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Understanding the Gas Well. 2. Wellheads and Christmas Trees. 3. Reservoir Characteristics of Gas Wells and Gas Production. 4. Producing the Gas Well. 5. The Wellhead and Safety Devices. · The tubing safety valve. · The surface safety valve. FLUID SEPARATION. 1. The High-Pressure Gas Well Separators. 2. Three-Stage, High-Pressure Separation and Indirect Heating. 3. Vertical Separators That Do Not Require Heat. GAS DEHYDRATION. 1. Gas Dehydration. 2. Operating the Dehydration Unit. · The inlet scrubber. · The contact tower. · The glycol pump. · The dual-action pumps. · The heat exchanger surge tank. · The three-phase gas, glycol, and condensate separator. · The reboiler. 3. Tank Batteries for Gas Wells. GAS COMPRESSION AND SALES. 1. Natural Gas Compression. 2. Natural Gas Measurements. 3. Testing Gas Wells. 4. Pipelines and Pipeline Problems. · The removal of liquids from pipelines. 5. Treating and Drying Natural Gas. 6. Transporting Natural Gas Long Distances. · Cross-country gas lines. NATURAL GAS SYSTEMS. 1. The High-Pressure Gas Line System. 2. Controlling the Pressure in the Separators and the Heater/Treater. 3. The Well Testing Gas Measurement System. 4. The Gas High Pressure Gathering System.
The Low Pressure Gas Line System and the Vapor Recovery Unit. 6.18-ii 5. The Flare and the Gas Sales System. · The vapor recovery unit. .
A gas well is any well that produces a lot of gas and very little oil. If it leaves the formation as a gas.18A-1 The Lease Pumper’s Handbook Chapter 18 Gas Wells Section A INTRODUCTION TO NATURAL GAS WELLS Many people will casually refer to all the wells in a field as oil wells. · Condensate implies that the liquid was already in a vapor form. the lower one can be closed to make it possible to safely close the well in to repair the upper valve. The condensed liquid may be as clear as tap water. A typical medium. the designations may become oil well or gas well. and only one step is required—condensing—to change the fluid from a gas to a liquid. Understanding the Gas Well. Reservoir Characteristics of Gas Wells and Gas Production. · Distillate implies that a two-step process occurs where the liquid is transformed from a liquid state to a vapor. When it is necessary to specify exactly what type of hydrocarbons are being produced from a designated well. The gas produced from an oil well may be low or high volume. the weight of the crude as compared to the weight of a similar volume of water. The typical production from a gas well is primarily natural gas. A gas well may or may not have a packer installed. A-1. A-3. The upper master gate is always used when it becomes necessary to shut in the well. The condensing may have occurred as the vapor was leaving the formation. The oil is usually a very light crude with a high viscosity or API gravity rating—that is. which is often referred to merely as a gate. The hydrocarbon liquid is usually referred to as condensate or distillate. The lower one is in reserve so that if the upper valve fails. An oil well usually produces a heavier crude with a lower viscosity and produces a higher percentage of oil versus gas. then condensed back to a liquid form.to low-volume gas well has a double master gate and a safety valve next to the wing gate. it may begin condensing to a liquid . depending on how the tubing string is installed. This is a common purifying process that results in the production of a crude or casing head gasoline that contains little or no oil. as it flowed up the tubing. as it passed through the processing equipment. depending on the placement of the well in the reservoir and where the well is drilled. often accompanied by liquid hydrocarbons and water. Wellheads and Christmas Trees. The wellhead valves are often referred to as gate valves. Condensate may leave the formation as a liquid or as a gas. or even as it traveled through the gas transmission pipeline. A-2.
Each well is different in volume of production. A well may be capable of producing less than a hundred thousand cubic feet of gas a day or have a potential of over one hundred million cubic feet a day. pressures. and variable choke. A-5. and retrieves these valves. even for flowing wells. A-4. Gaseous condensate with a lower hydrocarbon content may remain a gas. The upper master gate is always used when it becomes necessary to shut in the well. A gas well may have two types of safety shut-in controls. A gas well with a dual or double master gate valve.to low-volume gas well as pictured in Figure 1 has a double master gate and a safety valve next to the wing gate. wing valve. The support equipment will change according to need. The Wellhead and Safety Devices. producing natural gas as a by-product along with crude oil is a more stable product sales market.and lowvolume wells. the gas purchasing company representative may close the well in as needed. The safety valve installed downhole in the tubing will shut in the well in the event the line should break and a large volume of gas is being discharged. Plunger lift is widely used to assist in moving these liquids to the surface. In the event of oversupply or in emergency situations. although the results can be similar in that both systems shut the well in. Producing the Gas Well. The fluid falling back down the hole can affect production dramatically. Thus. Production in gas wells is measured in cubic feet. The tubing safety valve. The lower one is in reserve so that if the upper valve fails. A gas well may or may not have a packer installed. This system has been used extensively offshore. depending on how the tubing string is installed. In most cases. A typical medium. A hydraulically opened valve can be installed such that the well automatically shuts in whenever this pressure is reduced. Occasionally a gas well may be shut in for an extended period of time. the lower one can be closed to make it possible to safely close the well in to repair the upper valve. safety valve. Figure 1. Each serves a different purpose. Many companies do not install the downhole safety valve for medium. The gas purchasing company will accept gas as long as a market is available. and water production. A wireline company sets. . This seldom occurs with an oil well or the gas produced in conjunction with producing oil. This safety valve is checked on a regular schedule to ensure that it will close in the event of an emergency.18A-2 as it travels up the hole and the pressure and temperature decrease. services. gas from the well is delivered to a transportation pipeline operated by a gas purchasing company. condensate.
This indicates very low production.18A-3 The surface safety valve. A small stainless steel tube leads from the safety valve on the Christmas tree to the control valve at the separator. A low-volume gas well. The gas well shown in Figure 4 has no safety valves or even dual master gates. The surface safety valve signal to shut in the well is usually controlled at the high-pressure separator. Figure 4. A small gas well with a threephase separator and compressor in the background. Both Figure 2 and Figure 3 show the same type of control. It has been completed like any typical flowing well. . The picture of the gas wellhead in Figure 1 shows the surface safety valve. Figure 2. Figure 3. A high-volume gas well. A hi-lo valve with hi-lo pilot and bypass will shut the well in on either high or low pressure of the sales line.
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