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**Y.K. Ha Temple University 2008
**

75 years since Solvay 1933

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**In physics, there are two theoretical lengths
**

• Classical size • Quantum size

**• Compton • Classical radius wavelength of a of an object given particle given by by its classical quantum theory mechanics
**

2

Electron

•

Classical radius:

• Quantum length:

e r= 2 mc

2.82 ´ 10

- 13

2

h l= mc

2.42 ´ 10

- 10

cm

cm

3

General Criterion

• If the classical radius of an object is larger than its Compton wavelength, then a classical description is sufficient. • If the Compton wavelength of an object is larger than its classical size, then a quantum description is necessary.

4

Black Holes

• Schwarzschild radius: • Compton wavelength:

2GM R= 2 c

• Proportional to mass

h l= mc

• Proportional to inverse mass

5

Planck Mass

M Pl = hc -5 = 2.2 x10 gm G

• At the Planck mass, the Schwarzschild radius is equal to the Compton wavelength and the quantum black hole is formed.

6

Planck Length

l Pl = hG - 33 . x10 cm 3 = 16 c

• Quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest conceivable elementary particles. They have a microscopic size but a macroscopic mass.

7

Dual Nature

• Quantum black holes are at the boundary between classical and quantum regions. • They obey the macroscopic Laws of Thermodynamics and they decay into elementary particles. • They can have a semi-classical description.

8

Quantum Gravity?

• There is a total lack of evidence of any quantum nature of gravity, despite intensive efforts to develop a quantum theory of gravity. • Is is possible that quantum gravity is not necessary?

9

In General Relativity

ds = g mn ( x )dx dx

2

m

n

• Spacetime is a macroscopic concept. • Is Einstein’s equation similar in nature to Navier-Stokes equation in fluid mechanics as a macroscopic theory?

10

Nuclear Force

• Energy levels are quantized in nuclei, but nuclear force is not a fundamental force. • The fundamental theory is Quantum Chromodynamics of quarks and gluons.

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Graviton

• A hypothetical spin-2 massless particle. • The existence of the graviton itself in nature remains to be seen. • At best it propagates in an a priori background spacetime.

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Wave Equation

æ 1 ¶ ö mn 2 ç 2 2 - Ñ ÷h = 0 è c ¶t ø

2

• The gravitational wave equation, from which the graviton idea is developed, is inherently a weak field approximation in general relativity.

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Detectability

• It is physically impossible to detect a single graviton of energy hw . • Detector size has to be less than the Schwarzschild radius of the detector. RS > R

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Classical Gravity

• We take the practical point of view that gravitation is entirely a classical theory, and that general relativity is valid down to the Planck scale.

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Spacetime

• This means that spacetime is continuous as long as we are above the Planck scale. • At the Planck scale, quantum black holes will appear and they act as a natural cutoff to spacetime.

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**What is an elementary particle?
**

An elementary particle is a logical construction. • Are black holes elementary particles? • Are they fermions or bosons?

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Present Goal

• To construct various fundamental quantum black holes as elementary particles, using the results in general relativity.

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**Black Hole Theorems:
**

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Singularity Theorem 1965 Area Theorem 1972 Uniqueness Theorem 1975 Positive Energy Theorem 1983 Horizon Mass Theorem 2005

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**Horizon Mass Theorem
**

For all black holes: neutral, charged or rotating, the horizon mass is always equal to twice the irreducible mass observed at infinity.

M (r+ ) = 2 M irr

Y.K. Ha, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D14, 2219 (2005)

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**Black Hole Mass
**

• The mass of a black hole depends on where the observer is. • The closer one gets to the black hole, the less gravitational energy one sees. • As a result, the mass of a black hole increases as one gets near the horizon.

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Asymptotic Mass M¥

• The asymptotic mass is the mass of a neutral, charged or rotating black hole including electrostatic and rotational energy. • It is the mass observed at infinity.

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Horizon Mass M (r+ )

• The horizon mass is the mass which cannot escape from the horizon of a neutral, charged or rotating black hole. • It is the mass observed at the horizon.

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**Irreducible Mass M irr
**

• The irreducible mass is the final mass of a charged or rotating black hole when its charge or angular momentum is removed by adding external particles to the black hole. • It is the mass observed at infinity.

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Surprising Consequence !

• The electrostatic and the rotational energy of a general black hole are all external quantities. • They are absent inside the black hole.

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**Charged Black Hole
**

• A charged black hole does not carry any electric charges inside. • Like a conductor, the electric charges stay at the surface of the black hole.

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**Rotating Black Hole
**

• A rotating black hole does not rotate. • It is the external space which is undergoing rotating.

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Significance of Theorem

• The Horizon Mass Theorem is crucial for understanding Hawking radiation.

hc T= 8pkGM

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3

Energy Condition

M (r+ ) > M ¥

• Black hole radiation is only possible if the horizon mass is greater than the asymptotic mass since it takes an enormous energy for a particle released near the horizon to reach infinity.

29

Photoelectric Effect

hf = Ekmax + f

• The incident photon must have a greater energy than that of the ejected electron in order to overcome binding.

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Hawking Radiation

• No black hole radiation is possible if the horizon mass is equal to the asymptotic mass. • Without black hole radiation, the Second Law of Thermodynamics is lost.

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**Quantum Black Holes
**

• • • • • • Mass - Planck mass Radius - Planck length Lifetime - stable & unstable Spin - integer & half-integer Type - neutral & charged Other - Area & intrinsic entropy

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**Black Hole Types
**

Spin-0 unstable M (r+ ) > M ¥ Spin-1 unstable M (r+ ) > M ¥ Spin-1/2 unstable M (r+ ) > M ¥ Planck-charge stable M (r+ ) = M ¥

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Spin-0

• A Planck-size black hole created in ultra-high energy collisions or in the Big Bang. • Disintegrates immediately after it is formed and become Hawking radiation. • Observable signatures may be seen from its radiation.

34

Planck-Charge

QPl =

G M Pl

• A Planck-size black hole carrying maximum electric charge but no spin. • It is absolutely stable and cannot emit any radiation.

35

Spin-1/2

• A Planck-size black hole carrying angular momentum h / 2 and charge 3Q Pl / 2 and magnetic moment m .

m

**• It is unstable and it will decay into a burst of elementary particles.
**

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Spin-1

• A Planck-size rotating black hole with angular momentum h but no charge. • It will also decay into a burst of elementary particles

37

**Micro Black Holes
**

æ Jö æ Qö æ GM ö ÷ ³ Gç ÷ + ç ÷ ç è Mø è cø è c ø

2 2 2

• Microscopic black holes with higher mass and larger size may be constructed from the fundamental types.

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**Black Hole Area
**

2 2 2 æ 8pG M Q J c ç 1+ 1A= 4 2 2 4 ç c GM G M è 2 2

ö ÷ ÷ ø

4pGQ 4 c

2

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Quantization

• Quantization of the area of black holes is a conjecture, not a proof. • Unphysical spins (transcendental and imaginary numbers) not found in quantum mechanics would appear. • Integer and half-integer spins do not result in quantization of area.

40

**Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays
**

Theoretical Upper Limit

• K. Greisen, End to the Cosmic Ray Spectrum, Phys. Rev. Lett 16 (1966) 748 • G.T. Zatsepin and V.A. Kuzmin, Upper Limit of the Spectrum of Cosmic Rays, JETP Lett. 4 (1966) 78.

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GZK Effect

• Interaction of protons with cosmic microwave background photons would result in significant energy loss. • Energy spectrum would show flux suppression above 6 ´ 1019 eV.

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**Cosmic Ray Experiments
**

AGASA • A dozen

events above GZK limit possibly detected.

Hi-Res

• GZK effect observed. • There is no correlation with nearby sources.

Pierre-Auger

• GZK effect observed. • Correlation with AGN sources.

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GZK Paradox

• Why are some cosmic ray energies theoretically too high if there are no near-Earth sources? • Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox posed by the GZK limit on the energy of cosmic rays from distant sources.

44

Annihilation

• Quantum black holes carrying maximum charges are absolutely stable. • They can annihilate with opposite ones to produce powerful bursts of elementary particles in all directions with very high energies.

45

Dark Matter

• Planck-charge quantum black holes could act as dark matter in cosmology without having to resort to new interactions and exotic particles because they are non-interacting particles.

46

**Planck-Charge Black Holes
**

• Their electrostatic repulsion exactly cancels their gravitational attraction. • There is no effective potential between them at any distance. • The net energy outside the black hole is identically zero. • They behave like a non-interacting gas.

47

Conclusion

• Quantum black holes could have a real existence and play a significant role in cosmology. • They would be indispensable to understanding the ultimate nature of spacetime and matter. • Their discovery would be revolutionary

48

49

Gerard `t Hooft, Of fabulous fame. Ploughing the quantum field, He set it aflame. When those gauge particles, Leaping from virtual to real. Telling the Yang-Mills saga, It is a dream come true.

50

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Are Black Holes Elementary Particles ? Is the Universe an Electron Black Hole ?

Are Black Holes Elementary Particles ? Is the Universe an Electron Black Hole ?

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