the strangers arri·ing at the city on commerce or pilgrimage. But the
Koreishites made attempts to írustrate his eííorts. 1hey hastened themsel·es to
íirst meet the strangers on the diííerent routes, to warn them against holding
any communication with the Prophet whom they represented as a dangerous
magician. \hen the pilgrims or traders returned to their homes, they carried
with them the news oí the ad·ent oí the bold preacher who was in·iting the
Arabians loudly - at the risk oí his own liíe - to abandon the worship oí their
dear idols. Now the Prophet and his íollowers became subject to some
persecution and indignity. 1he hostile Koreishites pre·ented the Prophet írom
oííering his prayers at the sacred temple oí the Kaaba, they pursued him
where·er he went, they co·ered him and his disciples with dirt and íilth, when
engaged in their de·otions. 1hey scattered thorns in the places which he
írequented íor de·otion and meditation. Amidst all these trials the Prophet did
not wa·er. le was íull oí coníidence in his mission. On se·eral occasions he
was put in imminent danger oí losing his liíe.
At this time lamza, the
youngest son oí Abdul Muttalib adopted Islam. lamza was a man oí
distinguished bra·ery, an intrepid warrior, generous and true, whose heroism
earned íor him the title oí the Lion oí God.` le became a de·oted adherent
oí Islam and e·entually laid down his liíe in the cause.

1he Prophet continued his preachings to the Arabs in a most gentle and
reasonable manner. le called the nation, so accustomed to iniquity and wrong
doings, to abandon their abominations. In burning words, which excited the
hearts oí his hearers, he warned them oí the punishment, which God had
inílicted upon the ancient tribes oí Aad and 1hamud
who obstinately
disobeyed the teachings oí lis messengers to them. le adjured them by the
wonderíul sights oí nature, by the noon day brightness, by the night when it
spreads her ·eil, by the day when it appears in glory, to listen to his warning
beíore a similar destruction beíell them. le spoke to the day oí reckoning,
when their deeds in this world shall be weighed beíore the Lternal Judge, when
the children who had been buried ali·e shall be asked, íor what crime they were
put to death.

, Sir \illiam Muir`s Liíe oí Muhammed.
, Vide Book I oí this Volume
, It was the Custom oí heathen Arabs to bury their children ali·e írom íear oí want .
1his custom was íorbidden by the Koran : 1¯ :33.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

As the number oí belie·ers increased and the cause oí the Prophet was
strengthened by the con·ersion oí many poweríul citizens, the Prophet`s
preaching aroused a serious re·olutionary mo·ement. le condemned the idols
the Arabs worshipped and taught the unity oí God. 1he Koreishites were now
alarmed. 1heir power and prestige were at stake. 1hey were the custodians oí
the idols, which the Prophet had threatened to destroy, they were the ministers
oí the worship which he denounced, in íact their existence and li·ing wholly
depended upon the maintenance oí the old institutions. Again the tone oí the
Prophet in his teachings was intensely aevocratic. le taught that in the sight oí
his Lord all beings were equal, the only distinction, recongnised among them
being the weight oí their piety.
1he Koreishites would ha·e non-oí this
le·eling oí distinctions, as it reílected upon their long inherited pri·ileges.
Accordingly, they organized a system oí persecution in order to suppress the
mo·ement beíore it became íirmly established. 1hey decided that each íamily
should take upon itselí the task oí stamping out the new íaith on the spot. Lach
household tortured its own members or adherents or sla·es who were
supposed to ha·e connected themsel·es with the new religion. \ith the
exception oí the Prophet who was protected by Abu 1alib and his kinsmen,
Abu Bakr and a íew others who were either distinguished by their rank or
possessed some iníluence among the Koreishites, all other proselytes were
subjected to diííerent sorts oí torture. Some oí them were thrown into prison,
star·ed and then ílogged. 1he hill oí Ramada the place called Bata became thus
scenes oí cruel torture.

One day the Koreishites sought to approach the Prophet to induce him to
discontinue his teachings oí the new religion, which had sown discord among
their people. Otba, son oí Rabia, was delegated to see the Prophet and speak to
him. O son oí my brother,` said Otba on meeting the Prophet, \ou are
distinguished by your qualities, yet you ha·e sown discord among our people
and cast dissension in our íamilies, you denounced our gods and goddesses and
you charge our ancestors with impiety. Now we are come to make a
proposition to you and ask you to think well beíore you reject it.` I am
listening to you, O íather oí \alid` said the Prophet, O son oí my brother`,
began Otba, Ií by this aííair you intend to acquire riches, honour and dignity,
we are willing to collect íor you a íortune larger than is possessed by any one oí
us, we shall make you our chieí and will do naught without you, ií you desire
dominion we shall make you our king, and ií the demon which possesses you
cannot be subdued, we will bring you doctors and gi·e them riches till they cure
you. \hen Otba had íinished his discourse, the Prophet said: Now listen to
me, O íather oí \alid.` I listen,` he replied. 1he Prophet recited to him the
íirst eight ·erses oí the Koran which may be interpreted as íollows: In the
name oí Allah, the Beneíicent, the Merciíul, lere is a re·elation írom the
Merciíul, a book, the ·erses whereoí are distinctly, an Arabic Koran, íor the
instruction oí a people who understand, it is a herald oí good tidings and a
\arner, but most oí those who hear it, turn aside, so that they hear not, and

, Koran : 49 : 13.
, Sir \illiam Muir.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
they say ,to the Prophet,: our hearts are ·eiled írom the doctrine to which thou
in·itest us, and there is a hea·iness in our ears and a curtain hangs between us
and thee, whereíore act thou as thou shalt think íit, íor we shall act according
to our own sentiments. Say, ·erily I am only a mortal like you. It is re·ealed
unto me, that your God is One God, thereíore, take the right way to lim, and
ask lis íorgi·eness, and woe be to the idolaters, who gi·e not the appointed
alms and belie·e not in the liíe to come.
But as to those who belie·e and do
good, they shall recei·e an e·erlasting reward.`

\hen the Prophet had íinished his recitation, he said to Otba: 1his is my
reply to you proposition, now take what course you íind best.`

Persecution by the Koreishites grew íiercer and íiercer e·ery day and the
suííerings oí the Prophet`s disciples became unbearable. le had heard oí the
righteousness, tolerance and hospitality oí the neighbouring Christian king oí
Abyssiania. le recommended such oí his disciples who were without
protection, to seek reíuge in the kingdom oí that pious king, Al Nagashi
,Negus,. Some oí the unprotected adherents oí Islam, to the number oí 15,
promptly a·ailed themsel·es oí the ad·ice and sailed to Abyssinia. lere they
met with a ·ery kind reception írom the Negus. 1his is called the íirst ílight in
the history oí Islam and occurred in the 5
year oí the Prophet Mohammed`s
mission ,615 A.C,. 1hese emigrants were soon íollowed by many more oí their
íellow suííerers, until the number reached eighty-three men and eighteen

1he hostile Koreishites, íurious at the escape oí their ·ictims, sent deputies
to the king oí Abyssinia to request him to deli·er the reíugees, that they might
be put to death, as they had abjured their old religion and embraced a new one.
1he king summoned the poor íugiti·es and enquired oí them what was the
religion, which they had adopted, in preíerence to their old íaith. Jaaíar son oí
Aby 1alib and brother oí Ali acted as spokesman íor the exiles. le spoke thus:
O king, we were plunged in the depth oí ignorance and barbarism, we adored
idols, we li·ed in unchastely, we ate dead bodies and we spoke abominations,
we disregarded e·ery íeeling oí humanity and any sense oí duty towards our
neighbours, and we knew no law, but that oí the strong, when God raised
among us a man, oí whose birth, truthíulness, honesty and purity we were
aware, and he called us to proíess the unity oí God and taught us to associated
nothing with him, he íorbade us the worship oí idols and enjoined us to speak
the truth, to be íaithíul to our trusts, to be merciíul and to regard the rights oí
neighbourhood, he íorbade us to speak e·il oí women, or to eat the substance
oí orphans, he ordered us to íly írom ·ice and to abstain írom e·il, to oííer
prayers, to ga·e alms, to obser·e the íast. \e ha·e belie·ed in him, we ha·e
accepted his teachings and his injunctions to worship God alone and to

, 1he Arabs used to regard hospitality as a ·irtue, but alms-gi·ing was considered a
weakness among them. A luture liíe was generally considered a mere íable.
, Koran Chapter 41, 1-8
, Ibn lisham
, G. Sale.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
associated naught with lim. lence our people ha·e persecuted us, trying to
make us to íorego the worship oí God and return to the worship oí idols oí
wood and stone and other abominations. 1hey ha·e tortured us and injured us
until, íinding no saíety among them, we ha·e come to your kingdom, trusting
you will gi·e us protection against their persecution.

Aíter hearing the abo·e speech, the hospitable king ordered the deputies to
return to their people in saíety and not to interíere with their íugiti·es. 1hus
the emigrants passed the period oí exile in peace and comíort. \hilst the
íollowers oí the Prophet sought saíety in íoreign lands against the persecution
oí their people, he continued his warnings to the Koreishites more strenuously
than e·er. Again they came to him with oííers oí riches and honour which he
íirmly and utterly reíused. I am neither,` said the Prophet, desirous oí riches
nor ambitious oí dignity or dominion. I am a messenger oí God to gi·e you
good tidings and to admonish you. Ií you accept the message I bring you, God
will be ía·ourable to you, both in this world and in the next, ií you reject my
admonitions, I shall be patient and will let God judge between us`. But they
mocked at him and urged him íor miracles to pro·e his mission. God has not
sent me` he used to answer, to work wonders, he has sent me to preach to
you`. 1hus disclaiming all power oí wonder - working the Prophet e·er rested
the truth oí his di·ine mission upon his wise teachings. le addressed himselí to
the inner consciousness oí man to his common sense and to his own better
judgment. Listen`, he used to address them, I bring you a re·elation írom
the Beneíicent, the Merciíul God: a book oí which the ·erses are made plain,
an Arabic Koran íor a people who under-stand: a herald oí good news and a
warner, but most oí you turn aside, so you hear not`. On other occasions he
used to address the polytheists thus: I am only mortal like you, it is re·ealed to
me that your Deity is one thereíore worship lim alone and ask lis
íorgi·eness, and woe to those who associate íalse deities with the 1rue God.`
,Koran 4: IX,

Despite all the exhortations oí the Prophet, the Koreishities persisted in
asking him íor a sign. 1hey insisted that unless some sign be sent down to him
írom his Lord, they would not belie·e. \hy,` the iníidels used to ask, lad
not Mohammed been sent with miracles, like pre·ious prophets·` Because`,
replied the Prophet, miracles had pro·ed inadequate to con·ince. Noah had
been sent with signs, and with what eííect· \here was the lost tribe oí
1hamud· 1hey had reíused to recei·e the preaching oí the Prophet Saleh,
unless he showed them a sign and caused the rock to bring íorth a li·ing camel.
le did what they asked. In scorn they had cut the camel`s íeet and then daring
the prophet to íulíill his threats oí judgment, were íound dead in their beds
next morning, stricken by the angel oí the Lord.` 1here are some se·enteen
places in the Koran, in which the Arabian Prophet is challenged to work a sign
and he answers them all to the same or similar eííect: God has the power oí
working miracles, and had not been belie·ed, he who could not know e·en

, Ibn lisham.
, Koran XL1 : 1-4

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
himselí adequately could not know what God had hidden, that there were
greater miracles in nature than any which could be wrought outside oí it, that
the Koran itselí was a great, e·erlasting miracle`. 1he Koran, the Prophet used
to assert to the iníidels, is a book whose blessings shall be intercepted, a
warning íor the whole world, it is a collection oí all that is best in any other
religion and all that is best in sacred books, it is a complete guidance and
explains e·erything necessary, it is a reminder oí what is imprinted on human
nature and is íree írom e·ery discrepancy and írom error and íalsehood. It is a
book oí true guidance and light to all. Again when the Prophet was urged íor a
sign, he used to address the idolaters thus, O men, you are they who stand in
need oí Allah, and Allah is le \ho is Selí-suííicient, the Praised One, Ií le
please, le will take you oíí and bring a new generation. And this is not diííicult
íor lim to do. A burdened soul cannot bear the burden oí another.`
another instance the Prophet used to appeal to the unbelie·ers` sense oí
judgment by reciting to them other passages oí the \ord oí God. Surely Allah
is the knower oí what is unseen in the hea·ens and the earth, surely le is
Congnisant oí what is in all hearts. le, it is who made you íree creatures oí the
earth, thereíore whoe·er disbelie·es will bear the risk oí his unbelieí. 1hose
who remain unbelie·ers will gain nothing by their obstinacy, except the hatred
oí their Lord. la·e you considered your íalse deities whom you worship beside
God· Show me what thing on earth they ha·e created, or ha·e they any share in
the hea·en· Surely I am sent to you with truth, to bear you good news and gi·e
you warning, and there is not a people, but a warner írom God was sent to
them. Ií you gi·e the lie to my message, it is no wonder that you do so, other
nations beíore you ha·e also gi·en the lie to their respecti·e apostles, though
they brought them clear arguments, scripture and illuminating books.`
As to
Allah, the 1rue God, know ye that it is le \ho made íor you the night, that
you may rest therein, and the day to see, most surely Allah is Gracious to men
but most men, are ungrateíul. Allah, your Lord is the Creator oí e·ery thing,
there is no Deity but le, why are you then turned away· Allah is le who made
the earth a resting-place íor you and the hea·en and horizon, and le íormed
you, then made goodly your íorms, and le íurnished you with wholesome
pro·isions, that is Allah, your Lord, blessed then is Allah, the Lord oí the
\orlds. I am íorbidden to worship those idols whom you adore besides God,
because clear arguments ha·e come to me írom my Lord, and I am
commanded to submit to lim alone, the Lord oí the Uni·erse. le, it is \ho
created you írom dust, then írom a minute liíe germ, then írom a clot, then le
brings you íorth as a child, then le causes you to attain maturity and some oí
you may get old and some are caused to die young, so that all oí you will reach
a pre-appointed age. Do you now understand· Allah is le \ho gi·es liíe and
brings death, so when le decrees an aííair, le only says to it, Be and it is.`

, Koran chap. XXXV.
, Koran chap. XXXV.
, Koran chap. XI.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
s to the idols, so much honoured and esteemed by the pagan Arabs, the
Prophet openly declared that they are naught but empty names which
you ,the idolaters, and your íathers ha·e in·ented.`
lrom beginning to end the Prophet in all his recitations oí the Koran ne·er
spoke respectíully oí the in·ented gods or goddesses adopted by the heathen
Arabs. 1here is nothing in all the trustworthy sources oí Islam to coníirm the
allegations made by \estern biographers to the contrary.
\hen the Prophet thus spoke reproachíully oí the sacred gods oí the
Koreishites, the latter redoubled their persecution. But the Prophet
ne·ertheless, continued his preaching, undaunted by the hostility oí his
enemies, or by their bitter persecution oí him. And despite all opposition and
increased persecution the new íaith gained ground. 1he national íair at Okaz
near Mecca attracted many a wild Arab oí the desert and many a trading citizen
oí distant towns. 1hese listened to the teachings oí the Prophet, to his
admonitions and to his denunciations oí their sacred idols and oí their
superstitions. 1hey carried back all that they had heard to their distant homes
and thus the ad·ent oí the Arabian Prophet was made known to almost all
parts oí the Peninsula.

1he Meccans, howe·er, were more than e·er íurious at the Prophet`s
increasing preaching against their religion. 1hey asked his uncle Abu 1alib, to
stop him. But Abu 1alib could not do anything, except that he re-assured them.
At length, as the Prophet persisted in his ardent denunciations against their
ungodliness and impiety they turned him írom the Kaaba where he latterly used
to sit to preach and subsequently went in a body to Abu 1alib. 1hey urged the
old ·enerable chieí to pre·ent his nephew írom abusing their gods any longer
or uttering any ill words against their ancestors. 1hey warned Abu 1alib that ií
he would not do that he would be excluded írom the communication oí his
people and dri·en to side with Mohammed, and the matter would be settled by
íight, until one oí the two parties were exterminated.
Abu 1alib neither wished
to separate himselí írom his people, nor íorsake his nephew, íor the idolaters to
re·enge themsel·es upon. le spoke to the Prophet ·ery soítly and begged oí
him to abandon his aííair. 1o this suggestion the Prophet íirmly replied: O my
uncle, ií they placed the sun in my right had and the moon in my leít had to
cause me to renounce my task, ·erily I would not desist there írom, until God
made maniíest lis cause, or I perished in the attempt.
1he Prophet o·ercome
by the thought that his uncle and protector was willing to desert him, turned to
depart. But Abu 1alib called him loudly to come back, and he came. Say
whate·er thee pleasest, íor the Lord I shall not desert thee, nay, ne·er.` 1he
Koreishites again attempted in ·ain to cause Abu 1alib to abandon his nephew.
1he ·enerable chieí declared his intention to protect his nephew against any
menace or ·iolence. le appealed to the sense oí honour oí the two íamilies oí

, Abul lida, Ibn Athir:
, Sale, \. Muir, Abul lida etc.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
the sons oí lashim and the sons oí Muttalib, both íamilies being kinsmen oí
the Prophet, to protect their member írom íalling a ·ictim to the hatred oí ri·al
parties. All the members oí the two íamilies nobly responded to the appeal oí
Abu 1alib, except Abu Lahab one oí the Prophet`s uncles, who took part with
the persecutors.

At this period, Omar, son oí Khattab adopted Islam. In him the new íaith
gained a ·aluable adherent and an important íactor in the íuture de·elopment
and propagation oí Islam.
litherto Omar had been a ·iolent opposer oí the Prophet and a bitter
enemy oí Islam. lis con·ersion is said to ha·e been worked by the magic eííect
on his mind oí a chapter oí the Koran which his sister was reading in her
house, where he had gone with the intention oí killing her on account oí her
adoption oí Islam.
1he party oí the Prophet had been strengthened by the
con·ersion oí his uncle, lamza a man oí great ·alour and merit, and oí Abu
Bakr and Omar, both men oí great energy and reputation. 1he Moslems now
·entured to períorm their de·otions in public.
Alarmed at the bold part which the Prophet and his íollowers were now
able to assume, and roused by the return oí the deputies írom Abyssinia and
the announcement oí their unsuccessíul mission, the Koreishites determined to
check by a decisi·e blow any íurther progress oí Islam. 1owards this end, in the
se·enth year oí mission, they made a solemn league or co·enant against the
descendants oí lashim and Muttalib, engaging themsel·es to contract no
marriage with any oí them, and to ha·e no communication with them. Upon
this, the Koreishites became di·ided into two íactions, and the two íamilies oí
lashim and Muttalib all repaired to Abu 1alib as their chieí, except only Abu
Lahab the Prophet`s uncle, who, out oí his in·eterate hatred against his nephew
and his doctrine, went o·er to the opposite party whose chieí was Abu Soíian
Ibn larb, oí the íamily oí Omayia. 1he persecuted party, Moslems as well as
idolaters betook themsel·es to a deíile on the eastern skirts oí Mecca. 1hey
li·ed in this deíensi·e position íor three years the pro·isions which they had
carried with them, were soon exhausted. Probably they would ha·e entirely
perished, but íor the sympathy and occasional help they recei·ed írom less
bigoted compatriots.

1owards the beginning oí the tenth year oí the mission a reconciliation was
concluded between the Koreishites and the two íamilies oí lashim and Abdul
Muttalib through the intermediation oí lashim, son oí Amr, and Zobeir, son
oí Abu Omayia. 1hus, the alliance against the two íamilies was abolished, and
they were able to return to Mecca.
During the period the Prophet and his kins-people in their deíensi·e
position, Islam made no progress outside, but in the sacred months, when
·iolence was considered sacrilege, the Prophet used to come out oí his
temporary prison to preach Islam to the pilgrims. In the íollowing year, both
Abu 1alib and Khadija died. 1hus, the Prophet lost in Abu 1alib the kind
guardian oí his youth who had hitherto protected him against his enemies, and

, Ibn lisham, Sir \. Muir.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
in Khadija his most encouraging companion. She was e·er his angel oí hope
and consolation. 1he Prophet weighed down by the loss oí his amiable
protector and his belo·ed wiíe without hope oí turning the Koreishites írom
idolatry, with a saddened heart, yet íull oí trust, resol·ed to exercise his ministry
in some other íield, and he chose 1ayeí, a town about sixty miles east oí Mecca
whither he went accompanied by his íaithíul ser·ant Zaid. 1he tribe oí 1hakií,
who were the inhabitants oí 1ayeí, recei·ed Mohammed ·ery coldly. lowe·er,
he stayed thereíore one month. 1hough the more considerate and better sort oí
men treated him with a little respect, the sla·es and common people reíused to
listen to his teachings, they were outrageously indignant at his in·itation to
abandon the gods they worshipped with such íreedom oí morals and lightness
oí heart, at length they rose against him, and bringing him to the wall oí the
city, obliged him to depart and return to Mecca.

1his repulse greatly discouraged his íollowers, howe·er, the Prophet was
not wanting to himselí, but boldly continued to preach to the public assemblies
at the pilgrimage
, and gained se·eral new proselytes, among whom where six
oí the city oí \athrib oí the Jewish tribe oí Khazraj. \hen these \athribnites
returned home, they spread the news among their people that a prophet had
arisen among the Arabs who was to call them to God, and put an end to their
It was in the twelíth year oí his mission, that the prophet ga·e out that he
had made his night journey írom Mecca to Jerusalem, and thence to lea·en. all
that Moslems must belie·e respecting this journey is that the Prophet saw
himselí, in a ·ision, transported írom Mecca to Jerusalem, and that in such
·ision he really beheld some oí the greatest signs oí his Lord. lowe·er, se·eral
trustworthy traditions maintain that this journey, known in history as Miraj
,ascension,, was a miraculously real bodily one and not only a ·ision.

,An eminent writer, commenting on the ascension remarks, It may, I think,
be íairly asked, why Christians who belie·e in the boldly resurrection and bodily
ascension oí Jesus and oí Llijah should look upon those Moslems who belie·e
in the bodily ascension oí Mohammed as less rational than themsel·es·`,
In this year twel·e men oí \athrib, oí whom ten were oí the Jewish tribe oí
Khazraj and the other two oí Aws, came to Mecca, and took an oath oí íidelity
oí the Prophet at Akaba, a hill on the north oí that city. 1his oath was called
the women`s oath, not that any women were present at this time, but because a
man was not thereby obliged to take up arms in deíence oí the Prophet or his
religion, it being the same oath that was aíterwards exacted oí the women. 1his
oath was as íollows: \e will not associate anything with God, will not steal
nor commit adultery or íornication, nor kill our children ,as the pagan Arabs
used to do when they apprehended that they would not be able to maintain
them,, nor íorge calumnies, we will obey the Prophet in e·erything that is
reasonable, and we will be íaithíul to him in weal and sorrow.` \hen they had
solemnly engaged to do all this, the Prophet sent one oí his disciples, Massaab

, Sir \. Muir.
, Ibn lisham, Al 1abari, Ibn Athir etc.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Ibn Omair, home with them, to teach them the íundamental doctrines and
ceremonies oí the religion. Massaab, ha·ing arri·ed at \athrib, by the assistance
oí those who had been íormerly con·erted, gained se·eral proselytes,
particularly Osaid Ibn lodeira, a chieí man oí the city, and Saad Ibn Moaz,
prince oí the tribe oí Aws, Islam has now spread so íast, that there was scarcely
a house wherein there not some who had embraced it.

1he next year, being the thirteenth oí the mission ,622 A.D.,, Massaab
returned írom \athrib, accompanied by se·enty three men and two women oí
that city, who had adopted Islam besides other who were as yet unbelie·ers. On
their arri·al these \atheribites immediately sent to the Prophet and in·ited him
to their city. 1he Prophet was now in great need oí such an assistance, íor his
opponents had by this time grown so poweríul in Mecca, that he could not stay
there much longer without imminent danger. le, thereíore accepted their
proposal, and met them one night by appointment at Al-Akaba, mentioned
beíore, attended by his uncle Al-Abbas, who though he was not then a con·ert,
wished his nephew well. Al-Abbas made a speech to those oí \athrib wherein
he told them that, as the Prophet Mohammed was obliged to quit his nati·e city
and seek shelter elsewhere, and they had oííered him their protection, they
would do well not to decei·e, him, and that ií they were not íirmly resol·ed to
deíend and not to betray him, they had better declare their minds, and let him
pro·ide íor his saíety in some other manner. Upon their proíessing their
sincerity, the Prophet swore to be íaithíul to them, on condition that they
should worship none but God, obser·e the precepts oí Islam, obey the Prophet
in all that was right and protect him against all insults as heartily as they would
their wi·es and íamilies. 1hey then asked him what would be their return, ií
they should happen to be killed in the cause oí God, he answered: Paradise.`
\hereupon they pledged their íaith to him and to his cause. 1he Prophet then
selected twel·e men out oí their number to act as his delegates. 1hus was
concluded the second co·enant oí Al-Akaba. 1he \atheribites returned home,
lea·ing the Prophet to arrange íor his journey to their city. 1he Prophet
directed his íollowers to seek immediate saíety at \athrib, which they
accordingly did. About one hundred íamilies silently disappeared írom Mecca
and proceeded to \athrib, where they were recei·ed with enthusiasm and much
hospitality. All the disciples had gone to \athrib. 1he Prophet alone remained
at Mecca, keeping with him only his young cousin Ali, and his de·oted íriend,
old Abu Bakr.

1he Meccans, íearing the consequence oí this new alliance, began to think
seriously oí pre·enting Mohammed írom escaping to \athrib. 1hey met in all
haste at the town- hall. Aíter se·eral milder expedients had been rejected, they
decided, that he should be killed. 1hey agreed that one man should be chosen
out oí e·ery tribe íor the execution oí this design, and that each man should
strike a blow at him with his sword, so that the responsibility oí the guilt might
rest equally on all tribes, to whose united power the lashimites, Mohammed`s
own tribe were much iníerior, and thereíore would not be able to re·enge their
kinsman`s death. A number oí noble youths were selected íor the sanguinary
deed. As the night ad·anced, the assassins posted themsel·es round the

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Prophet`s dwelling. 1hey watched all night long, waiting to murder
Mohammed` when he should lea·e his house at the early down. By some
the Prophet had been warned oí the danger. In order to keep the
attention oí the assassins íixed upon the bed which they had been watching
through a hole in the door, the Prophet directed Ali to lie down in his place and
wrap himselí up in his green cloak, which he did whereas the Prophet
miraculously escaped through the window. le repaired to the house oí Abu
Bakr, unpercei·ed by the conspirators who had already assembled at the
Prophet`s door. 1hese, in the meantime looking through the cre·ice and seeing
Aly whom they mistook íor Mohammed` himselí asleep, continued watching
there till morning, when Aly arose, and they íound themsel·es decei·ed. 1he
íury oí the Koreishites was now unbounded. 1he news that they would be
assassins had returned unsuccessíul, and that Mohammed` had escaped
aroused their whole energy. A price oí a hundred camels was set upon
Mohammed`s head.

lrom Abu Bakr`s house the Prophet and he went to a ca·e in Mount 1hor,
to the south east oí Mecca, accompanied only by Abu Bakr`s ser·ant, and an
idolater whom they had hired íor a guide. In this ca·e they lay hidden íor three
days to a·oid the search oí their enemies whom they ·ery narrowly escaped. It
is related than aíter the Prophet and his companions entered, two pigeons laid
their eggs at the entrance, and a spider co·ered the mouth oí the ca·e with its
web which made the enemies look no íarther.
Abu Bakr, seeing the Prophet in
such imminent danger, became ·ery sorrowíul, whereupon the Prophet
comíorted him with these words, recorded in the Koran: Be not grie·ed, íor
God is with us.` 1heir persecutor ha·ing retired, they leít the ca·e and set out
íor \athrib by a bye-road. la·ing miraculously escaped some horsemen who
were sent to pursue them, the íugiti·es continued their journey, without
molestation. Aíter three day`s journey they reached the territories oí \athrib.
lere they were joined by Ali who had been se·erely maltreated by the idolaters
aíter their disappointment at Mohammed`s escape. 1he prophet and his
companions then proceeded to \athrib, attended by a great number oí his
disciples who met them at Koba. 1hey entered the city on the morning oí a
lriday, the 16
Rabi 1 ,corresponding to the 2
day oí July 622,. 1hus was
accomplished the lijrah, or the ílight oí Mohammed as called in Luropean
annals, írom which the Islamic calendar dates.

hen the Prophet Mohammed and his companions settled at \athrib, this
city changed its name, and henceíorth was called Al-Medianh Al-
Munawara,` the illuminated city, or more shortly Medina, the city. It is situated
about ele·en days journey to the north oí Mecca. At the time it was ruled by

, It is belie·ed that it was by inspiration that Mohammad was so warned, ·ide Ibn
lisham, Al \akidi, etc.
, Al \akidi, Ibn lisham, etc.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
two Kahtanite tribes, namely Aws and Khazraj. 1hese two tribes, howe·er,
were constantly quarrelling among themsel·es. It was only about the time when
the Prophet announced his mission at Mecca that these tribes, aíter long years
oí continuous waríare, entered on a period oí comparati·e peace. \hen the
Prophet settled at Medina, the tribes oí Aws and Khazraj íorgetting entirely
their old íeuds were united together in the bond oí Islam. 1heir old di·isions
were soon eííaced, and the Ansar`, the helpers oí the Prophet, became the
common designation oí all Medinites who had helped the Prophet in his cause.
1hose who emigrated with him írom Mecca recei·ed the title oí Muhajereen`
or the emigrants`. 1he Prophet, in order to unite both classes in closer bonds,
established between them a brotherhood, which linked them together as
children the same parents, with the Prophet as their guardian.

1he íirst step the Prophet took, aíter his settlement at Medina, was to build
a mosque íor the worship oí God, according to principles oí Islam. Also
houses íor the accommodation oí the emigrants were soon erected.
Medina and its suburbs being at this time inhabited by three distinct parties,
the Lmigrants, the lelpers and the Jews, the Prophet in order to weld them
together into an orderly íederation, granted a charter to the people clearly
deíining their rights and obligations. 1his charter represented the íramework oí
the íirst Commonwealth organised by the Prophet, and dwelt chieí on íreedom
oí conscience. It started thus: In the name oí the most Merciíul and
Compassionate God, this Charter is gi·en by Mohammed. 1he Apostle oí God,
to all belie·ers, whether oí Koreish or Medina, and all indi·iduals oí whate·er
origin who ha·e made common cause with them, who shall all constitute one
nation.`. 1he íollowing are some extracts írom the Charter: 1he state oí peace
and war shall be common to all Moslems, no one among them shall ha·e the
right oí concluding peace with, or declaring war against, the enemies oí his co-
religionists. 1he Jews who attach themsel·es to our Commonwealth, shall be
protected írom all insults and ·exations, they an equal right with our own
people, to our assistance and good oííices, the Jews oí the ·arious branches,
and all others domiciled in Medina shall íorm with the Moslems one composite
nation, they shall practice their religion as íreely as the Moslems. 1he allies oí
the Jews shall enjoy the same security and íreedom. 1he guilty shall be pursued
and punished. 1he Jews shall join the Moslems in deíending Medina against all
enemies. 1he internal oí Median shall be a sacred place íor all who accept this
charter. All true Moslems shall hold in abhorrence e·ery man guilty oí crime,
injustice or disorder, no one shall uphold the culpable, though he be his nearest

Aíter dealing with the interior management oí the State, the charter
concluded as íollows: All íuture disputes arising among those who accept this
charter, shall be reíerred, under God, to the Prophet.`

, Sir \. Muir G. Sale.
, Sir \. Muir G. Sale.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

1hus this charter put an end to the state oí anarchy that pre·ailed among
the Arabs. It constituted the Prophet Mohammed as chieí magistrate oí the
nation. 1he party oí the Ansars or helpers, included some lukewarm con·erts
who retained an ill-concealed predilection íor idolatry. 1hese were headed by
Abdullah Ibn Obay, a man with some claims to distinction. 1hey ostensibly
joined Islam, but in secret were disaííected. 1hey oíten were a source oí
considerable danger to the new - born Commonwealth and required unceasing
watchíulness on the part oí the Prophet. 1owards them he always showed the
greatest patience and íorbearance, hoping in the end to win them o·er to the
íaith, which expectations were íully justiíied by the result. \ith the death oí
Abdullah Ibn Obay, his party which were known as the party oí the
Munaíiquin` ,the hypocrites, disappeared.

1he Jews who constituted the third party oí the Medinites were howe·er,
the most serious element oí danger. No kindness or generous treatment, on the
part oí the Prophet, would seem to satisíy them. 1hey soon broke oíí, and
ranged themsel·es with the enemies oí the new íaith. 1hey did not hesitate to
declare openly, that they preíerred idolatry, with its attendant e·ils, to the íaith
oí Islam. 1hus, the Prophet had to keep an eye on his enemies outside Medina,
on the one hand and those within the city on the other. 1he Meccans, who had
sworn Mohammed`s death, were well acquainted, thanks to the party oí the
lypocrites and oí the Jews at Medina, with the real íorces oí Moslems. 1hey
also knew that the Jews had accepted Mohammed`s alliance only írom moti·es
oí temporary expendiency, and that they would break away írom him to join
the idolaters, as soon as the latter showed themsel·es in the ·icinity oí Medina.
1he saíety oí the State required the proscription oí the traitors who were
executed íor high treason oí this nature.

1owards the second year oí the lijrah`, the iníidels oí Mecca began a
series oí hostile acts against the Moslems oí Medina. 1hey sent men in parties,
to commit depredations on the íruit-trees oí the Moslems oí Medina and to
carry away their ílocks. Now came the moment oí se·erest trail to Islam. It
became the duty oí the Prophet, to take serious measures to guard against any
plot rising írom within or a sudden attack írom without. le put Medina in a
state oí military discipline. le had to send írequent reconnoitering parties, to
guard against any sudden onslaught. No sooner did the Prophet organize his
state, than a large well- equipped army oí the Meccans was a-íield. A íorce
consisting oí one thousand men, marched under Abu Gahl, a great enemy oí
Islam, towards Medina, to attack the city. 1he Moslems recei·ed timely notice
oí their enemies` intention. A body oí three hundred adherents, oí whom two
thirds were citizens oí Medina, were gathered, to íorestall the idolaters by
occupying the ·alley oí Badr, situated near the sea between Mecca and Medina.
\hen the Prophet saw the army oí the iníidels approaching the ·alley, he
prayed that the little band oí Moslems might not be destroyed.
1he army oí the Meccans ad·anced into the open space which separated the
Moslems írom the idolaters. According to Arab usage, the battle was begun by
single combats. 1he engagement then became general. 1he result old the battle
was, that the Meccans were dri·en back with great loss. Se·eral oí their chieís

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
were slain, and Abu Gahl íell a ·ictim. A large number oí idolaters remained
prisoners in the hands oí the Moslems. 1hey were, contrary to all usage and
traditions oí the Arabs, treated with the greatest humanity. 1he Prophet ga·e
strict orders, that sympathy should be shown them in their misíortune, and that
they should be treated with kindness.
1hese instructions were íaith-íully
obeyed by the Moslems, to whose care the prisoners were coníided. Dealing
with this e·ent, Sir \illiam Muir quotes one oí the prisoners saying: Blessing
be on the men oí Medina: they made us ride, while they themsel·es walked,
they ga·e us wheaten bread to eat, when here was little oí it, contenting
themsel·es with dates.

1he remarkable circumstances, which led to the ·ictory oí Badr, and the
results, which íollowed it, made a deep impression on the minds oí the
Moslems. 1hey íirmly belie·ed that the angels oí hea·en had battled on their
side against their enemies. 1he di·ision oí the spoils created some dissension
between the Moslem warriors. lor the moment the Prophet di·ided it equally
amongst all. Subsequently, a Koran re·elation laid down a rule íor íuture
di·ision oí the spoils. According to this rule, a íiíth was reser·ed íor the public
treasury íor the support oí the poor and indigent, and the distribution oí the
remaining íour íiíths was leít to the discretion oí the Chieí oí the State.

1he next battle between the Koreishites and the Moslems, was the battle oí
Ohod, a hill about íour miles to the north oí Medina. 1he idolaters, to re·enge
their loss at Badr, made tremendous preparations, íor a new attack upon the
Moslems. 1he next year, they collected an army 3000 strong, oí whom ¯00
were armed with coats oí mail, and 200 horses. 1hese íorces ad·anced under
the command oí Abu Soíian, and encamped at a ·illage, six miles írom Medina,
where they ga·e themsel·es up to spoiling the íields and ílocks oí the
Medinites. 1he Prophet being much iníerior to his enemies in number, at íirst
determined to keep himselí within the town and recei·e them there, but
aíterwards, the ad·ice oí some oí his companions pre·ailing, he marched out
against them, at the head oí 1000 men, oí whom 100 were armed with coats oí
mail: but he had no more than one horse, besides his own, in his whole army.
\ith these íorces he halted at Mount Ohod. le was soon abandoned by
Abdullah Ibn Obay, the leader oí the lypocrites, with 300 oí his íollowers.
1hus, the small íorce oí the Prophet was reduced to ¯00. At Mount Ohod the
Moslem troops passed the night, and in the morning, aíter oííering their
prayers, they ad·anced into the plain. 1he Prophet contri·ed to ha·e the hill at
his back, and the better to secure his men írom being surrounded, he placed
íiíty archers on the height in the rear, behind the troops and ga·e them strict
orders, not to lea·e their posts whate·er might happen. \hen they came to
engage, the Prophet had superiority at íirst, but aíterward, through the íault oí
his archers, who leít their position íor the sake oí plunder, and suííered the
enemies horsemen to surround the Moslems and to attack them in the rear, he
lost the day, and was ·ery near losing his liíe. le was struck down by a shower

, Al \akidi, Ibn lisham, Ibn Athir, etc.
, Sir \illiam. Muir: 1he Liíe oí Mohamed

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
oí stones, and wounded in the íace by two arrows, and one oí his íront teeth
was broken. Oí the Moslems ¯0 men were killed, among whom was lamza the
Prophet`s uncle, oí the iníidels 22 men were lost.

1he Koreishites were too exhausted to íollow up their ad·antage, either by
attacking Medina or by dri·ing the Moslems írom the heights oí Ohod. 1hey
retreated írom the Medinite territories, aíter barbarously mutilating the corpses
oí their dead enemies.
1he moral eííect oí this disastrous battle was such as to encourage some
neighboring nomad tribes, to make íorays upon the Medinite territories, but
most oí these were repressed.
1he Jews also were not slow to in·ol·e in trouble the Prophet and his
íollowers. 1hey tried to create disaííection among his people, and libelled him
and his adherents. 1hey mispronounced the words oí the Koran, so to gi·e
them an oííensi·e meaning. 1hey also caused their poets who were superior in
culture and intelligence, to use their iníluence to sow sedition among the
Moslems. One oí their distinguished poets, called Kaaba, oí the tribe oí
Nadeer, spared no eííorts in publicly deploring the ill-success oí the idolaters,
aíter their deíeat at Badr. By his satires against the Prophet and his disciples,
and his elegies on the Meccans who had íallen at Badr, he succeeded in exciting
the Koreishites to that írenzy oí ·engeance which broke out at Ohod. le then
returned to Medina, where he continued to attack the Prophet and the
Moslems, men and women, in terms oí the most obscene character. 1hough he
belonged to the tribe oí Nadeer, which had entered into the compact with the
Moslems and pledged itselí both íor the internal and external saíety oí the
State, he openly directed his acts against the Commonwealth oí which he was a
member. Another Jew Sallam by name oí the same tribe, beha·e equally íiercely
and bitterly the Moslems, as did Kaaba. le li·ed with a party oí his tribe at
Khaibar, a ·illage íi·e day`s journey north-west oí Medina. le made e·ery
eííort to excite the neighbouring Arab tribes against the Moslems. 1he Moslem
Commonwealth with the object oí securing saíety among the community,
passed a sentence oí outlawry upon Kaab and Sallam. 1he members oí another
Jewish tribe, namely Bani Quaynouqa, were sentenced to expulsion írom the
Medinite territory, íor ha·ing openly and knowingly iníringed the terms oí the
compact. It was necessary to put an end to their hostile actions, íor the sake oí
maintaining peace and security. 1he Prophet had to go to their head-quarters,
where he required them to enter deíiniti·ely into the Moslem Commonwealth
by embracing Islam. Or to lea·e Medina. 1o this they replied in the most
oííensi·e terms, 1hou hast had a quarrel with men, ignorant oí the art oí war.
Ií thou art desirous oí ha·ing any dealings with us, we shall show thee that we
are men.`
1hey then shut themsel·es up in their íortress and set the Prophet
and his authority at deíiance. 1he Moslems decided to reduce them, and siege
was accordingly laid to their íortress without loss oí time. Aíter íiíteen days
they surrendered. 1hough the Moslems at íirst intended to inílict some ser·er
punishment on them, they contented themsel·es with banishing the Bani

, Ibn lisham
, Ibn lisham., Ibn Athir.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Quaynouqa. 1he tribe oí Nadeer had now beha·ed in the same way as
Quaynouqa. 1hey had likewise, knowingly and publicly, disregarded the terms
oí the Charter. 1he Prophet sent them a message similar to that which was sent
to their brethren, the Quaynouqa. 1hey, relying on the assistance oí the
lypocrites` party, returned a deíiant reply. Aíter a siege oí íiíteen days, they
sued íor terms. 1he Moslems renewed their pre·ious oííer, and the Jews oí
Nadeer chose to e·acuate Medina. 1hey were allowed to take with them all
their mo·able property, with the exception oí their arms. Beíore lea·ing
Medina, they destroyed all their dwellings, in order to pre·ent the Moslems
írom occupying them.
1heir immo·able property, warlike material, etc, which
they could not carry away with them, were distributed by the Prophet, with the
consent oí the lelpers among the Reíugees. A principle was henceíorth
adopted that any acquisition, not made in actual waríare, should belong to the
state, and that its disposal should be leít to the discretion oí the ruling

Certain prejudiced \estern historians wrongly accused the Moslems oí
ha·ing treated these Jews oí Nadeer with the utmost cruelty. lor instance Dr.
prideaux in his Liíe oí Mahamet`, íalsely charged them with o·ertaking the
Jews who íled to Syria and putting them all to death.
G. Sale has already sa·ed us the Moslems` the trouble oí reíuting such
erroneous statements.
1he expulsion oí the Nadeers took place in the íourth year oí the lijra`.
1he remaining portion oí this year, and the early part oí the next were passed in
repressing the hostile attempts oí the nomadic tribes against the Moslems and
inílicting punishment íor ·arious murderous íorays on the Medinite territories.
Oí this nature was the expedition against the Christian Arabs oí Dumat el
Gandal, ,a place about se·en day`s journey to the south oí Damascus, who had
stopped the Medinite traííic with Syria, and e·en threatened a raid upon
Medina, these marauders, howe·er, íled on the approach oí the Moslems, and
the Prophet returned to Medina, aíter concluding a treaty with a neighbouring
chieí, to whom he granted permission oí pasturage in the Medinite territories.

In the same year, the enemies oí Islam made e·ery possible attempt to stir
up the tribes against the Moslems. 1he Jews also took an acti·e, ií hidden, part
in those intrigues. An army oí ten thousand men, well equipped, marched
towards Medina, under the command oí Abu Soíian. 1hey encamped near
Mount Ohod, a íew miles írom the city. 1he Moslems could gather only a
much smaller army oí three thousand men. Seeing their iníeriority in numbers
on the one hand, and the turbulence oí the lypocrites within the town on the
other, they preíerred to remain on the deíensi·e. 1hey dug a deep moat round
the unprotected quarters oí Medina and encamped outside the city with a
trench in íront oí them. 1hey relied íor saíety oí the other side upon their
allies, the Koraiza, who possessed se·eral íortresses at a short distance towards

, Ibn lisham., Ibn Athir.
, Vide Droits Musulman` by M. Querry, p. 33¯,
, C. de Perce·al, Vol. III, 1abari, Vol. III.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
the south and were bound by the compact to assist the Moslems against any
raiders. 1hese Jews, howe·er, were induced by the idolaters to ·iolate their
pledge and to join the Koreishites. As these Jews were acquainted with the
locality and could materially assist the raiders, and as, on the other hand the
lypocrites within the walls oí the city were waiting íor an opportunity to play
their part, the situation oí the Moslems was most dangerous. 1he siege had
already lasted íor twenty days. 1he enemy made great eííorts to cross the
trench, but e·ery attempt was íiercely repulsed by the small Moslem íorce.
Disunion was now riíe in the midst oí the besieging army. 1heir horses were
perishing íast, and pro·isions were becoming less e·ery day. During the night-
time a storm oí wind and rain caused their tents to be o·erthrown and their
lights extinguished. Abu Soíian and the majority oí his army íled away and the
rest took reíuge with the Qoraiza.
1he Moslems, though they were satisíied
with the íailure oí their enemies, could not help thinking that the ·ictory was
unsatisíactory so long as the Qoraiza, who had ·iolated their sworn pledge,
remained so near. 1he Jews might at any time surprise Medina írom their side.
1he Moslems íelt it their duty to demand an explanation oí the ·iolation oí the
pledge. 1his was utterly reíused. Consequently the Jews were besieged, and
compelled to surrender at discretion. 1hey only asked that their punishment
should be leít to the judgment oí Saad Ibn Moaz, the prince oí the tribe oí
Aws. 1his chieí who was a íierce soldier, had been wounded in the attack and
indeed died oí his wounds the íollowing day. Iníuriated by the treacherous
conduct oí the Bani Qoraiza, he ga·e judgment that the íighting men should be
put to death, and that the women and children should become the sla·es oí the
Moslems. 1he sentence was carried into execution.

Commenting on the harshness oí the sentence, Mr. Stanley Lane Poole in
the introduction oí his Selections írom the Koran` writes as íollows: It was a
harsh, bloody sentence, worthy oí the Lpiscopal generals oí the army against
the Albigenses, or oí the deeds oí the Augustan age oí Puritanism, but it must
be remembered that the crime oí these men was high treason against the State
during time oí siege, and those who ha·e read how \ellington`s march could
be traced by the bodies oí the deserters and pillagers hanging írom the trees,
need not be surprised at the summary execution oí a traitorous clan.`

It was about this time that the Prophet granted to the monks oí the
monastery oí St. Catherine, near mount Sinai his liberal Charter by which they
secured íor the Christians noble and generous pri·ileges and immunities. le
undertook himselí, and enjoined his íollowers, to protect the Christians, to
deíend their churches and the residence oí their priests and to guard them írom
all injuries. 1hey were not to be uníairly taxed: no bishop was to be dri·en out
írom his dioceses, no Christian was to be íorced to reject his religion, no monk
was to be expelled írom his monastery, no pilgrim was to be stopped írom his
pilgrimage, nor were the Christian churches to be pulled down íor the sake
building mosques or houses íor the Moslems. Christian women married to

, Ibn el Athir, Ibn lisham, etc.
, Vide Stanley Lane Poole, Selections írom the Koran.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Moslems were to enjoy their own religion, and not to be subjected to
compulsion or annoyance oí any kind. No Christian resident among the
Moslems should be treated with contempt on account oí his creed. 1he
Prophet declared that any Moslem ·iolating any clause oí the Charter should be
regarded as a transgressor oí God`s Commandments, a ·iolator oí lis
1estament and neglectíul oí lis íaith.

ix years had already elapsed since the Prophet and his Meccan íollowers
íled írom their birthplace. 1heir hearts began to year íor their homes and
íor their temple oí the Kaaba. 1he season oí the pilgrimage approached. 1he
Prophet announced his intention to ·isit he holy centre. Numerous ·oices oí
his disciples responded to the call. Preparations were soon made íor the
journey to Mecca. 1he Prophet accompanied by se·en or eight hundred
Moslems, reíugees and helpers, all totally unarmed, set out on the pilgrimage.
1he Koreishites who were still íull oí animosity towards the Moslems gathered
a large army to pre·ent the true belie·ers írom entering Mecca. 1hey maltreated
the en·oy whom the Prophet had sent to ask their permission to ·isit the holy
places. Aíter much diííicultly a treaty was concluded by which it was agreed
that all hostilities should cease íor ten years` that any one coming írom the
Koreishites to the Prophet without the permission oí the guardian or chieí,
should be gi·en back to the idolaters, that any Moslem persons going o·er to
the Meccans should not be surrendered, that any tribe desirous oí entering into
alliance, either with the Koreishites or with the Moslems should be at liberty to
do so without disputes, that the Moslems should go back to Medina on the
present occasion and stop ad·ancing íurther, that they should be permitted in
the íollowing year to ·isit Mecca, and to remain thereíore three days with the
arms they used on journeys, namely, their scimitars in sheaths.

1he treaty thus ended, the Prophet returned with his people to Medina.

About this time it was re·ealed to the Prophet that his mission should be
le dispatched se·eral en·oys to in·ite the neighbouring so·ereigns
to Islam. 1he embassy to the king oí Persia. Chosroes Par·is, was recei·ed with
disdain and contumely. le was haughtily amazed at the boldness oí the Meccan
íugiti·e in addressing him on terms oí equality. le was so enraged that he tore
into pieces the Prophet`s letter oí in·itation to Islam and dismissed the en·oy
írom his presence with great contempt. \hen the Prophet recei·ed
iníormation oí this treatment, he calmly obser·ed, 1hus will the empire oí
Chosroes be torn to pieces.`

, Abul leda, Ibn Athir, Al \akidi etc.
, 1hat is without íulíilling their proposed pilgrimage.
, Koran Chap. VII.
, Ibn lisham, Vol. VII.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
1he embassy to leraclius, the Lmperor oí the Romans was recei·ed much
more politely and re·erentially. le treated the ambassador with great respect
and sent the Prophet a gracious reply to his message.
Another en·oy was sent to an Arab prince oí the Ghassanite tribe a
Christian íeudatory oí leraclius. 1his prince instead oí recei·ing the en·oy
with any respect cruelly murder him. 1his act caused great consternation among
the Moslems who considered it as an outrage oí international obligations.
In the same year the Jews oí Khaibar, a strongly íortiíied territory at a
distance oí íour days` journey írom Medina, showed implacable hatred towards
the Moslems. Se·eral branches oí the Nadeer` and Qoraiza` took reíuge at
Khaibar which contributed to increase the íeeling oí animosity on the part oí
their brethren towards the Prophet and his íollowers. United by alliance with
the tribe oí Ghatían` as well as with other cognate tribes, the Jews oí Khaibar
made serious attempts to íorm a coalition against the Moslems. 1he Prophet
and his adherents were apprised oí this mo·ement. Immediate measures had to
be taken in order to repress any new attack upon Medina. An expedition oí
1400 men was soon prepared to march against Khaibar. 1he allies oí the Jews
leít them to íace the war with the Moslems all alone. 1he Jews íirmly resisted
the attacks oí the Moslems but e·entually all their íortresses had to be
surrendered, one aíter the other to their enemies. 1hey prayed íor íorgi·eness,
which was accorded them on certain conditions. 1heir lands and immo·able
property were secured to them, together with the íree practice oí their religion.

Aíter subduing Khaibar, the Moslems returned to Medina in saíety. Beíore
the end oí the year, it being the se·enth year oí the lijra, the Prophet and his
adherents a·ailed themsel·es oí their armistice with the Koreishites to
accomplish their desire oí ·isiting the holy Kaaba. 1he Prophet accompanied
by 2000 Moslems went on his journey to Mecca to períorm the rites oí
pilgrimage. On this occasion the Koreishites e·acuated the city during the three
days on which the ceremonies lasted.
Muir in his Liíe oí Mohammed Vol III. Comments on the incident as
íollows: It was surely a strange sight which at this time presented itselí at the
·ale oí Mecca, a sight vviqve iv tbe bi.tor, of tbe rorta. 1he ancient city is íor three
days e·acuated by all its inhabitants, high and low, e·ery house deserted, and, as
they retire, the exiled con·erts, many years banished írom their birth-place,
approach in a great body accompanied by their allies, re·isit the empty homes
oí their childhood, and within the short allotted space, íulíill the rites oí
pilgrimage. 1he outside inhabitants, climbing the heights around take reíuge
under tents or other shelter among the hills and glens, and clustering on the
o·erhanging peak oí Abu Quebeis, thence watch the mo·ements oí the ·isitors
beneath, as with the Prophet at their head, they make the circuit oí the Kaaba
and the procession between Ls-saía and Marwah, and anxiously scan e·ery
íigure, ií perchance they may recognise among the worshippers some long-lost
íriend or relati·e. ít ra. a .ceve revaerea ¡o..ibte ovt, b, tbe tbroe. rbicb gare birtb
to í.tav.

, Ibn Athir, Ibn lisham, Caussin de Perce·al, etc.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
In accordance with the terms oí the treaty, the Moslems leít Mecca at the
end oí three days` ·isit. 1his peaceíul ·isit was íollowed by important
con·ersions among the Koreishites. Khaled Ibn el-\alid, known as the Sword
oí God, who, beíore this, had been a bitter enemy oí Islam and who
commanded the Koreishites Ca·alry at Ohod, and Amr Ibn el-Aas, another
important character and warrior adopted the new íaith.
\hen the Prophet and his íollowers returned to Medina, they arranged an
expedition to exact retribution írom the Ghassnite Prince who killed the
Moslem en·oy. A íorce oí 3000 men, under the Prophet`s adopted son Zaid
was sent to take reparation írom the oííending tribe, Khaled Ibn el-\alid was
one oí the generals chosen íor the expedition. \hen they reached the
neighbourhood oí Muta, a ·illage to the south-east oí the Dead Sea, they met
an o·erwhelming íorce oí Arabs and Romans who were assembled to oppose
them. 1he Moslems, howe·er, resol·ed resolutely to push íorward. 1heir
courage was oí no a·ail and they suííered great losses. In this battle Zaid and
Jaaíar, a cousin oí the Prophet and se·eral other notables were killed. Khaled
Ibn el-\alid, by a series oí manoeu·res, succeeded in drawing oíí the army,
and conducting it without íurther losses to Medina. A month later howe·er,
Amr Ibn el-Aas marched unopposed through the lands oí the hostile tribes,
recei·ed their submission and restored the prestige oí Islam on the Syrian

bout the end oí the se·enth year oí the lijra, the Koreishites and their
allies, the Bani Bakr ·iolated the terms oí the peace concluded at
ludeibiya by attacking the Bani Khuzaah who were in alliance with the
Moslems. 1he Bani Khuzaab oí whom a number oí men were massacred
appealed to the Prophet íor help and protection. 1he Prophet determined to
make a stop to the reign oí injustice and oppression, which had lasted long at
Mecca. le immediately gathered ten thousand men to march against the
idolaters. On January 1
630, the Prophet began his march. Aíter eight days the
Moslems Army halted and alighted at Marwat el Zahran a day`s journey írom
Mecca. On the night oí his arri·al, Abu Suíian, who was delegated by the
Koreishites to ask the Prophet to abandon his project, presented himselí and
besought an inter·iew. On the morrow it was granted las the time not come,
O Abu Soíian,` said, the Prophet, íor the to acknowledge that there is no deity
sa·e God, and that I am lis apostle·` Abu Soíian aíter hesitating íor a while
pronounced the prescribed íormula oí belieí
, and adopted Islam. le was then
sent back to prepare the city íor the Prophet`s approach. \ith the exception oí
a slight resistance by certain clans headed by Ikrima and Saíwan, in which many
Moslems were killed, the Prophet entered Mecca almost unopposed. 1he city
which had treated him so cruelly, dri·en him and his íaithíul band íor reíuge
amongst strangers, the city which had sworn his liíe and the li·es oí his de·oted
adherents, now lay at his mercy. lis old persecutors were now completely at his

, Ch. lughes` Dictionary oí Islam.
, No Deity sa·e God and Mohammad is his apostle`.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
íeet. 1he Prophet entered Mecca on his ía·ourite camel Al Kaswa,` ha·ing
Abu Bakr on his right hand, Usaid on his leít, and Usama walking behind him.
On his way he recited a chapter oí the Koran, known as the chapter oí the
1he Moslem army entered the city unostentatiously and peaceíully. No
house was robbed, no man or woman was insulted. 1he Prophet granted a
general amnesty to the entire population oí Mecca. Only íour criminals, whom
justice condemned, were proscribed. le, howe·er, ordered the destruction oí
all idols and pagan images oí worship, upon which the 360 idols which the
loly Kaaba contained were thrown down. 1he Prophet himselí destroyed a
wooden pigeon írom the rooí which was regarded as one oí the deities oí the
Koreishites. During the downíall oí the images and idols he was heard to cry
aloud. God is great. God is great.` 1ruth has come and íalsehood has
·anished, ·erily íalsehood is e·anescent.` 1he old idolaters obser·ed
thoughtíully the destruction oí their gods, which were utterly powerless. Aíter
the Prophet had abolished these pagan idols and ·ery pagan rite, he deli·ered a
sermon to the assembled people. le dwelt upon the natural brotherhood oí
man in the words oí the Koran as contained in chapter XIIX, ·erse 13

Now great multitudes came to adopt Islam and take the oath oí allegiance to
the Prophet. lor this purpose an assembly was held at mount el Saía. Omar
acting as the Prophet`s deputy, administered the oath, whereby the people
bound themsel·es not to adore any deity but God to obey the prophet to
abstain írom theít, adultery, iníanticide, lying and backbiting. 1hus was íulíilled
the prophecy embodied in the chapter oí Victory in the Koran.

During his stay at Mecca, the Prophet dispatched his principal disciples in
e·ery direction to preach Islam among the wild tribes oí the desert and call
them to the true religion oí God. le sent small detachments oí his troops into
the suburbs to destroy the temples oí Al Uzza, Suwaa and Manat, the three
íamous idols in the temples oí the neighbouring tribes. 1he Prophet ga·e strict
orders that these expeditions should be carried out in a peaceable manner.

1hese injunctions were obey in all cases, with one exception. 1he troops under
Khaled Ibn el-\alid, the íierce newly-con·erted warrior, killed a íew oí the
Bani Jazima. \hen the news oí this wanton bloodshed reached the Prophet he
was deeply grie·ed, and exclaimed, Oh my Lord I am innocent oí what
Khaled had done, and he dispatched a large sum oí money íor the windows
and orphans oí the slain and se·eral rebuked Khaled.
At this time the tribes oí
lawazin and 1hakií showed unwillingness to render obedience to the Moslems
without resistance. 1hey íormed a league with the intention oí attacking the

, Koran, chap. IX
, Verily the true belie·ers are brethren, whereíore make peace among your brethren,
and íear God, that ye may obtain mercy.`
, \hen ·ictory and triumph are come írom God and thou seest hosts oí people
embrace the religion oí God, you will then praise the glory oí your Lord and implore
lis pardon, as le is e·er ready to welcome penitence.`
, 1. P. lughes - Dictionary oí Islam`.
, 1. P. lughes - Dictionary oí Islam`.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Prophet. But he was ·igilant enough to írustrate their plan. A big battle was
íought with this new enemy oí Islam near lunein, a deep and narrow deíile
nine miles to the north east oí Mecca. 1he idolaters were utterly deíeated. One
body oí the enemy consisting chieíly oí the 1hakií tribe, took reíuge in their
íortiíied city oí 1ayeí, which, as the reader may remember, eight or nine years
beíore had dismissed the Prophet írom within its walls with injuries and insults.
1he remainder oí the deíeated íorce, consisting principally oí the lawazin,
sought reíuge at a camp in the ·alley oí Autas. 1his camp was raided by the
Moslem troops. 1he íamilies oí the lawazin, their ílocks and herds with all
their other eííects were captured by the troops oí the Prophet. 1ayeí was then
besieged íor a íew days only, aíter which the Prophet raised the siege, well
knowing that the people oí 1ayeí would soon be íorced by circumstances to
submit without bloodshed. Returning to his camp where the prisoners oí
lawazin were leít íor saíety, the Prophet íound a deputation írom this hostile
tribe who begged him to set íree their íamilies. 1he Prophet replied that he was
willing to gi·e back his own share oí the capti·es and that oí the children oí
Abdul Muttalib, but that he could not íorce his íollowers to abandon the íruits
oí their ·ictory. 1he disciples íollowed the generous example oí their teacher
and about six thousand people were in a moment set íree.
1he spirit oí liberty
iníluenced the hearts oí se·eral members oí the 1haqií tribe who oííered their
allegiance and soon became earnest Moslems.

1he Prophet now returned to Medina íully satisíied with the achie·ements
oí his mission.
1he ninth year oí the lijra is known as the years oí embassies, as being the
year in which the ·arious tribes oí Arabia submitted to the claim oí the Prophet
and sent embassies to render homage to him. litherto these tribes had been
awaiting the issue oí the war between Mohammed and the Koreishites, but as
soon as that tribe -the principal oí whole nation, and descendants oí Ismail,
whose prerogati·es none oííered to dispute- had submitted, they were satisíied
that it was not in their power to oppose Mohammed.
lence their embassies
ílocked into Medina to make their submission to him. 1he conquest oí Mecca
decided the íate oí idolatry in Arabia. Now deputations began to arri·e írom all
sides to render the adherence to Islam oí ·arious tribes. Among the rest, íi·e
Princes oí the tribe oí limyar proíessed Islam and sent ambassadors to notiíy
the same. 1hese were the Princes oí \emen, Mahra, Oman and \amama.

1he idolaters oí 1ayeí, the ·ery people who had dri·en the Preacher oí
Islam írom their midst with ·iolence and contempt now sent a deputation to
pray íorgi·eness and ask to be numbered amongst his íollowers. 1hey begged,
howe·er, íor temporary preser·ation oí their idols. As a last appeal they begged
íor one month`s grace only. But this e·en was not conceded. 1he Prophet said
Islam and the idols could not exist together. 1hey then begged íor exemption
írom the daily prayers. 1he Prophet replied that without de·otion religion
would be nothing. At last they submitted to all that was required oí them. 1hey,

, Cí. 1abari, Vol. III, Ibn lisham, Ibn el Athir, Vol. II.
, G. Sale, Introd. 1o Koran.
, Cí. Abul leda, G. Sale, Introd. 1o Koran.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

howe·er, asked to be exempted írom destroying the idols with their own hands.
1his was granted. 1he Prophet selected Abu Suíian and Mughira to destroy the
idols oí the 1ayeíites, the chieí oí which being the notorious idol oí .ttat. 1his
was carried out amidst cries oí despair and grieí írom the old women oí 1ayeí.

1he con·ersion oí this tribe oí 1ayeí is worthy oí notice. 1his tribe which
hitherto had pro·ed hostile to the new íaith was noted among the Arabs íor its
idolatrous priesthood. A small detachment under Ali was sent to reduce them
to obedience and to destroy their idols. 1he prince oí the tribe was Adi, the son
oí the íamous latim, whose generosity was spoken oí all o·er the peninsula oí
Arabia. On the approach oí the Moslem íorce, Adi íled to Syria lea·ing his
sister with some oí his principal clansmen, to íall into the hands oí the
Moslems. 1hese were conducted by Ali with e·ery sign oí respect and
sympathy to Medina. \hen the daughter oí latim came beíore the Prophet
she addressed him in the íollowing words: O: Apostle oí God, my íather is
dead, my brother, my only relation has íled into the mountains, on the
approach oí Moslems. I cannot ransom myselí, I count on your generosity íor
my deli·erance. My íather was an illustrious man, the prince oí his tribe, a man
who ransomed prisoners, protected the honour oí women íed the poor
consoled the aíílicted and was deaí to no appeal`. 1hy íather`, answered the
Prophet, had the ·irtues oí a true Moslem: ií it were permitted to in·oke the
Mercy oí God on any whose liíe was passed in idolatry, I would pray to God
íor mercy íor the soul oí latim.` 1hen, addressing the Moslems around him,
he said, 1he daughter oí latim is íree her íather was a generous and humane
man, God lo·es and rewards the merciíul` \ith the daughter oí latem, all her
people were set at liberty. She proceeded to Syria, and related to her brother the
generosity oí Mohammed`, Adi touched by gratitude hastened to Medina
where he was kindly recei·ed by the Prophet. le proíessed Islam and returned
to his people and persuaded them to abandon idolatry. 1hey all submitted and
became de·oted Moslems.

litherto no prohibition had been eníorced against idolaters entering the
loly Kaaba or períorming their abominable rite within the sacred precincts.
1owards the end oí the ninth years oí the lijra, during the month oí
pilgrimage Ali was delegated by the Prophet to read a Proclamation that ran as
íollows: No idolater shall aíter this year períorm the pilgrimage, no one shall
make the circuit oí the temple naked ,such a disgraceíul custom was practiced
by the heathen Arabs,, any treaty with the Prophet shall continue in íorce, but
íour months are allowed to e·ery man to return to his territories, aíter that
there will be no obligation on the Prophet except towards those with whom
treaties ha·e been concluded.

1he ·ast multitude who had listened to the abo·e declaration returned to
their homes and beíore the íollowing year was o·er the majority oí them were

, Cí. Ibn lisham, Ibn Athir Vol., II., Amir Sayed Aly, Spirit oí Islam`
, Abul leda, Ibn Athir, Ibn lisham.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
During the tenth year oí the lijra as in the preceding one, numerous
embassies continued to pour into Medina írom all parts oí Arabia to testiíy to
the adhesion oí their chieís and their tribes. 1eachers were sent by the Prophets
into the diííerent pro·inces to teach the new con·erts the principles and
precepts oí Islam. 1hese teachers were in·ariably gi·en the íollowing
injunctions when they were about to depart on their mission: Deal gently with
the people and be not harsh, cheer them, and do not look down upon them
with contempt. \e will meet with many belie·ers in the loly Scriptures,
will ask you \hat is the key to hea·en·` Answer them that it ,the key to
hea·en, is to bear witness to Di·ine truth and to do good.`

1hus, the mission oí the Prophet Mohammed was now accomplished, the
whole work was achie·ed during his liíetime. Idolatry with its nameless
abominations was entirely destroyed. 1he people who were sunk in
superstition, cruelty and ·ice, in regions where spiritual liíe was utterly
unknown, were now united in one bond oí íaith, hope and charity. 1he tribes
which had been, írom time immemorial, engaged in perpetual wars were now
united together by the ties oí brotherhood, lo·e and harmony. lence-íorth,
their aims are not coníined to this earth alone, but there is something beyond
the gra·e-much higher, purer and di·iner-calling them to the practice oí
charity, goodness, justice and uni·ersal lo·e. 1hey could now percei·e that God
was not that which they had car·ed out oí wood or stone, but the Almighty,
Lo·ing, Merciíul the Creator oí the Uni·erse.
On the return oí the sacred month oí the pilgrimage, the Prophet under the
presentiment oí his approaching end, determined to make a íarewell pilgrimage
to Mecca. In lebruary 632, he leít Medina with a ·ery considerable concourse
oí Moslems. It is stated that írom 90.000 to 140.000 persons accompanied the
On his arri·al at the holy places, írom which e·ery trace oí the old
superstition had been remo·ed, and which in accordance with his orders oí the
pre·ious year, no idolater was to ·isit unless he assumed the pilgrim garb.
Beíore completion all rites oí the pilgrimage, he addressed the assembled
multitude írom the top oí the Mount Araíat, in the íollowing words: \e
people! Listen to my words, íor I know not whether another year will be
·ouchsaíed to me aíter this year to íind myselí amongst you. \our li·es and
property are sacred and in·iolable amongst one another until ye appear beíore
the Lord, as this day and this month is sacred íor all, and remember, ye shall
ha·e to appear beíore your Lord \ho shall demand írom you an account íor
all your actions. \e people, \e ha·e rights o·er your wi·es, and your wi·es
ha·e rights o·er you.Verily ye ha·e taken them on the security oí God and
ha·e made their persons Lawíul unto you by the words oí God. And your
sla·es, see that ye íeed them with such íood as ye eat yoursel·es, and clothe
them with the stuíí ye wear, and ií they commit a íault which ye are not
inclined to íorgi·e, then part with them, íor they are the ser·ants oí the Lord
and are not to be harshly treated. \e people Listen to my words and understand
them. Know that all Moslems are brothers. \e are one brotherhood, but no

, I.e. Jews or Christians.
, Ibn lisham.
, Ibn lisham, Ibn Athir Vol. II.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
man shall take aught írom his brother, unless by his íree consent. Keep
yoursel·es írom injustice. Let him who is present tell this to him who is absent.
It may be, that he who is told this aíterwards may remember better than he
who has now heard it.`

1he Prophet concluded his sermon by exclaiming, O Lord I ha·e íulíilled
my message and accomplished my work` 1he assembled multitude all in one
·oice cried, \ea ·erily thou hast,` 1he Prophet again exclaimed, O Lord I
beseech thee, bear witness unto it.`
la·ing rigorously períormed all the ceremonies oí the pilgrimage that his
example might be íollowed by all Moslems íor all succeeding ages, the Prophet
returned with his íollowers to Medina.
1he ele·enth year oí the lijra being the last year oí Mohammed`s liíe, was
spent at Medina. 1here he settled the organisation oí the pro·incial and tribal
communities which had adopted Islam and become the component parts oí the
Moslem íederation, More oííicers had to be deputed to the interior pro·inces
íor the purpose oí teaching their inhabitants the precepts oí the religion,
administering justice, and collecting tithes. Muaz Ibn Jabal was sent to \emen.
On his departure to that distant pro·ince, the Prophet enjoined him to use his
own discretion, in the e·ent oí his being unable to íind express authority in the
Koran. Ali was deputed to \amama in the south-east oí the Peninsula. 1o
them the Prophet said: Ne·er decide between any two parties who come to
you íor justice unless you íirst hear both oí them.`

A íorce was now being prepared under Osama, the son oí Zaid, who was
killed at Muta, against the Byzantines, to exact the long delayed reparation íor
the murder oí the en·oy in Syria, as the news oí the Prophet`s sickness and
íailing health had caused that expedition to be stopped. 1his news was soon
noised abroad and produced disorder in some districts. 1hree pretenders had
arisen who ga·e themsel·es out as prophets, and tried by all kinds oí imposture
to win o·er their tribes. 1he most dangerous oí these pretenders was known as
AL Aswad. le was a chieí oí \emen and a man oí great wealth and sagacity,
and a cle·er conjurer. le soon succeeded in gaining o·er his tribesmen, and
with their help reduced to subjection many oí the neighbouring towns. le
killed Shahr whom the Prophet had appointed as Go·ernor oí Sana in the place
oí his íather, Bazan who had just died, Bazan had been the ·iceroy oí \emen,
under Chosrores oí Persia, and aíter he had adopted Islam, was allowed by the
Prophet to remain as Go·ernor oí \emen. le was able to con·ert to Islam all
the Persian colony in that pro·ince. Al Aswad, the conjurer, had now killed
Shahr but, soon aíter, he was massacred by the Persians oí \emen. 1he other
two pretenders, 1ulayha and laroun by name were not suppressed until aíter
the death oí the Prophet, during the reign oí Abu Bakr. laroun, better known
as Mussaylamah, addressed to the Prophet a letter which ran as íollows, lrom
Mussaylamah, the Prophet oí God to Mohammed the Prophet oí God. Peace
be to you. I am your partner. Let the exercise oí authority be di·ided between
us. lalí the earth will be mine, and halí will belong to your Koreish. But the
Koreishites are too greedy to be satisíied with a just di·ision`. 1o this letter the
Prophet replied as íollows: lrom Mohammed, the Apostle oí God, to

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Mussaylamah, the liar. Peace be to those who íollow the right path. 1he earth
belongs to God. It is le \ho maketh to reign whomsoe·er. le pleaseth. Only
those will prosper who íear the Lord`.

1he health oí the Prophet grew worse. lis last days were remarkable íor the
calmness and serenity oí his mind. le was able, though weak and íeeble, to
lead the public prayers, until within three days oí his death. le requested that
he might be permitted to stay at Ayesha`s house, close to the mosque, during
his illness, an arrangement to which his other wi·es assented. As long his
strength lasted, he took part in the public prayers. 1he last time he appeared in
the mosque, he addressed the congregation, aíter the usual prayers were o·er,
in the íollowing words: O Moslems! Ií I ha·e wronged anyone oí you, here I
am to answer íor it, ií I owe aught to anyone all I may happen to possess
belongs to you. A man in the crowd rose and claimed three Dirham, which he
had gi·en to a poor man at the request oí the Prophet. 1hey were immediately
paid back with these words: Better to blush in this world than in the next.`
1he Prophet then prayed and implored God`s mercy íor those who had íallen
in the persecution oí their enemies. le recommended to all his íollowers the
obser·ance oí religious duties and the leading oí a liíe oí peace and good will.
le concluded his ad·ice with the íollowing ·erse oí the Koran: 1he íuture
mansion ,oí paradise, \e will gi·e unto them who do not seek to exalt
themsel·es on earth or to do wrong, íor a happy issue shall attend the pious.`
1hen he spoke with emotion, and with a ·oice still so poweríul as to reach
beyond the outer doors oí the mosque: By the Lord in \hose hand lies the
soul oí Mohammed,` he said, as to myselí no man can lay hold on me in any
matter, I ha·e not made lawíul anything excepting what God hath made lawíul,
nor ha·e I prohibited aught, but that which God in lis Book hath prohibited.`
1hen turning to the women who sat close by, the exclaimed: O latima, my
daughter, and Saíia, my aunt, work ye both that which shall procure you
acceptance with the Lord, íor ·erily I ha·e no power to sa·e you in any wise.`
le then rose and re-entered the house oí Ayesha.
Aíter this, the Prophet
ne·er appeared at public prayers. A íew hours aíter he returned írom the
mosque, the Prophet died whilst laying his head on the bosom oí Ayesha. As
soon as the Prophet`s death was announced a crowd oí people gathered at the
door oí the house oí Ayesha, exclaiming, low can our apostle be dead·`
No,` said Omar, le is not dead, he will be restored to us, and those are
traitors to the cause oí Islam who say he is dead. Ií they say so let them be cut
in pieces, but Abu Bakr entered the house at this moment, and aíter he had
touched the body oí the prophet with demonstration oí proíound aííection, he
appeared at the door and addressed the crowd with the íollowing speech: O
Moslems, ií any oí you has been worshipping Mohammed, then let me tell you
that Mohammed is dead. But ií you really do worship God, then know you that
God is li·ing and will ne·er die. Do you íorget the ·erse in the Koran,
Mohammed is but an apostle, beíore whom other apostles ha·e already
passed·` and also the other ·erse: 1hou shalt surely die ,O Mohammed, and

, Ibn lisham, Al \akidi, Ibn Athir.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
they also shall die· Upon hearing this speech oí Abu Bakr Omar
acknowledged his error and the crowd was satisíied and dispersed.
Al Abbas, the Prophet`s uncle, presided at the preparation íor the burial,
and the body was duly washed and períumed. 1here was some dispute between
the Koreishites and the Ansars as to the place oí burial, but Abu Bakr settled
the dispute by aííirming that he had heard the Prophet say, that a prophet
should be buried at the ·ery spot where he died. A gra·e was accordingly dug in
the ground within the house oí Ayesha, and under the bed on which the
Prophet died. In this gra·e the body was buried, and the usual rites were
períormed by those who were present.
1hus the glorious liíe oí the Prophet Mohammed ended. 1he Arabs, being
then united in one íaith and under one banner and one prince íound
themsel·es in a position to make those conquests which extended the Islam
íaith o·er so great a part oí the world.

1he íollowing comment on the Prophet`s liíe by 1homas Carlyle, will be
íound to be as true a picture oí Mohammed`s character as can possibly be
written by the pen oí a Luropean historian. In his lecture 1he lero as
Prophet,` 1homas Carlyle writes: Mahomed himselí, aíter all that can be said
about him, was not a sensual man. \e shall err widely ií we consider this man
as a common ·oluptuary, intent mainly on base enjoyments-nay, on enjoyments
oí any kind. lis household was oí the írugalest, his common diet barley bread
and water, sometimes íor months there was not a íire once lighted on his
hearth. 1hey record with just pride that he would mend his own shoes, patch
his own cloak. A poor hard-toiling, ill-pro·ided man, careless oí what ·ulgar
men toil íor. Not a bad man I should say, something better in him than hunger
oí any sort, or these wild Arab men íighting and jostling three- and twenty
years at his hand, in close contact with him always, would not ha·e re·erenced
him so. 1hese were wild men, bursting e·er and anon into quarrel, into all kinds
oí íierce sincerity, without right, worth and manhood, no man could ha·e
commanded them. 1hey called him Prophet, you say· \hy he stood there íace
to íace with them, bare, not enshrined in any mystery, ·isibly clouting his own
cloak cobbling his own shoes, íighting, counselling ordering in the midst oí
them, they must ha·e seen what kind oí a man he was, let him be called what ye
like! No emperor with his tiaras was obeyed as this man in a cloak oí his own
clouting. During three and twenty years oí rough actual trial, I íind something
oí a ·eritable hero necessary íor that oí itselí.
lis last words are prayer, broken ejaculations oí a heart struggling up in
trembling hope towards its Maker. \e cannot say that his religion made him
worse, it made him better, good not bad. Generous things are recorded oí him:
when he lost his daughter, the thing he answers is, in his own dialect e·eryway
sincere, and yet equi·alent to that oí Christians. 1he Lord gi·eth and the Lord
taketh away, blessed be the name oí the Lord` le answered in like manner oí
Zaid his emancipated well belo·ed sla·e, the second oí the belie·ers. Zaid had
íallen in the war oí 1abuc, the íirst oí Mahomet`s íighting against the Greeks.
Mahomet said it was well, Zaid had done his Master`s work Zaid had now gone
to his maker: it was all well with Zaid yet Zaid`s daughter íound him weeping

, G. Sale in his Preliminary Discourse to his translation oí the Koran.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
o·er the body: -the old greyhaired man melting in tears! \hat do I see·` said
she. \ou see a íriend weeping o·er his íriend.` le went out íor the last time
into the mosque two days beíore his death: asked, ií he had injured any man·
Let his own back bear the stripes. Ií he owed any man· A ·oice answered:
\es, me three drachms borrowed on such an occasion.` Mahomet ordered
them to be paid. Better be in shame now,` said he, than at the Day oí
Judgment.` \ou remember Khadija and the No, by Allah!` traits oí this kind
show us the genuine man, the brother oí us all, brought ·isible through twel·e
centuries, the ·eritable Son oí our common Mother.`

Mr. Bosworth Smith, apparently an unprejudiced Lnglish historian in his
Mohammed and Mohammedanism` comments as íollows: -
Mohammed did not, indeed, himselí weld together into a homogeneous
whole a ·ast system oí states like Charles the Great. le was not a philosophic
king, like Marcus Aurelius, nor a philosopher, like Aristotle, or like Bacon ruling
by pure reason the world oí thought íor centuries with a more than kingly
power, he was not a legislator íor all mankind nor e·en the highest part oí it,
like Justinian, nor did he cheaply earn the title oí the Great by being the íirst
among rulers to turn, like Constantine, írom the setting to the rising sun. le
was not a philanthropist, like the Greatest oí the Stoics.
Nor was he the apostle oí the highest íorm oí religion and ci·ilisation
combined, like Gregory or Boniíace, like Leo or Alíred the Great. I ha·e
seen,` and the ambassador sent to the triumphant Quoraish at the despised
exile at Medina I ha·e seen the Persian Chosroes and the Greek leraclius
sitting upon their thrones, but ne·er did I see a man ruling his equal`s as does
lead oí the state as well as the Church he was Caesar and Pope in one, but
he was Pope without the Pope`s pretensions, Caesar without the legions oí
Caesar. \ithout a standing army, without a íixed re·enue, ií e·er any man had
the right to say that he ruled by a right di·ine, it was Mohammed, íor he had all
the powers without its instruments, and without its supports.
By a íortune absolutely unique in history, Mohammed is a threeíold
íounder oí a nation, oí an empire and oí a religion. Illiterate himselí, scarcely
able to read or write,
he brought a book which is a code oí laws, a book oí
Common Prayer, and a bible in one and is re·erenced to this day by a sixth oí
the whole oí the human race, as a miracle oí purity oí style, oí wisdom and oí
truth. It was the one miracle claimed by Mohammed-his standing miracle he
called it and a miracle indeed it is. But looking at the circumstances oí the time,
at the unbounded re·erence oí his íollowers, and comparing him with the
íathers oí the church or with mediae·al saints, to my mind the most miraculous
thing about Mohammed is that he ne·er claimed the power oí working
miracles. \hate·er he had said he could do, his disciples would straightway
ha·e seen him do. 1hey could not help attributing to him miraculous acts,

, Lectures on leroes by 1homas Carlyle, p. 66.
, All trustworthy commentators and Moslem listorians agree in that the Prophet
Mohammad was absolutely illiterate. le could ne·er read and write. ,Cí. Ibn Athir, Ibn
lisham, Al \akidi, G. Sale, Sir \m Muir, 1he Koran,.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
which he ne·er did, and which he always denied he could do. \hat more
crowning prooí oí his sincerity is needed· Mohammed to the end oí his liíe
claimed íor himselí that title only, with which he had begun, and which the
highest philosophy and the truest Christianity will one day, I ·enture to belie·e
agree in yielding to him, that oí a Prophet, a ·ery Prophet oí God.`

T Th he e P Pe er rs so on n a an nd d C Ch ha ar ra ac ct te er r o of f
t th he e P Pr ro op ph he et t M Mo oh ha am mm ma ad d
t is only right that, beíore bringing the biography oí the Prophet to a
conclusion, I should gi·e illustration oí his chieí traits and character, as
already brought to light and passed as authentic by distinguished Luropean
critics. Sir \illiam Muir writes.

“Personal Appearance and Gait (of the
Prophet): lis íorm, though little abo·e mean height, was stately and
commanding. 1he depth oí íeeling in his dark black eyes and the winning
expression oí a íace otherwise attracti·e gained the coníidence and lo·e oí
strangers, e·en at the íirst sight. lis íeatures other unbended into a smile íull oí
grace and condescension. le was` say his contemporary biographers, the
handsomest and bra·est, the brightest íaced and most generous oí men.` \et
when anger kindled in his piercing glance, the object oí his displeasure might
well quail beíore it. lis stern írown was an augury oí death to many a
trembling capti·e. In later years, the erect íigure began to stoop but the step
was still íirm and quick. lis hail has been likened to that oí one descending
rapidly a hill. \hen he made haste, it was with diííiculty that one kept pace with
him. le ne·er turned, e·en ií his mantle was caught in a thorny bush, so that
this attendants talked and laughed íreely behind him, secure oí being

His Habits: 1hrough and complete in all his actions, he took in
hand no work with-out bringing it to a close. 1he same habit per·aded his
manner in social intercourse. Ií he turned in con·ersation towards a íriend, he
turned not partially, but with his íull íace and his whole body. In shaking hand
he was not the íirst to withdraw his own, nor was he the íirst break oíí in
con·erse with a stranger, nor to turn away his ear`

, Vide 1he Liíe oí Mohammad` by Sir \m. Muir.
, Vide 1he Liíe oí Mohammad` by Sir \m. Muir.


1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Simplicity of his life: A patriarchal simplicity
per·aded his liíe. lis custom was to do e·erything íor himselí. Ií he ga·e an
alms, he would place it with his own hand in that oí petitioner. le aided his
wi·es in the household duties, mended his clothes, tied up the goats, and e·en
cobbled his sandals. lis ordinary dress was oí plain white cotton stuíí, made
like his neighbours, but on high and íesti·e occasions he wore garments oí íine
linen, striped or dyed in red. le ne·er reclined at meals. le ate with his íingers,
and when he had íinished, he would lick them beíore he wiped his hands. le
li·ed with his wi·es in a row oí low and homely cottages, built oí unbaked
bricks, the apartments separated by walls oí palm branches, rudely daubed with
mud, while curtains oí leather, or oí black haircloth, supplied the place oí doors
and windows. le was to all easy oí access -e·en as the ri·er`s bank to him that
draweth water írom it`- yet he maintained the state and dignity oí real power.
No approach was suííered to íamiliarity oí action oí speech. 1he Prophet must
be addressed in subdued accents and in a re·erential style. lis word was
absolute, his bidding law. Lmbassies and deputations were recei·ed with the
utmost courtesy and consideration. In the issue oí rescripts, bearing on their
representations, or in other matters oí state, the Prophet displayed all the
qualiíications oí an able and experienced ruler, as the reader
will ha·e obser·ed
írom the numerous examples gi·en. And what renders this the more strange, is
that he was ne·er known himselí to write.`

Urbanity and Kindness of Disposition:
A remarkable íeature was the urbanity and consideration, with which
Mohammed treated e·en the most insigniíicant oí his íollowers. Modesty and
kindliness, patience, selí-denial and generosity per·aded his conduct and ri·eted
the aííections oí all around him. le disliked to say, No` Ií unable to answer a
petitioner in the aííirmati·e he preíerred silence. le was more bashíul,` says
his wiíe Ayesha, than a ·eiled ·irgin, and ií anything displeased him, it was
rather írom his íace, than by his words, that we disco·ered it, he ne·er smote
anyone, but in the ser·ice oí God, not e·en a woman or a ser·ant`. le was not
known e·er to reíuse an in·itation to the house e·en oí the meanest, nor to
decline a proííered present, howe·er small. \hen seated by a íriend, he did not
haughtily ad·ance his knees toward him. le possessed the rare íaculty oí
making each indi·idual in a company think that he was the ía·oured guest. Ií
he met any one rejoicing at success, he would seize him eagerly and cordially by
the hand. \ith the berea·ed and aíílicted, he sympathized tenderly. Gentle and
indulgent towards little children, he would not disdain to accost a group oí
them at play, with the salutation oí peace. le shared his íood, e·en in time oí
scarcity, with others, and was sedulously solicitous íor the personal comíort oí
e·ery one about him. A kindly and bene·olent disposition per·ades all these
illustrations oí his character.`

Friendship: Mohammed was also a íaithíul íriend. le lo·ed Abu
Bakr with the close aííection oí a brother, Ali, with the íond partiality oí a

, I.e. the reader oí Sir \m. Muir`s Liíe oí Mohammad`.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
íather. Zaid, the sla·e oí his wiíe Khadija, was so strongly won by the kindness
oí the Prophet, that he preíerred to remain at Mecca, rather than return home
with his own íather: I will not lea·e thee,` he said, clinging to his patron, íor
thou hast been a íather and a mother to me.` 1he íriendship oí Mohammed
sur·i·ed the death oí Zaid and his son Osama was treated by him with
distinguished ía·our íor the íather`s sake. Othman and Omar were also the
objects oí his special attachment, and the enthusiasm with which at Al
lodeibiya, the Prophet entered into the Pledge oí the 1ree`, and swore that
he would deíend his beleaguered son-in-law e·en to death, was a signal prooí
oí íaithíul íriendship. Numerous other instances oí Mohammed`s ardent and
unwa·ering regard might be adduced. And his aííections were in no instance
misplaced, they were e·er reciprocated by a warm and selí-sacriíicing lo·e.`
Moderation and Magnanimity: In the exercise oí a
power absolutely dictatorial Mohammed was just and temperate. Nor was he
wanting in moderation towards his enemies, when once they had cheeríully
submitted to his claims. 1he long and obstinate struggle against his mission,
maintained by the inhabitants oí Mecca, might ha·e induced its conqueror to
mark his indignation in indelible traces oí íire and blood. But Mohammed,
excepting a íew criminals, granted a uni·ersal pardon, and nobly casting into
obli·ion the memory oí the past, with all its mockery, its aííronts and
persecution, treated e·en the íoremost oí his opponents with gracious and e·en
íriendly consideration. Not less marked was the íorbearance shown to Abdallah
and the disaííected citizens oí Medina, who íor so many years persistently
thwarted his designs and resisted his authority, nor the clemency, with which he
recei·ed the submissi·e ad·ances oí tribes that beíore had been the most
hostile, e·en in the hour oí ·ictory.`

Some Christian biographers oí the Prophet dwell too much on what they
termed his cruelty towards his enemies. lonestly speaking, cruelty was nowhere
shown in the conduct oí the Prophet, as the reader will ha·e obser·ed in his
Liíe, as gi·en in this book.
It is not the intention oí the author oí this book to occupy too much space
in reíuting the numerous misrepresentations made by hostile biographers.
lowe·er, as one instance oí the íalse charge oí cruelty, brought against the
Prophet or his íollowers without íoundation, I quote a statement on the subject
by Mr. George Sale:-Dr. Prideaux, speaking oí Mohammed`s obliging those oí
Al Nadir to quit their settlements, says that a party oí his men pursued those
who íled into Syria, and ha·ing o·ertaken them, put them all to the sword,
excepting only one man that escaped. \ith such cruelty,` continues he, did
those barbarians íirst set up to íight íor that imposture they had been deluded
But a learned gentleman has already obser·ed that this is all grounded
on a mistake which the doctor was led into by an imperíection in the printed
edition oí Llmacians, where aíter mention oí the expulsion oí the Nadirites, are
inserted some incoherent words, relating to another action which happened the

, Vide Sir \illiam Muir`s 1he Liíe oí Mohammad`
, Prideaux, Liíe oí Mah. P. 82.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
month beíore, and wherein se·enty Moslems, instead oí putting others to the
sword, were super·ised and put to the sword themsel·es, together with their
leader Al Mondar Lbn Omar Caab Lbn Zeid alone escaping. ,Vide Gagnier,
not in Abulí. Vit Moh. P.¯2,.`

Sir \illiam Muir continues his remarks on the person and character oí the
Prophet as íollows:
Domestic Life:
In domestic liíe, the conduct oí Mohammed was exemplary. As husband
his íondness and de·otion were entire. As a íather he was lo·ing and tender. In
his youth, he li·ed a ·irtuous liíe, and at the age oí twenty-íi·e he married a
window, íorty years old, during whose liíetime, íor íi·e and twenty years, he
was a íaithíul husband to her alone. \et it is remarkable that during this period
were composed most oí those passages oí the Koran, in which the black eyed
louries` reser·ed íor Belie·es in Paradise, are depicted in such glowing

Sir \illiam Muir, íollowing the example oí other Christian writers, has
attributed the Prophet`s polygamy to unchecked range oí his uxorious
inclinations` and when ·iewing the social and domestic liíe oí Mohammed,
íairly and impartially`, he saw it to be chequered by light and shade, and that,
while there is much to íorm the subject oí nearly vvqvatifiea` praise, there is
likewise much cannot be spoken oí but in terms oí reprobation.`
Sir \illiam Muir himselí, as quoted abo·e, states that in his youth the
Prophet li·ed a ·irtuous liíe, and at the age oí twenty íi·e married a window,
íorty years old, avrivg rbo.e tife tive, for fire ava trevt, ,ear., be ra. a faitbfvt
bv.bava to ber atove. It is ob·iously absurd, to think that a man whose character
was such, could ha·e any range oí uxorious inclinations`.
Sir \illiam Muir asserts, that it was not until the mature age oí íiíty-íour,
that the Prophet made the trials oí Polygamy`. It is ob·iously a contradiction,
unworthy oí a íair and impartial critic, to think íor a moment that at such an
ad·anced age, a man who had li·ed in his youth a ·irtuous liíe`, and who, at the
age oí twenty íi·e, married a window, íorty years old, during whose liíe time,
íor íi·e and twenty years, he was a íaithíul husband to her alone,` should ha·e
sexual inclinations. 1o any really impartial biographer and also to any
thoughtíul reader, this is quite impossible.

But the marriages oí the Prophet ha·e íurnished his critics with their chieí
weapons oí attack, and the interested missionary has gone so íar as to call him a
·oluptuary, although some oí his own re·ered spiritual leaders and Prophets
were chronicled to possess e·en as many as a íew hundred wi·es.
lor this
reason I gi·e here a íew particulars regarding the Prophet`s marriages.

, G. Sale, 1rans oí Al Koran P. 405, lred. \arne & Co.
, Da·id had six wi·es and numerous concubines, ,2 Sam. ·. 13. 1 Chron, iii 1-9, xi· 3,
Solomon had as many as ¯00 wi·es and as many as 300 concubines, ,Kings xi : 3,
Rehoboams had 18 wi·es and sixty concubines ,2 Chron, xi 21,.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

lis íirst marriage was contracted when he was twenty íi·e years oí ages, and
the window, Khadija whom he married was íorty years old, that is íiíteen years
his senior. It was with her alone, that he passed all the years oí his youth and
manhood, until she died three years beíore the lijra or emigration to Medina,
when he was already an old man oí íiíty. 1his circumstance alone is suííicient
to gi·e the lie to those who would belittle him and call him a ·oluptuary. Aíter
her death, while still at Mecca, he married Sauda and Ayesha, the latter oí
whom was his only ·irgin wiíe, and she was the daughter oí his intimate and
illustrious íriend and helper Abu Bakr. 1hen íollowed the emigration to
Medina, and subsequent to be emigration, he had to íight many battles with his
enemies, the Koreish, or such sided with the Koreish and persecuted the
Moslems. 1he result oí these battles, was a great discrepancy between the
number oí males and íemales, and his ía·ourite íollowers íell in the íield oí
battle, íighting his enemies, the care oí their íamilies de·ol·ed upon the
Prophet and his sur·i·ing companions. In the battle oí Badr íell Khunais, son
oí luaiía, and the íaithíul Omar`s daughter laísa was leít a window. Omar
oííered her to Othman and Abu Bakr in turn, and she at last was married to the
Prophet in the third year oí the lijra.

Obaida, son oí larith, íell a martyr at Badr, and his window Zainab,
daughter oí Khuzaima, was taken in marriage by the Prophet in the same year.
In the next year, Abu Salma died, and his window Um-i-Salma was taken to
wiíe by the Prophet. As Christian criticism lays too much stress upon the
Prophet`s marriage with Zainab daughter oí Jahsh, a íull explanation oí the
e·ents in connection with this marriage is necessary:
Zainab was the daughter oí the Prophet`s own aunt, she was one oí the
early con·erts to Islam, and the Prophet proposed to her brother that she
should be gi·en in marriage to Zaid, his adopted son and íreedman. Both
brother and sister were a·erse to this match, and only yielded under pressure
írom the Prophet. It is related, that they both desired that the Prophet himselí
should marry Zainab,
but the Prophet insisted that she should accept Zaid.
1he marriage was, howe·er, not a happy one. Zainab was harsh oí temper,
and she ne·er liked Zaid, on account oí the stigma oí sla·ery which attached to
his name. Diííerences arose, and Zaid expressed a desire to the Prophet oí
di·orcing Zainab. 1he news was grie·ous to the Prophet, íor it was he who had
insisted upon the marriage, and he thereíore ad·ised Zaid not to di·orce her.
le íeared that people would object that a marriage which had been arranged by
the Prophet, was unsuccessíul. It is to this circumstance, that the ·erse in
Koran 3¯: XXII reíers, And, you íeared men, and God had a greater right
that you should íear lim.`

Let us now re·ert to Sir \illiam Muir`s ·iews oí the character oí the

, Al Razi, Abul lida, Ibn Athir etc.
, On the other hand, an end had to be put to the old custom oí the Arabs`
condemning a man`s marriage with a woman was once wedded to his adopted son.
lence, Koran`s ·erse.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Conviction of Special Providence:
Proceeding now to consider the religious and prophetical character oí
Mohammed, the íirst point which strikes the biographer is his constant and
·i·id sense oí a special and all per·ading Pro·idence. 1his con·iction moulded
his thoughts and designs, írom the minutest actions in pri·ate and social liíe to
the grand conception, that he was destined to be the reíormer oí his people and
oí all Arabia. le ne·er entered a company but he sat down and rose up with
the mention oí the Lord. \hen the íirst íruits oí the season were brought to
him, he would kiss them, place them upon his eyes and say: Lord as 1hou hast
shown us the íirst, show unto us likewise the last.` In trouble and aííliction, as
well as in prosperity and joy, he e·er saw and humbly acknowledged the hand
oí God. A íixed persuasion that e·er incident, small and great, is ordained by
the di·ine will, led to the strong expressions oí predestination which abound in
the Koran. It is the Lord \ho turneth the hearts oí mankind, and alike íaith in
the belie·er, and unbelieí in the iníidel, are the result oí the di·ine íait. 1he
hour and place oí e·eryman`s death, as all other e·ents in his liíe, are
established by the same decree, and the timid belie·er might in ·ain seek to
a·ert the stroke by shunning the íield oí battle. But this persuasion was íar
remo·ed írom the belieí in a blind and inexorable íate, íor Mohammed held the
progress oí e·ents in the di·ine hand to be amenable to the iníluence oí prayer.
le was not slow to attribute the con·ersion oí a scoííer, like Omar, or the
remo·al oí an impending misíortune ,as the deli·erance oí Medina írom the
Coníederate hosts,, to the eííect í his own earnest petitions to the Lord.`

Unwavering Steadfastness at Mecca: 1he
growth in the mind oí Mohammed oí the con·iction, that he was appointed to
be the Prophet and Reíormer, is intimately connected with his belieí in a special
Pro·idence embracing the spiritual as well as the material world, and out oí that
con·iction arose the coníidence that the Almighty would crown his mission
with success. \hile still at Mecca, there is no reason to doubt that the
questionings, and aspirations oí his inner soul were regarded by him as
proceeding directly írom God. 1he light which gradually illuminated his mind
with a knowledge oí the di·ine unity and períections, and oí the duties and
destiny oí man, -light amidst gross darkness, -must ha·e emanated írom the
same source, and le \ho in lis own good pleasure had thus begun the work,
would surely carry it through to a successíul ending. \hat was Mohammed
himselí, but an instrument in the hand oí the Great \orker· Such, no doubt,
were the thoughts which strengthened him, alone and unsupported, to bra·e
íor many weary years the taunts and persecutions oí a whole people. In
estimating the signal moral courage, thus displayed, it must not be o·erlooked
that íor what is ordinarily termed physical courage Mohammed was not

It may be doubted whether he e·er engaged personality in acti·e conílict
on the battleíields. 1hough he oíten accompanied his íorces, he ne·er himselí
led them into action, or exposed his person to a·oidable danger. And there
were occasions, on which he showed symptoms oí a íaint heart. \et e·en so, it

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
only brings out in higher relieí the singular display oí moral daring. Let us íor a
moment look to the period when a ban was proclaimed at Mecca against all
citizens, whether proíessed con·erts or not, who espoused his cause or
·entured to protect him, and when along with these, he was shut up in the
Shi`b`, or quarter oí Abu 1alib, and these íor three years, without prospect or
relieí endured want and hardship. Strong and steadíast must ha·e been the
moti·es which enabled him, amidst such opposition and apparent hopelessness
oí success to maintain his principles unshaken. No sooner had he been released
írom this restraint than, despairing oí his nati·e city, he went íorth solitary and
unaided to At-1aií, and there summoned its rulers and inhabitants to
repentance, with the message which he said he had írom his Lord, on the third
day was dri·en out oí the town with ignominy, while blood ílowed írom
wounds inílicted on him by the populace. Retiring to a little distance, he poured
íorth his complaint to God, and then returned to Mecca, there to resume the
same outwardly hopeless cause, with the same high coníidence in its ultimate
success. \e search in ·ain through the pages oí proíane history íor a parallel to
the struggle, in which íor thirteen years the Prophet oí Arabia, in the íace oí
discouragement and threats, rejection and persecution, retained thus his íaith
unwa·ering, preached repentance, and denounced God`s wrath against his
godless íellow-citizens. Surrounded by a little band oí íaithíul men and women,
he met insults, menaces, and danger with a loíty and patient trust in the íuture.
And when at last the promise oí saíety came írom a distant quarter, he calmly
waited until his íollowers had all departed, and then disappeared írom amongst
ungrateíul and rebellious people.
Not less marked was the íirm íront and unchanging íaith in e·entual
·ictory which at Medina bore him through se·en years oí mortal conílict with
his nati·e city, and enabled him, sometimes e·en under deíeat, and while his
iníluence and authority were yet limited and precarious, e·en in the city oí his
adoption, to speak and to act in the constant and undoubted expectation oí

Denunciation of Polytheism and
Idolatry: lrom the earliest period oí his religious con·ictions, the
Unity, or the idea oí One Great Being guiding with almighty power and
wisdom all creation, and yet iníinitely abo·e it, gained a thorough possession oí
his mind. Polytheism and idolatry, at ·ariance with this grand principle, were
indignantly condemned, as le·eling the Creator with the creature. On one
occasion alone did Mohammed swer·e írom this position, when he admitted
that the goddesses oí Mecca might be adored as medium oí approach to God.

But the inconsistency was soon percei·ed, and Mohammed at once retraced his
steps. Ne·er beíore, nor aíterwards, did the Prophet de·iate írom the stern
denunciation oí idolatry.

, 1his is a great mistake on the part oí the biographer caused by a misconception oí
the peculiar ·erse oí the Koran which reíers exclusi·ely to the heathens` own
con·iction oí the successíul intercession oí their idols. ,Author,

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

Earnestness and Honesty of Mohammed at
Mecca: As he was himselí subject to con·ictions thus deep and poweríul,
it will readily be concei·ed that his exhortations were distinguished by a
corresponding strength and cogency. Master oí eloquence, his language was
cast in the purest and most persuasi·e style oí Arabian oratory. lis íine
poetical genius exhausted the imagery oí nature in the illustration oí spiritual
truths, and a ·i·id imagination enabled him to bring beíore his people the
Resurrection and the Day oí Judgment, the joys oí belie·ers, in Paradise, and
the agonies oí lost spirits in lell, as close and impending realities. In ordinary
address, his speech was slow, distinct, and emphatic, but when he preached, his
eyes would redden, his ·oice rise high and loud, and his whole írame agitate
with passion, e·en as ií he were warning the people oí an enemy, about to íall
on them the next morning or that ·ery night`.

His disposition: \hen Ayesha was questioned about
Mohammed, she used to say: le was a man just such as yoursel·es, he
laughed oíten and smiled much:. Ií he had the choice between two matters, he
would always choose the easier, so that no sin accrued thereírom. le ne·er
took re·enge, excepting where the honour oí God was concerned. \hen angry
with any person, he would say: \hat hath taken such a one that he should soil
his íorehead in the dust.`

Humility: lis humility was shown by his riding upon asses, by his
accepting the in·itation e·en oí sla·es, and when mounted, by his taking
another behind him. le would say: I sit at meals as a ser·ant doth, and I eat
like a ser·ant, íor I really am a ser·ant`, and he would sit as one that was ready
to rise. le discouraged supererogatory íasting, and works oí mortiíication. le
hated nothing more than lying, and whene·er he knew that any oí his íollowers
had erred in this respect, he would hold himselí alooí írom them, until he was
assured oí their repentance.`

Attitude at Prayers: le used to stand íor such a length
oí time at prayer that his legs would swell. \hen remonstrated with, he said,
\hat shall I not beha·e as a thankíul ser·ant should· le ne·er yawned at
prayer. \hen he sneezed, he did so with a subdued ·oice, co·ering his íace. At
íunerals he ne·er rode, he would remain silent on such occasions, as ií
con·ersing with himselí so that the people used to think he was holding
communication with the dead.`

1he íollowing are abstracts oí \ashington Ir·ing`s account oí the
characteristics oí the Prophet Mohammed.

lis intellectual qualities were undoubtedly oí an extraordinary kind. le had
a quick apprehension, a retenti·e memory, a ·i·id imagination, and an in·enti·e

, Sir \illiam Muir`s 1he Liíe oí Mohammad`.
, Liíe oí Mahomet by \ashington Ir·ing ,Bell & Daldy, London 1864,

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
genius. lis ordinary discourse was gra·e and sententious, abounding with those
aphorisms and epilogues, so popular among the Arabs, at times, he was excited
and eloquent, and his eloquence was aided by a ·oice musical sonorous.
le was sober and abstemious in his diet, and a rigorous obser·er oí íasts.
le indulged in no magniíicence oí apparel, the ostentation oí a petty mind,
neither was his simplicity in dress aííected, but the result oí a real disregard to
distinction írom so tri·ial a source. lis garments were sometimes oí wool,
sometimes oí the striped cotton oí \emen, and were oíten patched. le
íorbade the wearing oí clothes entirely oí silk, but permitted a mixture oí
thread and silk.
le was scrupulous as to personal cleanliness, and obser·ed írequent
ablutions. In his pri·ate dealings he was just. le treated íriends and strangers,
the rich and the poor, the poweríul and the weak, with equity, and was belo·ed
by the common people íor the aííability, with which he recei·ed them, and
listened to their complaints. le was naturally irritable, but had brought his
temper under great control, so that e·en in the selí-indulgent intercourse oí
domestic liíe, he was kind and tolerant. I ser·ed him írom the time I was eight
years old,` said his ser·ant Anas, and he ne·er scolded me íor anything,
though things were spoiled by me.`

T Th he e R Re ea al l M Mo ot ti iv ve es s o of f t th he e P Pr ro op ph he et t
. Ir·ing, seeking to disco·er the real moti·es oí Mahomet` in gi·ing
himselí íor a prophet oí God, put the íollowing questions, which
himselí answered: -
\as it riches· lis marriage with Khadija had already made him wealthy,
and íor years preceding his pretended ·ision,` he had maniíested no desire to
increase his store. \as it distinction· le already stood high in his nati·e place,
as a man oí intelligence and probity. le was oí the illustrious tribe oí Koreish,
and the most honoured branch oí the tribe. \as it power· 1he guardianship oí
the Kaaba, and with it the command oí the sacred city had been íor generation
in his immediate íamily, and his situation and circumstances entitled him to
look íorward with coníidence to that exalted trust. In attempting to sub·ert the
íaith, in which he had been brought up, he struck at the root oí all these
ad·antages. On that íaith were íounded the íortunes and dignities oí his íamily.
1o assist it, must draw on himselí the hostility oí his kindred, the indignation oí
his íellow-citizens and the horror and odium oí all his countrymen who were
worshippers oí the Kaaba.

\as there anything brilliant in the outset oí his prophetic career to repay
him íor these sacriíices, and to lure him on· On the contrary, it was begun in
doubt and secrecy. lor years it was not attended by any material success. In
proportion as he made known his doctrines and proclaimed his re·elations,
they subjected him to ridicule, scorn, obloquy and íinally to an in·eterate
persecution, which ruined the íortunes oí himselí and his íriends, compelled
some oí his íamily and íollowers to take reíuge in a íoreign land, obliged him to
hide írom sight in his nati·e city, and íinally dro·e him íorth a íugiti·e, to seek

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
an uncertain home elsewhere. \hy should he persist íor years in course oí
imposture which was thus prostrating all his worldly íortunes, at a tie oí liíe
when it was too later to build up anew·
le was íorty years oí age beíore he íirst broached his doctrines. le
suííered years aíter year to steal away, beíore he promulgated them outside oí
his own íamily. \hen he íled írom Mecca, thirteen years had elapsed írom the
announcement oí his mission, and írom being a wealthy merchant, he had sunk
to be a ruined íugiti·e. \hen he reached Medina, he had no idea oí the worldly
power that awaited him, his only thought was to build a humble mosque where
he might preach, and his only hope, that he might be suííered to preach with
lis military triumphs awakened no pride nor ·ainglory, as they would ha·e
done had they been eííected íor selíish purposes. In the time oí his greatest
power he maintained the same simplicity oí manners and appearance as in the
days oí his ad·ersity. So íar írom aííecting regal state, he was displeased ií, on
entering a room, any unusual testimonial oí respect were shown him. Ií he
aimed at uni·ersal dominion, it was the dominion oí íaith, as to the temporal
rule which grew up in his hands, he used it without ostentation, and he took no
step to perpetuate it in his íamily.

1he riches which poured in upon him írom tribute and the spoils oí war
were expended in promoting the ·ictories oí the íaith, and in relie·ing the poor
among its ·otaries, insomuch that his treasury was oíten drained oí its last coin.
Omar Ibn Al lareth declares that Mahomet` at his death, did not lea·e a
golden dinar nor a sil·er dirham, a sla·e nor a sla·e-girl, nor anything but his
gray mule Daldal, his arms and the ground which he bestowed upon his wi·es,
his children, and the poor.

It is this períect abnegation oí selí connected with this apparently heartíelt
piety, running throughout the ·arious phases oí his íortune, which perplex one
in íorming a just estimate oí Mahomet`s character. lowe·er, he betrayed the
alloy oí earth aíter he had worldly power at his command, the early aspirations
oí his spirit continually returned and bore him abo·e all earthy things. Prayer,
that ·ital duty oí Islam, and that iníallible puriíier oí the soul, was his constant
practice. 1rust in God`, was his comíort and support in times oí trail and
despondency. On the clemency oí God, we are told, he reposed all his hopes oí
supernal happiness. Ayesha relates that on one occasion she inquired oí his,
Oh, prophet, do none enter Paradise but through God`s mercy· None, none,
none,` replied he, with earnest and emphatic repetition. But you, O prophet,
will not you enter excepting through lis compassion·` 1hen Mahomet` put
his hand upon his head, and replied three times, with great solemnity, Neither
shall I enter Paradise, unless God co·er me with lis mercy.`
\hen he hung o·er the death-bed oí his iníant son Ibrahim, resignation to
the will oí God was exhibited in his conduct under this keenest oí aíílictions,
and the hope oí soon rejoining his child in Paradise was his consolation. \hen
he íollowed him to the gra·e, he in·oked his spirit, in the awíul examination oí
the tomb to hold íast to the íoundations oí the íaith, the unity oí God, and his
own mission as a prophet. L·en in his own dying hour, when there could be no

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
longer a worldly moti·e íor deceit he still breathed the same religious de·otion,
and the same belieí in his apostolic mission. 1he last words that trembled on
his lips ejaculated a trust oí soon entering into blissíul companion-ship with the
prophets who had gone beíore him.`

A At tt ta ac ck ks s o of f C Ch hr ri is st ti ia an n D Di iv vi in ne es s
a ag ga ai in ns st t t th he e P Pr ri iv va at te e
C Ch ha ar ra ac ct te er r o of f t th he e P Pr ro op ph he et t
he manner, in which Christian di·ines ha·e attacked the pri·ate character
oí the prophet, is indeed ·ery surprising. 1hey seem to reject the sacred
mission oí the prophet Mohammed merely on account oí his polygamous
marriages etc., when yet they recei·e as inspired the sayings oí Balaam, Da·id
or Solomon. Missionaries should not, as a rule attack the character oí
Ií the prophetic mission oí Mohammed should be rejected by the ministers
oí the church on account oí his ha·ing had nine wi·es and two concubines,
why should not they raise the same objection against such oí the Old
1estament prophets whose number oí wi·es and concubines had by íar
exceeded that number·

Da·id had six wi·es and numerous concubines ,2 sam ·. 13, 1 Chron .iii, 1-
9, xi·. 3,, Solomon as many as ¯00 wi·es and as many as 300 concubines,
,Kings xi. 3,. Rehoboam had 18 wi·es and 60 concubines ,2 Chron. ix. 21,, a
plurality expressly íorbidden to the so·ereign oí Israel, who was commanded
not to multiply wi·es to himselí ,Deut. x·ii. 1¯,. lonestly speaking, prejudice
and partiality alone seem to reign o·er all the writings oí Christian missionaries,
when they deal with the person and character oí the Prophet.

1he mere íact that the Prophet Mohammed entered into polygamous
relationship should not be made the pretext íor attacks on his unsullied
character, ·ouched íor by íriends and íoes alike. 1he circumstances, connected
with the marriages oí the Prophet must be taken into consideration, in order to
come to a right conclusion. As already stated, he passed his adult days with an
elderly widow and did not, condescend to enter into another wedlock, e·en
though the Mecca elders gladly agreed to place the most beauteous damsel oí
the wealthiest íamily at his disposal. lowe·er, later on, in the declining years oí
his liíe, he married a number oí wi·es who, with the solitary exception oí
Ayesha, were either widows or di·orced women. 1hese íacts, ·iewed in the
light oí the truth that the Prophet passed his days in preaching and acti·ely

, \. Ir·ing`s Liíe oí Mohamet` ,Bell. & Daldy , p. 200.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
pushing the cause oí his new íaith, and his nights in prayer, and that the
Prophet was uni·ersally belie·ed to be an honest man, endowed with all the
qualities oí moral greatness and all the attributes oí ·irtuous manliness, bring
home the con·iction to e·ery sound mind, that sensuality as a moti·e oí action,
is conspicuous by its absence in the liíe oí the Prophet oí Islam. Lach oí his
marriages brought a world oí social and political good to the Moslem
community, and these marriages were a ·aluable instrument in welding together
the contending íactions oí Arabia into a united community. lad polygamy,
allowed by the Prophet under reasonable restraints and limitations, been a
social bane, as some prejudiced critics try to assert, it would ha·e hampered the
moral ele·ation oí the corrupted Arabs. But with the adoption oí Islam as a
moral code, the moral impro·ement grew apace, and the transíormation
wrought in the moral condition oí Arabia, is without a parallel in the history oí
the world.

T Th he e S So oc ci ia al l C Ch ha an ng ge es s
B Br ro ou ug gh ht t a ab bo ou ut t b by y t th he e P Pr ro op ph he et t
ealing with the social changes brought about by the Prophet, Dr.
states: One íact among others by which we can estimate the
striking impression the Prophet produced upon the Arabs, is that as each tribe
submitted, or adopted his religion, it renounced the right oí retaliation íor the
bloodshed in the struggle. Under other circumstances, this renunciation oí
blood re·enge, or oí wergild at least, would ha·e seemed to the Arab the lowest
depth oí humiliation. 1his was, indeed so striking a íeature oí the new
brotherhood that it could not íail to make a silent but deep impression upon
the unbelie·ing multitude who now began to íeel the power oí the new religion.
1o those who seek miracles, this glorious result, achie·ed in less than a
decade, constitutes a real and splendid miracle oí Islam, which alone gi·es it the
title, to be ranked as a great religion and a wonderíul ci·ilising agency. In an
exquisitely beautiíul passage, íull oí grace and wisdom, the loly Koran draws a
contrast between the liíe and manners oí the Arabs in the shade oí Islam and
those in pre-Islamic times, and urges upon the true belie·ers a true union oí
hearts, and dwells on the real purpose oí the ad·ent oí the new religion. lere is
a translation oí the ·erses: O ye belie·ers, íear God as le deser·eth to be
íeared, and die not but as true Moslems. And hold ye íast by the cord oí God,
all oí you, and do not scatter yoursel·es, and remember God`s goodness
towards you, bor tbat rbev ,ov rere evevie.. íe vvitea ,ovr beart., ava tbrovgb
íi. grace, ,e becave bretbrev, and when ye were on the brink oí the pit oí íire,
le drew you back írom it, thus clearly God showeth lis signs, that ye may be
guided. And let there be among you a people who in·ite to the good, and
enjoin the right, and íorbid the wrong: and these are they who shall succeed.
And be ye not like those who ha·e broken into di·isions and íallen into

, Dr. Noldeke`s Book on Islam.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
·ariance, aíter the clear prooís ha·e come to them, and íor those there waits a
terrible chastisement`

X XI II I. .
T Th he e P Po ol li it ti ic ca al l O Or rg ga an ni is sa at ti io on n W Wr ro ou ug gh ht t
b by y t th he e A Ad dv ve en nt t o of f I Is sl la am m
slam writes Mr. Stanley Lane Poole, is a íorm oí a pure theism, simpler and
more austere than the theism oí most íorms oí modern Christianity
, Loíty
in the conception oí the relation oí man to God, and noble in its doctrine oí
the duty oí man to the lower creatures. 1here is little in it oí superstition
, less
oí complexity oí dogmas: it is an exacting religion without the repulsi·eness oí
asceticism: se·ere but not merciless.
Nothing in íact is more odious, according to the doctrines oí Islam, than
the selí-inílicted torments and ·oluntary penance oí the ascetics. It always
recommends the culti·ation oí the social ·irtues and the practice oí those
qualities which íorm the graces oí a corporate liíe. Islam laid the íoundations oí
a social system which breathes the spirit oí charity, íriendship, and mutual trust
among its member. So impressi·ely did the Prophet bring these high lessons
home to the Arabs mind, both by precepts and example, that the tribal
jealousies oí centuries soon became extinct, the old spirit oí re·enge, inherent
in the nation, died away, and the hearts oí the true belie·ers were knit together
in the closest bond oí sympathy and íraternity. 1hey now íelt themsel·es as the
brethren oí one and the same íaith and citizens oí the same commonwealth,
enjoying equal rights and pri·ileges.
Islam penetrated into the ·ery hearts oí the Arab people, and the old spirit
oí jealousy and ·engeance, oí hostility and ill-will, yielded place to a happy
conscious-ness, oí the power oí lo·e, sympathy and íellow-íeeling, the ·ery
character oí the Arab mind was changed, and many oí the e·ils rooted in the
nation were íast eradicated. \ithin the Islamic commonwealth the internecine
wars, which were cause oí much wanton bloodshed, soon became a thing oí
the past, and hostile tribes were united in íaith and obedience, and the ·alour
which had been idly spent in domestic quarrels, was ·igorously directed against
a íoreign enemy.`

T Th he e P Po ol li it ti ic ca al l S Sy ys st te em m o of f I Is sl la am m
hen the Prophet settled at Medina, he established a commonwealth
based not upon the old basis oí consanguinity, but upon Religion, with
the Prophet himselí as the chieí magistrate. 1he spirit oí blood-re·enge
deri·ed írom the íiery and sensiti·e temper oí the Arabs which was responsible
íor the long protracted blood íeuds between clan and clan, waned away, and in

, In íact there is not to be íound such a pure theism in any other religion than Isalm.
, 1here is not the slightest superstition in Islam.
, Stanley Lane Pool`s Lectures on Islam.`

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
its place there grew up in each member oí the new commonwealth a genuine,
earnest desire to see the peace and unity oí the community maintained. 1he
sense oí tribal pride and superiority lost much oí its keenness, the bond oí
consanguinity was greatly relaxed. 1hey were taught to re·erence the new
institution, planted through the Prophet, by God limselí, and to sink their
tribal dissensions in the common weal oí the brotherhood oí íaith. O men,
·erily, we ha·e created you oí one male and one íemale, and we ha·e di·ided
you into peoples and tribes, that ye might ha·e knowledge one oí another.
1ruly, tbe vo.t rortb, of bovovr iv tbe .igbt of Coa i. be rbo fearetb íiv vo.t.
Verily, God is knowing and Congnisant.`

Lquality oí rights was thus the distinguishing íeature oí the Islamite
commonwealth. A con·ert írom a humbler clan enjoyed the same rights and
pri·ileges as one who belonged to the noblest Koreish. L·en a sla·e was
admitted as a brother írom the ·ery moment oí his con·ersion, and the highest
dignitary in the state thought it no dishonour, to partake oí his repast with him.
Nor in the place oí worship were suííered artiíicial diííerences between man
and man, the high and the low, the prince and the peasant, the rich merchant oí
Mecca and the roaming bedouin oí the desert, stood shoulder to shoulder in
the presence oí their common Deity. 1his equality and íraternity was, and is
e·en today, though much weakened, the key-note oí Islam and the secret oí its
power as a world-religion.
1his le·eling principle, underlying the tenets oí the
new íaith, pro·ed a ·eritable blessing to the Arabs in particular. 1ribes and
races, hitherto at war with one another, were, in the embracing íold oí Islam,
welded into one nation, imbued with common ideas, common aims and
aspirations, and de·oted to a common cause. Conílicting interests were
harmonised írom a loyal desire to ad·ance the public good. 1he loly Koran
laid down certain principal laws, intended to go·ern their new relations as
members oí the state, to extinguish the íire oí the old tribal jealousy, and to
aííect a union oí hearts unknown beíore. 1he laws soon succeeded in bringing
order out oí chaos and coníusion and made ci·ic liíe possible íor the íirst time
in Arabia, O belie·ers.` So run the íine ·erses oí the Koran, Ií any wicked
man come to you with news, make a thorough inquiry, lest through ignorance
ye harm a people and ha·e to repent on the morrow oí what ye ha·e done, and
know that an apostle oí God is among you. Should he submit to you in most
matters ye would certainly íall into diííiculty. But God hath endeared the íaith
to you, and hath gi·en it ía·our in your hearts, and hath made unbelieí and
wicked-ness and disobedience hateíul to you. Such are they who pursue a right
path, a bounty írom God and a grace: and God is knowing and \ise. Ií two
bodies oí the belie·ers are at war, then make ye peace between them with
íairness and do justice: God lo·eth those who are just. 1hose who belie·e are
brethren, whereíore make peace between your brethren, and íear God, that ye
may obtain mercy. O belie·ers, let not a people laugh another people to scorn
who haply may be better than themsel·es, neither let women laugh women to
scorn who haply may be better than themsel·es. Neither deíame one another,

, Koran, ch. 49 :13
, 1. \. Arnold, 1he Preaching oí Islam`.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
nor call one another by bad names. \ickedness is such a bad quality to adopt,
aíter becoming true belie·ers, and whose who repent not ,oí this, are
wrongdoers. O belie·ers, a·oid írequent suspicions, ·erily some suspicions are
a crime, and pry not into others` secrets, neither let the one oí you traduce
another in his absence. \ould any oí you like to eat the ílesh oí his dead
brother· Surely you would loathe it. And íear ye God, íor God is ready to
íorgi·e, and le is Merciíul. O men, ·erily \e ha·e made you oí one male, and
one íemale, and \e ha·e made you peoples and tribes that ye might know one
another. 1ruly, the most worthy oí the honour beíore God is he who íeareth
lim most. Verily God is knowing, and Cognisant.

Such were the principles, on which the political system oí Islam was
grounded. It was thoroughly democratic in character. It recognised indi·idual
and public liberty, secured the person and property oí the subjects, and íostered
the growth oí all ci·ic ·irtues. It communicated all the pri·ileges oí the
conquering class to those oí the conquered who coníormed to its religion, and
all the protection oí citizenship to those who did not. It put an end to old
customs that were oí immoral and criminal character. It abolished the inhuman
custom oí burying the iníant daughters ali·e, and took eííecti·e measures íor
the suppression oí the sla·e-traííic, it prohibited adultery and incestuous
relationship, and on the other hand, inculcated purity oí heart, cleanliness oí
body, and sobriety oí liíe.`

T Th he e S So oc ci ia al l O Or rg ga an ni is sa at ti io on n o of f I Is sl la am m
he Prophet Mohammed did not only promulgate a religion, but he also
laid down a complete social system, containing minute regulations íor a
man`s conduct in all circumstances oí liíe, with due remarks and penalties,
according to his íulíillment or otherwise oí these rules. 1he social and the
religious parts oí Islam are so inseparably bound up that it is impossible to cut
oíí the one írom the other without destroying both. Religion according to
Islam should not only lay down the law oí relation oí man to God, but should
also regulate and distinctly deíine the proper relation between man and his
1he loly Koran inculcates the soíter ·irtues, such as íriendliness, good
temper, aííability oí manners, hospitality, íorgi·eness, íairness, in dealing,
regard íor superiors, kind treatment oí iníeriors, respect íor women, care oí
orphans, tending the sick, helping the helpless and the destitute, with a íorce
and persuasion which it is diííicult to íind elsewhere. 1he critics oí Islam ha·e
íor most part expressed their unstinted admiration íor the heroic, or sterner
·irtues, to wit: patient endurance, íortitude, lo·e oí truth under personal risk,
courage and manly independence, which Islam has always exalted and in the
practice oí which the Prophet himselí and the early Moslems were so
mar·elously distinguished, but these critics oíten íorget that Islam enjoins with
equal emphasis the culti·ation oí the gentler ·irtues too. Lessons oí modesty

, Koran, ch. 49 : 6-13.
, Bosworth Smith, Mohamed and Mohammedanism`

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
and bene·olence and charity ha·e been so oíten reiterated in the Koran, and
again, these ·irtues íorm so conspicuous an element in the liíe and conduct oí
the Prophet and his companions, that Islam can justly claim to be ranked as a
Religion oí Lo·e. L·ery chapter oí the loly Koran begins with the name oí
God, the Merciíul, the Compassionate.`

1he Prophet oí Islam has been denominated in the Koran as the tender,
the compassionate,` and the mercy íor the uni·erse.` limselí the tenderest and
the most lo·ing oí men, he was ne·er tired oí preaching to his íollowers the
brotherhood oí man and humanity to all God`s creatures. low do you think,`
he asks, God will know you when you are in lis presence· By your lo·e oí
your children, by your lo·e oí your kin, oí your neighbours, oí íellow-
creatures.` le displayed the greatest consideration íor the íeelings and
sensibilities oí others. le lo·ed his wi·es, and was kind to his ser·ants. le was
particularly íond oí little children and discouraged the use oí the rod íor their
correction. le enjoined humanity e·en to dumb animals.
Such being the ethics oí the Koran and the teachings oí the Apostle oí
Islam, it is easy to íorm some idea oí the exact nature and extent oí the change
wrought thereby in the liíe and thought oí the Arabs. Some oí the íirst íew
con·erts to Islam, unable to bear persecutions at the hands oí the idolaters,
sought reíuge in Abyssinia. \hen asked by the Negus as to the reason why they
had leít country, Jaaíar, a cousin oí the Prophet, spoke thus as the mouthpiece
oí the small band oí reíugees: O King, we li·ed in ignorance, idolatry and
unchastity, the strong oppressed the weak, we spoke untruth, we ·iolated the
duties oí hospitality. 1hen a prophet arose, one whom we know írom our
youth, with whose descent and conduct and good íaith we are all acquainted.
le told us to worship one God, to keep good íaith to, assist our relati·es, to
íulíill the rights oí hospitality, and to abstain írom all things impure ungodly,
unrighteous. And he ordered us to say prayers, gi·e alms, and to íast. \e
belie·ed in him, we íollowed him. But our countrymen persecuted us, tortured
us and tried to cause us to íorsake our religion, and now we throw oursel·es
upon thy protection. \ilt thou not protect us·`

Dealing with this great spiritual re·olution, Sir \illiam Muir obser·es as
íollows:- Ne·er since the days when primiti·e Christianity startled the world
írom its sleep, had men seen the like arousing oí spiritual liíe.1hirteen years
beíore the lijra`, Mecca lay liíeless in its debased state. \hat a change had
those thirteen years now produced. A band oí se·eral hundred persons had
rejected idolatry, adopted the worship oí one God, and surrendered themsel·es
implicitly to the guidance oí what they belie·ed a Re·elation írom lim, praying
to the Almighty with írequency and íer·our, looking íor pardon through lis
Mercy and stri·ing to íollow aíter good works, alms-gi·ing, purity and justice.
1hey now li·ed under the constant sense oí the omnipotent power oí God and
oí lis pro·idential care o·er the minutest oí their concerns. In all the giíts oí
nature, in e·ery relation oí liíe, at each turn oí their aííairs, indi·idual or public,
they saw lis hand. Mohammed was minister oí liíe to them, the source under

, Stanley Lane Poole.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
God oí their new-born hopes, and to lim they yielded an implicit

R Re ef fu ut ta at ti io on n o of f C Ce er rt ta ai in n F Fa al ls se e C Ch ha an ng ge es s
b by y
P Pr re ej ju ud di ic ce ed d W Wr ri it te er rs s a ag ga ai in ns st t I Is sl la am m
1. “Force and Compulsion were Employed
for the Dissemination of Islam”
slam took its birth, and has since li·ed, in the broad daylight oí history. 1he
Moslems adhere to the íaith oí Islam not because they were born and bred
in this íaith, but because it is the most historical religion and can bear with
períect saíety e·en the se·erest possible criticism.
Ií those who brought the abo·e charge, had cared to deal with their subject
in an honest, straightíorward manner, they should ha·e gone through the
teachings oí Islam, as embodied in the loly Koran, and then pondered o·er
the íace, that the early Moslems were so much de·oted to the letter, as well as
the spirit oí this Book, that they sacriíiced e·erything to obedience to the
injunctions contained in it, and did not swer·e e·en a hair`s breadth írom the
path laid down in their Book. Ií the Book enjoined íorce and compulsion íor
the spread oí Islam, the Moslems must íought and worked ha·oc íor the
propagation oí Islam. 1here is not e·en a single ·erse in the loly Koran which
directly or e·en indirectly insinuates the alternati·e oí death or Islam íor the
unbelie·ers. 1here is no compulsion in religion` trumpets íorth loudly the
peaceíul spirit oí Islam. 1he commandment is absolutely positi·e and admits oí
no exception. 1he use oí íorce and compulsion is, then, totally íorbidden, and
the imperati·e and highly dictatorial character oí the injunction lea·es no room
íor any chance oí making an exception in ía·our oí the employment oí war-
like means, íor the purpose oí popularising Islam. 1he mere íact that in the
history oí Islam one meets with íighting and bloodshed can in no way lead to
the conclusion that Islam was spread by the sword. 1here is no religion the
history oí which is not stained with blood. 1he Crusades, the Christian
conquest oí Spain, the subsequent persecution and expulsion oí the Moslem
Moors, the days oí the Inquisition, the massacres oí St. Bartholomew`s day and
other similar tragedies, perpetrated in the name oí religion, recurring the
memory, send a new horror and dismay throughout the world.

No reasonable person will thereíore be prepared to accuse the adherents oí
any religion oí allowing íorce and compulsion, on the ílimsy ground that the
story oí such religion makes mention oí bloodshed and íighting. Islam will be
to blame, ií it can be pro·ed that it sanctions the use oí íorce and compulsion
íor the propagation oí the íaith. But on the contrary, we íind clear and explicit

, Sir \illiam Muir`s Liíe oí Mohammed.`

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
injunctions íorbidding íorce íor the purpose oí religion. 1he only possible
conclusion that can be drawn írom the abo·e considerations, is that ií the
Moslems were acting in accordance with the teachings oí Islam, they did not
take up arms íor the sake oí íorcing con·ersions. A glance at the history oí
those days will bring to light the íact that they were persecuted, and were
subjected to all sorts oí torture and ill-treatment. 1hey leít their homes to sa·e
their li·es, but the merciless enemies íollowed them. At last when all peaceíul
means íailed, and the aggressi·e spirit oí their antagonists reached its zenith,
the enemies ha·ing made up their minds, to annihilate the embryo dispensation,
the handíul oí Moslems were dri·en to ha·e recourse to arms. 1hey íought and
íought, till there was no danger leít to retard íree growth and expansion oí
Islam. Ií íacts alone are looked at, there should be no diííiculty in realising the
real situation oí the early Moslems who had to íight íor the sake oí selí-
preser·ation. Later on there was also a good deal oí íighting, and although
much oí this later íighting had little to do with religion, there is certainly
nothing in it to blame the Moslems íor. 1he political de·elopment oí a nation is
another problem which needs careíul handling and which I lea·e íor students
oí politics to examine. In regard to those ·erses oí the loly Koran, in which
war is enjoined upon Moslems against the iníidels, and that where·er they are
íound they shall be taken and killed with a general slaughter,` these ·erses and
their like, as already stated, bear upon the deíensi·e war oí the Prophet. 1he
Moslems can produce any number oí ·erses írom the loly Koran which enjoin
all courtesy, politeness and ci·ility, e·en in the case oí se·ere persecutors. 1he
example oí the Prophet is clear on this point. le granted pardon to the Mecca
persecutors when, quite ·anquished, they threw themsel·es on the mercy oí the
Prophet. God says` And the ser·ants oí God oí Mercy are they who walk
upon the earth soítly, and when the ignorant address them, reply Peace`, and
they pass the night in the adoration oí their Lord, prostrate ,at times, and
standing ,at others, íor prayers.`

I appeal to the good sense oí the readers as to whether there can be, íound a
higher ideal íor humanity to pursue. God`s ser·ants are required to walk
humbly and harmlessly, and when they are coníronted with ignorance which is
only another name íor lack oí manners and manly beha·iour, e·en there, when
hedged round by ill manners and ill-treatment the true Moslem is called upon
to wish íor peace. le sole object in his social capacity should be to spread
peace, e·en when harassed by bad beha·iour and inconsiderate treatment.
Peace is the Moslem`s watchword, whate·er circumstances he has to pass
through. \hen comparing this highly practical ideal with the Christian
injunction Lo·e your enemy,` a Moslem is constrained to admit his
impression that the Christian code oí morality is only a set oí íair-seeming
platitudes, not meant íor practice, but merely íor contro·ersial purposes. It is
all ·ery well to lo·e one`s enemy, but is it, a Moslem asks, in consonance with
human nature, to be able to show anything like real and true lo·e, where there
exists enmity· Our enemy ií he is an enemy at all, in the natural sense oí the
word, cannot be expected to íeel ía·ourably disposed, much less lo·ing and
aííectionate to us. lowe·er pious and godly we may happen to be, hatred and
contempt, the necessary characteristics oí enmity, must re-act on us, and our

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
attitude, at best, will be supposed inacti·e hatred, and in no case real lo·e. Lo·e
begets lo·e, and hatred begets hatred. 1his is the law oí nature, and a wise man
cannot ignore the course oí nature and írame a line oí conduct conílicting
straightway with it. Islam does not require us to be hypocritical lo·ers oí our
enemies, but calls upon us to be reconciled with our enemies, and to be at
peace with them. 1hus, remo·ing the cause oí enmity, ií it is possible to do so,
a Moslem should be sincerely lo·ing. But ií the cause cannot be remo·ed, our
hostilities should not be acti·e and aggressi·e, íor we are, in the honest
discharge oí our religious duties bound to wish íor peace under all
circumstances and all e·ents.

I ha·e already stated with suííicient íullness, and not repeat it o·er and o·er
again that Moslem wars, as allowed in the Koran and explained by the teachings
oí the Prophet, were entirely deíensi·e, and thereíore the attacks recommended
are ne·er aggressi·e. 1he religion oí Islam is essentially íor peace, and e·en in
íighting the aim was nothing but peace.

1he deíensi·e wars oí the early Moslems are a matter oí history. It is an
historical truth, and no reasonable person can reíuse to accept it. Aíter thirteen
long years` persistent persecution, when all peaceíul measures had íailed and
pro·ed una·ailing when war or death were the only alternati·es, it would not
ha·e been right to act upon the Gospel ·erdict Lo·e your enemies and do
good to them that hate you,` and thus to allow the enemies oí Islam to re·el in
the wholesale massacre oí harmless worshippers oí the one true God, and to
sweep the only li·ing íaith out oí existence. Moslems who were bent upon the
preser·ation oí their belo·ed íaith at all hazards, Moslems who lo·ed God
abo·e all worldly considerations, e·en their ·ery li·es, Moslems who were by all
sorts oí ruthless tortures and merciless butcheries, goaded by natural anger, so
íar kept down by the peaceíul ordinances oí Islam, could not oí course adopt
the Lo·e your enemy` maxim as their guide. 1he enemy oí God and his
blessed dispensation which preaches lo·e, peace and íellow-íeeling, can
scarcely be expected to deser·e real lo·e at the hands oí a sincere lo·er oí God.
A Moslem cannot aííord to lo·e an enemy who hates God. le cannot go
against human nature. lis ideal will be peace, he reíuses to play the aggressi·e
part, and he takes the initiati·e in the reconciliation and shows sincere lo·e
there-aíter. A zealous enthusiastic Moslem writer makes the íollowing remarks
on the attitude oí Christian critics who lay great stress on the deíensi·e wars oí
the Prophet:

Our Christian íriends lo·e to conceal íacts while dealing with Islam. 1hey
are e·er prepared to dwell upon the deíensi·e wars oí the Prophet and his early
íollowers, but they take good care to keep us away írom what Jesus is reported
to ha·e said with positi·e deíiniteness: 1hink not that I am come to send
peace on earth. I came not to send peace, but a sword` Again, we read: I am
come to send íire upon the earth and what will be ií it be already kindled.` \e
read again in the Gospels: Suppose ye that I am come to gi·e peace on earth·
I tell you, nay but rather di·ision.` One more we read in the Gospel: 1hen
said he unto them but now he that hath no sword let him sell his garment and

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
buy one`. It is now as clear as the day, that ií Jesus had had the opportunity oí
gaining political strength, he would ha·e íilled the earth with war and
bloodshed, notwithstanding his saying Lo·e your enemy`. Peace is the thing a
Moslem is called upon to maintain by whate·er means he can, but peace,
according to the abo·e statements attributed to Jesus, is the ·ery thing Christ
came to destroy.

Instead oí the Christian commandment, Resist not e·il, but whose·er
smiteth thee on the right cheek, turn to him the other also,` the Moslems
íollow their Koranic ·erdict, to wit: \ard oíí e·il in the best possible

Ií e·il is not to be resisted, it would be allowed to grow unchecked and eat
away the ·ery ·itals oí humanity. All goals, reíormatory schools, and law courts
should be abolished íorthwith, so that under the charitable teachings oí the
Christian íaith, e·il may ha·e períect íreedom and run riot in whate·er way it
can. \hen it is a sin to resist e·il, the natural consequence is the abject
toleration, or rather encouragement, oí all sorts oí neíarious designs and
mischie·ous courses. luman nature is not saíe under the assumed Christian
teachings, thereíore, it naturally re·olts against them. Ne·er has mankind, e·en
in the ·ery heart oí ci·ilisation which is said to be the direct result oí Christian
teachings, acted upon these teachings which are against the intellect, nature and
instincts oí humanity. 1he loly Koran strikes at the ·ery root oí e·il. It stops
the ·ery source oí it. It says: \ard oíí e·il in the best possible manner`. 1he
measure to be taken íor the remo·al oí e·il is not positi·e non-resistance,
which is not a sensible policy at all, but on the contrary the most eííecti·e
methods ought to be used íor the extirpation oí e·il. 1he means suited to
particular cases are to be employed, whether they be harsh or mild. \hate·er is
producti·e oí desirable results should be restored to íor the eradications oí e·il.

2. Mohammedanism: A Religion of Sex–
As regards the assertion that Islam is a religion oí sex-indulgence nothing
can be íarther írom the truth. A comparison oí the moral conditions oí the
countries, populated by Moslems and Christians respecti·ely, will clearly show
that the number oí illegitimate birth is alarmingly greater in Christian than in
Moslem countries. 1he honour oí the íair sex is more in jeopardy in the íormer
than elsewhere, and the íreedom oí the soíter sex is nowhere so cruelly abused
and insulted as in many Christian lands. Islam enjoins upon its íollowers to li·e
and act under a constant sense oí the íear oí God. \hate·er a Moslem does, he
does it God íearingly. lear oí God is the pre·ailing passion with a Moslem, and
go·erning all his thoughts, words, and actions. L·en in conjugal relations and
connubial dealings, íear oí God is the main moti·e oí action.
I gi·e below, in extenso, the nuptial sermon, uni·ersally preached on the
occasion oí marriage, in imitation oí the Prophet: -

, Quazi Abdul laque, 1he Re·iew oí Religion` ,Sept. 1913,.
, Koran.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
O ye belie·ers, íear God as le deser·es to be íeared, and die not without
ha·ing become true Moslems. O men íear your Lord \ho hath created you oí
one progenitor, and oí the same species created. le his wiíe and írom these
twain hath spread abroad so many men and women. And íear ye God, in
\hose name ye ask mutual ía·ours, and re·erence the wombs that bore you.
Verily, God is watching o·er you. O belie·ers íear God and speak with well-
guided speech, that God may bless your doings íor you and íorgi·e you your
sins. And whoso obeyeth God and lis apostle, with great bliss he surely shall
be blest.`
1he sermon is a collection oí Koranic ·erses, and their repetition at each
and e·ery wedding, is meant to remind the Moslem men and women oí their
duties and obligations. It opens with a commandment to íear God and the selí-
same commandment is repeated quite a number oí times in the course oí the
sermon, showing that the whole oí the ceremony to carried through with íear
oí God so that írom beginning to end it may be a pure moral binding, and no
selíish equi·ocation or hypocritical pre·arication may mar the sanctity oí the
sacred rite. 1he obligations accepted by the pair at the time when the marriage
sermon is deli·ered, will thus be real and will exercise a lasting iníluence on the
íuture liíe oí the couple, as man and wiíe. 1he institution, based solely on íear
oí God, is bound to be holy and those who hold to such a holy institution
cannot be charged with sinister moti·es, ií they are true Moslems. Such a sacred
system can ne·er be producti·e oí sex-indulgence. A man who God-íearingly
enters into a contract and bind himselí to certain obligations, cannot be termed
a sexual man. 1he ·erses clearly gi·e the Moslem to understand that the
ultimate object oí the marriage contract is to win the pleasure oí God. \hen
acting írom such moti·es, it cannot be concei·ed that a Moslem considered
himselí to be pleasing God, while indulging in sensuality. Sensuality is an
abomination to God and a Moslem knows that íact írom the Koran, more than
anybody else. It is impossible, thereíore, to incur displeasure where the a·owed
object is to win appro·al. 1hus it is clear that Islamic marriage makes liíe pure
and chaste, and does not aííord occasion to taunt any one with the ·ice oí
\hether a Moslem weds one wiíe or the íullest admissible number oí wi·es,
he cannot lose sight oí the object oí his liíe. le is not born íor anything but the
adoration oí God. le turns heretic ií he e·en íor an instant, e·en in the
moment oí sexual intercourse-the moment oí utmost enjoyment and thereíore
oí utmost selí-íorgetíulness banishes írom his mind the purpose, íor which he
was brought into being. Marriage, whether monogamous or polygamous, is íor
a Moslem the means oí attaining the nearness oí God.
1he Gospel`s commandment L·ery one that looketh at a woman to lust
aíter her, hath committed adultery with he already in his mind,` shows us that
an e·il look is íorbidden, but a look ha·ing no wicked intention behind it is
permitted. Moslems, howe·er, are bond by their religion not to look repeatedly
and íreely at a strange woman, íor the pleasure oí doing so. According to
human nature a woman, on account oí her charms, is an object oí temptation,
and whoe·er exposes himselí íreely to temptation prepares the way íor his
moral destruction. 1oo much indulgence in the habit oí looking íreely at
beauties, as it seems to be allowed according to the Gospel`s text leads to e·il.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
1he best way to guard against e·il, is to a·oid the path that leads to temptation.
1he Koran íorbids both pure and impure íree looks, íor too much recourse to
pure looks is likely to prompt impure ones. 1o be saíe, temptation must be
kept at arm`s length and not nourished íreely to exhaust one`s patience and
power oí resistance. 1he Koran`s injunctions on the subject are as íollows: -
Ask the belie·ers men to cast down their eyes and obser·e continence.
1hus they will be more pure. Verily God is well aware oí what they do. And ask
the belie·ing women to reírain their looks and obser·e continence, and to
display not their ornaments except those which are external, and to draw their
husbands or their husband`s íathers or their sons, or their íathers or their
husband`s sons, or their brothers or their brothers` sons or their sisters sons or
their women or their sla·es or male domestics who ha·e no natural íorce, or to
children who note not women`s nakedness. And let them not strike with their
íeet, so as to show their hidden ornaments. And be ye wholly turned to God, O
ye belie·ers, then all shall be well with you.`

1hus, both men and women are required to reírain írom unnecessary
looking at each other. 1he soíter sex is required to walk about so careíully as
not to be a stumbling block íor any weakling, and thereíore the social morality
and indi·idual chastity are kept intact. Promiscuous intermingling oí both
sexes, and the reckless display oí charms on the part oí the íair sex, ha·e gone a
long way towards undermining the moral tone oí Christian countries.

A learned man
, commenting on the charge that Islam stimulates sex
indulgence, writes in the Re·iew oí Religions: -
1he li·ing íacts speak ·olumes íor themsel·es and no one who has had
occasion to read up certain articles in the Lncyclopedia Britannica, can aííord
to question the truth oí the sad state oí aííairs so strikingly brought to light in
them. \e cannot shut our eyes to the ennobling iníluence oí the growing
ci·ilisation oí Lurope, but ci·ilisation with all its soítening and ele·ating íorces,
has not yet been able to ob·iate the necessity oí íood, and alle·iate the pressure
oí all the cra·ings oí nature. Ií thereíore attraction oí charms, is a natural
aptitude, as surely it is, one cannot help admitting, that unlike other natural
desires, this cra·ing oí nature also remains unaííected by the ad·ance oí
ci·ilisation. No amount oí learning and no sort oí culture and scholarship can
alter human nature, and it íollows, thereíore, that ci·ilisation can scarcely pro·e
a bar to the inborn desire oí man íor woman, and ·ice ·ersa. 1o assert that
ci·ilised Lurope is prooí against the resistless onslaught oí passion is a
ridiculous statement when, ci·ilisation has íailed to do away with other natural
desires oí mankind. 1o gi·e a moral liít to the Christian countries, it is
necessary to introduce the Islamic moral code which pays equal attention to the
intellectual, moral and social ad·ancement oí the people. But under the present
circumstances, it is sad to note that Christian Lurope impro·es the intellectual
side at the sacriíice oí the moral one.`

, Koran.
, Quazi Abdul laque.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
3- Islam and Polygamy
Islam enjoins marriage, whether monogamous or polygamous, as the
conditions oí liíe necessitate, with due regard to piety, so that there may be no
·iolence to human nature, and the desire íor sexual intercourse, like other
cra·ings oí nature, being duly gratiíied, may lead to the períect saíety and the
complete security oí social morality. 1hus the Islamic system oí marriage,
harmonising with the practical need and the requirement oí mankind, gains
íresh lustre when brought under the search light oí unbiassed criticism. 1he
Prophet`s example in the matter oí marriage is specially striking. It reíutes the
commonplace objection oí ignorant people that it is impossible to deal íairly
with more than one wiíe. One need not waste time and energy in discussing the
practicability oí monogamy or polygamy íor mankind. 1he example oí the
Prophet is ·i·idly beíore us. le had as many as nine wi·es, but how lo·ingly
and íairly he beha·ed towards them, is known to all students oí religion. 1he
lo·e he bore to each indi·idual wiíe, and the consummate spirit oí good will
that characterised the mutual relation oí the Prophet and his wi·es, is abo·e the
possibility oí suspicion. \e ha·e the absolutely credible e·idence oí the wi·es
themsel·es. 1hey state him to be the embodiment oí lo·e and justice.
was there any real grie·ance on the part oí the wi·es against his treatment. 1he
Prophet with his períect example has pro·ed up to the hilt, that it is quite
possible íor a polygamous husband to maintain justice and equality oí
treatment among his wi·es, ií only he has a mind to do so. \hen the Prophet
could do períect justice towards nine, there should be no reason why we cannot
do justice towards only íour, e·en less than halí the number. 1he excess
allowed to the Prophet is not to permit him to indulge in sensuality, as certain
critics would ha·e us belie·e, íor the Prophet`s liíe is unsullied and abo·e such
base charges, but it is meant to show to the world how the Prophet was
endowed with superhuman íeeing oí lo·e and aííection towards his wi·es. It
was also intended to show the Moslems how it was within the range oí
possibility, to deal kindly and justly with a plurality oí wi·es. le leít no room
íor discussion. le acted and asked his íollowers to act. Polygamy must not be
discarded, ií it be íound conducti·e to social happiness, on the clumsy pretext
that it is impossible to li·e smoothly with more than one wiíe. 1he Prophet did
li·e peaceíully with nine wi·es, and we Moslems can also do so, under gi·en
conditions, with íour wi·es, ií we íollow the noble example oí the Prophet in
all our doings and actions. It is only when we íail to li·e up to the standard oí
the Prophet`s períect manners, that we íail to secure a peaceíul and lo·ing
attitude towards a plurality oí wi·es, nay e·en towards a single wiíe.
1he writer takes this opportunity to point out that our critic íriends ha·e no
cause to lose their temper at the mention oí polygamy. Islam does not eníorce
polygamy. It enjoins marriage where no disabilities stand in the way.
Monogamy is the general rule, polygamy is a pro·ision íor urgent emergencies.
It is unwise to question the general wisdom oí an institution in exceptional
cases. Ií a man can be content with one wiíe. Islam does not compel him to
resort to polygamy. Ií Christian critics íind that their way oí li·ing ob·iates the

, Ibn Athir, Abul leda, Sir \. Muir etc, etc.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
necessity oí a plurality oí wi·es, they are not bound to ha·e recourse to
polygamy. Let them li·e with one wiíe and reírain írom re·iling Islam, as Islam
does not make polygamy obligatory. Ií they clearly understand the problem oí
polygamy, I hope they will come to entertain better íeeling towards the law oí
the Prophet Islam simply permits polygamy, ií one cannot li·e in happiness and
piety with one wiíe. But ií Christians can li·e piously and happily with one wiíe,
Islam does not interíere. Islam is as much monogamous as Christianity, the
diííerence, being that the íormer makes a pro·ision íor urgent needs, with due
regard to the rights oí the wiíe, whereas the latter does not, should a man íail to
íind any emergency calling íor a plurality.
Polygamy is not essential in Islam. 1o
consider polygamy as essential in Islam would be an unpardonable mistake. In
íact, the teaching oí the Koran is to the contrary, and strongly recommends
monogamy, as already shown. Islam claims to be a uni·ersal religion. It was not
re·ealed to meet the requirements oí a particular race or age, with its world-
wide mission, Islam had to look to the requirements oí all ages, countries, and
ci·ilisations. Besides the substantial laws, the code oí Islam, as e·ery wise
legislation must do, pro·ides certain ordinances which may be looked upon as
auxiliary or remedial laws, with an elasticity to meet the contingencies oí place
and time. It deprecates their abuses, and lays down proper restrictions as to
their use.
1he e·ents oí the world sometimes gi·e rise to circumstances which cause
appreciable paucity in the number oí men. Inter-tribal or international wars
oíten lead to the same result, and lea·e numberless members oí the weaker sex
without home or protection. 1he recent Luropean war ,1914 - 18, and ,1939-
45, is a quite example oí international calamity that caused an unimaginable
decrease in the number oí males lea·ing hundreds oí thousands oí íemales
without guardians or protectors. \ith all our reíined ideas oí chi·alry and
broadmindedness, no other institution than marriage can saíely come to sa·e
the situation. Other measures under similar circumstances ha·e been schemed
and resorted to, but they could not a·oid undesirable results. 1o maintain strict
continence and piety in society, Islam would not recommend any woman to
seek reíuge under the rooí oí any man who does not stand in marital, or within
the prohibited degree oí relation to her. Our experience also goes íar to
endorse the ad·isability oí Islamic policy in this respect. Polygamy is the only
speciíic remedy to meet the need. But woman has not been leít without her
own choice in the matter. 1o secure her peace, comíort, and happiness, ií she
needs no other help or protection, no Moslem would compel her to marry a
man who is already the husband oí another woman. 1hus polygamy, as said
beíore, is a sort oí remedial law in Islam which may come into operation when
opportunity arises, and should not be resorted to when there is no occasion íor
it. It is not only íor connubial purposes, that equality oí number in men and
women is a necessity. In human liíe there are occasions when only men are in
requisition. low to íill up the shattered ranks, ií similar calamities cause the
dearth oí men· 1he only two resorts leít are either to encourage bastardy or
adopt polygamy. 1o recruit the number no one ha·ing the least sense oí
decency would recommend the íormer measure. One, indeed cannot

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

understand the wisdom oí the law in the \est which, practically speaking,
condones what it condemns under the name oí bigamy. Marriage aíter all is
only a union oí man and woman which under speciíied íormalities recei·ed the
sanction oí society. 1hereíore, ií the special circum-stances oí an age do
demand the multiplication oí units in a nation, why not legalise what has
already recei·ed the sanction oí practice and usage, and sa·e thousands and
thousands oí souls írom the ignominy oí being called bastard` sons or
daughters, and thus gi·e them the right to inherit írom these who ga·e them
their body· It would tend to impro·e morality, and enhance the sacredness oí
nuptial rights. 1hus, poly-gamy sometimes becomes a national necessity.

1his institution has also its legitimate use in indi·idual cases as well.
Propagation oí one`s species is the most important oí all the purposes oí
marriage, and ií all hopes oí an issue through the íirst wiíe are at an end, there
seem to be only three ways open to man: either to di·orce his wiíe, to deny
himselí the pleasure oí ha·ing issue- the desire oí nearly e·ery married man, or
to wait till the death oí the wiíe and spoil his whole liíe. Is not there a second
contemporaneous marriage to be preíerred to any oí the abo·e alternati·es, a
man may do it and sa·e heart-burnings, ií he is strongly attached to his íirst
wiíe· 1he case oí Napoleon presents a good illustration. le had to di·orce his
well belo·ed wiíe, Josephine, a lady possessing ·irtues and abilities oí a ·ery
high order. 1here was the warmest attachment between the two, but Napoleon
could not ha·e issue írom her, and the country thereíore insisted upon her
di·orce. 1he account oí her di·orce, as related by historians and biographers, is
extremely pathetic. Napoleon married another wiíe, he reigned splendidly and
enjoyed the beneíits oí a prosperous kingdom, then came calamities, upon him,
which continued until his death. Josephine had been di·orced, but their lo·e
íor each other underwent no change. She remembered him with ardent lo·ed
and sympathy in his troubles and calamities as in the days oí happiness. But the
strong cord which bound them together had snapped asunder. Ií polygamy had
been allowed and this was, I say, one oí the rare occasions where the jurists oí
Islam ha·e sanctioned polygamy - Napoleon and his widow, would not ha·e
suííered this extreme aííliction. Moslem ladies ha·e oíten allowed their
husbands in such cases to take another wiíe and beget an issue.

Oí course, those who indulge in polygamy without ob·ious reasons are not
acting in accordance with the spirit oí their religion. Islam placed the institution
under restrictions which gradually pro·ed to be a most eííicatious check to
polygamy, and made the largest portion oí the Moslem world obser·e strict
monogamy. 1he best check indeed has been pro·ided in the ·ery ·erse oí the
Koran which is held to authorize polygamy: 1hen marry that seems good to
you oí women, two, three or íour ,wi·es,, but ií ye íear that ye shall not act
equitably, then one ,wiíe, only.`

, Muslim lome` by l. l. Nawab Sultan Jahan Begum Sahiba, Ruler oí Bhopal,
, Koran IV : 3.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
In this ·erse the license gi·en to polygamy is curtailed by the pro·iso which
enjoins strict equity and justice towards all wi·es as obligatory on man. In case a
man íeared that he could not act equitably and justly between his wi·es, he was
directed to be content with one wiíe only. 1he word íear` in the ·erse deser·es
special notice, that is to say, ií a man is aíraid that he will not be able to comply
with the pro·iso, he must not go beyond one wiíe. And it need hardly be
pointed out, how diííicult it is to gi·e e·ery one his ,or her, own just due, nor is
e·ery one able to do it. Nay, the Book oí God itselí admits in another ·erse the
inability oí man, to obser·e the required equality oí treatment in e·ery respect
to all oí his wi·es, and this emphasises the desirability oí ha·ing only one wiíe,
but suggests, at the same time, a ·ery wise course to those who under
una·oidable circumstances ha·e been compelled to ha·e more than one wiíe.
1he ·erse is as íollows: And ye can ne·er act equitably between women,
although ye co·et ,it,, but turn not with all partiality ,towards one oí them, nor
lea·e the other like one who is in suspense, but ií ye be reconciled, and íear ,to
do wrong,, ·erily God is lorgi·ing, and Compassionate.`
And ií a wiíe íear
ill-usage or a·ersion írom her husband, it shall be no crime in them both that
they should be reconciled among themsel·es with some reconciliation, íor
reconciliation is best. And souls are prone to a·arice, but ií ye be good and
God-íearing, ·erily God knows what ye do.`

Ií will thus be clear írom the abo·e instructions that when a man has
married two wi·es in the belieí that he is able to treat them equitably, and he
then íinds that he is inclined towards the one to a degree amounting to a·ersion
against the other, and is prepared to di·orce one oí his wi·es, the abo·e ·erses
lay down directions íor the guidance oí both man and wiíe, namely, that they
should come to an understanding between themsel·es and be reconciled- the
wiíe by íorgoing some oí her rights, and the man by selí-control. 1his would
sa·e each oí them the troubles attendant upon a di·orce.
But the best remedy to a·oid íuture unpleasantness lies in the hand oí the
woman in Islam, where marriage is a cirit covtract and can be saddled with
adequate conditions, to ·iolate which would in itselí bring marriage to nullity.
1hus, a woman who íears the possibility oí a second marriage on the part oí
her betrothed can make pro·isions against its unpleasant eííects, beíore she is
married. She may get such special damages as are pro·ided in the contract oí
marriage, when the contingency arises, she may ha·e the option oí li·ing
separately írom her husband with a suitable maintenance, or get herselí
di·orced and lead an independent liíe, and reco·er damages as well. But this
should all be pro·ided íor in the contract oí marriage.

Polygamy, in a word, in Islam, is a remedy. It has uses and abuses. Islam
guards against the latter, and allows the íormer under restrictions and within
stringent limits. More knowledge oí human needs and exigencies would

, Koran IV : 128.
, Koran IV: 129.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
enlighten the world and enable it to see the necessity oí allowing an institution,
like polygamy, with its rare and limited use as in Islam.

Polygamy is not an institution
originated by Islam. Now Mohammed,` writes Mr.
Bosworth Smith, was legislator and a statesman, as well as the íounder oí a
religion and why is the deíence which we allow to Solon, and the praise we
bestow upon the limited scope oí the Mosaic legislation, denied to Islam·

Polygamy is, indeed next to caste, the most blighting institution to which a
nation can become a prey. It pollutes society at the íountain-head íor the íamily
is the source oí all political and all social ·irtues. Mohammed would ha·e more
than doubled the debt oí gratitude the Lastern world owes to him, had he
swept it away, but he could not ha·e done so, e·en ií he had íully seen its e·il.
It is not íair to represent polygamy as a part oí Mohammedanism any more
than it is íair to represent sla·ery as a part oí Christianity. 1he one co-exits with
the other, without being mixed with it, e·en as the muddy Ar·e and the clear
Rhone keep their currents distinct, long aíter they ha·e been united in one ri·er
bed. Perhaps it is strange that they e·er could ha·e co-existed, e·en íor a day,
but we ha·e to deal with íacts as they are, and it is a íact, that sla·ery has co-
existed with Christianity, nay, has proíessed to justiíy itselí by Christianity e·en
till this nineteenth century. Mohammed could not ha·e made a tabula rasa` oí
Lastern society, but what could do he did. le least put strict limitations on the
unbounded licence oí Lastern polygamy, and the íacility oí Lastern di·orce. Ií
the social touch stone oí a religion is the way, in which it regards the poor and
the oppressed, Mohammed`s religion can stand the test. le impro·ed the
condition oí women by íreeing them írom the arbitrary patriarchal power oí
the parents or the heirs oí the husbands, by inculcating just and kind treatment
oí them by their husbands themsel·es, by gi·ing them legal rights in case oí
uníair treatment, and by absolutely prohibiting the incestuous marriages which
were riíe in the times oí ignorance, and the still more horrible practice oí the
burying ali·e oí íemale iníants. Nor was this all, íor besides imposing
restrictions on polygamy, by this se·ere laws at íirst, and by the strong moral
sentiment aroused by these laws aíterwards, he has succeeded, down to this
·ery day, and to a greater extent than has e·er been the case elsewhere, in
íreeing all Mohammedan countries írom those proíessional outcasts who li·e
by their own misery, and by their existence as a recognized class, are a standing
reproach to e·ery member oí the society, oí which they íorm part.


, l. l. Nawab Sultan Jahan Begum Sahiba, Ruler oí Bhopal, India.

, Bosworth Smith: Mohamed and Mohammedanism` pp. 1¯4-1¯6.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
T Th he e S St ta at tu us s o of f W Wo om me en n i in n I Is sl la am m
t has been said that Islam, as a social system, had been a total íailure,
because It has misunderstood the relations oí sexes,.and by degrading
women, has degraded each successi·e generation oí their children down an
increasing scale oí iníamy and corruption until it seems almost impossible to
reach a lower depth oí ·ice.` 1his is certainly strong language and calls íor an
in·estigation, as to whether Islam has really misunderstood the relations oí the
sexes, and whether it has really degraded women.
Very íew oí the critics take pains to determine what actually are the
teachings oí Islam in this respect, as embodied in the loly Koran, and íewer
still is the number oí those who care to study the liíe oí the Prophet, which is
the most authentic commentary on the text oí the loly Book. It is thereíore
most regrettable that misconception should ha·e arisen about the status oí
women in Islam a point, on which the attitude oí Islam is clear and
unmistakable. I am aíraid, many in Lurope and in America íorm such strange
opinions írom a study oí the tales or romance or books oí tra·eling, written by
proíessional globe, trotters. 1hey see in the harem` which is by the way a name
in the Last íor the ladies apartment` a home oí gross sensuality and ·oluptuous
pleasures. Such ideas ha·e uníortunately pre·ailed in the \est íor a ·ery long
time, and supported by the wrong interpretations that ha·e been put, írom time
to time, on certain ·erses oí the Koran and certain sa·ings oí the Prophet oí
Islam, they ha·e a íirm hold on the imagination oí the critics oí the \est.

One oí the ·erses oí exquisite beauty which ha·e been subject to
misconstruction in certain quarters, is: 1hey ,the wi·es, are a garment íor you
and you are a garment íor them`. It is garment that hides one`s nakedness, so
do husband and wiíe, by entering into marriage relations secure each other`s
chastity. 1he garment gi·es comíort to the body, as does the husband íind
comíort in his wiíe`s company, as she in his. 1he garment is the grace, the
beauty, the embellishment oí the body, so too are wi·es to their husbands, as
the husbands to them.

Another ·erse which has been similarly misconstrued is the ·erse which the
Re·. Rodwell translates thus: Men are superior to women on account oí the
qualities, with which God hath giíted the one abo·e the other, and on account
oí the outlay they make írom their substance íor them. Virtuous women are
obedient, careíul during the husband`s absence, because God hath oí them
been careíul`. lrom this ·erse se·eral critics ha·e drawn the erroneous
iníerence that in Islam woman holds a ·ery subordinate position, and that she
has been placed under man`s tyrannical sway, she ha·ing no choice but to
submit to his arbitrary dictates and selí-willed decrees. L·en accepting Re·.
Rowlell`s translation oí the ·erse as correct, the sense oí the ·erse appears to be
nothing more than this: that man should treat his wiíe with lo·e and aííection
and pro·ide íor her írom his abundance, while woman should preser·e her
honour, attend to domestic duties and look up to him as her íriend,
philosopher and guide. Understood thus, the ·erse has nothing re·olting to our
íeelings, and describes the relationship between husband and wiíe as it naturally

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
ought to be. 1here is nothing in the ·erse to imply that the wiíe`s judgment is
in any way íettered that she is simply the sla·e oí her husband`s desires or that
she is at best an ornamental article oí íurniture`. Neither, according to
respectable commentators oí the Koran, does the ·erse admit oí the meaning
which superíicial critics ha·e willíully put upon it. 1hese commentators
understand the ·erse to point out a man`s right to exercise a certain control
o·er his wiíe, and his duty to pro·ide íor her security and sustenance. 1he
superiority oí man o·er woman rests on certain innate qualities which man
generally possesses in greater proportion, in regard to knowledge and power. In
power oí endurance, in audacity and courage, man has a decided ad·antage
o·er his íair sister. Prophet, apostles, distinguished philosophers and
commanders oí armies ha·e all been men, not women. Lecky, himselí
undoubtedly a clear thinker and discerning critic, while discoursing on the
distincti·e diííerence between the sexes obser·ers thus: Physically, men ha·e
the indisputable superiority in strength, and women in beauty. Intellectually, a
certain iníeriority oí the íemale sex can hardly be denied, when we remember
how almost exclusi·ely the íoremost places in e·ery department oí science,
literature and art ha·e been occupied by man.It is impossible to íind a íemale
Raphael, or a íemale landel, or a íemale Shakespeare, Newton.` Lecky,
howe·er, thinks and perhaps rightly enough, that morally the general
superiority oí women o·er men is unquestionable. Be that as it may when once
we admit the physical and intellectual superiority oí man o·er woman, we
cannot deny that woman has to depend upon, and take ad·antage oí, the
intellectual resources and superior strength oí the opposite sex, and this is
precisely what Moslem doctors hold to be the important and signiíicance oí the
·erse under consideration.

Some critics made needless comments on the íollowing saying oí the
Prophet: 1reat women with kindness, íor woman was made oí a rib which is
crooked in the upper part, ií you try to bend it straight, you will break it, and ií
you lea·e it as it is, it will remain so,` In these words the Prophet only appeals
to the good sense oí man and the kindliness oí this heart, by reminding him oí
the natural weaknesses oí the íair sex, so that we may not expect oí women
things out oí proportion to their talents and capabilities, íor in such
expectations we are likely to be disappointed, and our disappointment may
tempt us to accord to them harsh treatment. 1he Prophet, thereíore, exhorts
his íollowers to be rather generous and íorgi·ing than se·erely exacting and
calculating. It is as ií the Prophet said to his íollowers: I am gi·ing you sound
ad·ice relati·e to what your treatment should be towards women, carry out
thereíore my will respecting them. Do good to them, and be not angry with
them, ií they act in a way not acceptable to you, unless, oí course, the deed
in·ol·es any positi·e sin, íor they are made oí a crooked rib ,and, as such, are
naturally liable to error,

Llsewhere, the Prophet has positi·ely warned us against running aíter
scandals and constant searching aíter the secrets and íaults oí women, since
such a course oí action may impair the conjugal relations, and íinally lead to the
absolute dissolution oí the marriage bond.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Close acquaintance with the teachings oí Islam repudiates the íalse charge,
that the Prophet is responsible íor the degradation oí woman. 1he Prophet saw
the weak points oí woman`s character, as well as its strong points. le regarded
woman as physically and intellectually iníerior to man in general, but richer in
nobler emotions oí the heart, in tenderness and delicacy oí íeeling. No body
can be so bold as to say, that the Prophet saw nothing good in woman and
concei·ed her to be a bundle oí unmixed e·ils. le said: Let not any Moslem
be harsh in his treatment oí his wiíe: íor ií certain aspects oí her conduct
displease the husband, certain others will please him.` le neither desired that
woman should be the bond-sla·e oí her husband, nor did he countenance the
idea, that woman should be so íar íree as to o·erstep her proper limits and
encroach upon the sphere oí her husband. On the principle oí di·ision oí
labour, Islam assigns to each a particular sphere oí work, on the íaithíul
discharge oí which depends the happiness oí hearth and home. \oman, in her
capacity oí a good mother and a de·oted wiíe, is the queen oí her home, while
the husband is to protect her írom all danger and temptation, earn his bread by
the sweat oí his brow in the open world, and pro·ide íor the maintenance oí
the íamily. In connection with this setting apart oí spheres oí work with regard
to the nature constitution mental habitude and position oí the person
concerned, the Prophet oí Islam said: All oí you are so many so·ereigns, and
all oí you will be required to render account in respect oí whate·er persons or
things you ha·e under your charge. So the chieí who is so·ereign o·er his
subjects, shall be questioned about the treatment he accorded to his subjects
the head oí the íamily is the so·ereign oí the house and he shall be questioned
with respect to the members oí the house, and woman is so·ereign in the
house oí her husband, and rules her children and she shall be questioned about
these, and the sla·e is so·ereign o·er his master`s belongings, and he shall be
questioned about them.`

1he ruling idea in the teachings oí Islam with regard to man and woman, is
that the husband and the wiíe should supplement each other, call into play the
distincti·e excellence oí their respecti·e character, and, in mutual coníidence,
stri·e to work out their united happiness. \oman is to exercise her beneíicent,
humanizing iníluence o·er husband, soíten the hardness oí his nature and le·el
down the stiííness oí his character, while man, íor his part, is to educate her
mind and help her to realize those womanly qualities, in which she by her ·ery
nature excels. 1his is the conception oí wiíehood which the Prophet oí Islam
ía·oured, as is iníerred írom his teaching. A woman is married íor íour
reasons.` said he, either in consideration oí her wealth, or her noble parentage,
or her beauty, or her piety. Succeed then in getting a woman oí piety íor your
wiíe, íor she is to her husband a helper in liíe and she remains content with

On another occasion he hold a certain woman who had brought a
complaint against her husband: 1here is no woman who remo·es something
to replace it in a proper place, with a ·iew to decorate her husband`s house, but
that God sets it down as a ·irtue íor her. Nor is there a man who walks with his

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
wiíe hand in hand, but that God sets it down as a ·irtue íor him, and ií he puts
his arms round her neck in lo·e his ·irtue will be increased teníold.`
Once again, he was heard praising the women oí the Koreish, because`, said
he, they are the kindest to their children while they are iníants, and because
they keep a careíul watch o·er the belongings oí their husbands.`
In another instance the Prophet oí Islam said: 1here are íour things, such
that ií a person is endowed with any one oí these, it is as ií the blessings oí
both worlds were showered upon him: íirst, a heart that is grateíul, second a
tongue that utters constantly the name oí God, third, a mind that is patient and
calm amid troubles, íourth, a wiíe that is ne·er guilty oí a breach oí trust either
in respect oí her own person or in respect oí her husband`s property.`
I will now gi·e some íurther saying oí the Prophet Mohammad, on the
question under discussion, which I hope will shed more light on the position
assigned to women in Islam.
1. Among my íollowers the best oí men are they who are best to their
wi·es, and the best to women are they who are best to their
husbands.1o each oí such women is set down the reward equi·alent to
the reward oí a thousand martyrs. Among my íollowers, again, the best
oí women are they who assist their husbands in their work, and lo·e
them dearly íor e·erything, sa·e what is a transgression oí God`s laws.
1he best oí men, on the other hand, are they who treat their wi·es with
the kindness oí a mother to her children. 1o each oí such men is set
down a reward equi·alent to that oí hundred martyrs. On being asked
by Omar, who aíterwards rose to be the second Caliph, why woman`s
reward should be ten times greater than man`s the Prophet said: Do not
you know that woman deser·es greater reward than man· lor, ·erily
Almighty God exalts the position oí a man in hea·en, because his wiíe
was pleased with him and prayed íor him`.
2. 1he best among you is he who is the kindest to his wiíe, and I am the
kindest oí you all to my wi·es.`
3. \hat are the rights that a wiíe has o·er her husband·` asked Moawiyah,
and the Prophet íorthwith replied: leed her when thou takest thy íood,
gi·e her clothes to wear when thou wearest clothes, reírain írom either
gi·ing a slap on her íace or e·en abusing her, separate not írom thy wiíe,
sa·e within the house.
4. Verily oí the belie·ers he has the most períect íaith who has the best
manners, and shows the greatest kindness to his wiíe and children.`
5. lear God in regard to the treatment oí your wi·es, íor ·erily they are
your helpers. \ou ha·e taken them on the security oí God, and made
them Lawíul by the words oí God.`
6. Once the Prophet portrayed an ideal wiíe in the íollowing words: She is
the ideal wiíe who pleases thee when thou lookest at her, obeys thee
when thou gi·est her direction, and protects her honour and thy property
when thou art away.`
¯. 1he world is íull oí objects oí joy and delight, and the best and the most
proíitable source oí delight is a pious, chaste woman` .
8. Paradise lies at the íeet oí mothers.`

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
9. Search aíter knowledge is obligatory both on Moslem men and Moslem

1. The Object of Marriage
1he object oí marriage was deíined by the Prophet in clear unambiguous
words. It was ne·er meant to be a means oí satisíying the sensual appetite, but
on the other hand, it was instituted, in the íirst place, as a saíeguard against
lewdness and incontinence, and in the second place, as a means oí procreation.
It is on these and similar grounds, that he always encouraged a married liíe in
preíerence to a liíe oí celibacy, and laid so much stress on the piety and
íruitíulness oí women. \hoe·er marries a woman solely íor her power and
position,` said the Prophet God but increases his humiliation, whoe·er
marries a woman solely íor her wealth, God but increases his po·erty, whoe·er
marries a woman solely íor her beauty. God but increases his ugliness, but
whoe·er marries a woman, in order that he may restrain his eyes, obser·e
continence, and treat his relations kindly, God putteth a blessedness in her íor
him, and in him íor her.

1hus piety and continence are uppermost in the conception oí Islam, as the
prime moti·e oí marriage. 1his is clear enough in another saying oí the
Prophet. 1here are three persons,` said he, whom the Almighty limselí as
undertaken to help-íirst, he who seeks to buy his íreedom` second, he who
marries with a ·iew to secure his chastity, and third, he who íights in the cause
oí God`.
Another saying oí the Prophet is equally clear on this point: le, who
marries, completes halí his religion: it now rests with him to complete the other
halí by leading a ·irtuous liíe in constant íear oí God`. 1hat Islam ·iewed
marriage as means oí procreation, and not íor gratiíication oí sensual desires, is
clear írom a short but pregnant saying oí the Prophet: Marry and generate`.
On another occasion he said: Marry a woman who holds her husband
extremely dear, and who is richly íruitíul`. 1he Prophet ad·ised great
circumspection in the selection oí the bride, and e·en permitted that the
intended bride be seen, beíore her betrothal` by him who seeks her hand, lest a
blunder in choice or an error oí judgment should deíeat the ·ery end oí

2. Marriage and Divorce
1he laws oí marriage and di·orce were so íramed by the Prophet that they
may ensure the permanence oí marriage relations, without impairing indi·idual
íreedom. 1hese laws display a wonderíul insight into human nature, inasmuch
as they ne·er lose sight oí exceptional circumstances, requiring special
treatment. In the íormulation oí the laws oí marriage and di·orce, extremes
ha·e been a·oided in ía·our oí a golden mean. Ií, under certain circumstances,
more than one wiíe is permitted, or dissolution oí marriage is ía·oured, it is
because oí the operation oí the same principle oí ílexibility that go·erns the
entire body oí the Islamic laws. It is certain that the Islamic laws oí marriage
and di·orce ha·e been abused, and sometimes ílouted in certain Moslem lands,

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
but the laws themsel·es are not responsible íor the delinquencies oí the
1he Islamic laws ha·e recognised women as íree and responsible members
oí society and ha·e assigned to them a con·enient position. A Moslem woman
is entitled to a share in the patrimony, along with her brothers, and though the
proportion is diííerent, the distinction is íounded on a just appreciation oí the
relati·e position oí brother and sister. No male member oí the íamily, not e·en
her husband, can manipulate her property which during the marriage remains
absolutely her own and quite at her disposal. 1he exigible portion oí the
stipulated dower is payable to her on demand, as soon as the status oí marriage
is established, and the deíerred portion on the termination oí the marital
relation, unless the woman is guilty oí a maniíest wrong. Under the Moslem
law, the dower settled upon the wiíe, is an obligation imposed by the law on the
husband, as a mark oí respect íor the wiíe, the non- speciíication oí which, at
the time oí marriage, does not aííect the ·alidity oí the marriage. In the e·ent
oí dissolution oí marriage, the husband can retain no part oí the wiíe`s
property, including her ante-nuptial settlement, and ií the administration oí the
wiíe`s estate was entrusted to him, he must render the wiíe an account oí such
administration. ler property is in íact jealously guarded on all sides, and no
restrictions are placed on the indi·idual right she has in her belongings. She
possesses the right oí di·iding and alienating her property, and this right oí
alienation is in regard, not only to her husband but also to e·ery body else. She
can sue her husband, as she can sue her other debtors, in the open court. She
does not require her husband or íather, to represent her at law. She can act as
an executi·e and can enter into any contract independently.

A Moslem wiíe retains her distinct indi·iduality e·en aíter marriage, and she
ne·er assumes her husband`s name. Co·erture has no place in the marriage oí
Islam. Marriage under Islam is but a ci·il contract, and not a sacrament, in the
sense that those who are once joined in wed-lock can ne·er be separated. It
may be controlled, and under certain circumstances, dissol·ed by the will oí the
parties concerned. Public declaration is no doubt necessary, but it is not a
condition oí the ·alidity oí the marriage. Nor is any religious ceremony deemed
absolutely essential. 1wo witnesses are required to attest the contract has been

, 1he whole listory oí the Christian Laws oí Marriage and di·orce, íurnishes a ·ery
interesting and instructi·e reading to a Moslem jurist: íor, he percei·es, perhaps not
without a íeeling oí just pride, that his Christian brethren are coming nearer to Islam, at
least in their conception oí marriage and the relations to which it gi·es rise. In all
Luropean countries, the laws relating to marriage and di·orce ha·e been re·ised and
recast, and the changes introduced, when examined will be íound to exhibit in some oí
their board íeatures, a ·ery close analogy to the Islamic Laws, íramed se·eral centuries
beíore. 1hus, in Germany, íor instance, the code 1900 reccognises ci·il marriages alone.
It is eííected, by the declaration oí the parties beíore a Registrar, in ht epresence oí
each other , oí their intention to be married. 1wo witnesses oí íull age must be present.
1he Registrar asks each oí the parties whether he or she will marry the other, and on
their answer in the aííirmati·e, declares them duly married, and enters them in the
register. 1he marriage must be preceded by a public notice. Dissolution oí marriage has

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

3. The Guardian and the Consent of the
1hough the Islamic Laws recognise the consent oí a woman as an
indispensable element oí a ·alid marriage, they recommend the consent oí her
guardian be also taken. Moslem jurists are, no doubt, di·ided in their opinions,
as to whether the consent oí the bride`s guardian is essential but they all agree
in holding that a woman who is sui-juris can under no circumstances be
married without her own express consent.` According to the laníi Islamic
School oí Law, the capacity oí a woman who is adult and oí sound mind, to
contract herselí in marriage is absolute. 1he same school explicitly lays down
that a woman who is adult and oí sound mind may be married by ·irtue oí her
own consent, although the contract may not ha·e been made or acceded to by
her guardian and this whether she be a ·irgin, or a 1hayyiba`.
On the same
principle, the marriage oí an adult woman under compulsion has been held to
be in·alid. It is related on good authority, that an adult woman who was
married by her íather to a man against her will, came and spoke about it to the
Prophet who declared the marriage ·oid. According to the lanaíi School also,
the marriage oí a minor under compulsion oí her íather or grandíather, holds
good, on the assumption that a marriage thus contracted is prima íacie in the
best interests oí the child, and thereíore she cannot cancel the contract oí
marriage when she arri·es at her íull age, unless there be good grounds íor such
a step. Ií, howe·er, she was gi·en in marriage by guardian, other than her íather
or grandíather, she can exercise, ií she like, the option oí puberty`, and ask the
court to set aside the marriage.
It is clear, then, that under the lanaíi School oí law, a marriage can be
contracted with or without a guardian, pro·ided the girl is adult and has gi·en
her consent to the contract.

1he Shaíie and the Maleki School oí law, on the other hand, maintain that a
maiden cannot personally consent to marriage. According to them, the \ali`s
,the guardian`s, consent, in the case oí a mainden, is one oí the essential íactors
oí marriage, though not in the case oí a thayyiba. 1he distinction seems to ha·e
been deri·ed írom the idea that a thayyiba`s judgment is naturally more reliable
than a ·irgin`s and that she is expected to understand better the nature oí the
marriage contract. In support oí their ·iew they reíer to the tradition, related by
Ayesha, that the Prophet said that the contract oí marriage is absolutely ·oid, ií
a woman enters into such without the consent oí her guardian.
1he great majority oí the girls being quite innocent oí the nature oí the
contract, it is thereíore necessary that the guardian oí the girl should inter·ene

long been recognized in Germany and the United States oí America. In Lngland,
di·orces were ·ery rare till 185¯, when the powers exercised in marrimonial matters by
the house oí Lords, the Lcclesiastical Courts oí Common Law were transíerred to a lay
court termed 1he Court íor Di·orce and marrimonial Causes,` and constituted íor the
adminstration oí all matters connected with di·orce. In lrance, a similar change came
about in the year 1884. In Italy di·orces are still almost unknown.
, Namely, a girl who is not a ·irgin, a widow or a di·orced woman.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

and protect her írom being duped by interested persons, or írom the e·il
consequences likely to ílow írom the choice oí the girl, when injudicious or
against her own interest.

4. The Inequality of the Two Sexes
with regard to Divorce
Marriage being regarded as a ci·il contract and as such not indissoluble, the
Islamic law naturally recognises the right in both the parties to dissol·e contract
under certain gi·en circumstances. Di·orce, then, is a natural corollary to the
conception oí marriage as a contract, and it is regrettable that it should ha·e
íurnished Luropean critics a handle íor attack. L·en Sale, that eminent scholar
has íallen into the same error, íor he too seems to entertain the ·iew, that the
Islamic law permits a man to repudiate his wiíe e·en on the slightest
\hether the law permits, or ía·ours, repudiation on the slightest
disgust, we shall presently see. But as to the other point raised by the same
learned critic, namely, the inequality oí the two sexes in regard to the right oí
obtaining a di·orce, one has to remember that this inequality is more seeing
than real. 1he theory oí marriage, no doubt, points to a subordination oí the
wiíe to her husband, because oí her comparati·e iníeriority in discretionary
powers, but in practice the hands oí the husbands are íettered in more ways
than one. 1he theoretical discretion must not be understood as gi·ing a tacit
sanction to the excesses oí a brutal husband, on the other hand it is intended to
guard against the possible dangers oí an imperíect judgment. 1he relations
between the members oí the opposite sexes which marriage legalises are,
howe·er, so subtle and delicate, and require such constant adjustment,
in·ol·ing the íate and well-being oí the íuture generations, that in their
regulation the law considers it expedient to allow the ·oice oí one partner,
more or less, predominance o·er that oí the other.

Perhaps it is here worthy oí notice that in Lurope the two sexes are not
placed on an equal íooting in respect oí the right oí the di·orce. Lord lelier,
P.C., K., C.B., who was President oí the Probate Di·orce and Admiralty
Di·ision oí the ligh Court oí Justice, 1892 - 1905, obser·es on this point:
Much comment has been made on the diííerent grounds, on which di·orce is
allowed to a husband and to a wiíe - it being necessary to pro·e iníidelity in
both cases, but a wiíe being compelled to show either an aggra·ation oí that
oííence or an addition to it. Opinions probably will always diííer whether the
two sexes should be placed on an equality in this respect, abstract justice being
in·oked, and the idea oí marriage as a mere contract, pointing in one direction,
and social considerations in the other. But the reason oí the legislature íor
making the distinction, is clear. It is that the wiíe is entitled to an absolute
di·orce only ií her reconciliation with her husband is neither to be expected nor
desired. 1his was no doubt the ·iew taken by the house oí Lords.`

, G. Sale`s Prelim. Disc. 1o his translation oí the Koran Sec. VI.
, Mohammadan Jurisprudence, page 32¯.
, 1he Re·iew oí Religion, April, 1913.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

5. Limitations of Divorce
A Moslem is not íree to exercise the right oí di·orce on the slightest
disgust.` 1he law has put many limitations upon the exercise oí this power.
1hen, again, the example and precepts oí the Prophet in this particular ha·e
rendered di·orce, most repellent to the Moslem mind. A Moslem is permitted
to ha·e recourse to di·orce pro·ided there be ample justiíication íor such an
extreme measure. 1he whole Koran expressly íorbids a man to seek pretexts
íor di·orcing his wiíe, so long as she remains íaithíul and obedient to him, Ií
they ,namely, women, obey you, then do not seek a way against them.`
law gi·es to the man primarily the íaculty oí dissol·ing the marriage, ií the wiíe
by her indocility or her bad character, renders the married liíe unhappy, but in
the absence oí serious reasons, no Moslem can justiíy a di·orce either in the
eyes oí religion or the law. Ií he abandons his wiíe or puts her away írom
simple caprice, he draws upon himselí the di·ine anger, íor the curse oí God`
said the Prophet, rests on him who repudiates his wiíe capriciously`.

Intrinsically, di·orce is an e·il, and must be regarded as such, where·er there
is the least respect íor the law oí God and the precepts oí the Prophet. 1he
pagan Arab, beíore the time oí the Prophet, was absolutely íree to repudiate his
wiíe or wi·es, whene·er it suited his whim or purpose. le was not bound to
oííer any reasons íor the exercise oí the power oí di·orce. 1he mere expression
oí his will was enough to eííect a separation. 1he wiíe was a mere plaything.
Sometimes the husband would re·oke the di·orce and again di·orce her, and
again take her back, to di·orce her again, and so on indeíinitely. Sometimes,
again she was di·orced, but she was not íree to marry. \omen under such
circumstances, were in a perpetual state oí suspense, as it were. At last the
Prophet, the Mercy íor the Uni·erse, came. le declared di·orce to be the most
disliked oí lawíul things in the sight oí God. le was indeed ne·er tired oí
expressing his abhorrence oí di·orce. Once he said: God created not anything
on the íace oí the earth which le lo·eth more than the act oí manumission,
nor did le create anything on the íace oí the earth which le detesteth more
than the act oí di·orce. On another occasion he said: lorbidden is the
íragrance oí paradise to her who demands di·orce írom her husband without
una·oidable reasons. Nor is this all. 1he Prophet actually imposed many
conditions on the exercise oí the power oí di·orce, and so ·ehemently did he
protect the women against the tyranny oí their husbands, that there soon grew
up a general íeeling among the women oí the time, that the Prophet would
deíend their cause, whether it be just or unjust, and that his decision would be
in·ariably in their ía·our. lis deíence oí the cause oí women, and oí orphans
and oí children, had in íact passed into a byword.

, Koran. IV: 34. Obedience here signiíies obedience to man onlyin matters
recommended by the law oí God. 1his signiíicance is made clear by a comparison with
Koran, 33:31, 33:35 and 66: 5. 1his ·erse holds to mean Seek not a pretext íor

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
In the loly Koran, there is a most ediíying ·erse which is generally
o·erlooked. Associate with the wi·es`, so runs the ·erse, with goodness, and
ií ye dislike them, it may be that ye dislike a thing and God may put abundant
good in it.`
1hus the Koran enjoins íorbearance, e·en with a wiíe one does
not like. One really wonders at the boldness oí the critics who say that the law
oí Islam permits di·orce e·en on the slightest disgust.`
Many and ·arious are the saying oí the Prophet oí Islam that teach lo·e,
untiring patience, íorgi·ing disposition and, abo·e all, íear oí God in the
treatment oí women. 1he man who bears with the ill manners oí his wiíe,`
said the Prophet, shall recei·e írom God rewards equi·alent to what the Lord
ga·e unto Job, when he suííered his aííliction: And to the woman who bears
with the ill manners oí her husband, God granteth rewards equi·alent to what
le granted to Assiyah, the wiíe oí Pharaoh`
A great Moslem commentator, obser·es that di·orce is allowable when the
object is not to trouble the wiíe by di·orcing her without just grounds, as
reíractory or unseemly beha·iour on her part, or extreme necessity on the part
oí the husband.
It is clear, then, Islam discourages di·orce in principle, and permits it only
when it has become altogether impossible íor the parties, to li·e together in
peace and harmony. It a·oids, thereíore greater e·il by choosing the lesser one,
and opens a way íor the parties to seek agreeable companions and, thus, to
accommodate themsel·es more comíortably in their new homes.
lor, under Islam, a di·orced woman, like the husband who di·orces her,
acquires the right oí marrying any person she or he likes, the moment the
separation is recognised by the law.

lully recognizing the arise írom di·orce, the Prophet oí Islam took ·ery
cautious steps in íraming the laws, and the ruling idea seems to be, that di·orce
should be permitted only when marriage íails in its eííects, and the parties cease
to íulíill the duties that spring írom the marriage relation. 1here is in íact no
justiíication íor permanently yoking together two hostile souls, who might
make themsel·es quite comíortable in new homes, ií they were permitted to
eííect a separation. 1o compel them to li·e together in pursuance oí a most
·exatious law under a yoke oí the hea·iest sla·ery, -íor such is marriage without
lo·e- would indeed be a hardship more cruel than any di·orce whate·er. God,
thereíore, ga·e laws oí di·orce, in their proper use, must equitable and
lor, most appalling consequences sometimes íollow, unless di·orce
is permitted where it is desirable. Justinian, the great Roman emperor, had to
repeal the prohibition oí his predecessor on di·orce by mutual consent, despite
the opposition oí the clergy, and the ground stated by the enactment was, that
it was diííicult to reconcile those who once came to hate each other and who,
ií compelled to li·e together, írequently attempted each other`s li·es` le
yielded` writes Gibbon, to the prayers oí his unhappy subjects, and restored

, Koran.
, \ith Christians the case is not so: \hosoe·er shall put away his wiíe, sa·ing íor the
cause oí íornication, causeth her to commit adultery, and whosoe·er shall marry her
that is di·orced committeth adultery.` Matt. V:32.
, A 1reatise on Christian Doctrine by J. Milton.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
the liberty oí di·orce by mutual consent, the ci·ilians were unanimous, the
theologians were di·ided, and the ambiguous word
which contains the
precepts oí Christ, is ílexible to any interpretation that the wisdom oí a
legislature can demand.`

6. Islam’s Suggestions for
A careíul study oí the laws oí the Koran which relate to marriage and
di·orce, will show that the spirit oí the ·erses unmistakably points to a
pre·ention oí di·orce, and that e·erywhere a reconciliation is recommended in
the most appealing terms. Beíore the parties proceed to the extremity oí
di·orce íor una·oidable reasons, it is expressly laid down, that all lawíul means
be adopted íor a·oiding a breach, and it is only in the e·ent oí their íailure that
a separation is permitted, oí course, as a last recourse. Under such extreme
circumstances, di·orce is not merely permissibly, but has been held quite
expedient, and recourse to it is recommended, in spite oí deterrents, like
po·erty. It is belie·ed. God limselí opens out many a way íor those whose
intentions are honest: And ií they separate, God will make them richer out oí
lis abundance, íor God is extensi·e and wise.`
It is interesting to note that
nearly the same idea is expressed in the Koran where those who are single are
exhorted to marry. Marry those who are single among you, and such as are
honest oí your menser·ants and your maid ser·ants, ií they be poor, God will
enrich them oí lis abundance.`
It íollows, then, that according to the Islamic
laws, di·orce, under certain circumstances, is as necessary marriage.

1he directions oí the Koran in respect oí the adoption oí the courses that
tend to make reconciliation possible, are as explicit as they are íull oí wisdom.
1hus, in the chapter on women, we read:-
Virtuous women are obedient, careíul during the husband`s absence,
because God hath oí them been careíul. But those, íor whose reíractoriness ye
ha·e cause to íear, chide, remo·e them into beds apart, and chastise them, but
ií they are obedient to you, then seek not occasion against them: ·erily God is
ligh and Great. And ií ye íear a breach between husband and wiíe, send a
judge out oí his íamily, and a judge out oí her íamily: ií they are desirous oí
agreement, God will eííect a reconciliation between them, íor God is knowing
and apprised oí all.`

Ií woman is chaste and mindíul oí her duties as wiíe, the Islamic law makes
it obligatory upon the husband to associate with her on the best oí terms, and
with kindness and courtesy. But, ií she pro·es reíractory in her beha·iour, the

, St. Matt. V.32
, Koran. IV : 129.
, Koran. XXIV : 32.
, Koran. IV : 33, 34.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
law coníers on the husband the power oí correction ií exercised in

1he driít and tone oí the ·erses quoted abo·e, point to the desirability oí
exercising the power oí correction in three degrees. le may begin with a
reprimand, ií her conduct calls íor such. 1hen, ií she still remains rebellious, he
may banish her írom his bed íor a íew days. Ií this also pro·es una·ailing, he
may next beat his wiíe, but not so as to cause her permanent injury, íor he is
not allowed to use ·iolence, e·en under extreme pro·ocation.`
In the e·ent oí
the íailure oí all these expedients, di·orce need not íollow, but a resort to
arbitrators is ad·ised, each party being represented by a member oí his or her
íamily. 1he arbitrators aíter hearing both sides, shall endea·our by all possible
means, to bring about a reconciliation, ií their eííorts pro·e unsuccessíul, they
may grant a repudiation, when empowered by both parties to do so.

1he Prophet, who no doubt understood the import oí the Koranic ·erses
better than anybody else, is reported on good authority to ha·e said: leed thy
wiíe as thou íeedest thyselí, clothe her as thou clothest thyselí, strike her not
on her íace, separate not írom her, except within the house, but ií she persists
in her reíractoriness.begin with admonitions, and awaken in her the íear oí
God the Most ligh, ií she does not submit, banish her írom thy bed, and
con·erse not with her íor three days, ií she still reíuses to mend her manners,
beat her but not so as to lea·e any mark on her person, as would be the case ií
a rod were used: íor the object is to correct her, and not to destroy her. Should
this course íail to mend matters, let the case be reíerred to two Moslem
arbitrators, íree and just, one chosen írom the íamily oí each oí the parties, and
they shall see whether in that particular case reconciliation or separation is
desirable, and their decision shall be binding upon them both.`

\hen, howe·er, the cause oí disagreement proceeds írom the husband, the
wiíe is certainly not gi·en the power the correction, but then, she is empowered
by the Islamic law to obtain a di·orce, ií she so desires. Beíore the ad·ent oí
Islam, neither the Jews nor the Arabs recognised the right oí di·orce íor
women: and it was the Koran that, íor the íirst time in the history oí Arabia,
ga·e this great pri·ilege to women. And at the same time, it must be
remembered, the spirit oí the Koran is opposed to an indiscriminate exercise oí
this pri·ilege. 1he Prophet warned women, not to play the hypocrite, and men
are ad·ised in the most emphatic terms, to reírain írom seeking a breach, where
a little moderation on their part, may perhaps do away with the diííerence. I
gi·e below some oí the ·erses oí the Koran, and the reader will see how they

, 1he law oí Lngland similarly ·ested in the husband the right oí chastising his wiíe
íor le·ity oí conduct, and the husband in quite recent times, was allowed to restrain
her personal liberty, but his right so to do was íirst expressly negati·ed by decision oí
the Court oí Appeal in the year 1891.` lolland`s Jurisprudence, page 240.`
, 1he Mohammadan Law,` stated the Lord oí the Pri·y Council, on a question oí
what is legal cruelty between man and wiíe, would probably not diííer materially írom
our own` ,Abdul Kader 1886.,
, Ghunyat et 1alibeen ch: Manners oí Marriage.`

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
ask us to make allowance íor the írailties, to which our human nature is prone,
and in what manner a reconciliation is recommended. It is impossible to read
the ·erses without being impressed with their appealing tone and graceíul
simplicity. And ií a woman`, so runs the íine ·erse. lear ill usage or a·ersion,
on the part oí her husband, it shall be no íault in them, ií they can agree with
mutual agreement, íor agreement is best.
Souls are prone to a·arice
, but ií ye
act kindly and íear God, then ·erily your actions are not unnoticed by God.
And ye will not ha·e it at all in your power to treat your wi·es alike, e·en
though you íain would do so, but yield not wholly to disinclination, so that ye
lea·e one oí them, as it were, in suspense, but ií ye come to an understanding,
and íear God, ·erily God is íorgi·ing and merciíul, but ií they separate, God
can compensate both out oí lis abundance, íor God is Vast and \ise.`

\e ha·e seen, then that di·orce is permissible in Islam only in cases oí
extreme emergency. \hen all eííorts íor eííecting a reconciliation ha·e íailed,
the parties may proceed to a dissolution oí the marriage by 1alaq` or by
\hen the proposal oí di·orce proceeds írom the husband, it is
called 1alaq`, and when it takes eííect at the instance oí the wiíe it is called
Under many systems oí law, di·orce was certainly permitted, but it could
not be re·oked. But the Islam legislator, while he permitted di·orce, recognised
under certain circumstances, the light oí return in the husband. 1his pri·ilege,
in the iníancy oí Islam was indeíinitely exercised, and oíten abused to the
detriment oí women, until the Prophet recei·ed re·elations, setting limits to the
act oí di·orce, and íorbidding wanton cruelty to wi·es, by keeping them in
suspense íor an indeíinite period.
\ou may di·orce your wi·es, and then
either retain them with humanity, or dismiss them with kindness.`
\hen ye
di·orce women, and the time íor sending them is come either retain them with

, 1o wit, agreement is better than separation, better than ill-usage and better than
a·ersion. ,Razi Commentary,
, A·arice` here implies whate·er is an impediment to reconciliation. On the part oí
the wiíe it takes the íorm oí an uncompromising attitude and a tenacious insistence on
her rights which may pre·ent a meeting halí-way, and as applied to the husband, it
means unwillingness to associate with the wiíe íor ugliness oí her íeatures or old age, or
other like causes. ,Razi Commentary,
, Koran : IV, 12¯-129.
, 1here is a third way, also called Mubarat,` which is di·orce by Mutual consent.
Again : Men used to di·orce wi·es, and take them back, not because they intended to
retain them, but because they wanted to tease their wi·es by putting oíí the di·orce
indeíinitely, so God re·ealed the ·erse: Retain them not by constraint etc.` ,Malik`s
, A man di·orced his wiíe, took her back, when the period oí retirement was
coming to an end, again di·orced her, saying-by God, I will neither accept thee, nor
allow thee íreedom to marry another. So God re·ealed the ·erse: \ou may di·orce
your wi·es etc.` ,Malik`s Mowattaa,.
, Koran, chII :229.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
generosity, or put them away with generosity, but retain them not by constraint
so as to be unjust toward them. le who doth so indeed injures himselí.`

7. The form of Separation- A Check
on Separation
1he Prophet imposed certain such conditions on the exercise oí the power
oí di·orce that while, on the one hand, they ser·ed as a poweríul check on the
injudicious and arbitrary use oí this power, they aííorded, on the other hand,
many opportunities to the parties íor an amicable agreement, ií they so desired.
Oí the se·eral íorms oí di·orce recognised by Islamic law, the one that bears
the impress oí the Prophet`s sanction and appro·al is the Ahsan` type oí
1alaq.` 1his íorm oí repudiation in·ol·es the íollowing conditions, each oí
which being intended to pre·ent a permanent breach.
a, 1he husband, in the íirst place, must pronounce only one repudiation,
the object oí this limitation being, that the may subsequently, when
better sense pre·ails, re·oke the repudiation-ií he has produced it írom
caprice or in a moment oí excitement- within the period oí the wiíe`s
retirement consequent upon that repudiation and that he may re-marry
her, ií the period expires without the right oí return ha·ing been
exercised by the husband.

b, 1he repudiation must be pronounced when the wiíe is in a state oí
purity, and there is no bar to sexual intercourse, it being declared
unlawíul to pronounce repudiation when the wiíe is in menses, or when
she is pure, but has already been approached.`
c, 1he husband must abstain írom connubial intercourse with his wiíe aíter
pronouncing repudiation íor the period oí three months.`

1here is a tradition oí accepted authenticity that throws considerable light
on the wisdom underlying the last two restrictions. Abdullah Ibn Omar
di·orced his wiíe while she was in her menses, and the matter was reported to
the Prophet who, much exasperated at the le·ity oí his conduct, said: Let him
take her back and retain her, till she be pure and again ha·e her courses and
again gets pure. 1hen, ií he thinks it prudent, let him di·orce her, but he should
do so when she is clean and has not been approached: and this is the period oí
retirement ,Iddat, which God has ordered íor di·orce.`
Some learned commentators obser·e in connection with this tradition that
the purpose oí this condition is, to a·oid a rash and hasty procedure on the part
oí the husband, through a·ersion arising írom the wiíe`s impurity, and by íixing
a long period oí abstinence to gi·e him opportunities to reconsider his decision
about the di·orce, so that perchance he may repent, and exercise the right oí
return beíore the expiry oí the term.

, Koran, ch.II: 231.
, latawi Moughiri.
, 1hese htree months constitute the iddat` period which is obligatory on such wi·es
with whom the marriage has been consummated. 1he women who are di·orced shall
wait concerning themsel·es until they ha·e their courses thrice,` Koran. II:228.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
During this period oí probation, the marriage subsists between the parties,
and the husband retains his marital authority o·er his wiíe. le may, thereíore,
ha·e access to the wiíe e·en without her permission, and can treat her as his
wiíe, but this would actually amount to his exercising the right oí return.
During iddat`, the husband id under legal obligation to lodge the wiíe in his
house, though in a separate apartment, and maintain her. 1he laws oí the
Koran are quite clear on this point. O Prophet, when ye di·orce women,
di·orce them at their appointed time and compute the term exactly, and íear
God your Lord. Oblige them not to go out oí their apartments, nor allow them
to depart, unless they be guilty oí maniíest uncleanness.`

louse the di·orced as ye house yoursel·es, according to your means, and
distress them not, by reducing them to straits. And ií they are pregnant, then be
at charges íor them, till they are deli·ered oí their burden, and ií they suckle
your children, then pay them their hire and consult among yoursel·es, and act

Ií, the husband has pronounced one, or e·en two repudiations, and ií within
the prescribed period, he abstains írom intercourse with his wiíe, and does not
exercise the right oí return on the repudiated wiíe, he loses the power oí
recantation at the expiration oí the term, and complete cessation oí the marital
rights and duties takes place, a íresh marriage being necessary íor the parties to

It is ob·ious, that the ·ery spirit oí the prescribed traditional íorm oí
repudiation is towards a re·ocation oí the di·orce and a reconciliation between
the parties concerned. Ií, howe·er, the parties íail to take ad·antage oí the
prescribed interim, and are determined to break írom each other, the husband
may pronounce the repudiation íor the third time and thus dissol·e the
marriage deíinitely. 1he di·orced wiíe is íorthwith rendered unlawíul to him
and he cannot remarry her, unless the wiíe marries íirst another person by a
·alid and binding contract, is di·orced by this person, aíter a bona íide
consummation oí marriage and completes the period oí iddat` consequent
upon such repudiation.

1his se·ere condition, has been the subject oí much comment by the critics,
but they íorget that the ·ery existence oí such a condition demonstrates most
strongly that the principles oí Islam are entirely opposed to the alleged íacility
oí di·orce. 1he object oí laying down such a rule, was to pre·ent a deíinite
dissolution oí marriage, by appealing to the sense oí honour oí the people.

Sautayra and Sedillot agree with the Mohammadan jurists, in thinking that
his rule was íramed with the object oí restraining the írequency oí di·orce in
Arabia. Sedillot speaks oí the condition as a ·ery wise one` as it rendered
separation more rare, by imposing a check on its írequent practice among the

, Koran, ch .LXV.I.
, Ibid : 6.
, Koran, II : 232.
, Koran, chap. II : 230.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
lebrews and the leathen Arabs oí the Peninsula. Sautayra says that the check
was intended to control a jealous, sensiti·e, but halí cultured race, by appealing
to their sense oí honour.`

Sir \. Muir erroneously think that Islam positi·ely sanctions the hiring oí a
temporary husband, to legalise re-marriage with a thrice-di·orced wiíe.
idea oí getting the di·orced wiíe married to a third person, on an express
understanding that he would di·orce her in ía·our oí her íormer husband, was
condemned by the Prophet in the most emphatic terms.
In the other íorm oí di·orce three repudiation are pronounced in the period
oí purity, either on one occasion or on three separate occasions. 1his di·orce is
·alid, but is an act oí sin. 1his íorm oí di·orce is called 1alaq Bid-a,` i.e. not
in coníormity with pious practice.

It is to be remembered that the abuses, likely to arise írom the laxity oí the
laws, may con·eniently be counteracted by other lawíul impositions. 1he wiíe
or her guardian íor instance, may stipulate, at the time oí marriage, against the
arbitrary exercise oí the power oí di·orce by the husband. 1he right oí
dissolution oí the contract may be stipulated to be with the wiíe, instead oí
with the husband, ií necessary. 1he same object may also be achie·ed indirectly,
by íixing the dower at a large sum, beyond the means oí the husband to
liquidate. 1he wiíe may also, by stipulation reser·e to herselí the power oí
dissol·ing the marriage under certain legitimate circumstances, íor example, ií
the husband marries a second wiíe.

In the e·ent oí a di·orce the Islamic laws are ·ery particular in pro·iding íor
the protection oí the wiíe`s property against the a·arice oí the husband: Ií the
di·orce is due to a cause imputable to the husband, he has to make o·er to her
all her property, and pay oíí the dower that had been settled upon her. Ií,
howe·er, the di·orce has been restored to at the instance oí the wiíe, without
any justiíiable cause, she has simply to abandon her claim to the dower. 1he
wiíe thus occupies,` obser·es Syed Ameer Ali, a decidedly more ad·antageous
position than the husband.`

8. “ Kholaa Divorce”
Kholaa di·orce is deíined thus: \hen married parties disagree and are
apprehensi·e that they cannot obser·e the bounds prescribed by the di·ine
laws, -that is, cannot períorm the duties imposed on them by the conjugal
relationship - the woman can release herselí írom the tie, by gi·ing up some
property in return, in consideration oí which the husband is to gi·e her a
Kholaa`, and when they ha·e done this, an irre·ersible di·orce would take
Kholaa` is thereíore a repudiation with consent, and at the instance oí the
wiíe, in which she agrees to gi·e a consideration to the husband íor her release
írom the marriage tie. But ií the wiíe íails to pay the compensation, there is yet

, Personal Law oí the Mohammadans, p 335.
, Sir \illiam. Muir`s Liíe oí Mahomet.` Vol. III. p.349.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
another means to dissol·e the marriage, namely, Mubarat,` according to which
no compensation has to be paid, and a complete separation is eííected, merely
by mutual consent oí the parties. Ií, howe·er, the husband gi·es a Kolaa` to
his wiíe ritbovt any compensation, the respecti·e claims oí husband and wiíe
are not cancel-led íorthwith, and they are quite competent to sue each other íor
the payment oí any debts which may be due.
1he compensation is a matter oí arrangement between the husband and
wiíe. 1he wiíe may return the whole, or a portion oí the dower, ií it has been
paid, or she may simply surrender her dower or other rights, such as the right
to maintenance and lodging during the iddat` period, or she may make any
other agreement íor the beneíit oí the husband such as íor instance, to nurse
their child during its two years oí suckling, or to keep and maintain the child íor
a íixed period at her own expense aíter ha·ing weaned it.

It should be remembered that the distinction between talaq` and Kholaa`
is real and not merely technical. Ií the cause oí disagreement proceeds írom the
husband or ií he alone wishes íor a talaq`, he must pay oíí the settlement debt
to the wiíe. But, in case the proposal íor a di·orce emanates írom the wiíe
because oí her a·ersion to the husband, and her consequent íailure to períorm
her duties as a wiíe, or ií she alone wishes íor a Kholaa,` she has to surrender
her dower or abandon some oí her rights, as compensation. Ií the wiíe be so
uníortunate as to be subject to abuse by a brutal husband who may wish her
either to íoríeit the whole oí her dower, or li·e with him, she need not íoríeit
the whole oí her dower. Let her only go to the judge, preíer a complaint against
her husband and demand a íormal separation by the decree oí the Court. Ií her
allegations are true, the judge will call upon the husband to repudiate her. In
case he reíuses to do so, the judge himselí pronounces a repudiation which will
operate as a ·alid repudiation and the husband will be liable íor the whole oí
the deíerred dower. 1his procedure is known as taíriq` or legal separation, in
the Islamic law, and is based on the words oí the Prophet: Ií a woman be
prejudiced by a marriage, let it be broken oíí.`

1he íirst Kholaa` case in Islam is quoted by Bukhari in the íollowing
words: the wiíe oí 1habit Ibn Qais came to the Prophet and said O messenger
oí God, I am not angry with 1habet íor his temper or religion, but I am aíraid
that something may happen to me contrary to Islam, on which account I wish
to be separated írom him. 1he Prophet said: \ill you gi·e back to 1habit the
garden which he ga·e to you as your settlement· She said, \es.` 1hen the
Prophet said to 1habit. 1ake your garden and di·orce her at once`

1his tradition clearly tells us that 1habit was blameless, and that the
proposal íor separation emanated írom the wiíe who íeared she would not be
able to obser·e the bounds set by God namely not to períorm her íunctions as
a wiíe. 1he Prophet here permitted the woman to release herselí by returning
to the husband the ante-nuptial settlement, as compensation íor the release
granted to her.

, Bukhari`s Commentary.
, Bukhari is the greatest commentary oí Islamic orthodox traditions.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
In the Kholaa` írom the basic principle oí repudiation is, that the husband
is lawíully entitled to compensation, only when he is not at all responsible íor
the breach -neither wholly nor in part,- but when the wiíe is alone responsible,
as in the tradition quoted abo·e.
Moslem jurists are all agreed that the compensation extorted írom an
innocent wiíe is unlawíul. Compensation is absolutely unlawíul íor the
husband, e·en when the wiíe happens to be partly responsible íor the
disagreement. 1he religion oí Islam is the only one that can produce a set oí
laws which jealously protects the properly and person oí a wiíe against her
husband`s` cupidity and tyranny.`
I now ad·ert to a passage in the Koran which expressly íorbids the husband
to resort to cruelty or other ·iolent means, with a ·iew to compel a woman to
enter into Kholaa` and to relinquish her dowry. O belie·ers, it is not allowed
you to be heirs oí your wi·es against their will, nor to imprison them,
in order
to take írom them a part oí the dowry you ga·e them, unless they ha·e been
guilty oí maniíest crime, but associate kindly with them, íor, ií ye are estranged
írom them, haply ye are estranged írom that in which God hath placed
abundant good. And ií ye be desirous to ex-change one wiíe íor another, and
ha·e gi·en one oí them a talent, make no deduction írom it. \ould ye take it
by slandering her, and with maniíest wrong· low, moreo·er, could ye take it,
when one oí you hath gone in unto the other, and they ,the wi·es, ha·e
recei·ed írom you a strict bond oí union.`
It is impossible to think oí a more
appealing and íorcible exhortation to a husband, to deal kindly with his wiíe,
e·en ií she happens to be a woman oí unseemly manners. It is íorbidden in the
strongest terms, to lay hold on her property in the e·ent oí a separation.
Beíore these ·erses were re·ealed, brutal husbands used to maltreat their
wi·es, and e·en to imprison and torture them until, unable to bear their
suííerings, they were íorced to relinquish the dowry settled upon them at
marriage, and this property they used to endow their new wi·es with. 1his was
expressly íorbidden by the ·erses quoted abo·e. According to the Malikite
School oí law, -ií a husband has íorced his wiíe to enter into a kholaa,` the
wiíe is entitled to get back the dowry, but the separation will be ·alid in law. I
ha·e already made mention oí the procedure known as 1aíriq` which legally
means dissolution oí the status oí marriage by a judicial decree. I gi·e here
some oí the cause íor which a wiíe can demand a di·orce by authority oí the
Court. It must be remembered that, where the wiíe has the right to preíer a
claim oí taíriq` the husband is entitled to no compensation, as he is so entitled
in kholaa`. A di·orce may be granted by the Court íor: -

1. labitual ill-treatment oí the wiíe.
2. Non-íulíillment oí the terms oí the marriage contract
3. Insanity.
4. Incurable in competency.
5. Quitting the conjugal domicile without making pro·ision íor the wiíe

, Sometimes the phrase is translated, Do not hinder them írom marrying others.`
, Koran, IV : 18.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
6. Any other similar causes which in the opinion oí the Court justiíy a

\e ha·e seen, then, the position oí woman and her legal status in Islam. 1o
sum up: ler legal status is decidedly superior to that oí Luropean women.
1he social immunities she enjoys allow the íullest exercise, on her part, oí the
powers and pri·ileges which the law gi·es to her. She acts, ií sui-juris, in all
matters which relate to herselí and to her own property, in her own indi·idual
right, without the inter·ention oí husband or íather. She appoints her own
attorney, and delegates to him all the powers she herselí posseses. She enters
into ·alid contracts with her husband and her male relations, on a íooting oí
equality. Ií she is ill-treated, she has the right to ha·e the marriage tie dissol·ed.
She is entitled to pledge the credit oí her husband íor the maintenance oí
herselí and her children. She is able, e·en ií holding a creed diííerent to that oí
her husband, to claim the íree and uníettered exercise oí her own religious
obser·ances. ler ante-nuptial settlement is her own by absolute right, and
she can deal with it according to her own will and pleasure. 1o become entitled
to its enjoyment, she requires no intermediates, trustees or next oí kin. \hen
she is aggrie·ed by her husband, she has the right to sue him in her indi·idual

It is both interesting and instructi·e to compare this extract with another,
írom the writings oí J.S. Mill which gi·es us an idea oí the corresponding
position oí women in Christianity: \e are continually told` says he, that
ci·ilisation and Christianity ha·e restored to woman her just rights. Meanwhile
the wiíe is the actual bond- ser·ant oí her husband, no less so, as íar as legal
obligation goes, than sla·es commonly so called. She ·ows a liíelong obedience
to him at the altar, and is held to it all through her liíe by law. Casuists may say
that the obligation oí obedience stops short oí participation in crime, but it
certainly extends to e·erything else. She can do no act whate·er, but by his
permission, at least, tacit. She can acquire no property, but íor him, the instant
it becomes hers, e·en ií by inheritance, it becomes ipso íacto his. In this respect
the wiíe`s position under the Common Law oí Lngland is worse than that oí
sla·es in the laws oí many countries, by the Roman Law, íor example, a sla·e
might ha·e peculium which to a certain extent, the law guaranteed him íor his
exclusi·e use.`

9. Female Seclusion
1he Islamic laws regulating the social intercourse oí Moslems, ha·e oíten
gi·en rise to needless criticism in Lurope. In their enthusiasm íor social liberty,
the \estern critics say, that these laws are degrading to Moslem women, and
are responsible íor the low state oí morality among Moslems. lowe·er, the
true íact is, that these laws, strict as they are, had íor their ·ery aim the
preser·ation oí good morals in society. Indeed, preser·ation oí good morals -
and not unrestricted íreedom oí social intercourse among men and women,

, 1he Re·iew oí Religions, May 1913, . L·idently J.S. Mill wrote prior to the Married
\omen`s Property Act oí 1882.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
such as is pre·alent to-day in Christian Lurope- is the intention oí the Islamic
laws. lemale seclusion is misunderstood in many quarters in íoreign countries,
íor the apparent reason that sanctions oí religion and usage ha·e not been kept
apart, as they ought to ha·e been but ha·e been grossly mixed one with
another. lailing to distinguish between the two, our \estern critics ha·e íallen
into the ·ery serious íault oí disseminating a íalse notion among their
countrymen, that Islam is responsible íor the seclusion oí íemales, and íor all
the e·ils that ílow thereírom.
I will dwell on the subject a little and make an attempt to show whether the
religion oí Islam actually sanctions the seclusion oí women, as is
misunderstood by Luropean critics.
1he íollowing ·erse occurs in the Koran, which touch on our present
subject: Speak unto the íemale belie·ers that they restrain their eyes, and keep
themsel·es írom immodest actions, and that they display not their charms and
ornaments, except to their husbands or their íathers, or their husband`s íathers,
or their sons or their husbands` sons, or their brothers, or their brother`s sons
or their sisters` sons, or their women, or their sla·es, or male domestics who
ha·e no natural íorce, or to children who distinguish not women`s nakedness.
And let them not strike their íeet together, so as to disco·er their hidden
ornaments. And be ye all turned to God, O ye belie·ers, that it may be well
with you.`

1he chieí object oí these ·erses is to secure greater purity oí heart and
increasing chastity oí mind, and hence the belie·ers are here reminded that
God is well aware oí what they do, and that it shall be well íor them, ií they
constantly turn to him. 1o attain this moral purity, the belie·ing man is íirst
directed to retrain his eyes and obser·e continence. 1hen the belie·ing woman
is likewise directed to co·er her person and ornaments írom public ·iew, to
restrain her eyes and obser·e continence. A Moslem woman is at liberty to go
out oí her house, ií necessary, aíter she has obtained permission írom her
husband or guardians. Only, she has to take good care to dress herselí properly,
so as to co·er her person írom head to íoot, and to walk in the street with
downcast eyes.
It is needless to point out, that the injunction with respect to looking down,
is useless and uncalled íor, ií the women are ne·er to walk abroad. Likewise the
reíerence to external ornaments too becomes pointless, ií women are to appear
only beíore per-sons mentioned in the ·erses quoted abo·e. It is allowable íor a
woman to unco·er part oí her íace, íingers oí her hands, soles oí her íeet,
when she íeels the necessity oí going out. 1he rest oí the body must be
concealed beíore strangers, but beíore the persons enumerated in the ·erses, it
is enough that the part írom breast to knee remains co·ered.
It is clear then, that the ·erses quoted abo·e deal with propriety oí dress,
and íorbid women to ílirt and coquet, in order to gain admirers. On the other
hand, they enjoin upon the íaithíul women modesty oí deportment, purity oí
heart and íear oí God.
It can be coníidently asserted that the excellent teachings upon chastity,
together with the remedies íor incontinence, as contained in the loly Koran,

, Koran: XXIV : 31

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
are a peculiarity oí Islam. One particular point deser·es especial attention. 1he
natural inclination oí man is to sexual desire, o·er which he cannot ha·e íull
control except by undergoing a thorough transíormation. 1he di·ine injunction
in this respect is, thereíore, not that we may look at strange women and their
beauty and ornaments, or their gait and dancing, so long as we do it with pure
looks, nor that it is lawíul íor us to listen to their sweet songs, or to the stories
oí their lo·e and beauty, pro·ided it is done with a pure heart, but that it is
ne·er lawíul íor us, to cast glances at them, whether to lust or otherwise and to
listen to their ·oices, whether with a pure or an impure heart. \e are íorbidden
to do an act, in the doing oí which we are not treading upon sure ground. Ií the
eyes are accustomed to look aíter strange women, there is a íear, lest this
practice should, some time, lead to dangerous consequences. 1hat \orld oí
God, as re·ealed in the loly Koran, thereíore, restrains the carnal desires oí
man and enjoins upon him, to a·oid the occasions, where there is danger oí the
excitement oí the e·il passions.

\e now ad·ert to another passage in the loly Book, where the mothers oí
the íaithíul` are addressed: O \i·es oí the Prophet, ye are not as other
women. Ií ye íear God, be not too complaisant oí speech, lest the man oí
unhealthy heart should lust aíter you, but speak with discreet speech. And abide
still in your houses, and go not in public, decked as was common in the days oí
ignorance, but obser·e prayer and gi·e alms, and obey God and the Apostle:
God but desireth to put away all impurity írom you. O ye the household oí the
Prophet, and puriíy you thoroughly. And study what is rehearsed to you in your
houses, oí the Book oí God, and oí \isdom: God is Keen-sighted and
Congnisant oí all.`

1he wi·es oí the Prophet, who were destined to be patterns íor all íaithíul
women, are here gi·en positi·e injunctions, to íear God, puriíy their hearts,
obser·e prayer, gi·e alms, obey the Prophet and read constantly the loly
Koran, - in short to lead a liíe oí purity, de·otion and piety. In the sublimity oí
their thoughts, these noble women were not unmindíul oí the humbler duties
oí domestic liíe. 1he great lesson which their noble husband taught, was that
woman`s proper sphere is her house, and the claims oí domestic duties should
recei·e her íirst and best consideration. le set up an ideal beíore his wi·es, and
through them, to all belie·ing women: it was the ideal oí plain li·ing and high
It is to be remembered, that the wi·es oí the Prophet were all accessible to
religious inquiries. Ayesha was, as it were the repository oí the traditions, and
was írequently consulted on matters oí religion and ritual. Men came írom
distant parts oí the country and straightway saw the wi·es oí the Prophet, and
all oí these ·isitors were certainly not oí blameless character. It was quite
natural, that the wi·es oí the Prophet should ha·e recei·ed guidance with
regard to general deportment and propriety oí speech. By discreet speech`, in
the abo·e quoted ·erse, is meant that the wi·es oí the Prophet should speak to
these religious inquirers as mothers would do to their sons.

, Koran, XXXIII : 32-34.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

1he next ·erse, to which we would like to allude, is called the ·erse oí the
·eil, and it occurs íurther on in the same chapter: And when ye would ask any
giít oí his wi·es ask it írom behind a ·eil. Purer will this be íor your hearts and
íor theirs.`

According to some commentators, strangers may approach the wi·es oí the
Prophet, and talk to them, ií they are ·eiled, and presumably this applies to the
generality oí Moslem women as well. Aiming, as it does, at the puriíication oí
the heart, the ·erse only íorbids too íamiliar an intercourse between strangers
and the wi·es oí the Prophet. It does not warrant the conclusion, that the
Koran laws are responsible íor the immurement oí the íair sex.

1here are other commentators, who íollow a stricter interpretation oí the
·erse, namely, that the wi·es oí the Prophet were here commended, not to
appear beíore strangers, e·en though they were ·eiled. 1hose who uphold this
interpretation are careíul to limit the applications oí the ·erse to the Prophet`s
wi·es only. Ií any other Moslem woman appears beíore stranger, she commits
no íault, but ií she does not appear at all, it is better still.`

1he occasion oí this ·erse, in accordance with one ·ersion, also lends
support to the ·iew, that the ·erse was intended íor the wi·es oí the Prophet
alone. Omar, who aíterwards was ele·ated to the Caliphate, once happened to
come upon the wi·es oí the Prophet, who were still sitting in a mosque in
company with many other women. Such a sight was not to Omar`s liking íor he
was always in ía·our oí the seclusion oí the Prophet`s wi·es. le there and then
exclaimed- \hat a happy thing it would ha·e been, ií the mothers oí the
íaithíul` had been under ·eils.`
In that case thought he, their superiority would
ha·e been established o·er other women much in the same way as the
superiority oí their noble husband is established o·er other men.

In studying these ·erses, many íorget to take into account the circumstances
and conditions that pre·ailed in those times in Arab Society. A sort oí
chi·alrous spirit doubtless existed, but it existed in Arab poetry, rather than in
the actual liíe oí the people. \omen were no better than cattle and íurniture.
lree women, as well as, sla·e women, íreely walked in the open, with their
heads bare, and oíten with scanty clothing. 1he houses were not large enough,
and the rooms were narrow and íew in number. In most cases, one and the
same room ser·ed many diííerent purposes. It is easy to see, thereíore, that
aimd such conditions, it was ·ery diííicult to maintain pri·acy. Indeed ·iolation
oí pri·acy, and e·en oí decency, was an e·ery day occurrence. It was to put a
stop to such an undesirable state oí things, that the íollowing teachings were

, Koran XXXIII : 53.
, Zamakhshari`s Commentary.
, 1hus were the wi·es oí the Prophet termed in the Koran.
, Zamakhshari, p.1141.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
O ye who belie·e, enter not into other houses than your own, until ye ha·e
asked lea·e, and ha·e saluted the íamily thereoí, this is better íor you: haply ye
will bear this in mind.`
And ií ye íind no one therein, then enter it not, till lea·e be gi·en you, and
ií it be said unto you, Go ye back, then go ye back.. 1his will be more pure íor
you, and God knoweth what ye do.`
1here shall be no harm in your entering houses, in which no one
dewelleth. God knoweth that which ye disco·er and that which ye conceal.`

Commentators mention a signiíicant tradition about a person who, aíter the
re·elation oí these ·erses, inquired oí the Prophet, ií it were necessary íor him
to get permission e·en írom his mother, beíore entering into her chamber,
\es,` said the Prophet. But she has none to attend to her, except myselí,` put
in the Arab inquirer. Likest thou to see your mother naked·` obser·ed the
Prophet. Certainly not.` Replied the man. Ask her permission then,` said the
Prophet emphatically.
Likewise, we íind that, at certain times oí the day, e·en domestics and
children should not come into our presence without notice. lere are the
instruction bearing on the occasion:
O ye who belie·e, let your sla·es and those oí you who ha·e not come oí
age ask lea·e oí you, three times a day, ere they come into your presence,
beíore morning prayer, and when ye lay aside your garments at mid-day, and
aíter the e·ening prayer. 1hese are three times oí pri·acy. No blame shall attach
to you or them, ií aíter these times, when ye go your rounds oí attendance on
one another ,they come in without permission,. 1hus doth God make clear to
you lis signs: and God is knowing, wise. And when your children come oí age,
let them ask lea·e to come into your presence, as they who were beíore them,
asked it.`

Under such circumstances and conditions Arab society grew. 1he iníluence
oí Islam was a blessing to the Arab race. It was Islam that awakened in the
Arab mind respect íor women, and a high sense oí decency, and social
decorum. It was only an extension oí the laws oí decency and social decorum,
when too close intercourse between strangers and the Prophet`s wi·es was
íorbidden, as we ha·e seen in the ·erse oí the ·eil. It is really to be much
regretted, that the critics oí Islam will not see all this, and should obstinately
ascribe the íraming oí all these healthy rules, to moti·es oí selíish jealousy.
1here is one more ·erse, in the same chapter, to which reíerence may be
made in this connection: O Prophet, speak unto thy wi·es and thy daughters,
and the wi·es oí the true belie·ers, that they cast their outer garment o·er them
,when they walk abroad,, this ,will be, more proper, that they may be known
,to be matrons oí reputation,, and may not be aííronted ,by unseemly words or
actions, God is Gracious ,and, Merciíul.`

, Koran: XXIV : 2¯-29.
, Koran : XXIV : 5¯-58.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
1he purport oí this ·erse is quite clear, and requires no elucidation. 1he
wi·es oí the Prophet, as well as the wi·es oí the íaithíul, are permitted to go
abroad, ií necessary, - and they are required to co·er themsel·es with large
wrappers. 1he object oí this qualiíication, as brieíly indicated in the ·erse, may
be best understood by a reíerence oí the íact, that beíore the re·elation oí this
·erse, both the íree women, as well as the sla·e women, used to go abroad,
without any wrappers on and with their heads bare, and wicked men ·ery oíten
aííronted them in the streets. Ií in the case oí a íree woman, any altercation
ensued, these men were ready with their explanation that they took them íor
sla·e women. 1he íree women were, thereíore, commanded by this ·erse, to
co·er themsel·es with wrappers, when they walked out oí doors, so that they
might easily be distinguished írom sla·e women, and thus be saíe írom the
insolence oí street-men. Nor was the wrapper, a mere mark oí their social states
- it was a mark oí their chastity as well. lor, by using large wrappers, and
thereby co·ering the bodies, including the íaces which it is not at all obligatory
to co·er, they bore a silent, but strong testimony to their moral purity, and
inspired awe, e·en in the tainted hearts oí wicked people.

1he Koranic ·erses are ·ery clear on this point, and lea·e little room íor
doubt. Lea·ing aside the diííerence oí interpretation, two íacts stand out in
bold relieí:
1. 1hat the object oí the ·erses is to secure chastity oí heart and mind, and
purity oí looks íor man and woman.
2. 1hat the ·erses actually íorbid an unrestrained and promiscuous mingling
oí both sexes, and this in the interest oí good morals and social well-

Islam does not compel a woman to remain within her house under all
circumstances. It permits her to go out, whene·er there arises any legitimate
necessity íor her to go out. It is certain, that she has to take permission, either
express or implicit, írom her husband. 1here are, howe·er, occasions when the
husband cannot deny his wiíe such a permission, as íor example, when she
intends to acquaint herselí with the opinion oí the learned on any matter
aííecting herselí, or to ·isit her sick parents, etc.
As regards attending public prayers, there is nothing to pre·ent women írom
doing so under certain reser·ations, but it is preíerable that they should pray at
home. It is more meritorious` said the Prophet, that a woman should say her
prayers in the courtyard oí her house, rather than in the mosque, it is more
meritorious that she should say her prayers within the house, rather than in the
courtyard, and better still, in her closet, rather than in her house, and all this
with a ·iew to conceal her írom public ·iew.`

I hope that I ha·e succeeded in presenting the correct teaching in accordance
with the Islamic laws, in regard to the question oí íemale seclusion.
It can be emphatically asserted, that Islam ne·er ía·ours woman`s seclusion
in any extra·agant írom. Seclusion or the Islamic ·eil system is deíined as
throwing a wrapper o·er the body íorm head to íeet, and it is clear, that in this
sense, it is not incompatible with a woman`s stepping beyond the threshold oí

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
the house, particularly when occasion demands, and when she obtains the
consent oí her husband or guardian. Certain restrictions ha·e, doubtless, been
imposed on the íreedom oí her mo·ements, as we ha·e shown abo·e. But this
is due as much to moral considerations as to the íact, which has been so oíten
ignored that woman`s proper sphere oí action and iníluence is her own house.
Man, to go abroad with a ·iew to earn a li·ing íor himselí, his wiíe, and
children, -and woman, íree írom such cares, to remain at home, in order to
watch o·er the trust committed to her, and to discharge her own
responsibilities, as a mother and a wiíe such is the Islamic conception oí the
relation between the two sexes.

E Ex xp po os si it ti io on n o of f t th he e R Re el li ig gi io on n o of f I Is sl la am m
he word Islam which literally signiíies resignation` ,to God`s will,, is a
comprehensi·e name commonly applied to the religion oí the íollowers oí
the Prophet Mohammed. It embodies the ·arious sections oí the Islamic Law,
which God has established íor the guidance oí lis people, both íor the
worship oí their Lord, and íor the duties oí liíe. 1hese sections are íi·e in
number, namely: - belieís, Practical De·otions, 1ransactions, Moralities and

Section I. Beliefs
Belieís embrace the six articles oí the Islamic íaith, namely, Belieí in ,a,
God, ,b, lis angels, ,c, lis books, ,d, lis Prophets ,e, 1he day oí
Resurrection, ,í, Predestination.

Section II. Devotion
De·otions are sub-di·ided into íi·e articles oí practice: ,a, Recital oí Creed,
,b, Prayer to God, ,c, Paying legal alms, ,d, lasting the month oí Ramadan, ,e,
Pilgrimage to the Kabaa oí Mecca once in a liíetime, ií means allow it.
De·otions also embrace legal waríare íor the deíence oí the religion oí Islam.

Section III. Transactions
1ransactions include such duties as are required between man and man, and
may be di·ided into three sub-di·isions, namely: - Contests, Nuptials, and
Securities. Almost all the ·arious sections oí ci·il jurisprudence relating to
barter, sale, agency, larceny, marriage, di·orce, dower, partnership, claims etc.,
are embraced under those three heads.

Section IV. Moralities
Moralities embrace the consideration oí all those moral excellences which
are enjoined in the Koran and in the teachings oí the Prophet, such as.
Sincerity, Coníidence in God, lumility, Resignation, Keeping worldly
ambitions within bounds, Gi·ing good counsel and ad·ice, Contentment,
Liberality, lo·e to God and man, Patience, Lthical instructions and rules oí

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
conduct relating to ,1, salutations, ,2, asking permission to enter a house, ,3,
shaking hands, and embracing, ,4, rising up, ,5, sitting, sleeping and walking, ,6,
sneezing and yawning, ,¯, laughing, ,8, names, ,9, poetry and eloquence, ,10,
backbiting and abuse, ,11, promises, ,12, joking, ,13, boasting and party spirit.

Section V. Punishments
Punishments include ,1, penalties exacted íor manslaughter or serious
bodily injuries, ,2, punishment íor theít by the loss oí a hand, ,3, punishment
íor íornication and adultery: stoning íor a married person, and one hundred
lashes íor an unmarried person, ,4, punishment íor slander by eighty lashes, ,5,
punishment íor apostasy by death, ,6, punishment íor inebriation by eighty
lashes. My object in writing this book, howe·er, is quite limited. It is to deal
with two important sections only oí the religion oí Islam, namely, Belieís,
which embrace all matters oí íaith, and De·otions which include all matters oí
practice, as distinguished írom articles oí íaith. lence, I will coníine the
íollowing pages to the two abo·e-mentioned comprehensi·e di·isions oí the
Law. Meanwhile, I will gi·e a brieí summary oí the more important articles
embodied in the rest oí the sections.

he creed oí Moslems demands íaith in the íollowing:
,1, God, ,2, 1he angels oí God, ,3, 1he books oí God, ,4, 1he Apostles
oí God, ,5, 1he day oí Judgment or Resurrection, ,6, Predestination. I will now
deal with each oí these articles separately:

1. Belief in God
Belieí in God is best represented by the íollowing íormula which e·ery
Sunni, or orthodox Moslem must proíess sincerely: God is one and has had no
partner, Singular, without any like lim, Uniíorm ha·ing no contrary, Separate,
ha·ing no equal, Ancient, ha·ing no íirst, Lternal, ha·ing no beginning,
L·erlasting, ha·ing no end, L·er-existing, without termination, Perpetual and
Constant, with neither interruption nor termination, L·er qualiíied with the
attributes oí Supreme Greatness, nor is le bound to be determined by lapse oí
ages or times. But le is Alpha and Omega ,the lirst and the Last,, and the
, and the lidden.

What God is not
God is not a íormed body, nor a measurable substance, neither does le
resemble bodies, either in their being measurable or di·isible. Neither is le a
substance, nor do substances exist in lim, neither is le an accidental íorm,
nor do accidentals exist in lim.
le is not like anything that exists, neither does anything resemble lim. le
is not determined by dimensions, nor contained within bounds, nor is le

, As to lis ob·ious existence.
, As to lis reality

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
surrounded by sides, nor is le comprised within the hea·ens or earth. le sits
upon the throne, aíter the manner which le limselí has described, and in that
same sense which le limselí meant: it is a sitting, íar remo·ed írom any
notion oí contact, or resting upon, or local situation, but both the throne itselí,
and whatsoe·er supports it, are sustained by the goodness oí lis power, and
are conquered by lis will. le is abo·e lis throne and abo·e all things, but so
abo·e as at the same time not be a whit nearer to the throne and the hea·en or
íarther írom the earth.
God is exalted by iníinite degrees abo·e the throne, no less than le is
exalted abo·e the earth, and at the same time, le is near to e·erything that has
being, nay, he is nearer to men than their jugular ·eins, and is witness to
e·erything: though lis nearness is not like the nearness oí bodies, neither is
lis essence like the essence oí bodies. le does not exist in anything, nor does
anything exist in lim, but le is too exalted, to be contained in any place, and
too loly, to be determined by time, íor le existed beíore le created time and
place, and le is now as he always existed. le is also distinct írom the creatures
by lis attributes, neither is there anything besides limselí in lis essence, nor
is lis essence in any other besides lim.

le is too loly to be subject to change, or any local motion, neither do any
accidents dwell in lim, nor any contingencies beíall lim, but le abides
through all generations with lis glorious attributes, íree írom all dissolution.
As to the attribute oí períection, le wants no addition oí períection. As to
being, le is known to exist by the apprehension oí the understanding, and seen
as le is by the eyes, through a ía·our which will be ·ouchsaíed out oí lis
mercy and grace, to the holy in the eternal mansion, completing their joy by
·ision oí lis glorious presence.

God’s Life and Power
God s li·ing, poweríul, mighty, omnipotent, not liable to any deíect or
impotence, neither slumbering nor sleeping, nor being subject to decay or
death. 1o lim belongs the Kingdom, the power and the might. lis is the
dominion and the excellence and the creation and the command. 1he hea·ens
are íolded in lis hands, and all creatures are held within lis grasp. le is the
sole creator oí beings and producer oí things, and le is the communicator oí
existence, and írom lim e·erything has its beginning. le created men and
their works, and destined their maintenance, and determined their li·es.
Nothing that is possible, can escape lis grasp, nor can the ·icissitudes oí things
elude lis power. 1he eííects oí lis might are innumerable, and the objects oí
lis knowledge iníinite.

God’s Knowledge
God knows all things that can be known, and comprehends whatsoe·er
comes to pass, írom the extremities oí the earth to the highest hea·ens: e·en
the weight oí atom cannot escape lis knowledge, either in earth or hea·en. le
knows all things hidden or maniíest. le knows the number oí lea·es oí the
trees, oí the gains oí wheat and oí sand. L·ents past and íuture are known to

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
lim. le knows what enters into the heart oí man, and what he utters with his
mouth. le alone, except those to whom le has re·ealed them, knows the
in·isible things. le is íree írom íorgetíulness, negligence and error. lis
knowledge is internal, it is not posterior to lis essence.

God’s will
God wills those things to be that exist, and disposes oí all accidents.
Nothing passes in the earth or in the hea·ens, neither little nor much, nor small
nor good nor e·il, nor proíitable nor hurtíul, nor íaith nor iníidelity, nor
knowledge nor ignorance nor prosperity nor ad·ersity, nor increase nor
decrease, nor obedience nor rebellion, but by lis determinate counsel and
decree, and lis deíinite sentence and will. Nor does the wink oí him that sees,
nor the subtlety oí him that thinks, exceed the bounds oí lis will, but it is le
who ga·e all things their existence or being. le is the Creator and Restorer and
the sole operator oí what le pleases, there is no one re·erse lis decree, or
delay what le has determined, nor is there any reíuge íor man írom rebellion
against lim, but only lis help and mercy, nor has any man any power to
períorm any duty towards lim, but through lis lo·e and will. 1hough men,
genii, angels and de·ils should conspire together, either to put one single atom
in motion, or cause it to cease its motion, without lis will and approbation,
they would not be able to do so. lis will subsists in lis essence, with the rest
oí lis attributes, by which le willed írom eternity the existence oí those things
that le decreed, which were produced in their proper seasons, according to
lis eternal will, without any Beíore or Aíter, and with agreement both with lis
knowledge and will, and not by methodising oí thoughts, nor waiting íor a
proper time, íor which reasons no one thing is in lim a hindrance írom

God’s Hearing and Sight
God-praised by lis name- is hearing and seeing, and hears and sees. No
audible sound howe·er still, escapes lis hearing, nor is anything ·isible so
small as to escape lis sight, íor distance is no hindrance to lis hearing, nor
darkness to lis sight. le sees without pupil or eye-lid, and hears without any
passage or ear, e·en as le knows without a brain, and períorms lis actions
without the assistance oí any corporeal limb, and creates without any
instrument, íor lis attributes are not like those oí men, any more than lis
essence is like theirs.

God’s Word
God commands, íorbids promises, threatens by an eternal word, subsisting
in lis essence. Neither is it like the word oí the creatures, nor does it consist in
a ·oice, arising írom the commotion oí the air and the collision oí bodies, nor
in letters which are separated by the joining together oí the lips, or motion oí
the tongue. 1he Koran, the Law, the Gospel and the Psalter are books sent
down by lim to lis Apostles. 1he Koran, indeed, is read with tongues, written

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
in books and kept in hearts: yet, as subsisting in the essence oí God, it does not
become liable to separation and di·ision, when it is transíerred into the hearts
and the papers. 1hus Moses also heard the word oí God, without ·oice or
letter. And since these are lis attributes. le li·es and knows and wills and
hears and sees and speaks, by liíe and knowledge and will and hearing and sight
and word, not by lis simple essence.

God’s Works
God-praised by lis name-exists aíter such a manner, that nothing besides
lim has any being, but what is produced by lis operation, and ílows írom lis
justice, aíter the best most excellent, most períect and most just model. le is,
moreo·er, wise in lis works, and just in lis decrees. But lis justice is not to
be compared with the justice oí men. lor a man may be held to act unjustly by
in·ading the possessions oí another, but to God, inasmuch as there is nothing
which may belong to any other besides limselí, no wrong is imputable, íor le
cannot be considered as meddling with things not appertaining to lim. All
things, limselí only excepted, genii, men de·ils, angels, hea·en, earth, animals,
plants, substance, and their attributes, all are lis creation. le created them by
lis power out oí nothingness, and brought them into existence, when as yet
they were nothing at all, but le alone existing írom eternity, neither was there
any other with him. Now, le created all things írom the beginning íor the
maniíestation oí lis power and lis will, and íor the coníirmation oí lis word
which was true írom all eternity. Not that stood in need oí them, nor wanted
them, but le maniíestly declared lis glory in creating and producing and
commanding, without being under any obligation, nor out oí necessity. íorivg,
/ivave.., farovr ava grace ava beveficevce, belong to lim, whereas it is in lis
power to pour íorth upon men a ·ariety oí torments, and to aíílict them with
·arious kinds oí sorrows and diseases, and should le do this, lis justice would
not be arraigned, nor would le be chargeable with injustice. \et le rewards
those who worship lim íor their obedience, on account oí lis promise and
beneíicence, not íor their merit or oí necessity, since there is nothing which le
is under an obligation to períorm, nor can any injustice be supposed in lim,
nor can le be under any obligation to any person whatsoe·er. 1hat lis
creatures, howe·er, should be bound to ser·e lim, arises írom lis ha·ing
declared by the tongues oí the Prophets, that it was due to lim by them. 1he
worship oí God is not simply the dictates oí the understanding, but le sent
messengers to carry to men lis commands and promises and admonitions: the
·eracity oí these messengers le Pro·ed by maniíest miracles, whereby men are
obliged to gi·e credit to them in those things which they relate.

Mr. George Sale rightly comments on the Islamic notion oí God as íollows:
1hat both Mohammed and those among his íollowers who are reckoned
orthodox, had and continue to ha·e, just and true notions oí God and lis
attributes, appears plain írom the Koran itselí and all the Mohammedan
di·ines, so that it would be to.. of tive, to refvte tbo.e rbo .v¡¡o.e tbe Coa of

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Mobavvea to be aifferevt frov tbe trve Coa, and only a íictitious deity or idol oí
his own creation.`

I will now gi·e a translation oí some quotations írom the Koran, bearing on
the essence oí God, this subject íorming such an important íeature oí the
teachings oí the religion oí Islam:

The Unity of God:
Say: le is God, the Singular, God the Lord, le begetteth not, nor is le
begotten, nor is anything equal unto lim.` 1ruly your God is but one, Lord
oí the lea·ens and oí the Larth, and oí all that is between them, and Lord oí
the points ,at which the sun rises and sets in the course oí the year,. God.
1here is no deity but le, Most excellent are lis attributes.`

1. Proofs of His existence:
le ,God, bringeth íorth the li·ing out oí the dead, and le bringeth íorth
the death out oí the li·ing and le quickeneth the earth aíter it hath been dead,
and in like manner shall ye be brought íorth ,írom your gra·es, oí lis signs
,one is,, that le hath created you oí dust, and behold, ye ,are become, men,
spread o·er the íace oí the earth. And oí lis signs ,another is, that le hath
created íor you, out oí yoursel·es, wi·es, that ye may cohabit with them, and
hath put lo·e and compassion between you: ·erily herein are signs unto people
who consider. And oí lis signs ,are also,, the creation oí the hea·ens and the
earth, and the ·ariety oí you languages, and oí your complexion, ·erily herein
are signs unto men oí understanding. And oí lis signs ,are,, your sleeping by
night and by day, and your seeking ,to pro·ide íor yoursel·es, oí lis
abundance, ·erily herein ,are, signs unto people who hearken. Oí lis signs
,others are, that le showeth you the lightning, to strike terror, and to gi·e
hope ,oí rain,, and that le sendeth down water írom hea·en, and quickeneth
thereby the earth, aíter it hath been dead: ·erily herein are signs unto people
who understand. And oí lis signs ,this also is one, namely, that the hea·ens
and the earth stand íirm at lis command: here aíter when le shall call ye out
oí the earth at one summons, behold, ye shall come íorth.`

\hen ad·ersity beíalleth men, they call upon their Lord, turning unto
lim, aíterwards, when le hath caused them to taste oí lis mercy, behold, a
part oí them associate ,other deities, with their Lord, showing themsel·es
ungrateíul íor the ía·ours which \e ha·e bestowed on them.`
\hen \e cause men to taste mercy, they rejoice therein, but ií e·il
beíalleth them, íor that which their hands ha·e beíore committed, be-hold,
they despair. ,It is, God \ho hath created you, and hath pro·ided íood íor
you: hereaíter will le cause you to die, and aíter that, will le raise you, again to
,It is, God \ho created you in weakness, and aíter weakness hath gi·en
,you, strength, and aíter strength, le will ,again, reduce ,you, to weakness, and

, Vide Sale`s Prelim. Disc.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
grey hair: le createth that which le pleaseth, and le ,is, the \ise, the

God’s Omnipresence asserted
1here is no pri·ate discourse among three persons, but le is the íourth oí
them, nor ,among, íi·e, but le is the sixth oí them, neither ,among, a smaller
number than this, nor a larger, but le is with them, wheresoe·er they be: and
le will declare unto them that which they ha·e done, on the day oí
resurrection, íor God knoweth all things.
God’s Omnipotence
God, there is no deity le, the Li·ing, the Selí-Subsisting: Neither slumber
seizeth lim nor sleep, lis, whatsoe·er is in the hea·ens, and whatsoe·er is on
the earth. \ho is le that can intercede with lim, but by lis permission· le
knoweth what hath been beíore them and what shall be aíter them, yet naught
oí lis knowledge shall they grasp, sa·e what le willeth. lis Seat reaches o·er
the hea·ens and the earth, and the upholding oí both is no burden unto lim,
and le is the ligh and the Great.`

Creator of all things
le causes the dawn to appear, and hath ordained the night íor rest, and
the sun and the moon íor computing time. 1he ordinance oí the Mighty, the
\ise.` And it is le \ho hath ordained the stars íor you, that ye may be
guided thereby in the darkness oí the land and oí the sea. Clear ha·e \e made
Our signs to men oí knowledge.` And it is le \ho produced you írom one
man, and hath ,pro·ided íor you, an abode and resting place. Clear ha·e \e
made our signs íor men oí insight.`

And it is le \ho sendeth rain írom lea·en, and \e bring íorth by it the
buds oí all the plants, and írom them. \e bring íorth the green íoliage, and the
close growing grain, and palm trees with sheaths oí clustering dates, and
gardens oí grapes, and the oli·e and the pomegranate, like and unlike. Look ye
on their íruits, when they ripen and bear íruit. 1ruly herein are signs unto
people who belie·e.1his is God your Lord. 1here is no deity but le, the
creator oí all things, thereíore worship lim alone, and le watcheth o·er all
things` \e created the hea·ens and the earth and all that is between them in
six days, and no weariness touched Us.`

Perfect in His Works.
Blessed be le in \hose hand is the Kingdom, and o·er all things is le
\ho hath created death and liíe, to pro·e who oí you will be most
righteous in deed, and le is the Mighty, the lorgi·ing.`
\ho hath created se·en hea·ens one abo·e another. No deíect canst thou
see in the creation oí the God oí mercy, repeat the gaze: seest thou a single

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
1hen twice more repeat the gaze: thy gaze shall return to thee dulled and
weary.` ,Koran,

The Light of Heaven and Earth
God is the Light oí the lea·ens and oí the Larth. lis light is like a niche
in which there is a lamp -the lamp encased in glass- the glass, as it were a
glistening star. lrom a blessed tree it is lighted, the oli·e tree, neither oí the
Last nor the \est, whose oil shines out as it were, e·en though íire touched it
not. It is light upon light. God guideth whom le will to lis light, and God
setteth íorth parables to men, íor God knoweth all things.`
Provides for All
\hoso chooseth this quickly passing liíe, quickly will \e bestow thereon
that which \e please-e·en on him \e choose, aíterwards \e will appoint hell
íor him, in which he shall burn- disgraced, outcast.`
But they who choose the liíe to come and stri·e aíter it, as it should be
stri·en íor, being also belie·ers- as íor these, their stri·ing shall be grateíul ,to
1o all-both to these and those- \ill \e prolong the giíts oí ,Us \e, your
Lord, íor not to any shall the giíts oí thy Lord be denied.`
See how \e ha·e caused some oí them to excel others, but the next liíe
shall be greater in its grades, and greater in excellence.
Set not up another Lord with God, lest thou sit thee down disgraced,
helpless. 1ry Lord ordained that ye worship none but lim...`

His Words are Countless.
Say: Should the sea become ink, to write the words oí my Lord, the sea
would surely íail, ere the words oí my Lord would íail, though we brought
,other seas, like it in aid.
Ií all the trees that are upon earth were to become pens, and ií God should
aíter that swell the sea into se·en seas ,oí ink, lis words would not be
exhausted, íor God is Mighty and \ise.`

Has no Offspring
And they say, God hath a son: No Praise be to lim. But- lis is whate·er
is in the lea·ens and the Larth. All obey lim.`
Sole maker oí the lea·ens and oí the Larth. And when le decreeth a
thing. le only saith to it. Be` and it is.
\et ha·e they assigned the jins to God as lis associates, though le
created them, and in their ignorance they ha·e íalsely ascribed to lim sons and
daughters. Glory be to lim, and high let lim be exalted abo·e that which they
attribute to lim.
Sole Maker oí the lea·ens and the Larth, how, when le hath no consort,
should le ha·e a son· le hath created e·erything and le knoweth e·erything.
1his is God your Lord. 1here is no deity but le, the creator oí all things,
thereíore worship lim alone: and le watches o·er all things. 1hey say: 1he
God oí Mercy hath gotten oííspring.` Now ha·e ye done a monstrous thing.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Almost might the ·ery lea·ens be rent thereat, and the Larth clea·e asunder,
and the mountains íall down in íragments, that they ascribe a son to the God oí
Mercy, when it beseemeth not the God oí Mercy to beget a son.`

Created All Beings to Adore Him
I ha·e not created Jins and men, but that they should worship Me.`

How He Speaketh with Man
It is not íor man that God should speak with him, but by ·ision, or írom
behind a ·eil: Or, le sendeth a messenger to re·eal, by lis permission, what
le will: íor le is exalted ,and, wise.
1hus ha·e \e sent the Spirit ,Gabriel, to thee with a re·elation, by our
command: 1hou knewest not, ere this, what the Book` was or what the ,true,
íaith was. But \e ha·e ordained it íor a light: by it will \e guide whom \e
please oí Our ser·ants. And thou ,O, Mohammed, shalt guide their íeet into
the right way.`

God is Creator of Good and Evil Deeds,
and Yet Good is from Him, but Evil is
from Man in Consequence of his
Ignorance or Disobedience
By the sun and his noonday brightness, By the moon when she íolloweth
him: By the day when it re·ealeth his glory: By the night when it enshroudeth
him: By the earth and lim \ho spread it íorth, By a soul and lim \ho
re·ealed to it the way oí wickedness and the way oí piety ,to choose between
them,- Blessed now is he who hath kept it pure, and undone is he who hath
corrupted it.` Ií good íortune betide them, they say, this is írom God and ií
e·il betide them, they say this is írom thee` ,the Prophet,. Say: All is írom God:
\hate·er good betideth thee, is írom God, and whate·er betideth thee, oí e·il,
is írom thyselí, and \e ha·e sent thee to mankind as an apostle: God is thy
suííicient witness.`

Omniscient and Omnipotent
And with lim are the keys oí secret things, none knoweth them, but le:
le knoweth whate·er is on the land and in the sea, and no leaí íalleth but le
knoweth it, neither is there a grain in the darkness oí the earth, nor, a thing
green or sere, but it is noted in a distinct writing.`

All–Seeing but Unseen
1he eyes do not reach lim, but le reaches the eyes, and le is the Subtile,
the All- iníormed.`

, On the preser·ed tablet, on which are written all the decrees oí God.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
It is le \ho in six days created the lea·ens and the Larth, then ascended
lis throne. le knoweth that which entereth the earth, and that which goeth
íorth írom it, and what cometh down írom lea·en, and what mounteth up to
it, and where·er ye are, le is with you, and God beholdeth all your actions.
lis is the Kingdom oí the lea·ens and the Larth, and to God shall all
things return. le causeth the night to pass into the day, and le causeth the day
to pass into the night, and le knoweth the ·ery secrets oí the bosom.`

God’s Love and Mercy
1he two attributes oí Rahman` and Rahim,` usually translated as
Beneíicent and Merciíul respecti·ely, occur 400 times in the Koran. 1heir
importance is remarkably indicated by bringing them immediately aíter the
attribute Lord oí the worlds` in the opening chapter oí the Koran, and íurther
by heading with them e·ery chapter oí the loly Book. Rahman` expresses the
greatest preponderance oí the quality oí Mercy, while Rahim` expresses a
constant repetition and maniíestation oí that quality. 1he two words are
applicable to two diííerent states oí the exercise oí mercy in God, the íirst oí
that state when man has not done anything to deser·e it and God exercises lis
unbounded mercy in bestowing lis giíts on him, and the second to that state
when man does some good to deser·e God`s mercy, and lis mercy is
repeatedly exercised íor him. 1hus Rahman` is le \ho creates íor man all
those things which make his liíe possible on this earth, and Rahim` is le \ho
gi·es him the íruit oí his labour. In other term Rahman` is le \ho, through
lis re·elation, shows the right way to man to de·elop his íaculties, and
Rahim` is le \ho rewards the íaithíul íor the good they do. 1his distinction,
obser·es Mohammad Ali, M. A. LL. B., oí Lahore, is so íine that Church
Christianity has been unable to realize it, íor it holds that God could not show
mercy unless man had done something to deser·e it, and hence the necessity
íor a ·icarious atonement.

According to the Koran, so great is di·ine mercy that it encompasses the
belie·er and the unbelie·er alike. L·en the opponents oí the Prophet are
spoken oí as ha·ing mercy shown to them: And \hen \e make people taste
oí mercy aíter an aííliction touches them, Lo! they de·ise plans against Our
communications` ,10:21, And whene·er the polytheists are spoken oí as calling
upon God in distress, we are told that God remo·es their distress, and has
mercy on them.
Again, we íind it repeatedly stated in the Koran that the e·il done by man is
either obliterated or punished only with the like oí it, but good is rewarded
teníold, hundredíold, e·en without measure. All this pro·es that according to
the loly Koran God`s lo·e is the most preponderating oí lis attributes. It is
not only the írequent occurrence oí the two names oí Rahman` and Rahim`
and the importance attached to them by placing them at the head oí each
chapter that shows that the quality oí lo·e is predominant, but the Koran has

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
gone íurther and laid the greatest stress in explicit words on the immeasurable
·astness oí Di·ine mercy and beneíicence. I quote only a íew examples:

le has ordained mercy on limselí` ,6:12,
\our Lord has ordained mercy on limselí` ,6:54,
\our Lord is the Lord oí all-encompassing mercy` ,6:14¯,
And My mercy encompasses all things` ,¯:156,
In the grace oí God and lis mercy they should rejoice.` ,10:58,
O My ser·ants ! who ha·e acted extra·agantly against themsel·es, do not
despair oí the mercy oí God, íor God íorgi·es the sins altogether ,you ha·e
simply to repent and ask God íor íorgi·eness,.` ,39:53,
,Say, Our Lord ! 1hou embracest all things in mercy and knowledge.`

The Existence of God
Oí all the doctrines and belieís that ha·e been objected to in this age oí
materialism, the greatest is the belieí in the existence oí God. 1he íirst demand
which an atheist makes is: Ií you show God to me, I will belie·e in lim. low
can I belie·e in lim without seeing lim· \estern iníluences ha·e gone along
way towards eííacing írom the hearts oí many young men, the imprint oí the
Di·ine Being, and hundreds oí college students and others, ha·e begun to deny
existence oí God. 1here are thousands oí persons who, though reíraining írom
an open declaration oí their ·iews through íear oí the community, ha·e really
no íaith in lim, thereíore I submit the íollowing suggestions on the subject,
that haply some íortunate soul may be beneíited thereby.
Man knows diííerent things by means diííerent senses. Some things we
know by means oí seeing, some by tasting. A colour is known by seeing not by
smelling, touching or tasting Ií anybody should say, that he will acknowledge a
colour, only ií he is made to hear the sound oí it, would not such a proposition
be considered unreasonable· Similarly, íragrance is known by means oí
smelling. Now ií anyone should say that he will consider a rose to be íragrant,
only ií he is made to taste its íragrance, would such a person be regarded as
wise· On the other hand, ií any body seeks to know, by smelling, things which
can be known by tasting, such as sourness and sweetness, bitterness and
saltiness, he will ne·er be able to do so. 1hereíore it is not right, that we should
accept those things only which we can behold with our eye, and disbelie·e
those things which are not recognisable by the eye. low absurd is, then, the
demand that God must be shown to us beíore we belie·e in him.

Moreo·er, there are certain things in man himselí, the existence oí which he
recognises, without ha·ing seen them. \e do not know all things merely by
seeing, but they are known by means oí íi·e diííerent senses. Now, there are
many things which are not knowable, e·en by these gateways oí knowledge,
there being other ways oí knowing them. lor instance, reason, memory and
intelligence are things which are not denied by any body, yet nobody has e·er
seen, heard, tasted smelt or touched them. low did we, then, come to know
that there were such things as reason, or memory, or intelligence· Again, has

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
anybody e·er seen, smelt, touched or tasted energy· L·en the simplest man can
see that we ha·e not known these things by means oí the íi·e senses, but that
there are other e·idences that ha·e led us to the knowledge oí their existence.
\e see that when a man is coníronted with a diííiculty, he thinks íor a while,
and then de·ises a plan, by which he is able to sol·e his diííiculty. \hen we see
diííiculties being remo·ed in this way we conclude that there is something in
man which is oí ser·ice to him on such occasions, and we call it reason. 1hus,
we do not become aware oí the existence oí reason directly through the íi·e
senses, but we obtain a knowledge oí it by means oí its wonderíul
maniíestations. Similarly, when we see a man able to carry hea·y loads, and
some man, able to carry hea·ier weights than others, we iníer that there is a
capacity in man, which enables him to bear these burdens, and which some
persons possess in a greater degree than others. 1his capacity we call strength.
\e ha·e not seen strength, but we ha·e seen the deeds that are done by
strength, and írom these we ha·e concluded its existence.

1hus, we íind that the more subtile a thing is, the more hidden it is írom the
human eye, and it is by actions, and not by the íi·e senses, that we percei·e the
existence oí such things.
But God is the subtlest oí all. low unjust is it, then, to say that we cannot
belie·e in the existence oí God, unless le is shown to us. las anybody e·er
seen electricity· But can we, then, deny the transmission oí messages and
signals to long distances, lighting and the working oí machinery by means oí
electricity· 1he disco·ery oí either has brought about a re·olution in the world
oí physical science, but has any scientist been able to íind it by means oí his
íi·e senses· But ií we deny its existence, we íind oursel·es unable to explain
how the rays oí the sun reach the earth. low unjust is, then, the demand that
in order to be belie·ed in, God must be ·isible to the eye, while there are so
many things which are belie·ed in, though they are not ·isible to the eye, or
perceptible by any other oí the íi·e senses. God is ·isible, but only to the eyes
that are capable oí seeing lim. But ií anybody is desirous oí seeing lim, le is
beíore the whole world through lis powers, and in spite oí lis being hidden,
le is the most apparent oí all. 1his íact has been brieíly, but ·ery exquisitely
mentioned in the loly Koran in the íollowing words:
1he eyes do not reach lim, but le reacheth the eyes: and le is the
Subtile, the Knowing`.
In this ·erse, God draws the attention oí man to the íact that his eyes are
not capable oí seeing lim, íor le is subtile, and subtile things cannot be
percei·ed by the eyes. \hat, then is the way oí knowing God· 1he Koran
answers this question by saying: And le reacheth the eyes` namely though the
eyes oí man are not capable oí seeing lim, yet le re·eals limselí to man by a
display oí lis powers, and by a maniíestation oí lis attributes. Maniíold are
the ways in which le re·eals limselí to man. le displays lis unlimited power
sometimes by terror - striking signs, sometimes by signs oí mercy, and at
others, by accepting prayer. Ií God were to be belie·ed in, only ií le were
perceptible by the eye, then we should ha·e to deny the existence oí about
íour-íiíths oí the things oí the world, or the existence oí all things, ií we accept

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
as true the ·iew oí certain philosophers who allege, that nobody can see the
substance oí anything in the world, and that it is only the íorm that we see.
\e know ·ery little oí God, and yet we know that God exists, that there is a
Great Mysterious Power, at work behind the Uni·erse.
In ancient times, Nature or the íorces oí Nature, were deemed to be
íreakish, capricious powers, personiíied, to popular intelligence as demons, and
the like. Now we know that there is nothing íreakish or capricious about
Nature, that Nature works in accordance with íixed law- the law oí the
Uni·erse, the law laid and established by the great Mysterious Power at work
behind the Uni·erse.
All we know oí that Great Mysterious Power is compounded oí all we know
oí the ·arious laws -disco·ered írom time to time- which go·ern the Uni·erse.
1here are three main laws in the Uni·erse: - the Law oí Creation, the Law oí
Substance and the Law oí L·olution, so ií we seek, as it were, to personiíy the
Great Mysterious Power, and clothe lim with attributes that we mortal men
can comprehend, we shall endea·our to ·isualise him as Creator, Sustainer and
1he Arabic language has one word which comprises all three ideas Rabb-
vt- .ataveev, the word Rabb signiíying Creator, Sustainer, and one who was
endowed e·ery object with the capacity oí ultimate de·elopment -thereby
anticipating the doctrine oí L·olution, many centuries beíore Darwin ga·e his
theories to the world.
At e·ery e·olutionary stage oí matter, howe·er transient it be, we íind a
course prescribed, and an organisation pre-ordained- Nature e·erywhere
obeying the Law.
As the loly Koran says: And to Allah does obeisance whate·er is in
hea·en and earth willingly or unwillingly.`
O·er and o·er again, the loly Koran lays down with great clarity, that a
Reign oí Law exists, dominating the whole material world, and e·ery day, íresh
disco·eries oí science do but pro·e inspired accuracy oí the Sacred Book. lor
aíter all, this is the sum total oí all scientiíic disco·ery, that all growth and all
de·elopment oí e·ery element in Nature, is under the Rule oí the Law.
Is, thereíore, this Reign oí Law, -this mechanism as it were oí rule and
regulation, - international· Or is it accidental·
Call it mechanism ií you will, but can you dissociate mechanism, írom
1he machine itselí cannot think, but what oí the mind that made it·
Mechanism cannot construct itselí.
In all human mechanism, we belie·e in the priority oí laws and principles,
on which certain mechanism is working. \e acknowledge the pre-existence oí
the mind that de·ised the machine, and set it working.
\hy do we hesitate, when we come to the great mechanism oí Nature· I
suppose, we are aíraid lest, ií we once make such an admission, we shall ha·e to
accept Law, as separate írom Matter, - to admit that Mind has priority o·er
About se·enty years ago. 1he Atomic theory was the popular craze. 1he
Atom was our great God, our íirst cause and origin, but later, we íound this

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
god itselí a sla·e to Law. It was íound to be, not an origin, but a product oí
some electronic specialization, which in its turn recei·ed its birth, not as an
accident, but under a Law- the Law oí Condensation- írom the collocation oí
ethereal speaks. But this ether, as it is called, is, in its turn a law - ridden entity.

Lrnst laeckel and others, reíusing to admit the priority oí Mind to Matter,
sought a way out by regarding matter and energy as one and the same thing,
with law-abidingness` as a permanent characteristic, and calling it Law-
Substance. Law substance, thereíore, is a íirst cause, selí-created, and the
creator oí other things, selí-existing, and the maintainer oí subsequent growth,
omnipresent, and all per·ading, indestructible and iníinite, add to these the
attributes oí all-knowing and all-poweríul, designer and regularizer, and
though you style yourselí atheist or íree-thinker, you belie·e in the God oí
Islam. As the loly Koran says: And to lim doth obey what is in the hea·ens
and the earth. And a sign to them is the night, we draw íorth írom it the day,
then, Lo! they are in the dark, and the sun runs on to a term appointed íor it,
that is the ordinance oí the Mighty and the knowing. And as íor the moon. \e
ha·e ordained íor it stages, till it becomes again as an old dry palm- branch.
Neither is it allowable to the sun, that he should o·ertake the moon, nor can
the night outstrip the day. All íloat on in a sphere` ,XXXIV: 3¯-40,. 1hus is the
whole Solar System under Di·ine Ordinance.

\hat was that Law- the Law oí Gra·ity,- e·ol·ed írom accidence,` what
made the earth stand on its orbit, with its axis inclined·
\hat a contradiction in terms - law and accident. 1o what lengths will we
not go, to a·oid belieí in the Di·ine Ordinance.
Is the camera an accident· 1he lens, the sensiti·e paper. 1he light regulating
contri·ance and so íorth, all suggest design and mind, and yet the camera is but
the crudest copy oí an eye which is, presumably, a thing e·ol·ed at random.
And what about the íeeling that the image reílected produces· 1he lens oí the
camera reílects the image, but it does not see, it does not íeel, whereas the eye
sends a thrill into the ·ery soul, when we see anything beautiíul.
Can we gi·e or recei·e a telephone message without an exchange`· Some
ae.igv to connect the gi·er and the recei·er is indispensable.

1he brain oí an army-known in modern parlance as General lead
Quarters- is preeminently the product oí design. Is the brain oí man just a
haphazard contri·ance, meaningless in its inception·
\e assign a distinct design to e·ery one oí the hundred and one pipes íixed,
in the machinery oí an ordinary steam engine. Are the million and one ner·es
that work so miraculously in our own bodies, purposeless and without intent·
\et, I could e·en worship this letish oí Accident, ií all these deíined
mo·ements oí our planet had íailed to produce desirable results, making íor
our beneíit. And this being so, I am compelled to belie·e in some \ill, under
whose control Nature works, not blindly. 1he alternation oí day and night-
which cause changes in the weather, aííecting the atmosphere, changing the
course oí the winds, bringing the rainy seasons and the dry weather, in a desired
order, the withering oí Nature, and its resuscitation, these, and the liíe oí man

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
himselí, depending no the peculiar bend oí the earth sphere towards its orbit,
are these all at random·
\ou will not íind a single thing in the realm oí nature which unconnected
with you own existence. As the Book says: 1hose who remember Allah.. And
reílect on the creation oí the hea·ens and the earth, ,say,: Our Lord -\ho
looks to our sustenance and maintenance- 1hou hast not created all this in
·ain. Glory be to 1hee`. ,III : 190,.
1he unintelligible phenomena oí yesterday are, today, instinct with a great
and real purpose. And so it will be with the milliards oí things which still baííle
us. \hich being the case, I ha·e e·ery right to suppose that e·ery object in
Nature admits oí my using it íor my beneíit-ií only I know how,- and is
subser·ient to me under the ordinance oí some Mind, which I call Allah, íor,
did you e·er think oí a contri·ance, or scheme out a design, in the working out
oí which you did not íind the necessary aids already existing in Nature·
But, you will say, things in themsel·es are not subject to design, it is only
man`s intelligent use oí them that makes them useíul.
\e all know that light, and the colour known as green, strengthen the sight,
and green is the pre·ailing colour in Nature aíter light. But, it is said the green
colour was not made intentionally to strengthen sight, rather the eye became
accustomed to it, and so deri·ed beneíit írom it.
But consider the case oí the mole. 1he mole has eye, but being generally
away írom the light, it is blind. It cannot make its surrounding subser·ient to its
sight. \hence it may be seen, to what an extent the eye is indebted to light and
green colour.
In support oí his theory, that Nature is not with purpose intrinsically, but
that its purpose is, as it were oí man`s contri·ing. Lrnst laeckel adduces the
illustration oí powder.
Powder was íor ages lying useless and unused, - by íinding a use íor it we
ha·e in·ested it with a purpose. But that is tantamount to asserting that inquires
ha·e in·ested powder with its properties, or in other words that the purpose oí
the explosi·e was already in it, but in a dormant state, and that it is due to us,
that it has become acti·e. All oí which tends rather to pro·e design, than
otherwise. But there are other ways oí looking at it.
Ií a mind works upon material, gi·ing it shape to ser·e a certain purpose, it
is impossible íor another person, to use that material in a way other than that in
which it was designed by its maker. Ií you deny the design oí its maker, you are
looking íor trouble, and wasting your eííort.
lere are pieces oí iron and wood beíore me: I use them in making a
machine and any person desirous oí using that machine, must do so in the way
intended by me, and in that way only.
Can you use the things that God has made, otherwise than in the way
intended by lim·
\our body is wonderíul machine-endowed with numerous íaculties, to
which are added lree-will, and the power oí discretion. But can you use your
nose íor seeing· Or can you eat through your ear·
1his machine oí your body has been íashioned by an intelligence and a
Mind and ií you act contrary to its designs, your actions will not be acceptable
in the realm oí Nature. lor thus says the loly Koran: Is it, then, other than

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Allah`s way that they seek to íollow, and to lim submits whoe·er is in the
hea·en or on the earth, willingly or unwillingly. And whoe·er desires a way
other than submission ,Islam, it shall not be accepted írom him, and in the end,
he shall be the loser` ,III. 82-84,
Again, ií a particular íorm oí matter in·ol·es, in its being, certain principles,
the knowledge and application oí which, alone make the realisation oí that
purpose possible, then it is certain that a mind has pre-ordained it. Ií the small
íorm oí matter had existed independently oí such principles, and ií there had
been no need oí their knowledge, nor had any ad·antage accrued to us in our
application oí such knowledge, then one might, perhaps, deny, the purpose
behind it.
1he loly Koran tells us, that e·erything in Nature is íor our beneíit, and
íurther apprises us oí the principles which will enable us thoroughly to make
use oí them: 1he Beneíicent God taught the Koran. le created man, taught
him the mode oí expression. 1he sun the and moon íollow a rec/ovivg, ava tbe
berb. ao obe, ;íiv). And the hea·en. le raised it on high, and le made the
vea.vre; that you may not be ivoraivate iv re.¡ect of tbe vea.vre; and keep up the
batavce with equity, and do not va/e tbe vea.vre aeficievt. And the earth le has
set it íor li·ing creatures, therein are íruit and palms ha·ing sheathed clusters,
and the grain with ,its, husk and íragrance. \hich then oí the bounties oí the
Lord will you reject`· ,LV-1-13,.
Note the words in italics. 1he whole uni·erse has been regulated with
mathematical precision, and that we may deri·e the best ad·antage írom it, we
must respect the measure, -íind out these reckonings and measures, and not
make them deíicient.
L·ery created things, írom the stars oí hea·en to the smallest herbs that
grow on the earth, obser·es rules laid down with mathematical reckoning, and
obser·es measures, prescribed íor its creation and de·elopment.
In short e·erything that is created in this uni·erse, is based on mathematical
principles, and all our scientiíic researches owe their existence to this science
and reckoning.
I could agree with Lrnst laeckel, ií man, in this search íor purpose in
Nature, could disregard these mathematical principles. In reality we did not
create purpose íor Nature, we simply disco·ered those measures and rules
which had been laid down íor the working out oí the purpose.
Can we, then, deny, behind the working oí Nature, oí existence oí some
Great Mind, - the Regulariser, the Reckoner and the Measurer· Let us, in the
words oí the loly Koran, gloriíy the name oí Our Lord Most ligh, \ho
creates, then balances, \ho measures, then guides`.
Does e·olution oí matter really consist in the de·elopment oí its
potentialities· Is not the human organism pro·ed, by biological research, to be
the íinal and best e·olution oí matter·
1he consciousness which is e·ol·ed out oí animated matter, in the animal
kingdom in the íorm oí impulses, e·ol·es into natural passion in man. But this
is not the íinal growth. In its turn, it must e·ol·e ethics and high philosophy.
\here, then, is the constructi·e ability, inherent in matter, which should now
work all the more ·igorously, to sublimate my consciousness into high moral

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
and philosophic growth· Do I possess a nature which automatically
distinguishes between Right and \rong· Or must I culti·ate such a nature
through guidance· Do I, by nature, nauseate at wrong philosophy· Do I, by
instinct, spurn things injurious to my intellect· Do I discern between
wholesome and unwholesome íood, without guidance· Man, who represents
the highest possible íorm oí e·ol·ed matter, is hopelessly destitute oí that
constructi·e ability íor the e·olution oí this intellect, which discriminates so
unerringly in the physical building oí organism. 1he ·ery íact that, as íar as the
unconscious growth oí matter goes, this constructi·e ability works so
splendidly, but disappears on the rise oí consciousness, pro·es conclusi·ely,
that it was not an inherent íaculty in matter, but an external guidance,- guidance
íorm the Source that has been called Rabb -\ho is the God oí Islam.
Ií, then, the scientiíic world agree, that Law predominates in matter, íorce
and energy and ií it also belie·es in Monism, it íollows that it must belie·e in
one design and in one mind. 1here may be a hundred and one laws at work in
Nature, but they all con·erge on one purpose. In short, law is, and must be
obeyed, ií the world is to go on at all. Law is the Obeyed` Lntity and in this
connection, the reader may be interested to learn, that the word Allah, \ho is
the object oí worship with Moslems, literally means, 1he Obeyed`
God says,` says Mohammad, do not abuse the Uni·erse, because í av tbe
|virer.e.` - a great truth and undeniable reality. It means, that all the
maniíestations oí Nature are the maniíestations oí the God-Mind, and that all
the íorces and laws oí Nature are the íeatures and characteristics oí that Great
1o be in touch with Nature, is the secret oí all success oí all íelicity in liíe,
and ií, in Islam the dictum has been pronounced, in a somewhat diííerent
language, to imbue oursel·es with Di·ine Attributes`, it means the same thing.
lor the attributes oí God, as mentioned in the loly Koran, do períectly and
completely index and working oí Nature, and ií, to belie·e in God, is to accept
lim, as the Source oí all Law, and to worship lim means simply to obey lis
Law, how can we disbelie·e in the God oí Islam·

2. Belief in the Angels of God
1he angels are created oí light, and endowed with liíe, speech and reason.
1hey are íree írom carnal desire and the disturbance oí anger: they disobey not
God in what le has commanded them, but do all that they are commanded.
1heir íood is, to celebrate God`s glory, their drink, proclaim lis holiness, their
con·ersation, to commemorate God, their pleasure, to worship lim. 1he
angels are created in diííerent íorms and with diííerent powers.
1he number oí angels is ·ery great, it can be known to no one except to
God. lour oí the angels are archangels, namely Jibril ,Gabriel,, the angel oí
re·elations, Mikae`il ,Michael, the angel oí rain, Israíil, the angel who will
announce the ad·ent oí Resurrection, Azrail the angel oí death.
L·ery man is attended by two recording angels, called the Kirav-vt-
Katibeev, or the illustrious writers, one oí whom records his good actions, and

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
other his e·il actions. 1here are also two other kinds oí angel called Mov/ar
and ^a/eer, who examine the dead in the gra·e.
1here are also two celebrated angels Raarav who is in charge oí Paradise,
and Malik` who is in charge oí lell.
1he angels intercede íor men, while, they celebrate the praise oí God, they
implore íorgi·eness íor the dwellers oí earth. 1hey also act as guardians íor
men. Lach man has a succession oí angels beíore and behind him, who watch
o·er him by God`s behest.

3. Belief in the Scriptures of God
1he íundamental position, on which the superstructure oí the Religion oí
Islam is erected, is that, írom the beginning to the end oí the world, there has
been and íor e·er will be, but one true orthodox religion. 1his true religion
consists as to matter oí íaith, in the acknowledgement oí the only true God,
and in the belieí in, and obedience to such messengers or prophets oí God, as
le has been pleased to send írom time to time, with credentials, to re·eal lis
will to mankind, and as to matter oí practice, the religion oí God consists in the
obser·ance oí the immutable and eternal laws oí right and wrong, together with
such other precepts and ceremonies, as God ordained as íit, íor the time being,
according to the diííerent dispensations in diííerent ages. 1hese precepts and
ceremonies were in themsel·es non--essential, but they became strictly
obligatory by God`s positi·e command, and were thereíore, temporary, and
subject to alteration, according to lis will and wisdom. lence, the name
Islam,` signiíying absolute surrender to the will oí God, is used commonly to
denote the Religion oí Islam. 1his name, howe·er, also applies to God`s
religion, since the beginning oí the \orld, inasmuch as all true religion is
nothing, but absolute submission to God`s will. As to scriptures, the Moslems
are taught that God, in di·ers ages oí the world, ga·e re·elations oí lis will in
Books, to se·eral prophets. 1he number oí these sacred Books is said to be
104: ten Books were gi·en to Adam, íiíty to Seth, thirty to Idris ,Lnoch,, ten to
Abraham, and the other íour, being the Pentateuch the Psalms the Gospel and
the Koran, were successi·ely deli·ered to Moses, Da·id, Jesus and Mohammed.
No íurther re·elation to mankind is to be expected. 1he Prophet Mohammed
is, as taught by the Koran, the seal oí God`s messengers and prophets.
All oí these di·ine Books, except the íour last, are belie·ed to be now
entirely lost. As to the Pentateuch, the Psalms and the Gospel, the Moslems
gi·e no credit the present copies oí these Books, which they belie·e to ha·e
undergone many alterations and corruptions, though there might possibly be
some part oí the true word oí God therein. Any passages in the present copies,
which in sense are not in harmony with the teachings oí the Koran, as íar as
matters oí íaith are concerned, are held by Moslems to be no true re·elation.
lence, such statements in the present copies oí the Old and New 1estaments,
as attribute to God a son, or to the Di·inity a plurality or a corporeal íorm, are
dogmatically and emphatically condemned as schismatic.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

On the other hand, ií any precept tenet, law or regulation, relating to mode
oí worship, or rules oí right and wrong, íound in the Koran, is in harmony with
similar precepts, as taught by the 1estaments, it is because such tenets are
immutable and eternal, and relate to that part oí God`s one, true and orthodox
religion which is subject to no change or alteration, inasmuch as such laws were
sa·ed írom corruption.
Apparently it is due to the misunderstanding oí this íundamental
superstructure oí the Religion oí Islam ,to wit: that írom the beginning to the
end oí the world, there has been and still íor e·er will be, but one true religion,,
that some oí the prejudiced class oí \estern historians and commentators ha·e
been apt to wrongly describe such systems, rites or rules oí the Religion oí
Islam, oí which the like exist in the Jewish Scriptures, as borrowed` írom these
books. Such critics, ií absolutely innocent, conscientious and well-iníormed,
must needs admit, that these common precepts are but coníirmed by the Koran
as immutable in themsel·es.
It must again and again reiterated until the basis oí the Religion oí Islam is
well understood, that this religion does not proíess to be a new religion,
íormulated by the prophet Mohammed, but a continuation oí the true religious
principles, established by God through lis re·elations to Adam. Noah,
Abraham, Moses and to other inspired Messengers oí God. 1he re·elations oí
God`s prophets, prior to the ad·ent oí Islam are held to ha·e been partly
corrupted by the hand oí man, through the ·arious renderings and di·ers
·ersions oí same. All portions oí the \ord oí God that were by chance, or
otherwise, sa·ed írom corruption, -such as relate to that part oí God`s religion
which is eternal and immutable ha·e been preser·ed and coníirmed by the
Koran, together with other corrected belieís and dogmas oí íaith, and such
additional rules oí practical de·otion, as God judged íit íor the new and eternal
dispensation. lence it is out oí place and entirely misleading, that any critic
should suggest, that Islam is indebted`, either to the Jewish or any other
dispensation, íor any elements in its system.
In brieí, it is enjoined upon e·ery Moslem, to belie·e in God`s pre·ious
Books oí re·elations, írom Adam to Jesus, in so íar as the contents oí any
extant book oí them are not contradicted by the Koran.

At the ad·ent oí Islam, the \ord oí God, as re·ealed in the Old and New
1estament, was wrapped up in ·arious superstitions and was spoiled by an
admixture oí ungodly belieís and imaginations. 1he Jews were openly charged,
in the early chapters oí Koran, with ha·ing corrupted their Scriptures, with
stiíling passages. 1hey obstinately and impiously denied the ad·ent oí Jesus.
1hey belie·ed that Christ was yet to come. 1hey spoke ill, and most wrongly
and indecently, oí the acknowledged Jesus Christ and oí his re·ered mother,
the Virgin Mary. 1hey attributed to God the adoption oí a son in the person oí

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
\ith regard to Christianity, its real and pure doctrines were exceedingly and
abominably corrupted.
A sect substituted the Virgin Mary íor God or
worshipped her as such. 1hese were called the Mariamites.

Christians also belie·ed in the di·inity oí Jesus. 1hey worshipped him as
God called him the Son oí God and e·en God limselí.
Dr. lughes, commenting on the state oí degradation, into which the
Christian Church had íallen, at the ad·ent oí Islam, writes as íollows: -
1he bitter dissensions oí the Greeks, Nestorians, Lutechiana and
Monophysites, are matters oí history, and must ha·e held up the religion oí
Jesus to the ridicule oí the heathen world. 1he contro·ersies, regarding the
nature and person oí our Di·ine Lord, had begotten a sect oí 1ritheists.

1he worship oí the Virgin Mary had also gi·en rise to a religious
contro·ersy between the Antidus-Mariamites and the Collyridians, the íormer
holding that the Virgin Mary was not immaculate, and the latter, raising her to a
position oí a goddess. Under these circumstances, it is not surprising to íind
that the Arabian reíormer turned away írom Christianity.`

1he Gospel oí St. Barnabas commonly considered by Christian theologians
as apocryphal`- is most in harmony, as to matters oí íaith with the Koran,
Jesus Christ is spoken oí in that Gospel as the ser·ant oí God, the word oí
God and a Spirit írom God. lis miraculous birth, being born without a íather
was e·en less supernatural than the creation oí Adam who was created by
God`s power without íather or mother. 1he cruciíixion oí Jesus by the Jews is
entirely reíuted, according to St. Barnabas and the Koran. In that Gospel, it is
asserted that Judas, the traitor, was he who was cruciíied, in the place oí the
Lord Jesus. Oí this Gospel`, writes Mr. Sale, 1he Moriscoes in Aírica ha·e a
translation in Spanish, and there is in the library oí Prince Lugene oí Sa·oy, a
manuscript oí some antiquity containing an Italian translation oí the same
Gospel made, it is supposed, íor the use oí renegades.`

In St. Barnabas Gospel, the Prophet Mohammed is íoretold by name, as the
Periclyte, that is, the íamous or illustrious, that being the signiíication oí the
name oí Mohammed in Arabic, thereby justiíying the passage in the Koran
,chap 61, where Jesus is íormally asserted to ha·e íoretold his coming, under
his other name oí Ahmed, which is deri·ed írom the same root as Mohammed
and oí the same import.

Mr. Sale states that he inspected a Spanish translation oí the Italian copy oí
St. Barnabas Gospel oí which he gi·es the íollowing account:
1here is a preíace preíixed to it, wherein the disco·erer oí the original MS.,
who was a Christian monk called lra Marion, tells us that, ha·ing accidentally
met with a writing oí Irenacus ,among others,, wherein he speaks against St.
Paul, alleging íor his authority the gospel oí St. Barnabas, he became

, Vide G. Sale`s Prelim. Discourse.
, Vide Dr. lughes` Dict. oí Islam p.53
, See lughess` Dictionary oí Islam. P. 53

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
exceedingly desirous to íind this gospel, and that God, oí lis mercy, ha·ing
made him ·ery intimate with Pope Sixtus V ,1521-1590, one day, as they were
together in that Pope`s library, lis loliness íell asleep and he, to employ
himselí, reached down a book to read the íirst he laid hand on pro·ed to be the
·ery gospel he wanted, o·erjoyed at the disco·ery, he scrupled not to hide his
prize in his slee·e, and on the Pope`s awaking took lea·e oí him, carrying with
him that celestial treasure, by reading oí which he became a con·ert to

1his Gospel oí Barnabas contains a complete history oí Jesus Christ, írom
lis birth to lis ascension, and most oí the circumstances oí the íour real,
gospels are to be íound therein, but many oí them turned, and some artíully
enough, to ía·our the Mohammedan system.1he passages produced írom the
Italian MS. by M. de la Monnoye, are to be seen in this Spanish ·ersion almost
word íor word`.

The Koran
On the other hand, the practical side oí both the Jewish and Christian
dispensations, as concerning social matters and ci·il law, is most deíicient, and
that deíiciency is made good by the Koran, it being the last di·ine word oí

Let us now make a swiít sur·ey oí the Koran, as íar as our limited space in
this work allows, íor to describe it in detail would require unlimited time and
space. lor ·arious reasons, all being much to the ad·antage oí the non-Moslem
reader, - I shall content myselí with a number oí quotations oí what was
written on the Koran by the pen oí non-Moslem critics, whose writings on the
subject can be passed by a Moslem, as gi·ing a suííiciently true picture oí the
loly Koran. lowe·er, it must e·er be remembered that, as miraculously
Di·ine Book, the Koran, when translated into a íoreign language, necessarily
loses a great deal oí its supernatural elegance and purity oí style.
Mr. Sale addresses the reader oí his Lnglish ·ersion- praiseworthy as it is -
in the íollowing words:
. 1hough he ,the reader, must not imagine the translation to come up to the
original, notwithstanding my endea·ours to do it justice`
In another place, the same writer comments on the Koran as íollows:
1he Koran is uni·ersally allowed to be written with the utmost elegance
and purity oí language in the dialect oí the tribe oí the Koreish, the most noble
and polite oí all the Arabians, but with some mixture though ·ery rarely, oí
other dialects. It is coníessedly the standard oí the Arabian tongue and as the
more orthodox belie·e and are taught by the book itselí, inimitable by any
human pen, and thereíore insisted on as a permanent miracle, greater than that
oí raising the dead, and alone suííicient to con·ince the world oí its origin.
And to this miracle Mohammed himselí chieíly appealed íor the
coníirmation oí his mission, publicly challenging the most eloquent men in

, Sale`s preíace to his translation oí the Koran.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Arabia which was at the same time stocked with thousands whose sole study
and ambition it was, to excel in elegance oí style and composition, to produce
e·en a single chapter that might be compared with it I will mention but one
instance out oí se·eral, to show that this book was really admired íor the beauty
oí its composition by those who must be allowed to ha·e been competent
judges. A poem oí Labid Lbn Rabia, in Mohammed`s time being aííixed to the
gate oí the temple oí Mecca, an honour allowed to none but the most esteemed
períormances, none oí the other poets durst oííer anything oí their own in
competition with it. But the second chapter oí the Koran, being aííixed near it
soon aíter, Labid himselí ,then an idolater, on reading the íirst ·erses only, was
struck with admiration, and immediately proíessed the religion taught therein
declaring that such words could proceed írom an inspired person only. 1his
Labid was aíterwards oí great ser·ice to Mohammed, in writing answers to the
satires and in·ecti·es that were made on him and his religion.`

Von Geothe renowned German author, speaking oí the Koran in his \est
Oestlicher Di·an, states:
lowe·er oíten we turn to it, ,the Koran,, at íirst disgusting us each time
aíresh, it soon attracts, astounds and in the end eníorces our re·erence.. Its
style, in accordance with its contents and aim, is stern, grand, terrible, e·er and
anon truly sublime.thus this book will go on exercising, through all ages, a
most potent iníluence.`

Dr. Steingass, the learned compiler oí an Lnglish Arabic and Arabic Lnglish
Dictionary ,\.l. Allen and Co,, has recorded his opinion on the Koran in Dr.
lughes` Dictionary oí Islam. Aíter alluding to the abo·e words oí Goethe Dr.
Steingass writes: 1hese words seem to me so much the more weighty and
worthy oí attention, as they are uttered by one who, whate·er his merits or
demerits in other respects may be deemed to be, indisputable belongs to the
greatest masters oí language oí all times, and stands íoremost as a leader oí
modern thought and the intellectual culture oí modern times,` ,lere Dr.
Steigngass quotes the words oí Goethe and then sa·e,. A work then which
calls íorth so poweríul and seemingly incompatible emotions, e·en in the
distant reader - distant as to time and still more so, as to mental de·elopment a
work which not only conquers repugnance with which he may begin its
perusals, but changes this ad·erse íeeling into astonishment and admiration.
Such a work be a wonderíul production oí the human mind indeed, and a
problem oí the highest interest to e·ery thoughtíul obser·e oí the destinies oí
mankind. Much has been said, in the preceding pages, to acknowledge, to
appreciate, and to explain the literary excellences oí the Koran, and a more or
less distinct admission, that Buííon`s much - quoted saying Le style est
I`homme`, is here more justiíied than e·er, underlies all these ·erdicts. \e may
well say, the Koran is one oí the grandest books e·er written because it
íaithíully reílects the character and liíe oí one oí the greatest men that e·er

, See Sale`s Prelim Discourse.
, See Goeth`s \est-Qesticher Di·an. 1hese words oí Goethe were placed by Mr.
Rodwell by way oí motto on the re·erse oí the title page oí his translation oí the

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
breathed. Sincerity writes Carlyle, sincerity, in all senses, seems to me the
merit oí the Koran,`. 1his same sincerity, this ardour and earnestness in the
search íor truth, this ne·er - ílagging per-se·erance in trying to impress it,
when partly íound, again and again upon his unwilling hearers, appears to me as
the real and undeniable seal oí prophecy` in Mohammed.`

But the approaches to truth are many, and he who de·oted al his powers
and energies, with untiring patience and selí-denial, to the task oí leading a
whole nation by one oí these approaches, írom a coarse and eííete idolatry, to
the worship oí the li·ing God, has certainly a strong claim to our warmest
sympathies, as a íaithíul ser·ant and noble champion oí truth.
It is, howe·er, not my intention to dwell here any longer upon this side oí
the question. Praise has been bestowed in this work on the Koran and its
author, without stint or grudge, and unanimity oí so many distinguished ·oices,
in this respect, will no doubt impress the general reader in ía·our oí the sacred
book oí the Moslems which until now he may ha·e known only by name.
Dealing with the opinion, expressed on the Koran by some Luropean
authors who dwell upon the pretended iníeriority oí the later portions oí the
Koran in comparison with the earlier chapters, Dr. Steingass ably remarks as
Not being an Arabic scholar himselí ,Goethe,, he knew the Koran only
through the translations existing at the time which íollow throughout the order
oí the recei·ed text.1hose critics, on the other hand, who ·iew the Koran
with regard to the chronological order oí its constituents, íollow the descending
scale in their estimate. But ií we consider the ·ariety and heterogeneousness oí
the topics, on which the Koran touches, uniíormity oí style and diction can
scarcely be expected, on the contrary, it would appear to be strangely out oí
place. Let us not íorget that in the book, as Mohammed`s newest biographer.
Ludolí Krehl ,Das Leben des Mohammed. Lepizing 1884, express it, there is
gi·en a complete code oí creed and morals, as well as oí the law based
thereupon. 1here are also the íoundations laid íor e·ery institution oí an
extensi·e commonwealth, íor instruction, íor the administration oí justice, íor
military organization, íor íinance, íor a most careíul legislation íor the poor: all
built up on the belieí in the one God \ho holds man`s destiny in lis hand.`
\here so many important objects are concerned, the standard oí excellence, by
which we ha·e to gauge the composition oí the Koran as a whole, must needs
·ary with the matter treated upon in each particular case. Sublime, and chaste,
where the supreme truth oí God`s unity is to be proclaimed, appealing in high-
pitched strains to the imagination oí a poetically-giíted people, where the
eternal consequences oí man`s submission oí God`s holy will, or oí rebellion
against it, are pictured, touching in its simple, almost crude earnestness, when it
seeks again and again encouragement or consolation íor God`s messenger, and
a solemn warning íor those, to whom he has been sent, in the histories oí the
prophets oí old: the language oí the Koran adapts itselí to the exigencies oí
e·eryday liíe, when this e·eryday liíe, in its pri·ate and public bearings, is to be
brought in to harmony with the íundamental principles oí the new

, See Von Goethe`s \est-Qestlicher Di·an.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

lere thereíore, its merits, as a literary production should, perhaps, not be
measured by some preconcei·ed maxims oí subjecti·e and aesthetic taste, but
by the eííects which it produced in Mohammed`s contemporaries and íellow-
Ií it spoke so poweríully and con·incingly to the hearts oí his hearers, as to
weld hitherto centriíugal and antagonistic elements into one compact and well
-organized body, animated by ideas, íar beyond these which had until now
ruled the Arabian mind, then its eloquence was períect, simply because it
created a ci·ilised nation out oí sa·age tribes, and shot a íresh wooí into the
old warp oí history.
\hen a long period oí conquests scattered the Arabs to the íarthest Last
and to the íarthest \est, their spoke language might de·iate írom its pristine
purity, slurring o·er unaccented syllables and dropping terminations. But the
íine idiom oí their íoreíathers, as deposited in the Koran, remained the
language oí their prayer and their pious meditation, and thus li·ed on with
them, as a bond oí unity, an object oí national lo·e and admiration, and a
source oí literary de·elopment íor all times.

1he Koran, thereíore, is the last Scripture írom God, which has superseded
by its new dispensation all preceding Scriptures, containing all comprehensible
instructions and laws, all matters concerning the relation between the Creator
and lis creature, and between man and man. It is a miraculous book which is a
poem, íar beyond the power oí poets to imitate, a code oí laws bearing on
e·ery, institution oí an extensi·e commonwealth, on instruction, on the
administration oí justice, on military organisation, on íinance, on a most careíul
legislation íor the poor, and a complete code oí belieís and morals: all built up
on the períected belieí in the one God \ho holds man`s destiny in lis land.
It embodies a correct summary oí the true religion which íormer prophets
írom the time oí Adam had taught to their respecti·e countries, and a solemn
warning to all mankind, to whom the Seal oí Prophets` had been sent to
reclaim and to reíorm. It exposes and reíutes the pretensions and incorrect
interpretations oí rabbins and priests who had misled their people. 1hese later
were oíten called upon, in the Koran to come to a reasoning with the íollowers
oí the new íaith and, then, to judge íor themsel·es, as to whether Islam was to
be rejected by pure reason cleared oí e·ery grain oí partiality. But the high
·oice írom lea·en was not hearkened to and diííerence oí a religious nature
still continue between Moslems and non-Moslems.
1he Koran is a Di·ine Book which írom the day oí its re·elation through
the message oí the Arabian Prophet and Apostle oí God, up to this moment,
has undergone no alteration whate·er.
It is the Sacred Book that continues to
reign o·er the hearts oí its hearers, to con·ince them, through their own
conscience and spiritual nature oí its Di·ine origin. No human pen, howe·er
poweríul, can ·enture to imitate it. 1he miraculous nature oí the Koran has,
long ago, been solemnly coníirmed by those who were the most competent
judges. 1he Arabians could boast oí no other literature than witty poems oí

, Vide Dr. lughes` Dis1. Oí Islam pp. 526-530.
, See Sir Muir`s Liíe oí Mohammad, Dr. lughes` Dict. oí Islam

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
eloquence in their own language, -though as they paid due honour to any
distinguished poem by their íamous poets- were struck with iníinite admiration,
when they heard the Prophet oí God rehearsing certain portions oí God`s new
Gospel to them. 1heir own celebrated Rabiaa, whose poem was attached to the
Sacred Pantheon oí the Kaaba, could without much trouble or hesitation, judge
that the Koran was rightly a Di·ine Book, and that the illiterate orphan was the
true messenger oí God. lrom the perusal oí the concise, but accurate history oí
the Prophet, in part II oí this essay, it is clear enough, how the obstinate
minded Arabs oí the Desert recei·ed the Book with adoration and períect
re·erence. Again the contents oí the Koran most readily answer all questions
that may be raised on religious or ci·il matters. I will quote here some
translated passages írom that loly Book, as specimens oí the rest, and lea·e
them to recommend themsel·es:

1- Calling the Jews and Christians to
come to agreement
with the Moslems:
Say. O ye who ha·e recei·ed the Scripture ,Jews and Christians, come to a just
determination between us and you, that we worship not any except God, and
associate no creature with lim, and that the one oí us takes no other íor Lord
beside God. But ií they turn back, say, Bear witness that we are true belie·ers.`

2- Ordering the Prophet to Praise God:
Say. O God possessor oí the Kingdom, 1hou gi·est dominion, to whom
1hou will, and 1hou takes away Kingdom írom whom 1hou will: 1hou exaltest
whom 1hou wilt, and 1hou humblest who, 1hou wilt, in 1hy hand is good, and
1hou art the Almighty: 1hou causest the night to succeed the day, and 1hou
causest the day to succeed the night: 1hou bringest íorth the li·ing out oí the
dead and 1hou bringest íorth the dead out oí the li·ing, and 1hou art the
pro·ider oí substance, to whomsoe·er 1hou wilt, without measure.`

3- Right and Wrong:
“Say, whether ye conceal that which is in you hearts, or whether ye show it
God knoweth it: le knoweth whate·er is in hea·en and whate·er is on earth:
and le is the Almighty. On the Day oí Judgment, e·ery soul shall íind present
the good which it wrought. And the e·il which it wrought, will cause it such a
disgrace, that it shall wish that there was a ·ast distance between itselí and that

4. Belief of the Faithful

, 1hat is to come to such terms oí agreement as are indispensably consonant to the
doctrine oí all the prophets and scriptures, and thereíore cannot be reasonably rejected.
, 1he Jews and Christians used to pay rather blind obedience to their priests and
monks who took upon them to pronounce what things were lawíul and what were
unlawíul, and to dispense with the laws oí God. ,Sale,.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
1he Apostle ,Mohammed, belie·eth in that which hath been sent down unto
him írom his Lord, as do the íaithíul ,also,. L·ery one ,oí them, belie·eth in
God and lis angels, and lis Scriptures, and lis Apostles: \e make no
distinction between any oí lis Apostles. And they say \e ha·e listened, and
so we obey. 1hy mercy, O Lord, íor unto 1hee ,O Lord, must we return.`,
God will not burden any soul beyond its power. It shall enjoy the good which
it hath gained, and shall bear the e·il which it hath wrought. O Lord punish us
not, ií we íorget or íall into sin, O Lord, lay not on us a burden, like that which
1hou hast laid on those who ha·e been beíore us, neither make us, O Lord, to
bear what we ha·e no strength to bear, but be ía·ourable unto us, and spare us
and be merciíul unto us. 1hou art our patron, help us thereíore against the
unbelie·ing people.`

\ith regard to the New 1estament, Moslems hold the belieí that, although
God re·ealed the Gospel to lis Messenger Jesus Christ, the so-called gospels,
ascribed to the íour saints, do not represent the true word oí God as re·ealed
to the 1eacher oí Nazareth. \ith Moslems these books are vere bi.toricat
ror/., aeativg ritb tbe bi.tor, of ]e.v., and they contradict each other in certain
statements. 1hree oí the authors oí the íour gospels did not see Jesus at all. ,1,
St. Mark did not see Jesus, until the year he was taken up to hea·en. Aíter the
ascension oí Jesus, St. Mark wrote in the city oí Alexandria, his gospel, in which
he ga·e an account oí the birth and liíe oí the Master oí Christianity,
mentioning se·eral e·ents which are not to be traced in the other three gospels.
,2, St. Luke also did not see Jesus, but he was con·erted to Christianity by St.
Paul, the latter being an Israelite who himselí had not seen Jesus, but was
con·erted by St. Anamias. ,3, St. Matthew also did not see Jesus but was
con·erted to the Christian íaith by St. Peter some time aíter the ascension oí
Jesus, he took his gospel írom St.Peter in the city oí Rome. St. Matthew`s
gospel contradicts se·eral statements oí the other three Gospel.

St. John was the nephew oí Jesus. It was at the wedding oí John, that Jesus
con·erted water into wine. \itnessing this miracle, John immediately became a
Christian proselyte, leít his wiíe and íollowed Jesus. le was the author oí the
íourth Gospel called aíter him written in the Greek language in the city oí
1hese are the íour gospels oí the Christian New 1estament, although
Moslems do not belie·e them to contain the uncorrupted word oí God. 1hey
are nothing more than biographical works which are liable to deíects and
errors. 1here was but one Gospel, namely, the L·angel` which God
·ouchsaíed to gi·e to Jesus, íor him to preach to the Israelites. 1he Book
containing the 1rue \ord oí God must needs be íree írom all discrepancies,
yet it is written in St. Mark`s gospel, that in the book oí the Prophet Isaiah it
was said by God: I ha·e sent an Angel beíore thy íace` namely beíore the íace
oí Jesus, whereas the words are vot in the book oí Isaiah, but in that oí Malachi
,see St. Mark R.V,. again it is related in St. Matthew`s gospel, ,Matt. xii 40, that
Jesus said My body will remain in the belly, oí the earth three days and three
nights aíter my death, just as Jones was in the whale`s belly, and it is e·ident this

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
was not true, íor Sr. Matthew himselí agrees with the three other writers oí the
gospels, that Jesus died at the sixth hour on lriday, and was buried at the íirst
hour oí the night and rose írom the dead early on Sunday morning, so that he
remained in the belly oí the earth two nights only.

Islam and the Four Gospels
s already pointed out, Moslems do not admit the authenticity oí the
Gospels, or the creed contained therein, or the leading e·ents liíe oí
Prophet Jesus, as depicted by these same Gospels. In this attitude Moslems are
supported by the scholarly researches oí de·out Christians e·en. It seems,
howe·er, that the laity in Christendom are generally as ignorant, with regard to
these ·ital questions, as non-Christians, to whom Christian literature is
inaccessible in the main. A brieí account oí these questions is, thereíore, likely
to be o interest and use. According to the doctrines oí Islam, the íour Gospels
are re·ealed by God. Nor was it the loly Ghost that mo·ed the writers oí the
said Gospels to write them. But it was the example oí other writers, that
inspired them with the desire oí compiling brieí biographies oí Jesus.

1. St. Luke’s Gospel
St. Luke`s own words to this eííect are:
lor as much as many ha·e taken in hand to set íorth, in order, a
declaration oí those things which are most surely belie·ed among us,
L·en as they deli·ered them unto us, who írom the beginning were
eyewitness, and ministers oí the word,
ít .eevea gooa to ve at.o, ha·ing had períect understanding oí all things,
írom the ·ery íirst, to write unto thee in order, most excellent 1heophilus,
1hat thou mightest know the certainty oí those things, wherein thou hast
been instructed` St. Luke : i-4.
St. Luke as ·ery plainly set íorth the grounds oí his inspiration namely:
,1, the example oí other writers oí Jesus` liíe, ,2, his consciousness oí
possessing períect understanding oí all things írom the íirst`, and ,3, to
impart reliable iníormation to 1heophilus. 1hus St. Luke does not call his
Gospel a di·ine re·elation, but he claims íor it ,a, diligence in collecting all
a·ailable material, ,b, íullness, ,c, careíul in·estigation, ,d, orderly arrangement
and ,e, accuracy.
1he Re·. Grie·e, M. A., D.D., Principal oí the Congregational lall,
Ldinburgh, and joint Lditor oí Peake`s íamous Commentary explains Luke`s
preíace in the íollowing words: 1:1-4. 1he writer, ivftvevcea by the attev¡t. oí
others, to record the primiti·e tradition oí Christianity, as it was handed down
by the íirst generation oí disciples, essays the same task, and ha·ing taken pains
to collect, examine, siít and arrange the contents oí the rrittev orat traaitiov,
presents the result to 1heophilus, a Roman oííicial oí some standing-a literary

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
patron oí the L·angelist`s who needed íuller acquaintance with the historic
basis oí the oral teaching about Christianity which he had recei·ed.`

God re·eals books íor the guidance oí a nation or nations, as the case may
be, but St. Luke dedicates his books to the vo.t e·cettevt 1beo¡bitv.
1he Lncyclopedia Biblica throws íurther light on this dedication` 1he
dedication oí Luke ,i-14, shows, that we ha·e passed into a new literary
pro·ince. 1he Muratorian íragment calls attention to the íact, that the author
writes iv bi. orv vave, a vorett, among L·angelists. le also dedicates his work
to someone who, ií not an imaginary God belo·ed` would appear to be a
patron, a man oí rank. 1he apostles - the ,1-2, eyewitnesses and ministers oí
the word` - appear to ha·e deli·ered their testimony by oral tradition and to
ha·e passed away. 1o supply their places, ,1-i, many had attempted to draw up
a íormal narrati·e concerning the matters íully established in the Church. 1hese
writers had clearly not been eyewitnesses, nor were they, in Luke`s judgment, so
successíul as to make unnecessary any íurther attempts. Apparently they had
íailed in the three points, in which he hopes to excel: ,1, they had not traced
e·erything up to the source, and this ,2, as íar as it went not accurately and ,3,
they had not written in order.`

1he same book íurther discusses the point whether or not the work oí St.
Luke justiíies the claims oí that Apostle: \e are led to the conclusion that,
though Luke attempted to write accurately`, and in order`, ye be covta vot
atra,. .vcceea. \hen deciding between an earlier and a later date, between this
and that place and occasion, between metaphor and literalism, between what
Jesus himselí said and what he said through his disciples, he ,Luke, had to be
guided by e·idence which sometimes led him aright, but not always.`

\e íurther read in the same work: Luke`s absolute omission oí genuine
and ·aluable traditions- especially in connection with Christ`s appearance to
women aíter the Resurrection, and with Christ`s promise to go to Galilee` -
..seriously diminishes the ·alue oí his work. It is probably the best adapted
íor making con·erts. But ií bold bare íacts are in question, it i. ¡robabt, tbe tea.t
avtboritatire of tbe íovr.

Luke`s íailure has e·idently been ascribed to his attempts being human, and
his sources mortal, which could not always guide him aright. Ií his work had
been re·ealed, he could not ha·e been accused oí ha·ing omitted some most
important incidents, or oí his book being the least authoritati·e.`

1he quotations cited abo·e clearly buttress the Islamic belieí, that the
Christian gospels are but human attempts to draw up accounts oí the liíe oí

, Peak`s Commentary, p. ¯25.
, Lncyclopaedia Biblica, P. 1¯90.
, Ibid.
, Lncyclopaedia Biblica, P. 1¯93.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Jesus, and as such are neither complete nor satisíactory. Re·elation alone can
make a recipient immune írom error, íor it suspends, íor the time being, all
other mental acti·ity oí the person, upon whom the \ord oí God descends.
lis \ord and \ill were re·ealed to prophets, like Abraham, Moses, Jesus and
Mohammed. But the íollowers oí Jesus were animated, or inspired, to compile
what was already known to them. 1hey had but to collect, siít and arrange the
material which was in the possession oí the people. As such the works oí the
Apostles are necessarily characterized by mortal shortcoming. L·en the de·out
Christian scholar admits it, and is ready to bear testimony to the íact, that the
record oí the gospels is not altogether complete and reliable. \e cannot do
better than quote some oí the most scholarly and popularly admitted opinions
which carry weight and con·iction in this connection.
1he Re·. Dummelow M.A., expresses his opinion as íollows: Speaking
broadly, the Christians mean by their inspiration an impulse írom God, causing,
certain persons to write, and directing them how to write, íor the ediíication oí
others. 1hough it is closely connected with reretatiov, it is not identical with it.
By reretatiov, God makes known to a soul truths which were unknown to it
beíore but it is not at all necessary, that an inspired writer should recei·e any
new truths by way oí re·elation. 1hus, St. Mark was inspired to write his
Gospel, but he was inspired to rrite aorv trvtb. which were already íamiliar to
him and to others through the instruction gi·en by St. Peter.`

2. The Gospel of St. Matthew and that
of St. Mark
1he íoregoing also applies to both St. Matthew`s and St. Mark`s Gospels.
St. Mark is the oldest oí the Synoptists, and has been used by St. Matthew and
St. Luke, who ha·e incorporated the bulk oí his Gospel into their own with
comparati·ely íew alterations.`

It is thus plain that Christian scholars oí sacred literature do not claim di·ine
origin íor Christian Gospels. 1hey, on the other hand, admit that the said
books were complied by mere men who were by no means experts. 1hey were
consequently liable to mistakes. I quote the Re·. Dummelow once more on the
point: \e must not regard the Bible as an absolutely períect book, in which
God is limselí the author, using human hands and brains only as a man may
use a typewriter.1heir inspiration did not in·ol·e a suspension oí their natural
íaculties, nor abolish the diííerences oí training and character, it did not e·en
make them períectly íree írom earthly passion. 1hereíore, we íind that their
knowledge sometimes is no higher than their contemporaries and their
indignation against oppression and wrongdoing sometimes breaks out into
desire oí re·enge. It surprises us in the Bible, because oí our íalse
preconception, because oí our íalse theory oí Verbal Inspiration.`
1he same Commentary íurther throws light upon the insuííiciency and
incompleteness oí these sacred records, and thus precludes any chance oí their
claiming di·ine origin. 1oday we realise that the liíe oí Jesus can ne·er be

, 1he Re·. Dummelow`s Commentary, p. ¯1.
, Ibid p. 133.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
written. 1he material is wanting. Neither in quality, nor in extent, do the
Gospels satisíy the requirements oí a modern biography. At best, they oííer us
certain memorabilia oí the public ministry oí Jesus, hardly adequate to
construct the story oí the year or years, during which he e·angelised his people,
and barely suííicing to mirror the chieí íeatures oí his message. \here the
modern mind is most curious, the Gospels seem to be least communicati·e.
Men would íain trace the de·elopment oí innermost con·ictions which
condition his acti·ity as a prophet. But the íacts that the Gospels tells us little
or nothing oí the early liíe oí Jesus, and that almost e·ery story consists oí a
simple record oí outward act and utterance, with íew hints as to inward íeeling
or historical setting, seem at íirst sight to deíeat the hopes oí analysing moti·e,
and tracing growth.`

The Four Gospels
ealing with the sources oí the íour Gospels oí the Christian íaith, the
Lncyclopedia Biblica comments as íollows:
1hese documents are oí ·arying ·alue írom a historical point oí ·iew.
Critical opinion is much di·ided as to the íourth, that which bears the name oí
John, the judgment oí many critics being, that it is the tea.t 1rv.trortb, a. a
.ovrce, rbetber for rora. or for tbe act. of ]e.v.. By comparison, the íirst three,
írom their resemblances called synoptical, are regarded by many as possessing a
considerable measure oí historical worth, but e·en these, írom a critical point
oí ·iew are not oí equal ·alue, nor do the contents oí any oí them possess a
uniíorm degree oí historical probability. 1hey present to the critic a curious
interesting, and perplexing problem, still íar írom íinal solution. By their
resemblances and diííerences, agreements and disagreements, they raise many
questions as to origin, relati·e dates, and literary connections, which ha·e called
íorth a multitude oí conílicting hypotheses and a most extensi·e critical
In the opinion oí the best Lnglish scholars oí the New 1estament, the
Gospels are not to be looked upon as re·ealed books, the sole source oí which
should ha·e been God and not man. But they are to be regarded, on the other
hand, as inadequate attempts, made by pious but not talented íollowers oí
Christ, at the description oí his liíe. It is a great pity, that the world ne·er
a·ailed itselí oí the collection oí those liíe-inspiring words that were uttered by
the Prophet oí Nazareth. lowe·er, piety and ·eneration, íor a long time,
assured the credulity oí the early Christians, that the Gospels re·ealed the \ord
oí God, and in consequence were iníallible. 1here was a time, when e·ery
article oí it was íirmly and re·erently belie·ed to ha·e directly proceeded írom
In short, what had been written by man, passed íor the word oí God.
1his is clear to those clergy who ha·e undergone uni·ersity training. But the
pity oí it is, that they ha·e not the moral courage to enlighten their
congregation on the subject. It would only seem, that pious anxiety dictates,
that a character oí iníallibility should still be gi·en to what has been written by

, Dr. Ph. Schaíí`s Companion to the Greek 1estaments and the Lnglish Version pp.
88 & 89.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
human hands, and that crude attempts at the biography oí the Prophet oí
Nazareth should continue to be belie·ed to ha·e been re·ealed by God
Anyhow, what scholarship and research ha·e now brought to light was
re·ealed o·er thirteen centuries ago in the Koran:
Do they not know, that God knows, what they keep secret, and what they
make known, and there are among them ignorant, who know not the Book, but
only idle stories and they do but conjecture, woe, then, to those who write the
book with their own hands, and then say. 1his is írom God, so that they may
obtain therewith a small gain, thereíore woe to them, íor what their hands ha·e
written, and woe to them, íor what they ha·e earned.`

Dr. Murray`s illustrated Bible Dictionary` which is a ·aluable commentary
enlightens us thus:
Gospels: - 1he íirst point which attracts our notice in reading the
Gospels is, that the íirst three Gospels are distinct írom the íourth. 1he íirst
three Gospels coníine themsel·es almost exclusi·ely to the e·ents which took
place in Galilee, until Christ`s last journey to Jerusalem. Ií we had three Gospels
alone, we could not deíinitely say, that our Lord went to Jerusalem during his
ministry, until he went there to die. 1he diííerence in character is no less, than
the diííerence in scene. lurther, tbe .,vo¡ti.t. ao vo claim to be eyewitnesses oí
our Lord`s work, the íirst three Gospels are usually called the synoptic
Gospels. It is ob·ious that not only all three synoptic Gospels diííer írom
John, but they diííer, riaet, írom each other. 1he account oí the birth and
iníancy oí Christ in Matthew diííers widely írom that in Luke. 1he incidents oí
the temptation oí our Lord are recorded in a diííerent order in Matthew and
Luke, and the temptation is recorded without these incidents in Mark. All three
Gospels gi·e a slightly diííerent account oí the inscription on the cross, and the
words spoken by the centurion at the death oí Jesus, ·ary in Luke írom the
words in Matthew and Mark. Also the language diííers and diííers in a ·ery
singular manner.

lrom the abo·e quotations it is ·ery clear, that the material íor Marks,
Gospel was supplied by St. Peter`s preaching, and that Mark was íreely drawn
upon by Matthew and Luke, which establishes the íact, that the synoptic
Gospels are no re·elations at all, but are purely and simply human
compilations. It remains to deal with St. John Gospel.

1he 1wentieth Century New 1estament makes the íollowing obser·ation
on John:
1he writer apparently proposed to himselí to illustrate the spirit oí the
Gospel oí Lo·e` by such incidents in the liíe oí Jesus, as best suited his
purpose. 1here is no attempt at a regular connected narrati·e, and the writer
allows himselí such íreedom in commenting upon the teaching oí Jesus that it
is not always easy to tell where that teaching ends and the writer`s comments
begin. It is to the great struggle between Light and Darkness, Death and Liíe-

, 1ranslation oí the loly Koran II, ¯2 : ¯3 & ¯4.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
words much in use and much debated in the current philosophy oí Lphesus,
that the writer de·otes his attention, rather than to the external incidents oí a
story which has already been told, and which is plainly ·iewed by him írom a
greater distance oí time, than is the case with the compliers oí the three other

Another eminent authority, namely Dr. \eymouth, in his introduction to
John obser·es:
It must be owned that, although the íourth Gospel makes no assertion
which contradicts the character oí 1eacher and Reíormed attributed to lim by
the synoptists, it presents to us a personage so enwrapped in mystery and
dignity, as altogether to transcend ordinary human nature. 1his 1ranscendent
personality is indeed, the a·owed centre oí the whole record, and his portrayal
is its a·owed purpose.

Now, these quotations point ·ery clearly to the íact, that there is a general
agreement, as to John ha·ing played the role oí an interpreter or a
commentator oí the three other Gospels. 1here is not an allusion or a
reíerence, made to John ha·ing recei·ed a re·elation írom lea·en, or ha·ing
been inspired to íurnish the world with an explanation oí the doctrines oí
Christ. \e learn on the other hand, that, while the authors oí the three other
Gospels complied the incidents oí the liíe oí Jesus, John ga·e a mystical
meaning to them. le himselí does not lay claim to re·elation, or to consequent
períection. le has, on the contrary, coníessed the imperíection oí his attempts,
to depict the incidents oí the liíe oí Jesus. Likewise he admits, that he is but a
recorder oí incidents or signs. 1here were also a great number oí signs which
Jesus períormed in the presence oí the disciples, which are not recorded in this
book, but these ha·e been recorded, in order that you may belie·e, that he is
the Christ, the son oí God, and that, through belie·ing, you may ha·e Liíe
through his name.`
1his text, which re·eals the object oí the íourth Gospel,
announces that this is a partial record oí some oí those signs which Jesus
períormed beíore his disciples. 1o record e·ents or signs which are known to
many, or all, oí the disciples and others, does not require the aid oí re·elation
which supplies iníormation which is not already in the possession oí human
Some Important Discrepancies
Jesus said to them ,who took oííence, and who were not prepared to
recognise his claims simply because he was a carpenter`s son and had other
humble ties,: A ¡ro¡bet is not without honour, but in his own country, and
among his own kin, and in his own house` ,Mark,. 1his statement was curtailed
by Matthew, and still more by John. Luke ignored it altogether.
But oí that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which
are in hea·en, neither the Son, but the lather` ,Mark xiii, 32,. 1his text
embodies a coníession by Jesus, eloquent oí his limited knowledge and a·owed

, Dr. \eymouth`s Introduction to St. John`s Gospel.
, John XX, 30.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
ignorance, while Luke and John howe·er make no mention oí that humiliating
1he Re·. Dummelow`s Commentary makes the íollowing remake on
Neither the Son`: 1his is the true reading not only here ,in Mark, but in
Matthew xxi·, 35, where it has been atterea in many MSS., probably as being a
diííiculty to íaith.` Peake`s Commentary oííers the íollowing note on it:
Mark xiii 32- 1his is one oí Schmiedel`s pillar-passages,` A passage
admitting a limit to Christ, knowledge must be trustworthy history, according to
Schimiedel. Certainly later commentators íound the ·erse diííicult.
My God, my God, why hast 1hou íorsaken me· ,Mark x·. 34, these words
ha·e been copied by Matthew only. 1hey picture the inborn weakness oí Jesus.
1his expression oí his human nature was unworthy oí record, in the opinion oí
Luke and John.

Oí many interpolations, mention will be made here oí a íew only: ,A, John
·ii 53 and ·iii. 1-11, that is, the last ·erse oí the se·enth chapter, with its
continuation in the íirst ele·en ·erses oí the eighth chapter, which relates the
story oí an adultress, is an interpolation. 1his is admitted uni·ersally. 1he Re·.
Dummelow`s Commentary has the íollowing obser·ations on it: 1he woman
taken in adultery- All modern critics agree, that this section ,·ii. 53-·iii-1-11, is
no original part oí the íourth Gospel. It is not in the author`s style, it breaks the
sequence oí our Lord`s discourses, and is omitted by most oí the ancient

Peake`s Commentary comments on the story at the end oí John ·ii. 53 ·iii-
1-11, ]e.v., ava tbe rovav accv.ea of .iv: 1he well known story oí the woman
taken in adultery has no claim to be regarded as part oí the original text oí this
. It is supported by no early Patristic e·idence. 1he e·idence pro·es it to be
an interpolation oí a western` character`.
Dr. \eymouth`s New 1estament in Modern Lnglish` mark`s the section as
an interpolation. 1he 1wentieth Century New 1estament has excised it, and
placed it in such a place as indicates clearly, that it has no connection with John.
1he Complete Bible in Modern Lnglish` writes in a íootnote: 1he narrati·e oí
the siníul woman ,chap. Vii. 53 to ·iii-1-11, is rejected by the most competent
authorities as a spurious interpolation.`
,B,John xxi: - In the opinion oí the Re·. Dummelow the last two ·erses at
least, 24 and 25- are really doubtíul, and they may ga·e been added by the
Lphesian elders, who íirst put the Gospel in circulation, aíter the death oí the
Apostle, and who wished to testiíy to its genuineness and trustworthiness.
,C, Mark x·i 9-20 is another interpolation. Dummelow`s Commentary
obser·es that Internal` e·idence points deíinitely to the conclusion, that the
last twel·e ·erses are not by St. Mark.` It íurther supplies the íollowing
iníormation on the subject: \hen at the close oí the apostolic age, an attempt
was made ,probably in Rome, to collect the authentic memorials oí the
Apostles and their companions, a copy oí the neglected second Gospel was not
easily íound. 1be ove tbat ra. actvatt, ai.corerea ava ra. v.ea to vvtti¡t, co¡ie.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
baa ta.t teaf, ava .o a fittivg tervivatiov ;tbe ¡re.evt a¡¡evai·) ra. aaaea b,
avotber bava.`

1he unanimous ·erdict gi·en in the New 1estaments oí Dr. \eymouth Dr.
Moííat, lerrar lenton, and in the 1wentieth Century New 1estament, is that
Mark x·i-9-20, is an addition.
,D, Luke xxi·- 51 is another interpolation, as is conceded on all hands. It
elicits the íollowing comment írom the Re·. Dummelow: A íew ancient
authorities omit these words. Ií they are omitted it i. ¡o..ibte to regara tbi. erevt,
not as the ascension, but as a miraculous disappearance oí Jesus at the end oí
the inter·iew begun in ·erse 36.`
Peake`s Commentary makes similar remarks, 1he words and was carried
up into hea·en` are omitted in some oí the best MSS.. and ha·e probably crept
in írom Acts i-9 í`
1he 1wentieth Century New 1estament and Dr. Moííat`s New 1estament`
make it as an interpolation.`

Our co-religionist. Maul·i Sadr-ud-Din, BA., írom whose interesting essay.
Are the Gospel inspired.`
I ha·e chieíly reproduced the abo·e chapter,
makes the íollowing conclusion to his work::
Ií according to Christ and Mohammed ,peace be upon them and all the
other prophets,, the essence oí religion lies in our períect lo·e oí God which
can only be maniíested in out willing obedience to lis Di·ine will, we must be
assured, as rational beings, oí the genuineness and credibility oí God`s message,
as much as oí the soundness oí the truth, that it re·eals. It is this natural
cra·ing, that has led to what is known as the higher criticism oí the Bible. A
similar test has been applied to the loly Koran as well, to which reíerence has
been made pre·iously. 1he result oí the higher criticism oí the íour Gospels
has partially been presented in this treatise, with the object oí making the laity
and non-Christians in general acquainted with it. In doing so, I ha·e purposely
reírained írom quoting the opinions expressed in the learned commentaries oí
the nonconíormists, and in the books issued on the subject by the Rational
Press. I ha·e, on the contrary, restricted the treatment to the ·iews expounded
by the Clergy oí the Church oí Lngland, in the main and to the ·iews oí those
who are rather conser·ati·e. I ha·e also deliberately o·erlooked the question,
whether we can ascribe with certainty the authorship oí the Gospels to the
L·angelists, whose names they bear now. All the commentaries are agreed
upon the íact that the original copies oí the Gospel, were without indication as
to the authors` names. It was guessed, later, who were the most probable
writers oí them. 1he probable conjecture has not yet reached certainty. 1he

, lor a íuller treatment oí the subject oí the higher criticism oí the New 1estamant
see ·ery interesting treatise entitled Are the Gospels inspired·` by Maul·i Sadar-ud-
Din, B.A., írom whose work the íoregoing passage has been chieíly reproduced.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
authenticity oí the names, to which, the Gospels are attributed, is open to
doubt, as can be seen by reíerring to any commentary.`

\hat, we ha·e learnt, with respect to the origin oí the Christian Gospels,
and the creed preached therein, can be recapitulated in a íew words. Mar/ ra.
tbe fir.t Co.¡et, ava vot Mattber, as is generally indicated by the present
arrangement oí the íour books. Mark, who was a con·ert and interpreter oí St.
Peter penned at the instance oí his hearers`, what St. Peter had adopted and
preached to his Roman audiences Mark has been incorporated into Matthew
and Luke. But Matthew has represented the words and works oí Jesus as
íulíilling the prophecies oí the Old 1estament. No less than sixty-íi·e
reíerences ha·e been made to Old 1estament texts, to establish that the ad·ent
oí the Messiah was in strict accordance with the Jewish ideals. 1his conception
and purpose per·ade the whole oí Matthew, and distinguish it írom the other
three. ív/e re¡re.evt. ´t. Pavt`. rier., rbicb are iv covftict ritb ´t. Peter`.. 1hus
we ha·e in Luke an altogether diííerent point oí ·iew. ít o¡¡o.e. Mattber ava
Mar/ vo.t botat,, and places its literal and Catholic description oí Christianity
in a striking contrast to Matthew and Mark, who coníine God`s blessings and
ministrations to the elect alone. John strikes an entirely diííerent note. It oííers,
to interpret Christianity íor us. \e may respect his opinion, as an indi·idual
one, and as diííerent írom the other three, but we cannot be assured, that his
·ague and mythical representation oí Christianity is identical with the deíinite
and plain teachings oí the prophet Jesus. In a word, the Gospels are as
di·ergent, in expressing the Christian doctrines, as their ·ersions are discrepant,
in the reproduction oí the words and works oí Jesus. 1hey ha·e not been
saíeguarded against mistakes and interpolations. On the contrary, they are
replete with extraneous matter. Sometimes glosses and editorial notes ha·e
been absorbed in the body oí the book, and sometimes irrele·ant additions
ha·e been made. Matthew and Luke ha·e either toned down or omitted what
they deemed objectionable in Mark. 1hey do not teach that, because the
deepening anxiety oí Jesus in alliance with a íear oí treacherous betrayal on the
part oí some oí his disciples, led to his sudden and skillíully planned
disappearance, we should belie·e that he soared upwards to hea·en. 1heir
accounts oí the incident oí the cruciíixion do not show that God sa·ed Jesus
írom the cursed death on the cross. 1he plain and useíul teachings oí Jesus, as
pronounced in the Gospels, howe·er make the belieí in the atoning and
propitiating powers oí the cruciíixion unnecessary. lis disciples also betray
total ignorance oí such a dogma as the ·icarious atonement. Jesus himselí
belie·ed in one God, worshipped lim, and prayed to lim, and laid all possible
stress on good li·ing and cherishing lo·e íor one`s neighbour.
1his brings the treatment to a close with my sincerest hopes that it will be oí
some interest and beneíit to God`s people.

The Koran
As to the Koran, it consists exclusi·ely oí the re·elation or commands
which the Prophet proíessed, to ha·e recei·ed írom time, as a message direct

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
írom God, and which under di·ine direction, the Prophet deli·ered to those
about him.
L·ery syllable oí the Koran is oí di·ine origin, eternal and uncreated` as the
Deity limselí. It is one oí the Islamic arguments against the Jewish and
Christian Scriptures, that they are not exclusi·ely oracles proíessing to proceed
írom the mouth oí God.
1he Prophet him-selí neither read nor wrote. lis being an illiterate man,
enhances the mar·el oí his re·elation.
Learning says the Re·. Margoliouth,
he had none, or next to none.

At the moment oí inspiration or shortly aíter, each passage was recited by
the Prophet in the presence oí íriends or íollowers, and was generally
committed to writing by someone amongst them, at the time or aíterwards
upon palm-lea·es, leather, stones, or such other rude material as con·eniently
came to hand. 1hese di·ine messages continued throughout the twenty-three
years oí his prophetic liíe, so that the last portion was not recei·ed till near the
time oí his death.

1he Koran, being the di·ine re·elation and the corner stone oí Islam, the
recital oí a passage írom it íormed an essential part oí daily prayer, public and
pri·ate, and its perusal and repetition were considered to be a great pri·ilege.
1he preser·ation oí the ·arious chapters during the liíe-time oí the Prophet,
was not altogether dependent on their being committed to writing. 1he Koran
was committed to memory by almost e·ery adherent oí Islam, and the extent,
to which it could be recited, was one oí the chieí sources oí distinction, in the
early stages oí Islam. Amongst a crowd oí warrior martyrs, he who had been
the most ·ersed in the Koran, was honoured with the íirst burial. 1he person
who in any company could most íaithíully repeat the Koran, was ipso íacto
entitled to conduct the public prayers, and in certain cases to pecuniary rewards.
1he retenti·e íaculty oí the early Arabs ía·oured the task, and it was applied
with all the ardour oí an awakened spirit, to the Koran. Se·eral oí the Prophet`s
íollowers could during his liíe-time repeat with scrupulous accuracy, the whole
as then in use. lour or íi·e such persons are named, and se·eral others also
who could ·ery nearly repeat the whole beíore the Prophet`s death.

lowe·er retenti·e the Arab memory, remarks Sir \illiam Muir, we should
still ha·e regarded with distrust a transcript made entirely írom that source. But
there is good reason íor belie·ing, that many íragmentary copies, embracing
amongst them the whole Koran, or nearly the whole were during his liíe-time
made by the Prophet`s íollowers.
Such as the condition oí the next during Mohammed`s liíe time, and such
it remained íor about a year aíter his death, imprinted upon the hearts oí his
people, and íragmentary transcripts increasing daily`

, Sir \. Muir. Liíe oí Mohammad.
, 1he Re·. Margoliouth`s introduction to Rodwell`s translation oí the Koran.
, Sir \. Muir. Liíe oí Mohammad.
, Sir \. Muir. Liíe oí Mohammad.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
lurther the same writer states: 1he contents and arrangement oí the Koran
speak íorcibly íor its authenticity. All the íragments ha·e, with artless simplicity,
been joined together.
L·en the írailties oí the Prophet, as noticed by the Deity, ha·e with e·ident
íaithíul-ness, been entered in the Koran.
In íine, we posses e·ery internal guarantee oí coníidence ,namely in the
authenticity oí the Koran, as it exists in the present copies,.
.. 1here is otherwise e·ery security, internal and external, that we possess
that text which Mohammed himselí ga·e íorth and used.
So careíully, indeed, has it been preser·ed that there are no ·ariations oí
importance- we might almost say no ·ariations at all- to be íound in the
innumerable copies scattered throughout the ·ast bound oí the Lmpire oí
\et, but One Koran has been current amongst them, and the consentaneous
use by all oí the same Scripture, in e·ery age to the present day, is an
irreíragable prooí, that we ha·e now beíore us the ·ery text prepared by
command oí the Caliph Othman who was murdered some time aíter the
compilation oí the Koran.
1here is probably in the world no other work, which has remained twel·e
centuries ,1861,, with so pure a text.
1his is only because the ·arious
re·elations in the Koran, regarding its di·ine nature, and its remaining íore·er
íree írom corruption or contradistinction, are rightly coníirmed. lere are a íew
·erses bearing on this point:
\e ha·e surely sent down the Koran, and we will certainly preser·e the
same írom corruption. ,Chap. XV,
1his Koran could not ha·e been composed by any, except God, but it is a
coníirmation oí that which was re·ealed beíore it, and an explanation oí the
scripture, there is no doubt thereíore, sent down írom the Lord oí all creatures.
\ill they say, ,Mohammed, hath íorged it· Answer, Bring thereíore a chapter
like unto it, and call whom ye may ,to your assistance, besides God, ií ye speak
truth.` ,Chap. X,
Say, Verily ií men and genie were purposely assembled, that they might
produce ,a book, like this Koran, they could not produce one like unto it,
although they assisted each other. And we ha·e ·ariously propounded unto
men in this Koran, e·ery kind oí íigurati·e argument, but the greater part oí
men reíuse to recei·e it, merely out oí iníidelity.` ,Chap. XVII.,

1he Re·. Rodwell states:
It must be acknowledged too, that the Koran deser·es the highest praise
íor its conception oí the di·ine nature, in reíerence the attributes oí Power,
Knowledge and uni·ersal Pro·idence and Unity- that its belieí and trust in the
One God oí lea·en and Larth, is deep and íer·ent.`
It is due to the Koran that the occupants, in the sixth century, oí an arid
peninsula, whose po·erty was only equaled by their ignorance, become not only

, It is more than íourteen centuries already ,2002,. See Sir \. Muir. Liíe oí

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
the íer·ent and sincere ·otaries oí a new creed, but, like Amru and many more,
its warlike propagators.`

1he simple shepherds and wandering bedouins oí Arabia, are transíormed,
as ií by a magician`s wand, into the íounders oí empires, the builders oí cities,
the collectors oí more libraries, than they at íirst destroyed, while cities like
lostat, Baghdad, Cordo·a and Dehli, attest the power, at which Christian
Lurope trembled. And thus, while the Koran, which underlies this ·ast energy
and contains the principles which are its springs oí actions, reílects to a great
extent the mixed character oí its author, its merit as a code oí laws, and as a
system oí religious teaching, must always be estimated by the changes which it
introduced into the customs and belieís oí those who willingly or by
compulsion embraced it. In the suppression oí their idolatries, in the
substitution oí the worship oí Allah íor that oí the powers oí nature and genii
with lim, in the abolition oí child murder, in the extinction oí maniíold
superstitious usages, in the reduction oí the number oí wi·es to a íixed
standard it was to the Arabians an unquestionable blessing, and an accession
through not in the Christian sense a Re·elation oí 1ruth, and while e·ery
Christian must deplore the o·erthrow oí so many ílourishing Lastern churches
by the arms oí the ·ictorious Moslems, it must not be íorgotten that Lurope,
in the middle ages, owed much oí her knowledge oí dialectic philosophy, oí
medicine and architecture to Arabia writers, and that Moslems íormed the
connecting link between the \est and the Last íor the importation oí
numerous articles oí luxury and use.`
lor ií he ,Mohammed, was indeed the illiterate person the Moslems
represent him to ha·e been, then it will be hard to escape their iníerence, that
the Koran is, as they assert it to be, a standing miracle.`

The Koranic Conception of Man
1he loly Koran represents man as a íree and responsible being, giíted with
the íaculty oí distinguishing between right and wrong. 1hen according to the
Koran, man is capable oí obeying the law oí God. le needs nobody to atone
íor his sins, but himselí, íor the Lord is merciíul and will íorgi·e him his sins.
1he loly Book oí Islam mentions no original sin, which we inherit at our birth.
It does not represent man as coming into the world with a load oí sin on his
back. On the contrary, it represents him as an unconscious Moslem at the
moment oí creation. 1he Prophet oí Islam says: L·ery child is born with a
Moslem heart`, and it is the external iníluences that makes it what it becomes
aíterwards in liíe. Ií bad iníluences happen to be at work, the child generally
surrenders to such iníluences, unless God limselí undertakes to nurture the
little soul. \hen the child grows into manhood, he may used the God giíted
íaculty oí discrimination and may become what he chooses in liíe. Indeed, God
gi·es him many a chance in liíe, that he may reco·er himselí írom sin and
iniquity. le may make or mar his íortune e·en in the spiritual sense. Ií in him,
laith asserts its power, ií true repentance places him in the right attitude
towards God, ií the spirit oí God impels him to do ·irtuous deeds, ií he íeels
the hand oí God working in the smallest concerns oí his liíe, and, abo·e all, ií

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
he accepts death with a smiling countenance, and loses himselí to sa·e himselí,
why this is suííicient atonement in the sight oí the Lord, whose pre- eminent
attribute is Mercy.

1o understand the Koranic conception oí man, a reíerence to the íollowing
·erses is necessary: Oí goodliest íabric \e created man, then brought him
down to be the lowest oí the low, sa·e who belie·e and do things that are right,
íor theirs shall be a reward that íaileth not`. 1hese ·erses indicate that man, at
the moment oí his creation, is períectly sinless. It is aíterwards, that sin tries to
assert itselí and bring him down to the le·el oí the brutes. But he has also the
di·ine in him, - the power to oííer ií he so wills, a stubborn resistance, and by
the help oí this power, he may grow up to a saint`. Although his own íorce is
íeeble, there is the Spirit oí God which will cooperate with him in this work oí
selí-regeneration only ií he shows genuine desire to turn to God, to belie·e and
to do things that are right. 1he loly Koran is ·ery clear on this point. It does
not ask to belie·e in the doctrine oí original sin, and so atonement, in a
Christian sense, has no place in the Islamic Scripture. \hat God wants oí us, is
this that we íor our part, should make the utmost endea·our to secure lis
pleasure and grace while le íor lis part, undertakes to direct us into lis ways.
And whoso maketh his utmost endea·our towards Us, \e will surely direct
him into Our ways,` says the Koran. 1his utmost endea·our on our part, to
reach God, in·ol·es the idea oí personal atonement and sacriíice which the
Moslem is required to oííer. \e íind the same thought clearly expressed
elsewhere in the \ord oí God. 1hey who set their íace with resignation God-
ward, and do what is right, their reward is with their Lord, nor íear shall come
on them, neither shall they be grie·ed.` 1urning his íace towards God,
gradually proceeding towards lim, till he realizes himselí in lim-herein lies the
sal·ation oí man, according to the Koran. 1he Moslem is taught the high truth,
that the good dri·es away the e·il in man`, and so he requires not anyone to
take the burden oí his sin and to undergo punishment as his substitute`. le
de·elops his íaculties, and tries his ·ery best, to make use oí them in doing
good deeds and working out the will oí his Maker, and hopes that his little will
be accepted as much by the Most Merciíul Lord.

L·erywhere, in the loly Koran, man is represented as the crown and glory
oí creation. le is the central íigure oí this beautiíul uni·erse. In Adam, he is
God`s ·icegerent on earth. Out oí lo·e, God hath created man. And he hath
created íor him the hea·ens and the earth, and sendeth down water írom the
hea·en, and so bringeth íorth the íruits íor his íood and to him le hath
subjected the ships, so that by lis command they pass through the sea, and to
him le hath subjected the sun and the moon in their constant courses, and to
him le hath subjected the day and the night, oí e·erything which he may ask
lim, gi·eth le to him, and ií he would reckon up the ía·ours oí God, he can
ne·er count them.

And the cattle. lor you le created them, írom them ye ha·e warm
garments, and they are useíul in many ways, and oí them ye eat, and they obey
you well when ye íetch them home and when ye dri·e them íorth to pasture:

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
and they carry your burdens to lands which ye could not else reach, but with
tra·ail oí soul: truly, your Lord is íull oí Goodness, and Merciíul: And le hath
gi·en you horses, mules and asses, that ye may ride them, and íor your pleasure:
And things, oí which ye ha·e no knowledge, hath le created. Oí God it is, to
point out the way. Some ,oí you, turn aside írom it, but had le pleased, le
had guided you all aright.`

According to the Koran, God hath endowed us with the power oí selí-
go·ernment which is an almost incredible trust. By this power, God not only
trusts our destinies to oursel·es, but le actually trusts, or seems to trust, the
whole íinal outcome oí lis creati·e work to our treatment oí it. 1his earth, at
least, is put into our hands, to make what we will oí it and oursel·es, its
inhabitants. It is stored with all possible helps to us, in natural íorces and
materials, we are gi·en intelligence, to íind them out and to use them íor the
enrichment and beautiíying oí our li·es, we are gi·en the understanding oí a
Rule oí Right in our conduct towards each other, that will keep us in períect
harmony and happiness together, íor the common good, we are gi·en a
complete code oí regulations, to guide us as to what is right and what is wrong,
we are drawn towards well-doing, in accord with the Rule oí Right, by a íeeling
created in us, which will not let us íorget it or ·iolate it, without willíul intent,
but ,and here lies the grandeur oí the part, man períorms in creation, we are
trusted with the íreedom, to do with all this what we will. 1he out come, good
or e·il, is what we and our íellows oí the human race, past and íuture, are
helping, or ha·e helped, or will help to make it. 1he glory oí triumph or the
shame oí íailure, in the creation oí mankind, is to belong to the race itselí.

The Frailties of Human Nature
1he Koran also dwells on the weaknesses, to which the ílesh is heir, and
constantly reminds man oí his inconstancy, injustice and ingratitude. Man is
created weak.` Surely man is unjust and ungrateíul`. Man is hasty.` Man is
co·etous`, Verily, man is created extremely impatient` Verily, man is
ungrateíul unto his Lord.` It must, howe·er, not be iníerred írom ·erses like
these, that man stands condemned beíore his Creator, as deser·ing only death
and perdition. 1hese ·erses rather breathe a noble sympathy íor the weakness
oí man and the iníirmities oí the ílesh. 1hey contain in them promises oí
God`s grace and íorgi·eness. In reminding man oí the iníirmities oí his nature,
God desires that he should realise his weakness and powerlessness, bow down
his head beíore the Lord, turn to lim íor strength and assistance, and pray
constantly, that le may guide him into the right, straight path. Indeed, the
Moslem is enjoined to throw himselí in this attitude towards his Maker, and to
oííer such prayers repeatedly through the day and night. le is taught to say:
Praise be to God, Lord oí the worlds, the Compassionate, the Merciíul, King
oí the day oí Reckoning. 1hee only do we worship, and to 1hee do we cry íor
help. Guide 1hou us in the right path, the path oí those unto whom 1hou hast

, Koran, XVL, 5-9.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
been gracious, - and not oí those with whom 1hou art angry, and neither oí
those, who go astray.`

As will be seen, this human prayer is íull oí sympathy towards the weakness
oí man. In it the Lord teaches lis ser·ant, to beg oí lim spiritual blessings. In
it le indirectly asks them not sink in despair and indirectly promises, to guide
them into the path oí holiness and to gi·e them strength, to bear the yoke oí
lis law. \hat an upliíting hope is breathed into our hearts, when le tells us,
that le was gracious in the past, unto those who sought lim, and e·en so to-
day le is ready to be gracious unto us, ií we only turn to lim and look up to
lis Grace, as our true Sa·iour.
But, as Shakespeare said: 1he course oí true lo·e ne·er did run smooth`.
\ith equal truth it may be said oí di·ine lo·e, that it course ne·er runs smooth.
1rials and tribulations are bound to come. Many a trail the seeker aíter God has
to undergo, beíore he can expect to recei·e the grace oí God. 1hink ye,` says
the Lord, to enter Paradise, when no such things ha·e come upon you, as no
those who ílourished beíore you· Ills and troubles tried them, and so tossed
were they by trials, that the Apostle and they, who shared his íaith, said \hen
will the help oí God come· Is not the help oí God nigh·`
L·en the Patriarch
Abraham, was tried by God, when le commanded him to lea·e his home and
country, and to oííer his belo·ed son as a sacriíice.

No doubt, it is rather a diííicult task, to secure the blessing oí God, and to
períorm the di·ine laws. But, let not man stagger under the diííiculty oí the task
that lies beíore him. Let him take courage, and with a íirm trust in God and a
cheeríul heart, undertake the períormance, and abo·e all íear the Lord, íor it is
God`s promise, that le will make lis command easy to him who íeareth
lim 1he God oí Islam, it should always be remembered, is not a niggardly,
exacting God, but le is gracious unto lis ser·ants.` Llsewhere, we read a
surpassingly comíorting ·erse, which comes as a message oí hope to each and
all oí us. God desireth, to be gracious unto you. God desireth to make your
burden light: íor man hath been created weak.`
Again we read, God wisheth
you ease and ne·er wisheth you discomíort.` A world oí mercy and íorgi·eness
is surely concealed behind, and breathed out by these ·erses. God is oííering
lis grace, we ha·e only to throw oursel·es in the right attitude oí laith, and
gi·e oursel·es up to God and lis land will lead us to lis blessings. \e ha·e
but to coníess out weakness and ask írom our Lord power, strength, and lis
spirit will descend upon us.

1here is another remarkable passage in the loly Koran which presents to
us a just, but at the same time a merciíul God, and then gi·es a most beautiíul
prayer, so com-íorting to the helpless man who, toiling up the spiritual heights
sits down totally unner·ed, looking up to God íor strength and support, God
will not burden any soul beyond its power,` so run the words oí God, It shall

, 1his is the prayer, with which the loly Book oí Islam opens.
, Koran, II : 210.
, Koran, IV: 28.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
enjoy the good which it hath acquired and shall bear the e·il, íor the
acquirement oí which it laboured. Our Lord punish us not ií we íorget, or íall
into sin, Our Lord lay not on us a burden, like that which 1hou hast laid on
those who ha·e been beíore us, neither make us, O Lord, to bear what we ha·e
not the strength to bear, but blot out our sins, and íorgi·e us, and ha·e pity on
us. 1hou art our Patron, help us, thereíore, against those who do not belie·e.`

The Koran and the Doctrine
of Personal Holiness
Islam has taken due cognisance oí the írailties oí human nature, and this
constitutes its chieí excellence as a system oí religion. 1hus, the laws oí Islam
exhibit elasticity, which is a prooí oí their beneíicence and useíulness. 1hough
Islam, no doubt, points to a loíty idealism, it is, at the same time, thoroughly
practical. 1he merit oí Islam, as a religion, consists in a happy harmonious
blending oí the ideal and the practical. It ía·our no íorm oí asceticism, and
ne·er asks any man, to do what he has not the power to do. 1here is, howe·er,
one thing, on which it lays the greatest emphasis. It is personal holiness and
purity oí heart. It is the grand purpose, íor which the Prophet was sent down,
as it appears írom the prayer oí Abraham: Our Lord, raise up among them an
apostle who may rehearse 1hy signs unto them, and teach them the Book and
\isdom, and puriíy them.`
1he reader will obser·e that the ·erse gradually
ascends to a climax. Puriíication oí men being put last as the most important
part oí the íunctions oí the Prophet oí Islam. le who is puriíied, hath
obtained íelicity,` says the Koran elsewhere.`
Again, aíter mentioning the
blessings oí hea·enly liíe, the loly Book adds: And this shall be the reward oí
him who shall be pure.`
1hat a ·ery important place is gi·en to purity oí mind
and personal holiness, will be seen írom another ·erse, where sinners are
threatened with the punishment, that God shall neither speak unto them nor
shall le puriíy them.` Moreo·er, they who conceal any part oí the scripture
which God hath sent down unto them .God shall not speak unto them, on
the day oí resurrection, neither shall le puriíy them, and they shall suííer a
grie·ous punishment.`
It is clear, then that communion with the Deity and
personal holiness are the keynote oí Islam.

But e·en here, man is not held responsible íor the e·il thoughts that in spite
oí himselí, pass through his mind, like ílashes oí lightning. 1o render man
responsible íor such passing íancies, o·er which he has little control, would be
sheer injustice. Commission oí a wrong act, without pre·ious intention and
deliberation does not make one guilty, íar less a passing thought that rises like a
bubble only to die and disappear the next moment. Adam ate oí the íorbidden
íruit and thereby committed a mistake as all men are liable to commit mistakes,

, Koran: Last ·erses oí chap. II.
, Koran, chap. II 123.
, Koran IXXXV 11 : 14.
, Koran XX : ¯8.
, Koran, II : 1¯5.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
but he was ne·er guilty oí committing sin, and the lolly Koran clears him oí
the íalse accusation, just as it has cleared other prophets, like Moses and Jesus
oí similar charges. lor it says: \e heretoíore ga·e a command to Adam, and
be forgot it and \e íound vo ivtevtiov in him ,to disobey our command,`
is, indeed, an important principle, and it has important bearings on the doctrine
oí sin, as presented by the loly Koran, íor elsewhere we read: God will not
punish you íor an inconsiderate word in you oaths, but le will punish you íor
that which your hearts ha·e assented unto.`
1his ·erse clearly lays down, that
a wrong act, or an e·il thought, is a sin, ií it is deliberate. Shorn oí intention and
deliberation, a wrong act or an impure thought is a mere accident which,
howe·er deplorable, cannot pro·e the doer a guilty sinner in the sight oí God.

But, ií the element oí intention is present, e·en the íaintest thought is
enough, to render a man guilty beíore his Maker, not to speak oí a deed which
is maniíestly wrong. God íorbids both kinds oí sin -open and secret- equally in
the same ·erse: Draw not near unto sin neither open nor secret,`
both- the outside oí iniquity and the inside thereoí.`
Again: Say, ·erily, my
Lord hath íorbidden sins, whether open or secret and iniquity and unjust

1hese ·erses suííiciently establish the doctrine oí personal holiness in Islam,
but to crush the objection oí the critics absolutely, we gi·e one more ·erse
which shows, that not only the eyes and the ears, but also the heart, will be
required to gi·e e·idence on the Day Judgment, ií any sin has been committed
through them. And the ·erse is this: And íollow not that, whereoí thou hast
no knowledge, íor the hearing and the sight and the heart - each oí these shall
be examined.`

Personal holiness, it must be remembered depends largely on a thorough
belieí in the Omniscience and Omnipresence oí God. And nothing is more
striking to the reader oí the loly Koran, than the íorce, with which it
impresses upon us these two attributes oí the Deity. 1he belieí, that the
Supreme Being sees our actions and knows e·en the innermost secrets oí our
hearts, is a most poweríul check upon the tendency to commit sin. So long as a
man realizes, that he works and mo·es under the great 1ask master`s eyes he
keeps himselí írom ·ice: but whene·er this consciousness in him grows dim,
and he thinks he is not watched by God, he exposes himselí to constant

, Koran, XX : 114. It is interesting to note, that the word ..,Azma, in the ·erse
quoted, has been taken, both by Rodwell and Sale to mean íirmness oí purpose` and
not intention.` lence, Mr. \herry says in his commentary: 1his ·erse is íatal to the
Moslem theory oí the sinlessness oí prophets.`
, Koran, II : 225.
, Koran, VI : 151
, Koran, XVI : 38.
, Koran, VII : 34.
, Koran, XVII : 38.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

4. Belief in the Apostles of God
1he íourth article oí the Islamic creed is íaith in all the Apostles oí God. A
Moslem must belie·e, that the Merciíul Creator sent in di·ers ages certain
messengers or apostles, to reclaim mankind írom iníidelity and superstition,
and to teach them the religion and laws oí God and to gi·e them good tidings
and admonitions. 1he number oí these apostles is gi·en as 313. 1wenty-íi·e oí
them must be remembered, since their names are distinctly gi·en in the Koran,
but it is not necessary to learn them by heart. 1he íollowing are the names
according to chronological order: -
Adam, Noah, loud ,leber,, Saleh ,Methuselah, Lot, Abraham, Ishmail,
Isaac, Jacob, Shu`aib ,Jethro, laroun ,Aaron,, Moses, Da·id, Solomon, Ayoub
,Job,, Zulkiíl ,Isaiah,, \ounis ,Jonah,, Ilias, Alyas`aa ,Llisha,, Zacharias, \ahia
,John the Baptist,, Jesus and Mohammed.
Ií a Moslem is asked about anyone oí these men, he must coníess his belieí,
that he was an apostle oí God.
Moslems must also belie·e, that the apostles oí God were truthíul íaithíul
and intelligent, and that they deli·ered in íull God`s message to their respecti·e
people. A Moslem must íurther belie·e that all apostles oí God were, by their
prophetic characteristics íree írom ,1, telling lies, ,2, committing unlawíul
deeds, ,3, stupidity, laziness or cowardice ,4, concealing any part oí the
message they were ordered to deli·er.
1he apostles oí God were subject to the same human wants as the rest oí
mankind such as eating, drinking, sleeping, marrying, etc., they were also liable
to ordinary but not disgusting maladies etc.
Since the nature, as well as the story, oí Jesus Christ were matters oí dispute
between Christians and Moslems, I must gi·e a summary oí the Moslems` belieí
in this respect, according to the teachings oí the Koran and the interpretations
oí the Prophet.
Moslems hold, that Jesus Christ was the blessed Apostle oí God who was
sent to reclaim the people oí Israel. le was a spirit írom God, lis messenger.
lis ser·ant and prophet, illustrious in this world and in the next. le was
miraculously born oí the Virgin Mary. 1he Jews ha·ing spoken ill oí Mary and
charged her with unchastity, Jesus Christ, speaking in the cradle, ·indicated his
mother`s honour. Jesus períormed miracles by God`s power, gi·ing liíe to a clay
íigure oí a bird, healing the blind, curing the leper, quickening the dead, and
causing a table oí íood to be brought down írom lea·en. le was sent by God,
to coníirm the law oí Moses and to preach the Gospel to the people oí Israel.
le proclaimed his mission by many maniíest signs, being coníirmed by the
loly Spirit. le íoretold the ad·ent oí another apostle to succeed him, named
Periclete or Ahmed. 1he Jews intended to cruciíy Jesus, but God sa·ed him
írom the plot, took him up to lea·en, and stamped his likeness on a
treacherous Jew who was apprehended and cruciíied in his stead. It is the
constant doctrine oí the Moslems, that it was not Jesus who underwent
cruciíixion but someone else, resembling him in shape namely, Judas, who
agreed with the Jews, to betray Jesus íor some pieces oí sil·er, and led those

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
who were sent to take him. Aíter the cruciíixion oí the wicked Judas, and the
taking up oí Jesus into lea·en, Christ, the Apostle oí God, was sent down
again to the earth, to comíort his mother and de·oted disciples, and to tell
them, how the Jews were decei·ed, and he was taken up a second time to

It is supported by se·eral`, writes Mr. G. Sale that this story was an original
in·ention oí Mohammed`s, but they are certainly mistaken, íor se·eral sectaries
held the same opinion, long beíore his time. 1he Basilidans, in the ·ery
beginning oí Christianity, denied, that Christ himselí suííered, but that Simon
the Cyrenean was cruciíied in his place. 1he Cerinthians, beíore them, and the
Corporatians next ,to name no more oí those who aííirmed Jesus to ha·e been
a mere man, did belie·e the same thing, that it was not himselí, but one oí his
íollowers ·ery like him, that was cruciíied. Photius tells us, that he read a book
entitled 1he Journey oí 1he Apostles,` relating the acts oí Peter, John,
Andrew, 1homas and Paul, and among other things contained therein, this was
one, that Christ was not cruciíied, but another in his stead and that thereíore,
he laughed at his cruciíiers, or those who thought they had cruciíied him.`

St. Barnabas relates this part oí Jesus Christ`s history with circumstances
approximating to the Islamic ·iew. In that Gospel it is related, that the
moment the Jews were going to apprehend Jesus in the garden, he was liíted up
to hea·en, by the ministry oí íour angels, that he will not die, till the end oí the
world, and that it was Judas who was cruciíied in his stead, God ha·ing
permitted that traitor, to appear so like his master, in the eyes oí the Jews, that
they took and deli·ered him to Pilate. 1hat this resemblance was so great, that
it decei·ed the Virgin Mary and the disciples themsel·es, but that Jesus Christ
aíterwards obtained lea·e oí God to go and comíort them. 1hat Barnabas
ha·ing then asked him, why the di·ine goodness had suííered the mother and
disciples oí so holy a prophet, to belie·e, e·en íor one moment, that he had
died in so ignominious a manner. Jesus returned the íollowing answer. O
Barnabas, belie·e me, that e·ery sin, howe·er small, is punished by God with
great torment, because God is oííended by sin. My mother thereíore, and
íaithíul disciples, ha·ing lo·ed me with a mixture oí earthly lo·e, the Just God
has been pleased, to punish this lo·e with their present grieí, that they might
not be punished íor it hereaíter in the ílames oí hell. And as íor me, though I
ha·e myselí been blameless in the world, yet other men ha·ing called me God
and the son oí God, thereíore God, that I might not be mocked by the de·ils
on the Day oí Judgment, has been pleased, that in this world I should be
mocked by men with the death oí Judas, making e·ery body belie·e that I died
upon the cross. And hence it is, that this mocking is to continue till the coming
oí Ahmed, and messenger oí God, who, coming into the world, will undecei·e
e·eryone who shall belie·e in the law oí God írom this error.`

, See G. Sale`s 1ranslation oí the Koran, chap. III, p. 38 ,l. \arne & Co, London,
, See G. Sale`s Prelim. Discourse.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
1he Moslems are also taught, that aíter Jesus had leít this earth, his disciples
disputed among themsel·es concerning his nature, some calling him God and
others the son oí God. 1hey belie·e that he will come again into the world, will
slay Antichrist, and will reign as a just king íor many years, marry and ha·e
children die.
1he íollowing are a ·ariety oí translated passages oí the Koran bearing on
the story oí Jesus Christ, and the disputed nature and liíe oí the Great 1eacher
oí Christianity:

(1) Promised to Mary
,a, And when the angels said: O Mary ·erily, God hath chosen thee and
hath puriíied thee, and hath raised thee abo·e all other women oí the world: O
Mary, be, thereíore, de·out towards thy Lord and prostrate thyselí and bow
down in worship with those de·otes who bow down to lim`
,b,And when the angel said: O Mary, ·erily, God sendeth thee good
tidings, thou shalt bear a word írom lim whose name will be Christ Jesus, the
son oí Mary and who will be illustrious in this world and in the next, and one
oí those men who are honoured with approach to the presence oí God, and he
shall speak to men alike when in the cradle and when he is grown up, and he
shall be one oí the most righteous: she said: O my Lord, shall I ha·e a son,
since a man hath not touched me· 1he angel said: 1hus God will create what
le will, when le decreeth a thing. le only saith Be` and it is`. le ,God, shall
teach him the scripture and wisdom and the law and the Gospel, and le shall
appoint him and apostle to the children oí Israel, and he shall say to them:
Verily, I come unto you with a sign írom your Lord, íor I will make beíore you
out oí clay, as it were the íigure oí a bird, then I will breathe into it, and it shall
become an animated bird, by the will oí God, and I will heal the blind and the
leper, by the will oí God, and I will raise the dead, by the will oí God, and I will
tell you what ye eat and what ye store up in your houses. Verily, this will be a
sign to you, ií ye belie·e. And I will come to coníirm the law which was
re·ealed beíore me, and to allow unto you as lawíul, part oí what hath been
íorbidden you, thereíore, íear God and obey me. Verily God is my Lord and
your Lord: thereíore ser·e lim. 1his is the right way. But Jesus percei·ing their
unbelieí, said: who oí you will assist towards the way to God· 1he disciples
said: \e are your helpers towards the way to God: we do belie·e in God, and
do thou bear witness, we are true belie·ers. O Lord, we belie·e in what 1hou
hast sent down, and ha·e íollowed 1hy apostle, write us down, then with those
who bear witness ,oí his message,.

(2) Birth of Jesus
,a, And make mention in the \ord`, oí Mary when she retired írom her
íamily eastward, and drew a ·eil upon her to conceal herselí írom them, and
\e sent our spirit ,Gabriel, to her, and he appeared to her in the íorm oí a
períect man. She said: I íly íor reíuge írom thee to the Most Merciíul. Ií thou
íearest lim`. le said: I am the messenger oí thy Lord, that I may bestow on
thee a puriíied son.` She Said: low shall I ha·e a son when man hath ne·er
touched me, and I was ne·er unchaste· le said: So shall it be. 1hy Lord hath

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
said, it is a simple thing with lim, and that le will make him a sign to
mankind, and a mercy írom lim: 1his is a thing already decreed.` \hereíore
she concei·ed him, and she retired aside with him ,in her womb, to a distant
place, and the throes came upon her near the trunk oí a palm-tree ,She said,
\ould to God, I had died beíore this, and had become as one lost in obli·ion.
And he who was below her ,namely the newly born babe, came to her, saying,
Be not grie·ed. 1hy Lord hath pro·ided íor thee a ri·ulet at thy íeet, and do
thou shake the trunk oí the palm-tree towards thee: it will drop íresh ripe dates
to eat. 1hereíore, eat and drink and cheer thyselí, and shouldst thou see any
human being, say: Verily, I ha·e ·owed a íast to the Most Merciíul, whereíore I
will by no means speak to a human being this day. So she came with the babe
to her people. And they said to her, O Mary thou hast committed a gra·e thing.
O sister oí Aaron
, thy íather was not a bad man, nor was thy mother
unchasted. And she made a sign to him ,the iníant,. 1hey said` how shall we
speak to him who is an iníant in the cradle· le said Verily, I am the ser·ant oí
God: le hath gi·en me the Book ,1he Gospel,, and le hath appointed me a
prophet. And le hath made me blessed, whosesoe·er I may be and hath
commanded me, to pray to him and to gi·e alms. As long as I li·e, and hath
made me dutiíul towards my mother, and le hath not made me cruel or
wicked. 1he peace oí God was on me the day I was born, and it will be on me
the day I shall die and the day I shall be raised again to liíe.` 1his was Jesus, the
son oí Mary, the word oí truth, concerning whom they dispute.
,b,Verily the case oí Jesus with God is the same as that oí Adam. le
created him ,Adam, out oí the dust, and then said to him Be`, and he was.
1his is the truth íorm thy Lord, be not thereíore, one oí those who dispute.`

One of the Miracles of Jesus
Remember when the disciples said. O Jesus, son oí Mary, is thy Lord able
to send down to us a table oí pro·isions írom hea·en· le said: lear God, ií ye
be true belie·ers`. 1hey said: \e desire to eat thereírom, and to ha·e our
hearts assured, and to know that thou hast indeed spoken truth to us, and to be
witnesses thereoí.` Jesus, the son oí Mary, said O God, our Lord send down a
table to us írom hea·en, that the day oí its descent become a recurring íesti·al
to us, to the íirst oí us and to the, last oí us, and a sign írom 1hee, and do
1hou pro·ide íood íor us, íor 1hou art the best pro·ider`. God said: Verily, I
will cause it to descend unto you, but whosoe·er among you shall disbelie·e

, Mr. Sale rightly comments this phrase, O sister oí Aaron` as íollows: Se·eral
Christians writers think, the Koran stands con·icted oí a maniíest íalsehood in this
particular, but I am aíraid, the Moslems may a·oid the charge, as they do, by se·eral
answers. Some say, the ·irgin Mary had really a brother named Aaron, who had the
same íather, but a diííerent mother, other suppose Aaron, the brother oí Moses, is here
meant, but say , Mary is called his sister, either because she was oí the le·itical race , as
by her being related Llizabeth, it should seem she was, or by way oí comparison with
her, and conspicuous íor his good or bad qualities, and that they likened her to him,
either by way oí condemnation or reproach. See Sale`s 1ranslation oí the Koran.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
hereaíter, I will surely punish him with more se·ere a punishment than I will
punish any other oí my creatures.

The Mission of Jesus
,a, \e íormerly sent our apostles with e·ident signs and miracles, and \e
sent down with them the Scriptures and the balance, that men might obser·e
justice.` And \e caused Jesus, the son oí Mary to succeed them, and \e ga·e
him the Gospel: and \e put in the ears oí those who íollowed him,
compassion and mercy: but as to the monastic liíe, they in·ented it themsel·es:
\e did not prescribe it to them, they did it out oí design to please God, yet this
they did not properly obser·e. And \e ga·e to such oí them as belie·ed, their
reward: but many oí them were e·il doers.`
,b, also caused Jesus, the son oí Mary to íollow the íootsteps oí the
Prophets, to coníirm the Law which was sent down beíore him, and \e ga·e
him the Gospel, containing guidance and light, and coníirming the preceding
word and a direction and admonition unto those who íear God: so that they
who ha·e recei·ed the Gospel might judge, according to what God hath
re·ealed therein. And those will not judge, according to what God hath
re·ealed, they are certainly transgressors.:
,c, Some oí the apostles \e ha·e endowed more than others. 1hose, to
whom God hath spoken, le hath raised to the loítiest position. And to Jesus,
the son oí Mary, \e ga·e maniíest signs, and \e strengthened him with the
loly Spirit. And ií God had pleased, they who come aíter them, would not
ha·e wrangled, aíter the clear signs had reached them. But into disputes they
íell: some oí them belie·ed, and some were iníidels: yet, ií God had pleased,
they would not ha·e wrangled: but God doth what le will.`
,d, And Jesus, the son oí Mary, said: O children oí Israel. Verily I am
God`s apostle to you who came to coníirm the law which was gi·en beíore, me,
and to announce an apostle who shall come aíter me whose name shall be
Ahmed. But when he ,Ahmed, presented himselí with clear signs oí his
mission, they said: 1his is maniíest sorcery.` Jesus said to them: I come to
attest the law which was re·ealed beíore me, and to allow you part oí that
which had been íorbidden you, and I come to you with a sign írom your Lord,
thereíore, íear God and obey me, ·erily, God is my Lord and you Lord,
thereíore, worship lim, this is the right way.`

Jesus not Crucified
,a, 1he Jews were cursed íor their unbelieí and íor their ha·ing spoken a
grie·ous calumny against Mary and íor their saying: Verily we ha·e slain Christ
Jesus, the son oí Mary, the apostle oí God`, yet they slew him not, and cruciíied
him not, but he was represented to them by one in his likeness, and ·erily, they
who disputed about him, were in doubt, concerning this matter: they had no
sure knowledge thereoí, but íollowed only an uncertain opinion.
1hey ,the

, lor some maintained, that he was justly and really cruciíied: some insisted, that it
was Jesus who suííered, but another, but another resembled him in the íace . some

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Jews, did not really kill him, but God took him up to limselí and God is
Mighty and \ise.`
Jesus and the Divinity
,a, le ,Jesus, is no other than a ser·ant oí God whom \e ía·oured, and
set íorth as an instance ,oí di·ine power, to the children oí Israel, and ií \e
pleased, ·erily. \e could ha·e e·en produced angels írom yoursel·es to
succeed you on earth.`
,b,And when Jesus came with maniíest signs, he said: Now I am come to
you with wisdom, and to explain to you part oí those things, about which you
disagree, thereíore íear God, and obey me. Verily God is my Lord and your
Lord, whereíore worship ye lim: this is the right path. But the diííerent parties
íell into disputes among themsel·es
, but woe to those who thus transgressed
because oí the punishment oí a grie·ous day.`
,c, 1he Jews say: Lzra is the son oí God: and the Christians say, Christ is
the son oí God. 1his is their saying with their mouths, íollowing the example
oí those who misbelie·ed beíore them May God resist them. low are they
iníatuated! 1hey take their priests and their monks íor their Lord, besides God,
and ,take, Christ, the son oí Mary, ,íor their, lord besides God,, although they
are commanded to worship one Deity only: 1here is no Deity but le ,the true
God,, íar be those írom lim whom they associate ,with God,.`

The Trinity Condemned
,a, 1hey are surely iníidels who say, Verily, God is Christ the son oí Mary,
since Christ said, O ye children oí Israel, worship God, my Lord and your
Lord, whoe·er, shall associate aught with lim, God shall íorbid him paradise,
and his habitation shall be hell íire, and the ungodly shall ha·e none to help
them. 1hey are certainly iníidels who say, God is the third oí three, íor there is
no Deity, but God alone. And ií they do not desist írom what they, say, a
painíul torment shall surely be inílicted upon those who misbelie·ed among
them. \ill they not turn unto God, and ask lis pardon· Since God is Gracious
and Merciíul. Christ, the son oí Mary, is no more than apostle: Other apostles
preceded him, and his mother was a true belie·er: they both used to eat íood
,as all other creatures oí God,. Behold, how we declare unto them the signs ,oí
God`s unity,, and then behold, how they turn aside ,írom the right path,. Say
,O Mohammed, unto them, will ye worship, besides God that which can cause
you neither harm nor proíit· God heareth ,e·ery thing, and seeth ,e·ery thing,.
Say, O ye who ha·e recei·ed the Scriptures, exceed not the just bounds in your
religion, by speaking beside the truth, neither íollow the desires oí people who
ha·e heretoíore erred, and who ha·e seduced many, and ha·e gone astray írom
the right path,`

said, he was taken up to hea·en, and others, that his manhood only suííered, and that
his godhead ascended into hea·en.
, Lither reíerring to the Jews in the time oí Jesus who opposed his doctrine, or to the
Christians since, who ha·e íallen into ·arious opinions concerning him, some making
him to be God, others the son oí God, and others one oí the persons oí the trinity etc.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
,b,O ye who ha·e recei·ed the Scriptures, exceed not the just bounds in
your religion, neither say oí God otherwise than the truth. Verily Christ, the
son oí Mary, was the apostle, and lis \ord which le con·eyed to Mary, and a
Spirit coming írom lim. Belie·e, thereíore, in God and lis apostles, and say
not: 1here are three ,Deities` desist: it will be better íor you. God is the only
Deity. lar be it írom lim, that le should ha·e a son, unto lim belongeth
whate·er is in hea·en and on earth, and God is the best Protector. Christ doth
not proudly disdain to be a ser·ant to God`
,c, It beseemeth not a man that God should gi·e the Scripture and the
wisdom and the giít oí prophecy to him, and that then he should say to the
people Be ye worshippers oí me, as well as oí God,` but rather, Be ye períect in
thing pertaining to God, since ye know the Scriptures, and ha·e studied
,d, And when God shall say ,namely unto Jesus on the Day oí Judgment,,
O Jesus son oí Mary, hast thou said unto the people: 1ake me and my mother
íor two deities, beside God· le shall answer, Glory be to 1hee, it is not íor me,
to say that which I ought not in truth, ií I had said it, 1hou wouldst surely ha·e
known it: 1hou knowest what is in me but I know not what is in 1hee, íor
1hou art the knower oí all secrets I ha·e not spoken to them otherwise, than
thou didst command me. I said to them: \orship God, my Lord and your
Lord, and I was a witness against them as long as I stayed amongst them, but
when 1hou causest me to die. 1hou hast been the \atcher o·er them, as thou
art the \atcher o·er all things. Ií thou punish them, they are surely thy
ser·ants, and ií thou íorgi·e them, thou art the Almighty and the All-wise.`

C Co on nt tr ra ad di ic ct to or ry y T Te ea ac ch hi in ng gs s o of f
C Ch hr ri is st ti ia an ni it ty y f fr ro om m M Mo os sl le em m’ ’s s P Po oi in nt t o of f
V Vi ie ew w: :
1he íollowing would illustrate certain contradictions in the íundamental
principles oí Christianity, as ·iewed by Moslems:

The first and the íoremost Christian principle is Unity in 1rinity,
and 1rinity in Unity. 1his in itselí is but a clear illustration oí the principle oí
compromise, oí which a di·ine religion should be íree. 1he Romans belie·ed in
three gods, whilst the Jews belie·ed in one. \hen the Romans showed their
readiness to adopt Christianity, a compromise was, it seems at once arri·ed at.
Apparently íor the sake oí the Romans, the Unity oí God as belie·ed by the
Jews, underwent a change, it was assimilated to the tri-headed Godhood, and
so the two creeds became merged into one. No Moslem person can think oí
reconciling such contradictions.

The second instance oí contradictory principles is, that Jesus has
been called a man and God, at the same time, while the íact is that the Creator
and the created cannot be one and the same. 1hereíore, Jesus cannot be God
and man, at the same time.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
The third principle, where contradictions ha·e been brought
together, is that, on the one hand, Jesus declares in the Gospels, that ·iolation
oí e·en the least commandment oí the law dooms a man to eternal perdition,
while it is taught by Paul, that the Law was a curse.

The fourth example oí contradictory principles, in the Christian
doctrine, that God cannot íorgi·e sins, hence the necessity oí the cruciíixion oí
lis only begotten son íor the redemption oí the sins oí mankind, while
maintaining at the same time, that God would íorgi·e us our trespasses, only
when we íorgi·e those that trespass, against us. A Moslem cannot understand,
how God both can and cannot íorgi·e trespasses. Ií le cannot íorgi·e, then
·ain is our íorgi·ing or condemning, íor that is oí no a·ail. Ií le can than a
Moslem does not see that there is any need oí Atonement.

The fifth contradictory principle is the teaching, that Jesus has
taken away all our sins by suííering cruciíixion íor mankind at large, impressing
upon us, at the same time, the necessity oí doing good. Ií Jesus by his unnatural
death has atoned íor our sins, then there should be no need íor us to trouble
oursel·es about good or bad deeds any more. It matters little whether we do
good or e·il. \e are quite at liberty, to re·el and carouse at will. On the one
hand, Christianity teaches us the doctrine oí Atonement, thus making us
independent oí all good deeds, while on the other hand, it imposes upon us the
obligation to períorm good deeds.

The sixth contradictory principle that Christianity oííers the world
is, that it holds Christ as accursed, dying ,as he is belie·ed by Christians, an
accursed death on the Cross, yet it holds him up as the ·ery paragon oí
excellence, the son oí God- lis dearest one. It is impossible íor a Moslem to
comprehend how an accursed man can be the son oí God. Curse betokens
di·ine ·engeance, a great gulí between lim and the the person accursed. 1o
reconcile these two contradictions passes the wit oí a Moslem.

The seventh contradiction is that Jesus is called the son oí God, as
well as the son oí Da·id. low can a man possibly, be the son oí two distinct
personalities· le must be either oí one or oí the other, but not oí both at the
same time.

T Th he e G Go od dh he ea ad d o of f J Je es su us s C Co on nd de em mn ne ed d b by y I Is sl la am m
1he abo·e has been the doctrine oí the Religion oí Islam with regard to the
personality oí Jesus Christ. Aíter íourteen centuries the same doctrine is now
adopted by some Christian Churches, namely the Unitarian. Probably it will not
be out oí place to quote here a íew statements írom a lecture, deli·ered beíore
the Cooper Literary Institute, Philadelphia, on March 4
, 1913, by Dr. A. Geo.
Naker, late President oí the Institute:
\e ha·e now arri·ed at a time when the literature oí all nations, and their
history, are being careíully studied by those who are íitted íor the task. 1he

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
many írauds which the Christian churches ha·e practiced in the past, are all
being exposed now, and the result is that many oí the wisest and best men ha·e
íorsaken the orthodox doctrines oí the Christian churches. \e ha·e here in the
United States, a large and intelligent body oí belie·ers who are called
Unitarians, i.e. belie·ers in one God, and who object to the old doctrine oí a
trinity oí person in the Godhead, and reject the same. 1hey look upon Christ as
a great prophet and a good man, but still only a man Our ex- President 1aít
belongs to this Unitarian church. In taking his íarewell írom the Unitarian
congregation in \ashington, he said in his last speech to them: It has always
been a wonder to me, why all the world is not Unitarian.` 1he president, oí
course, meant by all the world` all the Protestant world oí the United States,
because the Catholic Church is under the power oí the Pope and admits oí no
change oí creed or dogma.
1he Unitarians consider Christ as a mere man, inspired, as other great men
are, though in a greater degree, they reject the doctrine oí original sin, the belieí
in miracles, and generally the whole supernatural elements oí Christianity.
1here are many oí the so-called liberals in the churches who hold Unitarian
doctrines, but do not separate írom their old connections. President 1aít is,
thereíore, entirely Justiíied in asserting that the trouble we suííer írom - ií it be
trouble - is, that there are so many Unitarians in other churches who do not sit
in the pews oí our church. But that means ultimately that they are coming to us.
1here seems to be e·ery prospect that President 1aít`s prophecy may be
íulíilled in regard to the Protestant world.
Charles Lliot, President Lmeritus oí lar·ard Uni·ersity, made a similar
prophecy in a pamphlet called 1he religion oí the luture` Printed by the
American Unitarian Association. Mr. Lliot says: 1he religion oí the íuture will
not be based on authority, either spiritual or temporal ,namely on neither Pope
nor King,. It is hardly necessary to say that in the íuture religion there will be
no personiíication oí the íorces oí nature. 1here will be in the religion oí the
íuture, no identiíication oí any human being, howe·er majestic in character,
with the Lternal Deity.`
1he ordinary consolations oí constitutional Christianity no longer satisíy
intelligent people whose li·es are broken by the sickness or premature death oí
those they lo·e.`
1he lecturer quoted abo·e goes on to say: Jesus Christ prayed ,John x·ii, 3,
And this is liíe eternal, that they might know 1hee, the only true God, and
Jesus Christ whom 1hou hast sent ,namely, 1hine apostle,. 1here are many
other places to pro·e, that Christ did not claim to be God. But Christians
cannot see it in that light, because they want three Gods instead oí one.`

Oí course, there are points at which all religions touch each other, but the
Christian íails to see this. 1he Moslem belie·es in one God, and also in Christ
as one oí God`s great prophets. 1he Christian says, he also belie·es in one
God, but le has a trinity oí persons. 1his is e·idently deri·ed írom the lindu
religion, írom Bram, Vishnu and Si·a. 1he Jewish religion knew oí no trinity in
the Old 1estament, and yet the Christian pretends, that his religion is íounded
on the Jewish religion. 1he Jewish religion knew oí no Sa·iour, besides the one
God. le was their Sa·iour and Redeemer. See Isaiah 43:3, I am the Lord thy

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
God, the loly One oí Israel thy Sa·iour` and Isaiah 42,·,8, I am the Lord that
is my name and my glory will I , not gi·e to another, neither my praise to
gra·en images, and again Is 43:11. I, e·en I am the Lord, and beside me there
is no Sa·iour`, and Is 44, 6 1hus says the Lord the King oí Israel, and his
redeemer, the Lord oí hosts. I am the íirst, and I am the last, and beside me
there`s no God`. 1here are many other passages in Isaiah, and other Old
1estament books which insist that there is no God, but the one God, and le is
the Sa·iour and Redeemer, and there is non beside lim. 1he Christians who
take Christ íor their Sa·iour and Redeemer are, thereíore, outside oí the
promise oí the Scripture which they themsel·es acknowledge to be the word oí
God. But all this with the many passages in the New 1estament, where Christ
distinctly says that he is not God, does not con·ince them.`

What Jesus Says About Himself in
to his Alleged Divinity
According to the Koran
, Jesus, on the day oí Judgment, will be asked by
God whether he hold his people to consider him and his mother
two Gods,
besides God limselí. \hereupon, Jesus not only disa·ows his claim oí
di·inity, but also asserts he ne·er preached such a doctrine to his disciples,
when he was with them. lortunately the narrati·e oí the 1eacher oí Nazareth
as reported in the íour gospels, though in the consideration oí Islamic
judgment not genuine in its entirety, still contains suííicient e·idence to
corroborate the statement oí the Koran. 1he íollowing are the sayings oí Christ
about himselí as reported by the L·angelists:
I do nothing oí myselí` ,John ·iii. 28,
My íather is greater than I` ,John xi· 2,
1his is liíe eternal, that they might know 1hee, the only true God and Jesus
Christ whom 1hou hast sent` ,John x·ll. 3,

, Chap. VII: 116-118.
, lrom the Koranic description oí Mary being taken íor a God by the Christians,
some Christian Critics oí the Koran conclude that the doctrine oí the 1rinity, according
to the Koran, consists oí three persons- God, Jesus and Marry. But this is unwarranted
conclusion. Marry is spoken oí as being taken íor an object oí worship by the
Christians, but the doctrine oí 1rinity is not mentioned, here, while the Di·inity oí
Marry is not mentioned, where the 1rinity is spoken oí. lad Mary not been
worshipped by the Christians as the Mother oí God,` the conclusion would ha·e been
saíe, that the Koran mistook Mary íor the third person oí the 1rinity. But the doctrine
and practice oí the Mariolatry, as it is called by Protestant contro·ersialists, is too well
known. In the catechism oí the Roman Church, the íollowing doctrines are to be
íound: 1hat she is truly the mother oí God., and the second L·e, by whose means we
ha·e recei·ed blessing and liíe, that she is the mother oí Pity and, ·ery specially, our
ad·ocate, that her images are the oí the utmost utility ,Lncyc. Brit. 11
ed. Vol. 1¯.
813., It is also stated that her intercessions are directly appealed to in the Litany. And
íurther, that there were certain women in 1hrace, Scythia, and Arabia who were in the
habit oí worshipping the Virgin as a goddess, the oííer oí a cake being one oí the
íeatures oí their worship etc.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
1he Lord our God is one Lord` ,mar x·ii.29,
1hou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and lim only shalt thou ser·e`
,Matt. i·. 10,.
\hy callest thou me good· None is good sa·e one, that is God`
I am not yet ascended to my lather, but go to brethren and say unto them,
I ascend unto my lather and your íather, and to my God and your God`
I by the íinger oí God cast out de·ils` ,Luke xl.20,
lather, I thank thee that thou hast heard me, and I knew that 1hou hearest
me always, but because oí the people which stand by, said it, that they may
belie·e that 1houhast sent me` ,John xl. 41, 42,
1he works which the íather hath gi·en me to íinish, the same works that I
do, bear witness oí me, that the lather hath sent me` ,John ·. 36, Ií any man
hear my words and belie·e not, I judge him not, íor I came not to judge the
world` ,John XII. 4¯.,
,Jesus then went a little íurther, íell on his íace, and prayed, saying,`
O My lather, ií it be possible, let this cup pass írom me: ne·ertheless, not
as I will, but as thou wilt` Matt. XXVI: 38, 39,,
Lli, Lli, Iama sabachthani - My God my God, why hast 1hou íorsaken
me` ,Matt. xxii. 46,
lather, into my hands I commend my spirit,` ,Luke xxiii. 46,

1hese expression coníirm to a great extent the Islamic notion oí Jesus
Christ, namely, that he was a true ser·ant and a messenger oí God, and one oí
lis humble creatures and ne·er a god. Jesus admits his limited knowledge and
power. le looks to God e·en íor his sustenance. le expresses his complete
submission to the di·ine will. le disa·ows all goodness íor himselí, when
speaking oí God. A messenger, no doubt, he was oí God. le spoke to the
children oí Israel what he heard írom God. le has been reported to períorm
certain miracles, but these he períormed by the help oí God. le is said to ha·e
raised Lazarus to liíe, but he has to pray to God and thank lim on being heard.
\hen he was asked, he admitted that such miracles could be done only through
íasting and prayer to God.
Speaking oí himselí, Jesus also is reported to ha·e said:
loxes ha·e holes, and the birds oí the air ha·e nests, but the Son oí Man
hath nowhere to lay his head.`
In another instance he is reported to ha·e said:
Oí myselí I can do nothing, oí that day and that hour knoweth no man
.neither the son`
Moslems íail to understand, how in the presence oí these admissions on the
part oí Jesus, di·inity can still be attributed to him. 1his is a problem which can
only be sol·ed by the words said oí Jesus:
I thank 1hee O lather, Lord oí hea·en and earth, that 1hou hast kept
these things írom the wise and prudent, and hast re·ealed them unto babes`

Priestcraft and Islam
Islam is the laith oí works, oí approach to God through selí-endea·our
and not through any intermediary. In Islam there is no such teaching as that oí

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
1he loly Spirit descending in the greatest degree to the elected Pope, and in
lesser degrees to bishops, deans and clergy.` 1hat e·ery soul must labour íor its
own sal·ation, is the keystone oí Islamic teachings. Islam has no monasticism,
no apostolic succession, no body oí men whose ·ery li·elihood depends upon
their claim that, aíter their ordination as priests, they ha·e the Spirit oí God in
them, and that as Jesus was the chieí intercessor between God and man, so the
priest is the intercessor between the people and Jesus and the saints. \hile
other religions belie·e, that man cannot approach God, and he cannot e·en
coníess his sins to lim, but that he must coníess to a priest, who ha·ing the
Spirit oí God, has the power to assure him that he is íorgi·en.` Islam teaches
that le who is best among men is he who does most good works.` In such a
religion the priest is not needed. 1ruly mosques require attendants, and some
men lo·e to de·ote their li·es to religion, but the doctrine oí priesthood itselí is
not, and ne·er has been íound, in the religion oí Islam. \ith Islam, a man may
attain to spiritual closeness to God, not through his ha·ing been ordained a
priest, but by li·ing a liíe oí religion, piety and good works.

1he simple worship oí the One 1rue God \ho rules o·er all, \ho hears
the prayers, both oí the most cultured and the most ignorant requiring nothing
but a pure heart and sincere moti·e, is the chieí characteristic oí the religion oí
Islam. 1he absence oí the priest in the religion oí Islam is one oí the reasons
which helped Moslems to be better acquainted with their religion.

Supposed Divinity of Jesus
Modern Christian Di·ines agree with Islamic ·iews, as to the supposed
Di·inity oí Jesus.
1he íollowing extract is taken írom 1he Graphic` oí August 20
, 1920:
During the last íew days orthodox Christianity has recei·ed the greatest
blow it has suííered íor many years. Outside the Church, scores oí people,
learned and skilled in the ways oí theology, ha·e been attempting to pro·e, that
the basis oí Christianity was all wrong, and that modern science had destroyed
its ·ery íoundation. 1his time, though, a blow has come írom the inside itselí,
and three highly - placed theologians, all a·owed members oí the Church oí
Lngland, in which they li·e, preach and ha·e their being, ha·e united, to use
words which lay men take to mean, that Christ was not the son oí God, but a
Palestine Jew..

Now, what Renan argued in 1he Liíe oí Jesus`, what all scientists outside
the íaith ha·e expressed in learned terms, has been suddenly put into a bomb
which, thrown at the Modern Churchmen`s Congress at Cambridge not a week
ago, has staggered the Anglican Church so much that the re·erberations oí the
shock will be íelt íor years. Dr. Rashdall, the Dean oí Carlisle, Dr. Bethune -
Baker, Lady Margaret Proíessor oí Di·inity, the Re·. R.G. Persons oí
Rusholme, ha·e stood up at an Anglican Coníerence, and - ií their words ha·e
been reported rightly denied the Godhead...

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Christ was not di·ine but human, said Dr. Rashdall. I do not íor a
moment suppose, that Christ e·er thought oí himselí as God`, said Dr.
Bethune-Baker. Jesus was a man genuinely, utterly, completely, unreser·edly
human,` said the Re·. R.G. Parsons- A Palestine Jew who expressed himselí
through the conditions and limitations oí liíe, and though peculiar to his own

1hese three men are not people whose opinions can be disregarded, e·en by
the most orthodox oí all Christians. 1hey are men oí the highest intellectual
attainments, men oí brilliant achie·ements in the world oí theology, all oí them
men who, as lecturers and íellows and proíessors, ha·e instructed scores oí
Anglican di·ines beíore their ordination and since.`

Canon Barnes on the Old Testament
In its issue oí January 6
, 1922, the Daily Graphic has dealt with a speck
deli·ered by the Canon oí \estminster at the Association oí Uni·ersity
\omen 1eachers. 1he íollowing is an extract oí the speech as inserted in the
abo·e issue:
In this connection it was most important, that the true nature and ·alue oí
the Old 1estament should be explained to children. It was Jewish literature, and
was ·aluable íor us, mainly, because it showed how the Jewish prophets were
led to the idea oí God, which Jesus accepted and emphasised, and because, in it
·ague expectations oí a Messiah íoreshadowed the ad·ent oí Christ. But in the
Old 1estament were also to be fovva fot/tore, aefectire bi.tor,, batf·.arage voratit,,
ob.otete forv. of ror.bi¡ ba.ea v¡ov ¡rivitire ava erroveov. iaea. of tbe vatvre of
Coa, and crude science. 1he whole, howe·er, was ·aluable, as showing the
growth oí a pure monotheism among the Jews- a religious phenomenon, as
remarkable and inexplicable as the great intellectual de·elopment oí the Golden
Age oí Greece. It was ·ery diííicult, to con·ey truths, like this, to children, and
so it seemed to him better, to postpone the Old 1estament part oí religious
teaching, to the later stages, otherwise, children would learn stories, like that,
with which the Book oí Genesis opened, which they would aíterwards disco·er
to be untrue.`

1he same paper goes on to say:
le, Canon Barnes, had come reluctantly to the conclusion, that it was
highly dangerous, to use íor didactic purposes such allegories, as the creation oí
woman, the Daniel stories and Jonah, it encouraged the pre·alent belieí, that
religious people had a low standard oí truth.`
1hus, the Re·erenced Doctor condemns the Old 1estament, and desires to
eliminate it írom the course oí studies. le considers that, among other stories,
that oí Jonah is dangerous to teach to human intellect, while in its iníancy and
growth. le acknowledges, that to accept stories, like that oí Jonah and Daniel,
as genuine pieces oí history, would betray a low standard oí truth in the
belie·ers oí Christianity.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
Was Christ Divine?
Dr. Rashdall, Dean oí Carlisle, recently deli·ered a remarkable speech at the
Modern Churchman`s Congress on Jesus as the Son oí God`, and in the course
oí his address, he said:
1here is a growing demand, that liberal theologians should speak in quite
deíinite language about the di·inity oí Christ. 1he íollowing are some oí the
things that we do not and cannot mean, by ascribing di·inity to Christ:
1. ]e.v. aia vot ctaiv airivit, for biv.etf. le may ha·e allowed himselí to be
called Messiah, but ne·er in any critically well attested sayings, is there anything
which suggests, that his conscious relation to God is other than that oí a vav
torara. Coa. 1he speeches oí the íourth Gospel, where they go beyond the
synoptic conception, cannot be regarded as history.
2. It íollows írom this admission that ]e.v. ra. iv tbe fvtte.t .ev.e a vav, ava tbat
be baa vot veret, a bvvav boa,, bvt at.o a bvvav .ovt, ivtettect ava ritt
3. It is equally unorthodox to suppose that the human soul oí Jesus pre-existed.
1here is simply no basis íor such a doctrine, unless we say that all human souls
exist beíore their birth into the world, but that is not the usually accepted
Catholic position.
4. 1he di·inity oí Christ does not necessarily imply ·irgin birth, or any other
miracle. 1he ·irgin birth, ií it could be historically pro·ed, would be no
demonstration oí Christ`s di·inity nor would the disprooí oí it throw any doubt
on that doctrine.
5. 1he di·inity oí Christ does not imply omniscience. 1here is no more reason
íor supposing, that Jesus oí Nazareth knew more than his contemporaries
about the true scientiíic explanation oí the mental diseases which current belieí
attributed to diabolic possession, than that he knew more about the authorship
oí the Pentateuch or the Psalms. It is diííicult to deny, that he entertained some
expectation about the íuture which history has not ·eriíied.`
1he Re·. l.D.A. Major, Principal oí Ripon lall, Oxíord who opened the
discussion was as outspoken as the Dean.
It should be clearly realised`, said the Re·. Major, that Jesus did not claim
in the Gospels to be the Son oí God in a physical sense, such as the varratire.
oí the ·irgin birth suggest, nor did he claim to be the Son oí God in a
metaphysical sense, such as was required by the Nicene theology. le claimed to
be God`s son in a moral sense, in the sense, in which all human being are sons
oí God, as standing in a íilial and moral relationship to God, and capable oí
acting on those moral principles, on which God acts.`

1he Dean oí Carlisle, who is recognised as one oí the most íearless and
outspoken oí Modern Churchmen, had a distinguished uni·ersity career. le
was a theological tutor at Balliol, and preacher at Lincoln`s Inn, íor íi·e years.
le was Dean oí lereíord, beíore his transíer to Carlisle, in 191¯.

1he glory oí Jesus naturally does not lie in being a God, because he cannot
be a God, but his whole triumph lies in being a man, a períect man, a holy man,

, 1he Islamic Re·iew, August 1921.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
and in the words oí the loly Koran, a Model íor the people whom he was

Biblical Prophecies as referring to
the Advent
of The Prophet - Mohammed
Although Moslems hold, that the original Old and New 1estaments ha·e
largely been corrupted by the interíerence oí prejudiced men, or otherwise, as
has already been pointed out elsewhere in this book, they still belie·e, that the
existing Scriptures contain, to such an extent as they are coníirmed and
supported by the loly Koran, the 1rue \ord oí God.

1he íollowing are thereíore, a íew extracts oí the saíe contents oí the Bible
which Moslems take to reíer directly to the Prophet Mohammed:
1he Lord came írom Sinai, and rose up írom Seir unto them, le shined
íorth írom Paran and le came with ten thousands oí saints, írom lis right
hand went a íiery law íor them.` ,Deut. xxxiii-2,.
God came írom 1eman, and the loly one írom Paran. Saleh. lis glory
co·ered the hea·ens, and the earth was íull oí his praise.` ,lab iii.3,.
I will raise them up a Prophet írom among their brethren, like unto thee,
and will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I
shall command him.` ,Deut. ··iii.18,.
I ha·e yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot hear them now.
lowbeit when he, the Spirit oí truth, is come he will guide you into all truth:
íor he shall not speak oí himselí: but whatsoe·er he shall hear, that shall he
speak: and he will show you things to come.` ,John x·i. 12-13,.
\hile Moses promises to the children oí Israel the coming Lpiphany oí
God in the person oí a Prophet írom among their brethren like unto thee`.
Jesus characterises the promised one as the Spirit oí truth, who will guide them
into all truth. 1he description oí the loly one in the words oí Moses and Jesus,
howe·er, is strikingly similar: I will put words in his mouth and he shall speak
unto them all that I shall command him.` ,Deut x·iii.18, le shall not speak
oí himselí but whatsoe·er he shall hear, that shall he speak.` ,John x·i.13.,
1hese words make the promised one a messenger írom God, and a Prophet
rather than one abstract and impersonal Di·ine Lpiphany, and ií 1he Lord
came írom Sinai` in lis re·elation to Moses, and le rose up írom Seir`
according to lis message írom the Nazarene, should we not look íor some
other son oí man írom Paran`, to stand íor the shining íorth oí God írom the
same· Lspecially when the Prophet labakkuk calls him 1he loly One írom
Paran` ,lab. iii.3,. 1he Prophet spoken oí by Moses, has howe·er, wrongly
been coníused with Jesus, in later Christian theology. 1he house oí Jacob
always distinguished Christ írom the Prophet spoken oí in Deut. x·iii.18, as it

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
appears írom the íollowing we read about John the Baptist. \hat then, art
thou Llias·` and le said: No I am not.` Art thou that Prophet· And le
answered, No..And they asked him, \hy baptised thou, ií thou be not that
Christ, nor Llias, neither that Prophet· ,John i.21-25,.

1hese words speak distinctly oí three diííerent personalities, namely Christ,
Llias and that Prophet. Jesus himselí did not claim to be that Prophet.` Ií
Jesus was the Christ and John the Baptist Llias, as Jesus himselí makes him to
be, we are quite justiíied in concluding that the appearance oí Jesus was not the
promised Prophet. L·en the íirst íollowers oí Jesus were oí the same opinion.
And le shall send Jesus Christ which beíore was preached unto you: \hom
the hea·en must recei·e until the times oí restitution oí all things which God
hath spoken by the mouth oí all his prophets since the world began. lor Moses
truly said unto the íathers, a prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you
oí your brethren, like unto me, him shall ye hear in all things whatsoe·er he
shall say unto you.` ,Acts. iii.20-22,. 1hough the writer oí these words looks to
the second ad·ent oí Jesus íor the íulíillment oí the Mosaic prophecies, so íar
it is undisputed that the íirst ad·ent oí Jesus is not the ad·ent oí the Prophet
like unto me.` 1he second ad·ent oí Christ as well cannot be the íulíillment oí
the words in Deuteronomy. Jesus, as it is belie·ed by the Church has to appear
íor the judgment and not íor gi·ing the law, while the Prophet like unto Moses,
has to come with a íiery law in his right hand, like Moses, he will bring the law,
besides, the promised Prophet was to be raised not írom amongst the Israel,
but írom amongst the brethren oí the Israelites, namely the Ishmaelites.

In ascertaining the personality oí the promised Prophet, the other prophecy
oí Moses is, howe·er, helpíul, in which he speaks oí the shining íorth oí God
írom Paran. In Deuteronomy xxxiii.2, the Lord has been compared with the
sun. le comes írom Sinai, he rises írom Seir, but he shines in his íull glory
írom Paran, where he had to appear with ten thousands oí saints, írom his right
hand went a íiery law íor them. None oí the Israelites, including Jesus, had
anything to do with Paran. lagar, with her son Ishmael, wandered in the
wilderness oí Beershena, who aíterwards dwelt in the wilderness oí Paran.
,Gen. Xxx.21,. le married an Lgyptian woman, and through his íirst born,
Kedar ga·e descent to the Arabs who, írom that time till now, are the dwellers
oí the wilderness oí Paran. Admittedly on all hands, the descent oí Mohammad
is traced to Ishmael through Kedar, he appeared as a Prophet in the wilderness
oí Paran, and re-entered Mecca with ten thousand saints, and ga·e a íiery law to
the people, so that the prophecy has been íulíilled to its ·ery letter. 1he words
oí the prophecy in labakkuk are especially noteworthy. lis - the loly One
írom Paran`s glory co·ered the hea·en and the earth with íull praise. 1he word
praise` is ·ery signiíicant as the ·ery name Mohammed` as already stated
elsewhere in this book, means the highly praised`. Again the inhabitants oí the
wilderness oí Paran had been promised a Re·elation: Let the wilderness and
cities thereoí liít up their ·oice, the ·illages that Kedar doth inhabitants oí the
rock sing, let them shout írom the top oí the mountains. Let them gi·e glory
unto the Lord, and declare lis praise in the islands. 1he Lord shall go íorth as

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
a mighty man, le shall stir up jealousy like a man oí war, le shall cry yea, roar,
le shall pre·ail against lis enemies,` ,Isa. X 1ii.11.12.13,.

Moreo·er we read in Isaiah two other prophecies worthy oí note, where
reíerences ha·e been made to Kedar. Arise shine, íor thy light is come, and
the glory oí the Lord is risen upon thee. 1he multitude oí camels shall co·er
thee, the dromedaries oí Midian and Lphak, all they írom Sheba shall come.
All the ílocks oí Kedar shall be gathered together unto thee, the rams oí
Nebaiath shall minister unto thee: they shall come up with acceptance on Mine
Altar, and I will gloriíy the house oí my glory.` ,Isaiah 1x 1-¯,. 1he other
prophecy runs thus: 1he burden upon Arabia. In the íorest in Arabia shall ye
lodge. O ye tra·elling companies oí Dedanim. 1he inhabitants oí the land oí
1ema brought water to him that was thirsty, they pre·ented with their bread
íiv tbat ftea. lor they íled írom the swords, írom the drawn sword and írom
the bent bow, and írom the grie·ousness oí war. lor thus hath the Lord said
unto me, \ithin a year according to the years oí an hireling, and all the glory oí
Kedar shall íail.` ,Isaiah xx.13-16,

1he abo·e two re·elations read in the light oí the one in Deuteronomy, will
make the meaning quite clear: It is acknowledged, that Ishmael inhabited the
wilderness oí Paran, where he ga·e birth to Kedar, who is the ancestor oí the
Arabs. 1he sons oí Kedar had to recei·e re·elation írom God. 1he ílocks oí
Kedar had to come up with acceptance to a di·ine altar, to gloriíy the house oí
my glory`, where the darkness had to co·er the earth íor centuries, and then
that ·ery land had to recei·e light írom God. All the glory oí kedar had to íail,
and the number oí archers, the mighty men oí the children oí Kedar, had to
diminish within a year aíter they íled írom the swords and írom the bent bows.
1hereíore, the loly one írom Paran ,lab. iii.3, should be no one else than the
Prophet Mohammed. le is the holy oííspring Ishmael through Kedar, who
settled in the wilderness oí Paran
, the Prophet Mohammed is the only
Prophet, through whom the Arabs recei·ed re·elation at the time when the
darkness had co·ered the earth and gross darkness the people.
1hrough him
God shone írom Paran, and Mecca is the only place, where the house oí God is
gloriíied by the ílocks oí Kedar who come up with acceptance on its altar. 1he
Prophet Mohammed was persecuted by his people and had to lea·e Mecca. le
was thirsty and íled írom the drawn swords and the bent bows, within a year
aíter his ílight, the descendants oí Kedar met him at Badar, the íield oí the íirst
battle between the Meccans and the prophet.
1here the children oí Kedar and
their number oí archers diminished, and all glory oí Kedar íailed. Besides, the
house oí my glory`, reíerred to in Isaiah Ix, is the house oí God at Mecca, and
not the Church oí Christ as thought by Christian commentators. 1he ílocks oí
Kedar, as mentioned in ·erse ¯, ha·e ne·er come to the Church oí Christ. It is

, Reíerence to the liíe oí the Prophet in part II oí this book shows how distinctly this
prophecy has been íulíilled.
, See the listory oí the Arabs, in this book or anywhere else.
, George Sale: Prelim. Discourse.
, See Sir \illiam Muir`s 1he Liíe oí Mohammad`

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
a íact, that the ·illage oí Kedar, and their inhabitants are the only people in the
whole world who ha·e remained impenetrable to any iníluence oí the Church
oí Christ.
Again, the mention oí ten thousand saints, in Deuteronomy xxxiii,
is ·ery signiíicant.. le shined íorth írom Paran and he came with ten
thousand oí saints.` 1he whole history oí the wilderness oí Paran shows that
there was no other e·ent but when Mecca was conquered by the Prophet. le
came with ten thousand íollowers írom Medina and reentered the house oí
my glory.` le ga·e a íiery law to the world which has superseded and cancelled
all other laws. 1he comíorter the Spirit oí 1ruth
spoken oí by Jesus was no
other than the Prophet Mohammed himselí. It cannot be taken to be the loly
Ghost, as the Church theology says. It is expedient íor you that I go away, says
Jesus, íor ií I go not away, the Comíorter will not come unto you, but ií I
depart, I will send him unto you.` 1he way, in which Jesus describes the
Comíorter, makes him to be a human being, and not a ghost. le shall not
speak oí himselí, but whatsoe·er he shall hear, that he shall speak. 1he words
oí Jesus clearly reíer to some messenger írom God. le calls him the Spirit oí
1ruth, and so the Koran speaks oí the Prophet Mohammed. Nay he has come
with the 1ruth and ·eriíied the apostles.`

1he abo·e prophecy oí Jesus has also been reported in the Koran in the
íollowing words: Jesus the son oí Mary, said: O children oí Israel surely I am
the apostle oí Allah to you, ·eriíying that which is beíore me oí the 1orah, and
gi·ing the good news oí an apostle who will come aíter me, his name being
Ahmed.` 1he word Ahmed` which is another name oí the Prophet
Mohammed, is deri·ed írom the same root, namely lamd` which signiíies
praising and it means a person whose personal qualities are such as to be
worthy oí praise. It should not be supposed, that Jesus uttered the ·ery words
which are reported in the loly Koran, íor he spoke in lebrew, and not in
Arabic. 1he actual words oí Jesus not being preser·ed, we should depend oí a
Greek ·ersion, in which we íind the word paraclete, which is translated in
Lnglish as comíorter. It is a well known íact, that translations are sometimes
misleading, and thereíore the use oí the word paraclete in the Greek ·ersion, or
that oí comíorter in the Lnglish, does not positi·ely, show, what the textual
word spoken by Jesus was. Anyhow the qualiíications which are reported in
John xi·. 16 and x·i ¯, are met with in the person oí the Prophet Mohammed.
le is stated to be one who shall abide íore·er, and it is the Prophets law, íor
aíter him comes no prophet, to promulgate, a new law. le is to teach all things
and it was with a períect law, that the Prophet came. 1he prophecy in John x·i
12-14, about the Spirit oí 1ruth which is the same as the comíorter, mentioned
in John xi·. 1¯, clearly establishes the íollowing points:
,1, Jesus could not guide into all truth, because his teaching was coníined to
reíorm the Israelites, and he denounced only their crying e·ils, but the
teaching oí the Comíorter would be a períect law, guiding men to all

, See George Sale`s Prelim. Discourse.
, It is to be noted, that the Prophet Mohammad is írequently called 1he 1ruth` in
the loly Koran, as in 1¯-81: And say, 1he truth has come, and the íalsehood has

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
truth, and the loly Koran is the only book which claims to be a períect
Book oí Di·ine Laws
,2, 1hat the Comíorter would not speak a word oí himselí, but that which
he shall hear he shall speak, a qualiíication which is met with only in the
person oí the Prophet Mohammed.
,3, 1hat he will gloriíy Jesus, and the Prophet did gloriíy Jesus by denouncing
as utterly íalse all these calumnies which the Israel indulgingly attributed
to Jesus and his mother.

5. The Belief in the Day of Resurrection
1he íiíth pillar oí the Moslem creed is belieí in the Day oí Resurrection.
Reckoning oí Judgment, which day shall be the beginning oí an eternal liíe aíter
death. 1he dead shall rise írom their gra·es, restored to liíe. L·ery human being
shall ha·e to render an account oí his or her actions on earth. 1he happiness or
misery oí indi·iduals will depend upon the manner, in which they ha·e
períormed the commandment oí God.
1he Prophet, being the seal oí God`s Messengers to mankind, has gi·en
se·eral prophecies in detail, with respect to the state oí being írom the time a
man is dead, until the resurrection, and also an account oí the eternal destiny oí
mankind, beginning írom that day. laith in all such prophecies is essential to
complete the creed oí a períect Moslem. Beíore entering into the main subject
under discussion, it is desirable to make a íew preliminary remarks.
Some people are apt to think that prophecies relating to matters connected
with the aíter-liíe must be examined by pure reason beíore they can be
adopted. 1here, howe·er, should be no excuse íor rejecting any prophecy on
the mere assumption that it is diííicult íor human reason to comprehend it.
luman power to discernment, penetration, or discrimination on all questions
raised by prophets must be restricted merely to deciding whether the
iníormation obtained through such an agency is or is not an impossibility. By
impossibility is meant those things which human being cannot be expected to
belie·e, such as a camel passing through a needle`s eye. But once it is no longer
a question oí impossibility and the prophetic commission is rightly established
there should be no excuse íor human reason to reject any prophetic statement.

1he Islamic School a·ails itselí oí the íollowing suggestion with regard the
nature oí prophecy and the obligation oí Mankind thereto.
1he mind oí a newly born iníant is so unde·eloped, that he has no
knowledge oí the wondrous world around him. As he grows he gradually
acquires knowledge oí things through the ·arious channels oí comprehension.
1he íirst sense created in him is that oí íeeling by which he can comprehend
certain species oí things such as heat and coldness, dampness and dryness,
soítness, and coarseness etc. But colours or sounds do not come in the domain
oí the sense oí íeeling. Sight is the next to come into operation by which one
can comprehend colours and íorms and it is the most comprehensi·e oí all the
senses. 1hen hearing is open by which one can distinguish diííerent ·oices. 1he
child then acquires the power oí discriminating diííerent tastes. \hen a human
being approaches his or her se·enth year his or her intellect is íurther

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
awakened. 1hrough this new agency, one acquires knowledge oí things, beyond
those dependent exclusi·ely on the senses, and oí which nothing exists in the
world oí sense. 1he child then de·eloped into a still higher state oí being`
namely the state oí reasoning by which necessities, possibilities, impossibilities
and other things which the senses cannot teach by themsel·es are
comprehended. Beyond reason, there is still another independent íaculty, by
which a new agency is gi·en, to see the unseen and things oí the íuture, and
other things, írom which reason is absolutely a diííerent things oí the íuture,
and other things, írom which reason is absolutely a diííerent thing, inasmuch as
a understanding is diííerent írom those things belonging to reason, and as the
power oí reasoning is írom things known only through the senses. A man born
blind may will ignore the existence oí anything like colours, and a man born
deaí may ignore things like ·oices, merely on account oí the lack oí the
particular senses capable oí comprehending them. Inasmuch as it is
unreasonable íor a man born blind, to deny the existence oí colours, or íor a
man born deaí, to deny the existence oí ·oice, so too it is illogical íor a man, to
deny the prophetic giít, simply because he himselí is lacking in spiritual giíts.
God has made it easy íor his creatures, to ha·e some idea oí the prophetic
nature, by gi·ing them a picture or type thereoí, namely sleep. \hen asleep, a
man sometimes íoresees things, either directly or symbolically. In the íormer,
the meaning is clear in the latter, it may be íound by interpretation. 1his is a
wonderíul state oí comprehension which, ií not personally experienced by any
particular person, but told to this person by another man, who íalling asleep,
like the dead, cold comprehend unseen things, would certainly be rejected by
this person who would set íorth prooís against the possibility oí the
iníormation. It would be asserted that, as the sensiti·e íaculties are the only
source oí comprehension and that e·en with their presence, a man can not
acquire any knowledge oí unseen things, he would all the more and most
assuredly be incapable oí knowing such things, in the absence oí is senses. 1his
is a reasoning by analogy which is howe·er contradicted by actuality and
practice. L·en as reason is a state oí human being, by which an insight is
created in man, enabling him to know species oí reasonable things, the
comprehension oí which lies beyond the power oí the senses, so prophecy is
another state oí being by which a still íurther source oí knowledge is created, a
peculiar light, capable oí making ·isible unseen things, incomprehensible by

1he doubt in prophecy may be connected either with its possibility, its
existence and occurrence, or with its occurrence to a certain person. 1he prooí
oí its possibility is its existence. And the prooí oí its existence is the existence
oí branches oí knowledge in the world that cannot be acquired by mere reason
íor instance, the science oí medicine or astrology. Deep study oí these sciences
is suííicient to tell us oí the impossibility oí their being acquired, except by
di·ine inspiration and guidance írom God, and ne·er by mere experience and
practice. 1here are certain astronomic phenomena which do not take place but
once e·ery thousand years, but these ha·e been accurately íoretold. low then
can such be got be practice· 1he same argument applies to medicine. lence it
is clear, that there is some supernatural, power by which we acquire the

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
knowledge oí things, which cannot be comprehended by mere reason. In this
way prophecy can be illustrated. But prophecy does not consist only in these
things. 1he comprehension oí certain things, beyond the limits oí reason, is but
one oí the ·arious íaculties oí prophecy, and represents but a drop in the ocean
oí the prophetic nature. All men ha·e in themsel·es a natural example oí the
prophetic íaculty, namely what they íoresee oí íuture e·ents while asleep. 1he
two sciences oí medicine and astronomy are also examples oí the prophetic
íaculty. Prophecies are the miracles oí prophets, which ordinary men can by no
means attain by human reason.
Ií one doubts a particular person being a person, one cannot be con·inced
that he is so, except by knowing his character, either by personal obser·ation or
by hearing oí it repeatedly. Ií a man has knowledge oí medicine or law, he can
easily distinguish between physicians and lawyers by seeing their respecti·e
qualiíications pro·ed, or by hearing their statements. A man cannot íail to
know that Galens was a physician, or that Shakespeare was a poet - a
knowledge based on experience, and not on hearsay - ií he is acquainted with
medicine or poetry. By reading their books and words he can, then ha·e a íull
knowledge oí the subjects they treat. 1he same thing applies to prophecy. Ií a
man careíully goes through the Koran, and closely studies the Saying oí the
Arabian Prophet, he will surely acquire a true knowledge oí his character, and
will necessarily admit, that he must ha·e enjoyed the highest degree oí
prophecy. 1he abo·e knowledge may still be coníirmed, by testing what the
Prophet said concerning the mar·elous eííect oí carrying out the practical
religious obligations oí cleansing and puriíying the heart. le will thereby know,
how true the Prophet was, when he said: 1o him who shall put into practice
what he has been taught, God shall gi·e knowledge oí what he does not know,`
and how truly he said: lim who, when getting up, íorgets all his cares, except
the care oí God`s duties, God shall relie·e írom the cares oí this liíe and the
next`. Ií a man has tested the truth oí the abo·e promises, and oí thousands
and thousands oí others, he will surely ha·e a períect knowledge oí the
character oí the prophet who íoretold them. 1his is the way to attain
con·iction oí the reality oí prophecy, and not by seeking to see a rod turned
into a serpent, or the moon di·ided into parts: because, by coníining his
researches to such wonderíul acts alone, without their being corroborated by
numerous other e·idences, a man might mistake mere acts oí sorcery and
imposture íor prophetic miracles.

Now it is time to resume the statements oí what, a Moslem should belie·e
will take place aíter death according to the teaching oí Islam. 1he Prophet oí
Islam prophesied that, when a man is put into the gra·e he shall encounter two
angels who adopt so íearíul a íorm, that he will be greatly írightened. 1hey shall
cause the dead man, by di·ine power to sit upright, and examine him
concerning his íaith in the unity oí God and the mission oí the Prophet
Mohammed. 1hese angels are called the tempters oí the gra·e`, as they appear
to require the man examined to gi·e a wrong reply. Ií he answers rightly, he will
rest in peace, until the resurrection. Ií not, he will remain suííering to that day.
It is also to be belie·ed, that some oí the dead who were sinners during their
liíe, are liable, in their sepulcher, to some torment in the shape oí pressure on

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
their bodies. Only the righteous are sa·ed írom the torment oí the gra·e. Some
people would object to the abo·e prophecy, that the answers oí the dead, under
such examination, ha·e ne·er been heard, or ask, how those can undergo it,
whose bodies are burnt or de·oured by beasts or birds, or otherwise consumed
without burial. 1he answer is that it is possible notwithstanding, since men are
not able to percei·e what takes place in the next world unless they ha·e been
told oí it by prophecy, and God, the all-poweríul who created man írom dust,
and dust írom nothing, is able to restore liíe to the dead so that he may
understand any question put to him.

As to the resurrection, Moslems belie·e, that both body and soul will be
raised. 1he time oí resurrection is a proíound secret to all, but God alone.
lowe·er, the Prophet has íoretold some signs oí its approach. 1hese signs are:
1. 1he decay oí íaith among men,
2. 1he ad·ancing oí the meanest persons to positions oí dignity,
3. 1owards the end oí the world, men shall be much gi·en to
4. 1umults and seditions,
5. A war with the Romans,
6. Great distress in the world, so that a man, when he passes by
another`s gra·e, shall say: \ould to God, I were in his place`
¯. 1he appearance oí an extraordinary beast which shall be able,
by God`s power, to speak to men. 1his sign oí the approach
oí the resurrection is mentioned in the 84
chapter oí the
8. 1he building oí \athrib ,Medina, shall reach Mecca etc.

1here are the lesser signs, the greater signs being:
1. 1he sun`s rising in the west.
2. 1he ad·ent oí Antichrist or the íalse Christ by whom people
shall be tempted. le will do many apparent wonders and
períorm íalse miracles, suííicient to make people mistake him
íor the true Christ and, consequently they shall perish through
their mistake.
3. 1he descent oí Jesus on earth. le shall kill Antichrist, and
there shall be under him great security and plenty in the world.
4. 1he appearance oí Gog and Magog. 1hese barbarians will
come to Jerusalem and there, greatly distress Jesus and his
companions, till at the request oí Jesus, God will destroy
5. 1he ad·ent oí Al Mahdi. 1he Prophet said: 1he world
should not ha·e an end, till one oí his íamily should go·ern
the Arabians, whose name should be the same as his own
name and whose íather`s name should be also the same as his
own íather`s name, and who should íill the world with the

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
1hese are some oí the greater signs which, according to the prophecies oí
the Apostle oí God, are to precede the Day oí Resurrection, but the exact time
oí it is a períect secret to all, but God. 1he immediate sign oí the coming oí the
Resurrection will be the íirst blast oí a trumpet which will be wounded three
1. the blast oí consternation,
2. that oí examination,
3. the blast oí Resurrection. At the íirst blast, all creatures in hea·en and
earth shall be struck with terror, except those whom God shall please to
exempt írom it. 1he earth will be shaken, all buildings and mountains
le·eled. \omen who gi·e suck shall abandon the care oí their iníants.

At second blast, all creatures in hea·en and earth shall die, or be annihilated,
except those whom God shall please to example írom that common íate. 1he
last to die will be the angel oí death. lorty years oí rain will íollow, when the
third blast is sounded, and all dead bodies shall be raised íor judgment. 1he
resurrection will be general and extend to all creatures, angels, jenii, men and

Mankind shall then be assembled íor reckoning. 1he ungodly and the
wicked will appear, on that day, with certain distinguishing marks íixed on
them. 1hese will come under ten headings namely ,a, the backbiters, ,b, they
who ha·e been greedy oí íilthy lucre, and who ha·e enriched themsel·es by
public oppression ,c, the usurers ,d, unjust judges ,e, they who exult in their
own works ,í, the learned men or preachers whose actions contradicted their
saying ,g, they who ha·e injured their neighbours ,h, the íalse accusers and
iníormers ,i, they who ha·e indulged their passions and ·oluptuous appetites ,j,
the proud and the arrogant people.

1he íirst men to be sentenced to hell íire, will be the hypocrites who
decei·ed people, by pretending to do good works íor the sake oí God though
they did them only in order, that their íellow-men might extol their actions.
As already stated, the object oí Resurrection is, that they who are so raised,
may gi·e an account oí their actions, and recei·e the reward thereoí. It is to be
belie·ed that not only mankind, but the genii and irrational animals also, will be
judged on the last day: the unarmed cattle shall take ·engeance on the horned,
till entire satisíaction be gi·en to the injured.
As to mankind, they are all assembled together. 1hey will not be
immediately brought to judgment. 1hey ha·e to wait íor that purpose a long
time. During this period oí waiting, the resuscitated shall suííer greatly, both
the just and unjust, but the suííerings oí the íormer shall be light in
comparison. Men shall resort to their respecti·e prophets íor intercession, that
they may be redeemed írom that painíul situation, and be called upon íor trail.
L·entually the prophet Mohammed shall accept the oííice oí intercession, aíter
it has been declined by Adam, Noah, Abraham and Jesus, who shall beg

, Koran, ch. IXXXI.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
deli·erance only íor their own souls. Belieí in the Prophet`s intercession is
enjoined upon Moslems, as part oí the íiíth article oí íaith.

1he abo·e intercession accepted, men shall be ordered, to appear íor
judgment. On this occasion, the books, wherein the actions oí e·ery person
ha·e been recorded by their guardian angels, will be distributed to their
respecti·e owners. God will command the ·arious Apostles, to bear witness
against those, to whom they ha·e been respecti·ely sent. 1hen e·ery person
will be examined concerning his actions in this liíe, not as ií God needed any
iníormation in this respect, but to oblige the person, to make public coníession
and acknowledgement oí God`s justice.
1he next e·ent to take place aíter the resurrection is o·er, is the ordeal oí
the resurrection balance, wherein the weights oí all men`s actions shall be
weighted. According as the good or e·il actions shall preponderate, sentence
will be gi·en, those whose balances are laden with good works, will be sa·ed,
but those whose balances are light, will be condemned. Belieí in this balance
also íorms an essential part oí the íiíth article oí laith.

1he abo·e examination being past, and e·ery one`s actions weighted in a
just balance, mutual retaliation will íollow according to which all persons will
ha·e satisíaction íor the injuries they suííered. 1he manner oí gi·ing this
satisíaction, will be by taking away a proportionate part oí the good works oí
him who did the injury, and adding it to those oí him who suííered. Ií, aíter
this is done, there remains oí a person`s good works as much as equals the
weight oí an ant. God will, oí lis mercy, cause it to be doubled to him, that he
may be admitted to Paradise, But ií, on the contrary, a person`s good works be
exhausted, and there remain e·il works only, and there be any who ha·e not yet
recei·ed satisíaction írom him, God will, oí his justice, order that an equal
weight oí their sins be added to his, that he may punished íor them in their
stead, and be sent to hell, laden with both. 1his will be the method oí dealing
with mankind.

As to brutes, aíter they ha·e been punished íor the injuries which they
caused each other, God will command them, to be turned into dust. \icked
men, being reser·ed íor more grie·ous punishment in hell, they shall cry out,
on hearing this sentence pronounced on the brutes`: \ould to God, that we
were dust also`.
Aíter the trail is o·er, those who are to be admitted into paradise, as well as
those destined to hell, shall ha·e to pass to their respecti·e abodes, o·er a
bridge, laid o·er the midst oí hell. 1his bridge is so wonderíully íashioned, that
the good shall cross with ease and swiítness to paradise, while the iníidels and
the wicked shall miss their íooting, and íall down headlong into hell.

Belieí in this bridge is essential, to complete the article oí creed oí the Day
oí Resurrection.

, 1he old Jewish writers make mention as well oí the books to be produced at last
day, wherein men`s actions are registered, as oí the balance, wherein they shall be
weighed, and the Scriptures themsel·es seem to ha·e gi·en the íirst notion oí both.`

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
1he iníidels alone shall be doomed to eternal damnation. 1hose who ha·e
embraced the true religion oí God, e·en ií they ha·e been guilty oí atrocious
crimes, shall be deli·ered írom hell, aíter they ha·e expiated their sins by their
suííerings. 1he orthodox doctrine oí the Moslem Religion is, that no iníidel
who denied the existence oí God, or anyone who did not belie·e in the unity oí
God, shall e·er be redeemed, but no person who has belie·ed in the existence
and unity oí God shall be condemned to eternal punishment.
As to whether paradise and hell are already existent or are to be created
hereaíter the orthodox oí Islam is, that they were created e·en beíore the
1he íelicity oí the righteous in paradise, and the pains oí the wicked in hell,
will ·ary in degree, according to their merits or demerits, respecti·ely. 1he
happiness and íelicity oí the dwellers oí paradise, on the one hand, and the
anguish and pains oí the inhabitants oí hell, on the other, are according to the
orthodox doctrine, sensuous and material, both body and soul being entitled or
subject to them, respecti·ely. But, the most happy will íind the joy oí joys, to
consist in the beatiíic ·isions oí the soul in the presence oí God. 1he Prophet
said: 1he most ía·oured oí God will be he who shall see the íace ,the glory, oí
his Lord, night and morning, a íelicity which will surpass all the pleasures oí the
body, as the ocean surpasses a drop oí sweat.` 1he reward oí ·irtue will not be
coníined to an exact measure oí man`s good works, it will íar exceed his
deserts. But the recompense oí e·il will be strictly proportioned to what a man
has done.` 1hey who do right, shall recei·e a most excellent reward, and a
superabundant addition, neither darkness nor shame shall co·er their íaces:
these shall be the inhabitants oí paradise, they shall continue therein íore·er.
But they who commit e·il, shall recei·e the reward oí e·il, equal thereunto, and
they shall be co·ered with shame, as thought their íaces were ·eiled with pieces
oí nights oí proíound darkness.`

1he íoregoing is all that is incumbent upon a true Moslem to belie·e
concerning the Day oí Resurrection. linally I must, beíore quitting this chapter,
reíute a íalsehood oí ·ulgar imputation on Moslems who are reported, by some
Christian writers, to belie·e that women ha·e no souls, or, ií they ha·e, that
they will perish like those oí brutes, and will not be rewarded in the next liíe.
Commenting on this íalse charge, Mr. G. Sale made the íollowing pertinent
obser·ation: .it is certain that Mohammed had too great a respect íor the íair
sex, to teach such a doctrine, and there are se·eral passages in the Koran which
aííirm, that women, in the next liíe, will not only be punished íor their e·il
actions but will also recei·e the rewards oí their good deeds, as well as the men,
and that in this case God will make no distinction oí sexes.`

6. Predestination
1he sixth pillar oí Islamic íaith is the belieí in predestination. \hate·er has,
or shall come to pass in this world, whether it be good or e·il, proceeds entirely

, Koran, ch. x.
, G Sale: Prelim. Discourse.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
írom the di·ine \ill, and has been irre·ocably created aíter a íixed decree. 1he
Koran distinctly states:
All things ha·e been created aíter a íixed decree` ,Ch. IV: 49,
No one can die, except by God`s purpose according to the book that
íixeth the term oí liíe.` ,Ch III: 139,
1he Lord hath created and balanced all things, and hath íixed their
destinies and guided them.` ,Ch. XXXV ii: 2,
Say: By no means can aught beíall us, but what God hath predestined íor
us.` ,Ch. IX: 51,
God creates what le will,` ,Ch. XXIV: 44,
.nor is there anything not pro·ided beíorehand by Us, or which \e send
down, otherwise than according to a íoreknown decree` ,Ch. XXII: 40, ..
and \ho created all things, and determined respecting the same with absolute
determination.` ,Ch. XXV: 2,

1he íollowing are also a íew sayings oí the Prophet bearing on God`s
predetermination: - .and God said to Adam: I ha·e created this íamily íor
paradise and their actions will be like unto those oí the people oí paradise and
God said to him: I ha·e created this íamily íor hell and their actions will be like
unto those oí the people oí hell.` learing the abo·e teaching oí the Prophet, a
man said to him: Oí what use will deeds oí any kind be· 1he Prophet said:
\hen God createth lis ser·ant íor Paradise, his action will be deser·ing oí it,
until he die, when he will enter therein, and when God createth one íor the íire,
his actions will be like those oí the people oí hell, till he die, when he will
enter therein`

1he Prophet oí God also said to his companions:
1here is no one amongst you whose place not predestined by God,
whether in hell or in paradise.` the companions said, O Prophet oí God, since
God hath pre-appointed our places, may we coníide in this belieí, and abandon
our religious and moral duties· le said: No, because the righteous will do
good works ,and be obedient to God,, and the wicked will do bad works`: aíter
which the Prophet recited the íollowing ·erses oí the Koran: 1o him who
gi·eth alms, and íeareth God, and yields assent to the excellent creed, to him
we will make easy the path to happiness. But to him who is worldly, and is
indiííerent, and who does not belie·e in the excellent creed, to him we will
make easy the path to misery.`
1he Prophet oí God also said: 1he íirst thing which God created was a
,di·ine, pen, and le said to it, \rite,` it said \hat shall I write·` and God
said \rite down the íate oí e·ery indi·idual thing to be created.` And
accordingly the Pen wrote all that was, and that will be, to eternity.` 1he
Prophet also said: God hath predestined íi·e things to his ser·ants, their
duration oí liíe, their actions, their dwelling places, their tra·els and their

It happened, that oí the companions said to the Prophet: O Prophet oí
God, iníorm me respecting the medicines which I swallow, and the shields

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
which I make use oí íor protection, whether they can resist any oí the decree oí
God· 1he Prophet answered: 1hese also are by the decree oí God.`
1he Prophet oí God once came out oí his house, when the companions
were debating about íate, and he was angry, and became red in the íace. And he
said, lath God ordered you to debate oí íate· \as I sent to you íor this·
\our íoreíathers were undone through debating about íate and destiny. I
conjure you not to argue on those points.`
1he doctrine oí predestination, as íorming an essential part oí the Islamic
aííirmed íaith, may be summarised in the íollowing terms:
A Moslem should belie·e in his heart, and coníess with his tongue, that the
most exalted God hath decreed all things, so that nothing can happen in the
world, whether it respects the conditions and operations oí things, or good or
e·il, or obedience or disobedience, or sickness or health or riches or po·erty, or
liíe or death, which is not contained in the written tablet oí the decrees oí God.
But God hath so decreed, good works obedience, and íaith, that le ordains
and wills them, that they may be under lis decree, lis salutary direction. lis
good pleasure and command. On the other hand, God hath decreed and does
ordain and determine e·il, disobedience and iníidelity, yet without lis salutary
direction, good pleasure and command, but only by way oí temptation and trail.
\hosoe·er shall say, that God hath not indignation against e·il and unbelieí,
he is certainly an iníidel.`

1he doctrine oí predestination, or the absolute decree, oí e·ent, both good
and e·il, is a recognised element in many creeds.
1his doctrine has gi·en rise
to as much contro·ersy among the Moslems, as it did among Christians, but the
íormer, generally belie·e in predestination, as being in some respects,
li·e points howe·er arise írom the doctrine oí predestination, as
gi·en in detail in the íollowing íormula:
,a, Ií the destiny oí man is determined by the di·ine purpose, how
can we explain man`s íreedom oí choice. Man is absolutely
conscious oí personal íreedom oí action, which it is impossible
to deny.
,b, Ií man is aííected, in all his actions, by eternal predestination,
what then is the meaning oí human, and the indi·idual
accountability which is the mainspring oí moral liíe·
,c, Ií what is to be, must be, with the o·erruling and irre·ocable
Decree oí God, what is the use oí di·ine commands and

, \e read the íollowing statement in Chamber`s Cyclopaedia: - 1he doctrine oí
predestination is explicitly enunciated in Rom. 8 : 29í 9, 10, 11, and Lph. 1, 4í, 11, and
it is recognized element in many creeds ,e.g. Coní. laith III : church oí Lngland
Articles, XVII, \e íurther read in the work: 1he Apostle Paul was doubtless aware oí
inconsistency íor it was crux oí Jewish theology ,see Lderstein`s Jesus the Messiah, 1 :
316 íí,, but the Apostle was accustomed, to Isolate any Particular doctrine, as occasion
required, without being careíul, to reconcile it with the real or apparent antithesis. ,see
Chamber`s Cyc. Art. Predestination.,
, See. 1he manners and Customs oí the Modern Lgyptians,` by Ld. Lane p.69.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
prohibitions, rewards and punishments, promises and threats,
and aíter all, what is the use oí Prophets Books etc.
,d, Some acts oí man are bad such as tyranny, polytheism, robbery,
etc. Ií these are predestined and predetermined by God, it
íollows, that to tyrannise, to ascribe plurality to God, or to rob is
to render obedience to lim, which ob·iously enough, is not the
,e, Ií iníidelity and sin are decreed by God it íollows that God is in
ía·our oí sin and iníidelity, but to speak thus oí God is

I will answer these questions as brieíly as possible, not írom a philosophical
point oí ·iew, but írom a strictly religious aspect, this book being de·oted
exclusi·ely to matters oí purely religious nature.
1he apparent contradiction in·ol·ed in the doctrine oí predestination, may
be reasonably sol·ed by considering, that man is not acquainted, in this liíe with
anything oí what has been predestined íor him by the Almighty God.
1hereíore, it cannot be suggested that under the doctrine oí predestination,
man`s personal íreedom oí choice and action is aííected in any way. Man is so
created by All-Poweríul God, that he is sensible oí a personal íree will, choice
and action, so that belieí in predestination by no means interíeres with his
moral íreedom. 1o speak oí man as a íree agent, we mean that he is not
withheld írom action by any external cause, that, morally he is neither a
prisoner, nor a sla·e, nor paralysed, nor otherwise disabled. Next, we may apply
the term íree` to the eternally or psychological decision, with he is external
íree to carry out. In this sense, the íreedom oí an action e·idently consists in
the íact, that the action proceeds írom the intelligent choice oí the agent, and
such choice is plainly and strongly contrasted with the mechanical
determination which exists in the physical world.

As God`s predestination is altogether a secret to man, human beings are in
all ages, made acquainted, through God`s prophets, with what duties they
should períorm, and what prohibitions they must respect, so that no act oí
disobedience, on the part oí man, can be justiíied on the plea oí ignorance oí
what he ought or ought not to do, or on the plea, that man was actuated to
disobey or to sin, by di·ine decree. Man is not congnisant oí anything he was
predestined to do, whether it be good or bad, until he has committed it, by his
own choice and own íreedom oí will oí which he was quite conscious. It is
then, and only then, that a man realises that his act was predestined. On the
other hand, God`s predestination has e·er been associated with di·ine íore-
knowledge oí all human character and conditions. As the Almighty God
predestined a man to sin, le, at the same time íoreknew that that man would
commit the siníul deed, while acting by his own íree and intelligent choice. A
siníul man can on no account shun the moral responsibility íor his deeds, on
the plea oí ha·ing acted upon irre·ocable di·ine predestination, oí which he
was totally ignorant. Being absolutely conscious oí a personal íreedom oí will
and action, an e·il doer cannot reasonably justiíy his action by reíerring to
predestination. In íact, belieí and íaith in di·ine predestination can neither

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
necessitate denial oí human consciousness oí íreedom oí will, nor eliminate the
íactor oí indi·idual responsibility írom human conduct. So long as man is
conscious oí personal íreedom oí will, choice and action within himselí, the
sense oí indi·idual accountability which is the mainspring oí moral liíe, always
remains untouched. 1he said belieí, thereíore, should neither interíere with
man`s enthusiasm íor progress, nor depri·e him írom íreedom oí will, which
íaculty he is, undoubtedly, conscious oí enjoying.

1o belie·e in heart, as an orthodox Jew, Christian or Moslem is bound to,
that whatsoe·er one had to do, right or wrong, whatsoe·er has beíallen one,
the minutest mo·ement oí man, and the meanest e·en oí his liíe, has been
irre·ocably predestined by God írom eternity, and that no amount oí eííort to
the contrary can alter the course oí e·ents, predestined by the absolute di·ine
authority. Such a purely religious dogma can, on no account, interíere with any
amount oí human morality. 1he doctrine oí predestination does not imply
denial oí man`s íreedom oí will and action. Lach component part oí man is
bound by religion, to íulíill some íunction: the heart and conscience, to belie·e
in God, lis attributes and lis predestination, the other external members oí
man, to work each according to its respecti·e íaculty and aptitude, as
recommended by the law. Now, ií the heart íulíils its proper íunction, namely:
to belie·e that nothing whatsoe·er that has happened, or will happen in the
uni·erse, is contrary to the will oí God, the íunction oí no other member is
necessarily oííended or retarded, as it cannot be suggested, that, under such a
religious belieí in God and lis di·ine attributes, the eyes shall be pre·ented
írom seeing, the ears írom hearing, the íeet írom walking, the tongue írom
speaking, or any other part oí man, írom the proper discharge oí its respecti·e

1hereíore, it is quite uníair and illogic íor anyone to claim, that íaith in
predestination, as required by orthodox religion, tends to damp all enthusiasm
íor progress. Such a claim might be reasonably admitted, only ií a man were
gi·en accurate íoreknowledge oí his íate and destiny. Ií he knew, íor instance,
írom the beginning, that he was doomed to perdition he might, ·ery naturally,
make no eííort to resist his destiny and no attempt at progress: or seeing that
he was predestined to sal·ation, he might make no eííort to deser·e it. Man
ha·ing no íoreknowledge whatsoe·er oí his own destiny, his duty absolutely in
adherence to the law. As íar as man`s intelligent íree action is concerned, he has
nothing more to do with the eternal decrees oí God than to ha·e períect íaith
in them. Reason and logic both dictate to man the belieí in God, the One the
sole Creator, the absolute Disposer. In like manner, as a culti·ator cannot
rightly claim or to be the creator oí his own har·est, so it is the case with man:
he cannot rightly claim to be independently the originator his own actions. 1he
Islamic doctrine oí predestination may be reduced to two distinct belieís:

,a, 1hat God has determined the destiny oí man, not only according to the
íoreknown character oí those whose íate is so determined, but also
according to God`s own will. 1here is no dispute on this point between
di·ines oí all creeds. Judaism Orthodox Christianity and Islam, all not only

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
agree and acquiesces in this, but they unreser·edly admit it, and
emphatically declare any possible notion to the contrary to be blasphemy.

,b, 1hat man is directly responsible íor his own actions, so long as he is master
oí his íree choice. As man is certainly sensible, that he is morally a íree
agent, he is accountable íor all actions aííected by his ·olitional power. In
the Koran we read, that God does not saddle a man with responsibility
beyond his capacity to bear it. 1here is a ·ast sphere oí human acti·ity,
where man`s apparent will enjoys íreedom oí control and direction.
Consequently a man is held responsible, by religion, íor the right or wrong
exercise oí his íaculties. It is, thereíore, a matter oí the deepest concern to
man, to ascertain the rules and regulations which should guide his conduct
in that connection. 1o supply this need, the All-Merciíul God has endowed
man with intellect, and re·elation. By the help oí intellect man endea·ours
to work out his moral and spiritual e·olution in all his dealings with his
Creator and his íellow creatures. But man`s obligation towards God and
man, surely in·ol·e complications, too delicate íor unaided human reason.
1he result oí an intellectual error might be the ·iolation oí human or di·ine
laws. lence, the absolute necessity oí direct guidance and laws írom God
to make up íor the írailties oí reason and to enlighten man, as to how he
ought to regulate his relations with his Maker, as well as with his íellow-
men. In obedience to these laws, man can carry out his duties, and attain
what is best in liíe. Laws relating to human liíe, ha·e been summed up in
the íollowing ·erse oí the loly Koran: Surely God orders justice and
good works ,to all,, and ,orders, kindness to relation, and le condemns
indecency, illicit deeds and all wrong. le admonishes you, that you may be

\ith regard to man`s guidance as to his relation to God, the loly Koran
tells us: Say my prayers, my sacriíice my liíe, my death, is íor God, the Lord oí
the worlds \ho has no partner with lim. 1his I ha·e been ordered, and am
the íirst to submit`. In carrying out his duties in liíe, man must not lose sight oí
God`s ordinances, and oí what le desires oí him, so that he should in no way
satisíy himselí or his íellow creatures, by disobeying the Uni·ersal Cherisher oí
all, the Creator oí all.
1hrough his íaith in predestination, man can beha·e íaithíully and
righteously, since he is coníident, that all power, help and sustenance lie only
with lim Man`s duty is, to spare no eííort in obser·ing the injunctions oí his
Maker, and then he is quite saíe.
Prosperity and plenty oíten tempt man, to turn away írom God. 1ouching
this point, the loly Koran says: O belie·ers, let not you children make you
íorget your God.` Man makes use írequently oí these blessings oí God as a
means to encroach upon the rights oí others, or as an encouragement to
neglect his de·otional duties towards God. 1hereíore the loly Book wishes it
to be remembered, that temptation lies hidden under the enjoyment oí wealth
and oííspring.

, See Molesworth`s and Chamber`s Cyclopaedias, Art. Predestination.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
L·en as man is liable to temptation by abundant prosperity, so is he apt to
be retarded írom the íulíillment oí his duties by misíortunes. lowe·er, ha·ing
períect íaith in predestination, a true belie·er will not íorget, that what
happens, good or bad has been predetermined and decreed by God, and that
the ine·itable must come to pass, in spite oí human eííorts to the contrary.
1hereíore he is bound to submit himselí cheeríully and resignedly to all trials.
Reíerring to this, the loly Koran says: And \e will most certainly try you
with íear and hunger, and loss oí property and liíe and blessings, ,thereíore, O
Prophet, gi·e good tidings to the patient who, when misíortune beíalls them,
say: Verily, we belong to God and to lim we shall ·erily return. 1hose ,the
patient, are they, on whom blessings and mercy írom their Lord ,will descend,,
and those are the íollowers oí the right course.` 1hus Islam teaches, that
misíortunes ser·e as good tidings and as íore-runners oí hea·enly blessings.
And with a heart íull oí íaith in predestination a true belie·er cheeríully submits
to hardships and trails. 1hose ha·ing a submissi·e írame oí mind under ad·erse
circumstances, On them,` says the loly Koran, descend the blessings oí
God`. \ith Islam, a calamity is a mercy in disguise. Ali·e to the purpose oí
di·ine will, a di·ine will, a belie·ing Moslem resigns himselí with a cheeríul
heart to his íate. It is God who alone go·erns the uni·erse and disposes
thereoí, according to lis eternal and irre·ocable \ill. One oí the comíort-
gi·ing ·erses oí the Koran read as íollows: Say: O God, \ho art the Owner oí
the Kingdom, 1hou gi·est authority to whom 1hou wilt, and 1hou takest away
authority, írom whom 1hou wilt: 1hou exaltest whom 1hou wilt and 1hou
humblest whom 1hou wilt: in 1hy hand is all the good, and 1hou art
Omnipotent. 1hou makest the night enter into the day, and 1hou makest the
day to enter into the night. ,1hou, bringest íorth the li·ing out oí the dead, and
,1hou, bringest íorth the dead out oí the li·ing, and ,1hou, pro·idest
sustenance, to whom 1hou wilt, and e·en so without limit.` 1hus, under
conditions oí hardship and misíortune, a true belie·er will not neglect his duties
towards God. \ith the utterance oí his noted íormula, 1o God we belong
and to lim shall we return,` he submits to ad·ersity, and goes on with his
duties uninterrupted. On the other hand, ií good íortune and prosperity be his
luck, he is not to put distrust in abundance and plenty, and so íorget his duties
towards his Maker, Sustainer and Nourisher. le is warned by re·elation, not to
make these ·ery blessings oí God a pretext íor encroachment upon the rights
oí others, and thus change them into a curse íor himselí.

\ith regard to íreedom oí human will, the Prophet oí Islam has positi·ely
declared man`s undisputed right, to make a choice between good and e·il.
Again and again, in the loly Koran, this point has been emphasized, lest man
should íorget his own responsibility íor his conduct. Indeed, the whole trend oí
Koranic ethics points in this direction. Say, the 1ruth is írom your Lord,
whosoe·er may wish, he may belie·e, and whosoe·er may wish, he may
disbelie·e`, says the loly Koran. God has moreo·er pointed out to man the
right path, and ordered him to íollow it, and the wrong one and warned him
against taking it. In this respect the Koran says: Verily, we ha·e shown to man
the right path, he may be grateíul or ungrateíul,` meaning there is no
compulsion, on the part oí God, íelt by man to bear upon him to adopt this

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
course or that. Again we read: Verily this is a reminder to all people, íor those
oí you who wish to take the right course.` lere too, man has been let alone in
the matter oí selection. lurther on: It is íor God only, to íurnish strong prooí,
and ií le so pleased ,to iníluence man, le would ha·e guided you all.` 1his
means, that Almighty God has chosen to let each man íeel, that he is a íree
agent who acts under an intelligent íree will. Danial oí interíerence cannot be
made in clearer terms. Ií God were so pleased, as to eníorce lis own desire
upon man, by depri·ing him oí his personal moral íreedom. le would not ha·e
let a single man go astray. Ií God were pleased, le would ha·e brought
together the whole oí humanity into one and the same path,` namely, the path
oí righteousness. But le has so ordained that le made man to íeel that there is
no compulsion brought to bear upon him, to incline him this way or that. Man
is absolutely conscious oí being master oí himselí and the organiser oí his own
career. le is gi·en power, by which he can accomplish his own desires, in
·irtue oí the moral íreedom which he enjoys. lowe·er, according to Islam, the
power oí selí-go·ernment, with which we are endowed is a trust and not a íree
giít. It not only entrusts our own destiny to oursel·es, but it actually trusts, or
seems to trust, the whole íinal outcome oí God`s creati·e work to our
treatment oí it. 1his earth, at least, is put into our hands, to make what we will
oí it and oí oursel·es, its inhabitants. 1o this eííect, the loly Koran says: \e
ha·e proposed the trust unto the hea·ens and the earth and the mountains, and
they reíused to undertake the same, and were aíraid to undertake it: but man
undertook it, ,yet, he is ·erily unjust and ignorant.` 1his means, that oí all
God`s creations man alone accepted the trust oí moral íreedom which makes
him master oí himselí, and digniíies and exalts him among the creatures oí
God. Giíts oí all other sorts are nothing, to compare with it. Ií we had not the
power to rule our own actions by our own will, we should be iníinitely poorer
in moral worth than we are now. 1hereíore man should be anxious to be
digniíied in this respect, but the loly Koran, in the abo·e ·erse, asserts, that
man is unjust and ignorant in this connection. le is unjust, in that he abuses his
moral íreedom, in choosing to do wrongly deeds, instead oí righteous ones.
And he is ignorant, in that he gi·es no heed to the consequences oí his choice,
because doing what we know that we ought to do, is not only íor the good oí
the world, but likewise and íar more, íor the good oí oursel·es. \e deri·e
iníinitely more beneíit írom our own períormance oí an act oí uprightness: and
iníinitely more harm írom an act oí wrong, than the good we bestow, or the
harm we inílict. 1he good or ill we go, goes deeply into our nature-reíines or
coarses it, liíts or lowers it, and is either inspiring or deadening to all that is best
in soul and mind. lew men reach old age without saying sadly, Oh, that I
could li·e my liíe again,` because time their youth íor a diííerent de·elopment
oí themsel·es and a diííerent shaping oí their li·es. In this connection the loly
Koran says:
Say, O, my worshippers, who ha·e transgressed against your own souls,
despair not oí the mercy oí God: seeing that God íorgi·eth all sins: íor le is
Gracious and Merciíul. And be turned unto your Lord, and resign yoursel·es
unto lim, beíore the punishment comes suddenly upon you, and ye percei·e
not ,the approach thereoí,, when a soul shall say, Alas, íor that I ha·e been
negligent in my duty towards God, ·erily, I ha·e been one oí the scorners, or

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
say: Ií God had directed me, ·erily, I had been one oí the pious`, or say, when
it seeth the prepared punishment: íf í covta retvrv ovce vore ivto tbe rorta, í
rovta becove ove of tbe rigbteov..`. ßvt Coa .batt av.rer: M, .igv. cave vvto tbee
beretofore ava tbov aia.t cbarge tbev ritb fat.ebooa, ava ra.t ¡vffea v¡ ritb ¡riae`
ava tbov becave.t ove o tbe vvbetierer. ,Koran, Ch. XXXIX,

In brieí, it is reasonable, as well as it is uni·ersally religious to belie·e, that
nothing whatsoe·er, be it a circumstance, an action or a thought, can take place
against the will oí God. Again, nothing can happen in the world, either as
proceeding írom a human being, an animal, or a thing, which God had not,
írom eternity, known and willed it to be. By will` is here meant the proper
acceptation oí the \ord, namely the decree, the determination, and not the
desire or inclination. 1here is nothing contradictory, in holding the belieí in
absolute predestination and the belieí in selí-responsibility.

End Of Volume One

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

1. Bosworth Swith Mohamed and Mohamedanism.
2. Islam-ler Moral and Spiritual Value` by Major Arthur Glyn Leanard.
3. Crawíord`s Indian Archipelago.`
4. Re·. J.N. 1hoburn, Report íor the Allahabad Missionary oníerence.`
5. Papers relating to ler Majesty`s Colonial Possessions`
6. Li·ingstone`s Lxpedition to the Zambesi.`
¯. 1rench on \ords`
8. \ebster`s Dictionary.
9. Renan, Ltudes d`listoire religieuse`
10. Quarterly Re·iew.
11. George Sale`s 1ranslation oí the Koran, Preliminary Discourse.
12. Sir lenry Layard`s Larly 1ra·els.`
13. Abuíeda.
14. Ld. Pocosk.
15. Koran.
16. Lusebius listory.
1¯. Lpiphan.
18. Sir \illiam Muir, 1he Liíe oí Mohammed.`
19. Ibn Athir.
20. lerodotus.
21. D. lerbelot.
22. Al- Sharistani
23. Abul larag
24. Sayed Amir Aly
25. Ibn lisham
26. lughes` Dictionary oí Islam`
2¯. Miskat-ul-Massabeeh
28. Al 1abari.
29. Al \akidi
30. Droits Musulman by M. Querry
31. Caussin de Perce·al.
32. Stanley Lane Poole, Selection írom the Koran`
33. Lectures on leroes and leroship,` by 1homas Caylyle.
34. Old 1estament.
35. Al Razi.
36. Qadi-Ayad`s Al Shiía`
3¯. \ashington, Ir·ing, Liíe oí Mohamet.`
38. Dr. Noldeke`s Book on Islam.
39. 1. \. Arnold`s 1he Preaching oí Islam`
40. 1he Re·iew oí Religions.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b
41. Al Ghazali.
42. Nawab Sultan Jahan Begum Sahiba, Ruler oí Bhophal`s Muslim
43. Mohammedan Jurisprudence.` By Abdul Cader.
44. New 1estament.
45. J. Milton`s.
46. lolland`s Jurisprudence.
4¯. Ghunyat el 1alibeen.`
48. Malik`s Mowattaa.
49. íatawi Moughiri.
50. Personal Law oí Mohammedans` by Abdul Kader.
51. Bukhari`s Commentary.
52. Zamakhshari`s Commentary oí the Koran.
53. Goethe`s \est-Oestlicher Di·an.
54. Peake`s Commentary oí the Bible.
55. Lncyclopaedia Biblica.
56. Re·. Dummelow`s Commentary.
5¯. Dr. Ph. Schaíí`s Companion to the Greek 1estament and the Lnglish
58. Dr. \eymouth`s Introduction to St. John`s Gospel.
59. Re·. Margoliouth`s Introduction to Rodwell`s 1ranslation oí the
60. Chamber`s Lncyclopaedia.

1be Retigiov of í.tav ß, Dr. .bvea .. Catra.b

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