Profane Illuminations, Secular Illusions: Manuscripts in Late Medieval Courtly Society Author(s): Brigitte Buettner Source: The Art
Bulletin, Vol. 74, No. 1 (Mar., 1992), pp. 75-90 Published by: College Art Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3045851 . Accessed: 25/06/2013 17:01
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C. 1858. Delisle. Latin had become a foreign language to the noble audience. von Schlosser. and "Taking a Second Look: Observations on the Iconography of a French Queen. Hofkunstler. K. 1983. 'We still lack a comprehensive study on artistic policies of the first Valois. "Paris. Pomian. c. legal. 6diteurs et enlumineurs de la fin du XIVeme siicle: La Production a Paris de manuscrits a miniatures. Delalain. ser. remains the best bibliographical tool. 7 La Librairiede CharlesV. confined to some formulaic phrases repeated during religious services or private read-
For having read earlier drafts of this essay. By the end of the fourteenth century in France. As manuscript patrons.6 While the ownership of books was still limited to a privileged few." La Productiondu livre universitaireau MoyenAge. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.3 The Valois publicized themselves as "wise rulers. Iv. N. 1967. Bourbon (1338-1378). and Myra Orth. For broader perspectives on the history of art patronage including der our period." Medievaliaet humanistica. Garrard. Kathryn Horste. and M. 742-768.' Unlike earlier noble collectors. 145-188. Among sacred books. 255-298. 1985. illumination.D. Brent Maddox.136.n. including literature. "Representations of Charles V of France as a Wise Ruler. and university and ecclesiastical institutions also collected and accumulated books. "The Iconography of Queen Isabeau de Baviere (1410-
1415): An Essay in Method. though unevenly owing to differentiated literary tastes. and his grandsons Charles VI." Bulletin de la Socrite de l'Histoire de Parts et de l'lle-de-France. See also P. architecture. Ouy. 27-44. Vallet de Viriville. l'un des principaux foyers de l'humanisme en Europe au debut du XVeme siecle. forcefully invading a territory previously guarded by ecclesiastical figures and religious orders. Toronto. Louis I d'Anjou. de Winter. the entire Valois family2 fervently devoted large amounts of money and their subjects' time and labor to the arts. sculpture. 6." Signs. or purchased on the nascent book market. Paris. Bell. 41-123." Gazette des beaux-arts. 1891. Hindman. Louis d'Orlkans. Munby. for helping me turn drafts into an article. 6 The classic study remains P. viii.216 on Tue. In patronage. 1908.N. cat. Warnke. and historical works." Feminismand Art Hzstory.s. Paris. 1977. duc de Berry. 1986. A more general insight is provided by S. see C. 83-96. and illuminators. his sons Charles V. royal secretaries and chancellors. 1973.
This content downloaded from 190. see in particular G. Richter Sherman on Jeanne de Bourbon: "The Queen in Charles V's 'Coronation Book': Jeanne de Bourbon and the 'Ordo ad Reginam Benedicendam.Christzne at the Court of Charles VI. cII. London. Bibliothbque Nationale.119." Actes du 100me CongresNational des Sociztis Savantes.Leipzig.Paris.Secular
During the loosely delimited period of the late Middle Ages. 1982. Hughes. 1967-68. "Copistes. 15-59.L.Questzonzng ed.L. Guiffrey. Perhaps for the first time. Recherches sur la librairiede CharlesV. 5 After the characterization of Sir Thomas Phillipps in A. Spatrenaissance. Etude sur le libraireparnsiendu XIlle au XVe siecle. Paris. VeniseXVIe-XVIIIe szicle. S. the Valois family indulged in "vello-mania" unmatched until the nineteenth century. see de Winter. 1987. Ein Beitrag zur Geschzchte des modernenKiinstler. For Isabeau de Baviere. all my gratitude goes to Mimi Hellman. an impressive number of richly decorated manuscripts. however. reveal that princely libraries were not pale imitations of existing ecclesiastical ones. 174.Profane
Illuminations. Richter Sherman. 101-117. 1978. Paris. 173-198. and a large body of texts written or recently translated into French. Lord. and M. 663-687. 4 For this notion. "L'Humanisme et les mutations politiques et sociales en France au XIVWmeet XVeime siecles. and the socalled minor arts. In the secular sphere all genres were represented.Zur Vorgeschichte Cologne. duc de Berry(1401-1416). New York. Broude and M. and Jean sans Peur. de Pzzan's'Epistre Othea'. and idem. and Philippe le Hardi." Journal of MedzevalHistory.Boston. At the end of the Middle Ages. Inventairesdejean.' " Viator. the outcome of which would ultimately define the art market of modern times as a primarily lay and urban phenomenon. painting. the upper stratum of the aristocracy was certainly not the only class of book owners: humanists. 3 On French humanism. "The Library of Philip the Bold and Margaret of Flanders. 1971. Exemplaretpecia. 133-138. Paris. received as gifts. I wish to thank Carl Klausberg.5
From roughly 1350 onwards.M. "Medieval Woman Book Owners: Arbiters of Lay Piety and Ambassadors of Culture. "The Book Trade at the University of Paris. which formed the bulk of university libraries. and James Marrow. However. Portraitof an Obsession. 2. de Winter. 1988. of wives and the whole question of women's patronage The role their 2 have received far less attention for this period. the king and his brothers appointed clerics steeped in classical studies to key positions in major chancelleries. exh. translators. collections that were continuously enlarged by lavish manuscripts ordered directly from authors. Collectionneurs. Rouse. Sir ThomasPhillipps. 1350. duke of Burgundy. Where the library of Charles V was particularly well supplied with scientific. 1250-c. such as the presence of a comparable number of religious and secular works. Paris. Jan. First Valois Duke and Duchess of Burgundy. "La Bibliotheque d'Isabeau de Bavieire.Painting and Politics 102-110. 1982. the ones of Jean de Berry and Philippe le Hardi included a larger number of romances and poetry. For Margaret of Flanders. Jean." Bulletin du bibliophile."4 an ideal image that would enhance the claims of the omnipresent courtly patrons of the Renaissance. 71-98. Die Kunst. esp. Jeanne de the Litany. kings and their relatives were intensively encouraging the creation and diffusion of new textual and visual artifacts. Royal French Patronage in the Fourteenth Century:An Annotated Bibliography.J.amateurs et curteux: Paris. 1968. Published inventories.G. xxxvi. 1907. idem.. the notion of "cultural policy" can pertinently be used to characterize the actions of King Jean le Bon." L'Humanisme frangazs au dibut de la Renaissance. R. artistic production underwent several important shifts. see C. be it in a courtly or mercantile incarnation. see J. 1985. clerics of the parliament.' A few common features can nonetheless be singled out. J.und Wunderkammern des Sammelwesens. A. vii. Bibles and devotional texts largely outnumbered patristic and theological corpora. M. Laying the foundations for a veritable state humanism. 1975. such as Charlemagne or Louis IX. the upper ranks of lay society became the most influential art clients. 1894-96. French royal and princely families assembled impressive private libraries. Paris. L.
1984. Surviving princely inventories and accounts amply demonstrate that illuminated manuscripts were indeed pricey items.8 Despite Christine de Pizan's claim. van Nieuwenhuysen. tapestries. ed." Journal des savants. T.Brussels. with two large clasps of silver-gilt.Histozre 42. xI. Inventories and other written accounts suggest that the nobles attempted to surpass each other during the New Year's exchange of presents. For the noble patron. "Of love!" He was pleased with this answer." or emulated one another by ordering similar manuscripts. Princeton. for it was handsomely written and illuminated [enlumin6. like Books of Hours. who speaks of the "euphoric appropriation of the literature by mother tongue. the Rapondi also sold them expensive textiles. In. 1982. however. the many translations commissioned by Charles V leave some doubts about his fluency in Latin. Ornato. marchand de manuscrits enlumines?" Mdze'vales." For the history of specific translations.Brussels. orig. 1806. 153. 9 Livre 1936-40. also had broader cultural implications concerning the rise of a national identity. indeed. xv. Age. French trans. 45-47. Oeuvresde Froissart. TroisEssaisde codicologie of For the medieval late production structures and the art complexion '4 market. 1956-70. were virtually mass-produced.trans. the poet Jean Froissart described the presentation of one of his manuscripts to King Richard II in very revealing terms: He opened and looked into it with much pleasure. Economieetpolitzque. the Valois had to contend with ecclesiastical dignitaries. manuscripts. Lusignan. Kervyn de Lettenhove. whereas his brother Jacques seems to have specialized in the commercialization of illuminated manuscripts. and since many of the new texts in circulation were secular. In France. 1986.Les Intellectuels aux Xlllme et XIVtmeszdicles. Paris.' But translations. H. Elogede la variante.. 161-190. while responding to precise linguistic needs. this was also the time when easel painting appeared: unlike wall painting. Johnes.136. The reification of books was certainly favored by a rapidly expanding market economy.. since an identifiable patron's portrait functioned as a sort of self-celebratory mark of visual ownership.76
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ings of devotional texts. this medium could be put into circulation in much the same way as small luxury items.Paris. C. as today. 225-253. Parler vulgairement. Solente.'o What remains to be understood is the role played by images in this process of defining national and class identities. quantitatzve. xrv. Spazn and Adjoznzng Countries. Lucas. see B. and bound in crimson velvet. London. vessels of precious metal. 16 In another place. Posner and C. and wealthy merchants for control of the market. 167. languefran(wase critiquede la philologze. From outside the family enclave. See also B. called Sir Richard Credon. the mimetic equivalent of a heraldic device. Etude sur le marche de la mazn-d'oeuvreau Moyen Age (Warsaw. Le Salariat dans lartzsanatparzsienaux XlllmeXIVIme szicles. Naissancede l'espritlazqueau dichn du moyenage. S.
'"Dine (Dino). rivalry escalated among the Valois brothers themselves. escript et histori6]. Phzlippele Hardi (1384-1404). Huth. 28-43. and exchanging.'2 and considerably more than the average of ten francs paid by a cleric for a common book. '2A. Les Fznancesdu duc de Bourgogne. since artifacts produced in a highly articulated process can hardly be compared to natural products. they
a fine account of the interplay between vernacular and Latin with silent and oral reading. XLV. " "Secular" is here opposed to "ecclesiastic" rather than "religious" in the sense defined by G. "Mediaeval French Translations of the Latin Classics to 1500. IX. art works were status symbols. 1964. the appropriation of alien idioms and cultures.119. then logically the number of secular illuminated manuscripts rose. 1989. Cerquilini. idem. The King asked me what the book treated of: I replied. and at the same time the significance of enshrining thousands of miniatures in privately owned manuscripts whose restricted access could not satisfy the same political and institutional needs as monumental art. see P.
were also objects with added value. and dipped into several places. K. 17 Sir John Froissart'sChronzcles of England.
This content downloaded from 190." Scrzttura rev. de Lagarde. or the re-appropriation of a mother tongue. "Humanisme et traductions au Moyen Age. Habits of the Later Middle Ages. to carry to his oratory [chambre de retraite] and made me many acknowledgments for it. Buettner. 1980. Kunstlerund Werkstatt Darmstadt. Klapisch-Zuber. ed. reading parts aloud.'" Such figures. Saenger. der Spatgotzk. Paris. Even the development of portraiture can be viewed within this context. Powerand the Usesof Print in EarlyModern France." Specu2. ed. all such objects could be purchased from the same source-the powerful Italian merchants operating in the French capital. et la '0As emphasized by S." Journal des savants. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. The question still remains open if there was a manuscript workshop in their own house. B. "Jacques Raponde. JulySept. I will come back to the itrennes as a courtly ritual that was instrumental in the periodic and public reaffirmation of family and social alliances. indispensable signs of distinction that secured their owners a superior place within the social hierarchy. One of these was the Rapondi family. He ought to have been pleased. 239-269. ed. Mirot. "Les Traducteurs et leur public en France au Moyen Age. in addition to lending the Valois large sums of money. Meiss. Contemporary intellectuals engaged by courtly patrons were certainly aware of the particular response inspired by luxurious manuscripts. 385-404.. 1930. Bozzolo and E. Miniatures augmented the beauty of a manuscript and hence its price. See L. de Winter. and then gave it to one of his knights. Louvain. 1967. jewelry. 141-173. "Book of Hours and the Reading e civiltd. the most prominent member of the family. and illuminated manuscripts. 11. 1962). lum. Jan.216 on Tue. 1967. in The Cultureof Prnt." The increasing diversification of social actors and factors participating in the diffusion and consumption of cultural products also spurred competition. provide only a comparative measure of the most literal sort. Geremek. 10-23. R. Monfrin. and some categories of books. manuscripts afforded not only access to knowledge. for he read and spoke French perfectly well. originally from Lucca but naturalized French. and roses of the same in the middle. see J. Etudeslucquozses. When trying to explain the prodigious proliferation of secular illuminated manuscripts" among the dominant social strata during the late Middle Ages. worthy of collecting.1 Then. France. esp. other aristocrats. with ten silver gilt studs. exhibiting. 1963. ed. 5-20. Significantly. 1989. A. scholars ordinarily adduce economic and aesthetic causes. served equally as a financial and political adviser to Philippe le Hardi. offering. 1970. Montreal.2nd rev. more than even the most expensive type of horse (evaluated at three hundred francs). desfaits et bonnesmeursdu sage roi CharlesV. In 1395. each of whom tried to secure the services of the most renowned writers and artists. 1871. Chartier. The cost of such books generally ranged from one hundred to six hundred francs. Paris. Pour une Histoiredu livre manuscritau Moyen "3 Paris. and H.-Mar. 1988. richly worked with roses in the center. or. from inside. 1985. 104.
IN LATE MEDIEVAL
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1245) insisted that the saint "kept a booklet open in his hands" and explained: "The booklet is open because it is understood. from G. it supersedes the classic work by F." Word& Image. and R. New York. Language and Fzction. Medievalmanuscriptswere not coffee-table books."The very beautiful opening miniature of the Morgan copy of the immortalizes a generic Froissart in the typical Chroniques'8 of an author presenting his work to the patron. and visually sacralized the relationship between them and the Heurescommisviewer. evokes. is circulating:it is a disproportionately large object. this book was indeed destined to end up in the de retrazte. Question posse auxfins d'une hzstoire 22 Meiss. The Idea of the Bookzn theMiddleAges. see Carruthers. was more than a mere decorative value meant to enhance the pleasures of the most fortunate members of medieval society. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
'8 Meiss. the labor and drives that produced such simulacra.21 As a source of other kinds of enrichments. Theory. Paris. Walter Benjamin has argued. 131-146. or at least. The mediating function of medieval images was not limited to the bonding of mundane and sacred realms." Faire Croire(Collectzon 1981. 2. a posture previously reserved for ecclesiastic patrons and holy kings. Carruthers. grasping scenes certainly existed before the late Presentation 1). a heavy vacuum sumptuously enshrouded in real velour.
dazzling illuminations were indeed the surplus that transmuted an instrumental object into a luxurious.22This anecdote attests that costly bindings. it is in the hand. the Franciscan preacher Jean de la Rochelle (d. 8). to be dipped into.xxxv. Nat. the object in this miniature is changing hands. Art. also. Embedded in the Neoplatonic tradition. Complete catalogue ofJean de Berry's portraits in Meiss. J. Romanesque New York. which is to say. it is put into practice. J. or in a coffer to be brought along during the incessant travelsof the aristocrats.78
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Thus Froissart. c. Antoine. 17. is disappointing in this regard. 217-251.136. "Ad Perpetuam Memoriam. collectible item. something that pleased the eye of the beholder as well as the Creator. 164-170. 26 For a masterly treatment of this topic. a "mnemonic space of representation. paired with figurable and legible. 18014. 1967. Les Nouvelles Fonctions de l'image peinte en Italie (1250-1400). 23W. ~9M. "The Book of Signs: Writing and Visual Difference in Gothic Manuscript Illumination. 371. artful script. This aesthetic dimension. LI). and the pulchritudo of the created world was conceived as a reflection of divine beauty in living matter. their aura. Judgment gamut open books. on the book as a The emphasis in the Morgan Chroniques a vast pictorial box sealed contrast. 198. 541-615. 1967. Whether Richard is pleased or not. H. 20Quoted in A. 1-54. Imagineswere one of the two means by which the orator remembered the content and the arguments of his discourse. outside the margins of the representation. Chicago. Image et ressemblance Anselmea'Alain de Lzlle. 133-148. There could be no more ironic comment on the book-asobject than the simulated. those written by the Evangelists and eaten by Saint John. an utterly visual spot that momentarily arrests the eye and interrupts the deciphering of the narrative made visible. de Bruyne. "Franciscan Piety and Voracity: Uses and Stratagems in the Hagiographic Pamphlet.119. Arasse. 1987. 25 Paris. "La Couleur de la chair ou le paradoxe de Tertullien. de l'EcoleFrangazse au XVeme siecle.
This content downloaded from 190." This contrast could be read as a significant trace of a metaphorical disjunction. Etudes d'esthitiquemdzievale.24 Miniatures celebrated the art object in similar terms. specifically in its "wrapping." The CultureofPrint (as in n. Inherited from antiquity.26 between connections establishing as such. methodologically developed in Devant de l'art. 1988. "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction." Melanges de l'Ecole Frangazsede Rome (Moyen Age/Temps Modernes). de saznt 1946. I. see the two classic studies by E. frame a text that is unfolding elsewhere. If the lay elite adopted and adapted this metaphysical discourse. Gellrich. trans. This ostentatious display of devotion demonstrates that images gave form to what would have remained otherwise invisible and intangible (the object of devotion and the devotional act itself).M. de l'image religieuse 27 D. 1974.25 the duke is represented in an intimate prayer before a benevolent Virgin and Child (elsewhere before the Crucified or the Trinity). disappeared only with the rise of mechanical means of reproduction. In a sermon praising Saint Anthony of Padua. Bruges. Mythology. M. it was because such idealism minimized the mercantile value of art objects while promoting their uniqueness. as Daniel Arasse defines it. In regard to the Middle Ages. position it with a gesture mirroring that of Richard II (Fig.216 on Tue. by hermetically Annunciation Last and the of books. "Entre Devotion et culture: Fonctions de Rome. Schapiro.23Consistent with a long medieval tradition. Its disproportion is properly symptomatic. Paris. Mslat. that sacred radiance that. locked with two silver clasps enameled with the arms of the duke. 2. Didi-Huberman. like two punctuation marks. 1969. In a portrayalfrom the famous Petites sioned byJean de Berry (Fig. "On the Aesthetic Attitude in Romanesque Art" (1947). 1974. 1985.The whole system created." in Illuminations. firmly closed by two clasps that face the recipient and. and at the same time sublimated what was too visible and tangible. contemporary sources praised the opulence of the materialsor the technical appropriateness of the finished product in terms of "good" images. Yates. 76. l'Image. aesthetic responses were intimately associated with metaphysicsin the Middle Ages. not in a coffer or a purse or a table. however. Ithaca." Nouvelle Revue de psychanalyse. 1977. alongside other similarbooks in the chambre library. 21'I borrow the ingenious conceptual opposition between visual and visible. but never before did so many miniatures with miniaturizedbooks decorate the object to be read. au douzzemesiecle. fol. 2). 1966. for her discussion of the "stomach of memory" metaphor. Javelet. acknowledged (or affected to do so) that the value of his gift resided first in its material appearance. those that were read and digested. Bibl. the other being the loci or topoi. for donors and not for owners. Zohn. 1990.P. Camille.himself the author of the text. 1985. 68-94. Middle Ages. TheArt ofMemory. nameless manuscript offered to the duc de Berryby the Limbourgbrothers as described in an inventory of 1411: it was a painted piece of wood."20 The hefty object suspended between Froissart and Richard II differs on all points from the thin ideal of the text as spiritual enrichment. For the artistic realm. Benjamin.'"27
24 For the most extensive treatment of medieval aesthetics. 9-49. Boureau. the medieval tradition of formal memory codified during the Renaissance training (the ars memorativa that as artesmemoriae) images played a key role in suggests the present and the past. they constituted significant mnemonic tools for the acquisition and transmission of knowledge.
miniatures played a prominent part in the recollection of the stories absorbed by the leader. Ste. Lossky. the mnemonic capacity was also linked to other than didactic concerns. Richard was perhaps the first author to underscore the need for a concurrent action between miniatures and text. Paris." but he concluded with an original personal observation. sight and hearing. Genevieve MS2521). ilz mectoient en leurs livres diverses couleurs et diverses figures a celle fin que la diversite et la difference leur donnast meilleur souvenance"." secondly. one of the first treatises on rhetoric written in French. prouffitable est de mectre en son cuer et en son ymaginacion la figure et la fourme d'ycelle chose que l'en veut impectorer. Nat. Translations are mine. visual memory was conceived as an essential tool for the acquisition of knowledge. ArchilogeSophie. Schmitt. the "opinion of the ancients. panel paintings.119.29 Such was the case for John of Genoa. The capacity of images to function as mnemonic triggers had been noted since Early Christian times in the canonical pleas for the usefulness of religious imagery. Painting and Experiencein
Fifteenth Italy:A Primerin the SocialHistoryof PictorialStyle. 24. v. et consequamment de ycelle chose que l'on veult impectorer. as well as the development of exempla inserted into sermons and of vernacular allegorical prose.PetitesHeures de Jean de Berry.ed. Thus.216 on Tue. E.MANUSCRIPTS
IN LATE MEDIEVAL
heart and the imagination the figure and the form of the thing to be remembered. 1388. Bibl. from his own experience: The first rule for remembering something.)
More than a mere rhetorical instrument. Paris. "L'Occident. 3. 9. An exhaustive account of the fortune of Gregory's dictumis by L. by generating a kaleidoscopic varietas within manuscripts. 18014.
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Oxford. presented to Jean de Berry in 1410. And it was precisely during the thirteenth century that the volume of visual narratives increased dramatically: the proliferation of illuminated manuscripts. 1987.28 Although it is difficult to decide exactly what Legrand meant by "figures" and "colors. Baxandall." Nicde II (787-1987). 41. "Was Art Really the 'Book of the Illiterate'?" Word& Image. consists of putting into the
The quite elaborate theories justifying religious images were not lost in secular contexts. completed in 1400.30
2 Jean de BerryPraying to the Virginand Child. Nat. the Sophilogium. see J. Beltran. stimulate devotional feelings more effectively than
texts. as he stated. in the renowned prologue to the Bestiaire d'amour written around the middle of the thirteenth century by Richard de Fournival. Wherefore one best learns from illuminated books. Bibl. when the ancients wanted to remember and to get something by heart. F. instruct the "simple people. which was a translation of the second and third parts of his summa. Boespflug and N. first. 1986. whose influential Catholicon (one of the few theological works commonly found in aristocratic libraries) stated that images could. et pour tant est ce que l'en estudie mieulx es livres enluminez pour ce que la difference des couleurs donne la souvenance de la difference des lignes. for.G. He conceived image and text as parallel "ways which lead to the two doors of memory. according to scholastic theologians like Thomas Aquinas. and. The claim was usually framed by two other rationales: images as surrogates of the written Word for those who could not read (Gregory the Great's famous "Bible for the illiterate") and as motors of one's devotion (Gregory's compunctio). His advice derived directly from the ars memorativa. and wall paintings. Mslat. 29 Against the unilateral insistence on Gregory's conception of images as aedificatio. who quotes from an "anonymous manuscript" (Paris. Yet there is evidence that the training of visual memory could rely not only on purely mental constructs or abstract diagrams. 1972. reactivate by their everyday presence the mystery of the Incarnation and the examples of the saints." and illustrated this point with a vivid example derived from
"La premiere regle si est que pour avoir aucune souvenance d'aucune chose. they enhanced their books with different colors and figures so as to strengthen the memory through diversity and difference. Moreover. the Archiloge Sophie. Douze siecles d'images religieuses. 227-251." it is safe to assume (even if only from personal experience) that.C. interestingly. 1989. fol. et singulierement pour impectorer par cuer. and especially for incorporating it by heart. 198r (photo: Bibl. an Augustinian friar and prominent humanist. one chapter of which dealt with memory and mnemonic tools. Jacques Legrand. Duggan. chap. were roughly coeval and possibly related phenomena.Livre des bonnesmoeurs.136. but also on miniatures. a connection that posed. 271-301. Et de ce fait les anciens quant ilz vouloient aucune chose recorder et impectorer. Legrand also made an adaptation of the first part. a direct confrontation with scriptural authority. is best known for his moral treatise Le livre des bonnes moeurs. ed. for the difference between the colors bestows remembrance of the different lines. 30 Quoted and discussed by M. unless otherwise noted. Miniatures were rarely mentioned in scholastic discussions. Nic&e II et les images du VIIIeme au XIIIeme siecle. Paris. finally. ca. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. and therefore of the thing itself. man became literate with the help of mental images (phantasmata) stored while reading. Actually. Partially translated by Carruthers.
1971. Et la tu pourras moult de beaulx exemples prendre car les fais passez aprendront a adviser pour quelle maniere l'en doit gouverner ou temps advenir". encountering the visual might have been a more active undertaking than confronting a text. 468-469. created objects of cognition rather than mere recognition. And you need to gather many good examples. Li Richartde Fornzvale li reponsedu Bestiaire. see H.34The link could be visualized as well. 36F. 562.E. Nat. 320-330. Belting. and forced beholders to recompose their intermittent view of the past.21. Of course the hermeneutical capacity of images is equally apt to subvert texts. In addition." PictorialNarrative in Antzquzty and the Mzddle Ages.3. fol. 1969. These origins were perceived to be so intimate as to be linguistic:Jean Corbechon.136.]. 64-68. Illustratzonsof the Grandes ChroM5 niques de France (1274-1422). of the FrenchMzddle Anthropology 1983. Si saches que tu dois avoir ramembrance des biens a toy fais et advenus de tes anchiens et de tes ancestres. Ages. "The New Role of Narrative in Public Painting of the Trecento: Hzstorzaand Allegoria. the link made by Richard between memory and ancient history with the specific example of Troy was a particularlyrelevant one. Paris.Studzes mn of the Warburg Illustratzon(Studzes Instztute).80
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classical history: "For when one sees an illustrated story. Christine de Pizan 33 Charles V's librarian Gilles Mallet was praised by for his impeccable delivery in Le Lzvredesfazs et bonnesmeurs(as in n. H. Studieszn the Hzstoryof Art. because rulers were constantly made aware of their ties with Greek and Roman heroes.xxxII. A substantial number of manuscripts produced for the Valois librarieswere. Byrne. 151."A Second Instruction to the Reader from Nicolas Oresme. usuallyread to the nobles by a secretary.35 By pairing events scattered throughout the text. Bloch. and the stimulating study by R.
This content downloaded from 190.The representation of historic personages. Msfr. "Letter Writing and Picture Reading: Medieval Textuality and the Bestiazred'Amour. ." viii.37Taken as a general category. 1985. Kelly and T."And it is quite conceivable that late medieval rulers. surrounded as they were by images and visual spectacles. 1985. Politicsand Economics." VzsualResources. and Carruthers. Chicago. 2. In any event. London. they also served for instruction."3" interchangeable procedures for the acquisition of memory. or dynastic intent. ceremonial. 1983.. Beaune.38Unlike the ubiquitous presence of religious images in the medieval West. 1. the Hzstoryof MedzevalSecular 37 H. historical manuscripts were instrumental in creating entirely new iconographic types to be "incorporated" by the nobles perusing them. you need to have the knowledge of everything. Hzstorza Trozana. Segre. Etymologies
A Lzterary and Genealogzes. 153-177..III. cxxvilI.LXI. Hedeman. 1977." Bzbliothequede l'Ecole des Chartes. then. 1989. 1. 97-113.1979. they proved the reality of the text by giving it as a visual confirmation".119. Richter Sherman. either local chronicles or the official annals of the French monarchy. 1991.39it could be argued that the understanding of historical facts was largely molded by the way miniatures portrayed past events. In a culture where silent deciphering was still the exception and collective reading the rule. The capacity of pictures to convey information was intensified by the fact that many texts were illustrated for the first time in this era. stated: "Noble emperor. "Some Medieval Definitions in the Illustration of in the French Translation of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethicsand Polztzcs Nicolas Oresme. de mazstre Bestzazre 32 "Noble empereur. Ohlgren.this equivalencebetweenpeinture not to be assumed as readily a century later. Hector's son Francion became the French monarchy'sfounding hero. 291-328. 23r. while reading remains in a passive one. historical in nature.derived the French monarchy etymologically from Francion. proprietisdes choses. for past events will advise you on how to govern in the future. Aussi tu dois regarder et faire lire devant toy les croniques et histoires anciennes. See Carruthers. Indeed. 1957. for the mythicalTrojan ascendancy played an important role in France in establishing feelings of national identity."32 Here. 131.. Paris. seeing is cast in an active tense. secular representations of historicalnarrativesgave a concrete material existence to figures previously experienced within the evanescent context of oral transmission. were better trained in visual than in written literacy. you need to remember the good things done to you and to your ancestors. Solterer. "Paths to Memory: Iconographic Indices to Romande la Rose and ProseLancelotManuscripts in the Bodleian Library. such a miniature rendered equally present the recent and the immemorial past. "Rex imago Dei: Journal of Medieval Hzstory. For when we hear a romance read we grasp the adventures as clearly as if they were unfolding Richard presented sight and hearing as before our eyes. 9). see C." Art Bulletin. andparoleseemed curiously. Word does the same thing. set at the legendary origins of an uninterrupted chain of Frankish kings. III. Original text edited by C. This phenomenon was especially significant at that time. in his translationofBartholomaeus Anglicus'sProprietatis rerum. Avril. whether about Troy or something else.. tu dois avoir la congnoissance de toutes choses [. Therefore you need to look and have the chronicles and ancient histories read to you. Translator of Aristotle's Art Bulletzn. LIX. The Royal Image.H. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. v.D. if they functioned as "visualconfirmation"of texts.Milan. if images infused referents with a sense of reality. For more comprehensive inquiries." 39 "The intention of the pictures is the same as that of the texts. like the Chroniques. Nazssance de la natzon France. to construct
their memoria rerum gestarum according to compelling new
visual evidence.a fictional correspon-
frontispiece miniature of the Grandes Chroniques de France. A.H. Buchthal.
dence between Aristotle and his pupil Alexander in the "mirrorof princes" tradition. xvI. The anonymous
author of the Livre des secrez d'Aristote. as in the
where Francion's foundation of Sicambria is eloquently superposed on CharlesVI receiving the very text establishing the legitimacy of his rulership (Fig. whose very life was a sort of unremitting ritual procession.216 on Tue. whose direct heirs they were
Quoted from T. works translated from Latin (especially Livy and Orosius) and by contemporary authors (Boccaccio's Des
nobles hommes et femmes and Des cldresfemmes). 1-15. whatever their specific political. Charles V of France and the Lzvre des 34 D."Word & Image. that of the visualization of neologisms. Bibl.36 the Romande Troie. one sees the action of brave men which were in the past as if they were present. For two commentaries. compilations
or historical novels such as (the lengthy Histoireancienne). 38 A related problem. 3). Recollecting past events for directing future behavior under the aegis of Prudence was a central aim of mnemonic training. Berkeley. and impressed a trope of concatenated historical events on the beholder's mind. In particular. is discussed by C. "Trois Manuscrits napolitains des collections de Charles V et Jean de Berry. 223-229. zdem. 1981.
fol. they were "actualized. as this process is frequently termed.216 on Tue. ca. new pictorial worlds were created every time a manuscript was produced." as in the Grandes Chroniques frontispiece (Fig. And while texts varied minimally or not at all in their different editions. or more exotic cultures belongs to another phase of the reception of antiquity.MANUSCRIPTS
IN LATE MEDIEVAL
tm vie*. or in a lavish depiction of a Roman banquet from another
This content downloaded from 190. but also of Ulysses. or. or Constantine. The historicist re-creation of Greek. Pierpont Morgan Library Ms M.119.136. Because they were specific to each manuscript. images thus granted their owners the fundamental privilege of
possessing an individual historical memory through icons inserted in a genealogically linked chain. or. Solomon. Roman. 2r (photo: Morgan Library)
supposed to be. 3). Francion. The Valois considered themselves to be offspring not only of David. Yet anyone who has merely glanced at medieval historical miniatures realizes that archaeological verisimilitude is not their prime concern. indeed. As a rule. Jason. In addition to displaying one's features and actions. Cott
3 Frontispiece. 536. miniatures became the exclusive preserve of their owners. functioning as a sort of personalized mediator between them and the ancestral figures to which the texts referred. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. New York. ancient places and figures were intentionally displaced by medieval representations. 1410. GrandesChroniques de France.
fol. 45 Quoted from M. the Romans used to create images from different metals. ed. 2. 393-414. along with humanist mythography. 1971. Chivalry. Giotto and the Orators. see B. "SocialChange and LiteraryLanguage:The Textualisationof the Past in Thirteenth-Century Old FrenchHistoriography. Droz. 1950.H. 4). Pierre Bersuire's translation of Livy's History of Rome (Fig. of praise. Oxford. the monumentalization of the latter through the former. 44 "Si n'estoit pas sans cause que. would invade territories from which they had been excluded for centuries." Ages. Not surprisingly.and History." in Western also E. during the Renaissance. a secular as opposed to a biblical ancestry.C. a "cult of the past. 161-175. 1974. Charlemagne. coins. Uppsala. or. of a more systematic discourse on art emanating from ecclesiastical circles compelled to deal with such provocative images."44 The poet Antoine de la Sale used analogous arguments to support historical imagery decorating noble castles: "In the good old days.2. Deeds performed by Charles V and his brothers. Oxford. 1981. 77. and social ceremonies such as royal entries and banquets contributed to the development of a secular typology that familiarized the aristocracy with its putative past. Some interesting suggestions are in C. Fora comprehen1965. Le Quadrilogue ed.critically Histoire etculture siveaccountof medievalhistoriography. See scriptsof the OvideMoralist. illuminated manuscripts. Essays Wallace-Hadrill. 86r (photo: BPU) for historical writing. 43 This classical topos. since ecclesiastic circles certainly possessed similar texts but no such elaborate visual records. E.London. exh. with visions of a different memory." that is.. and M. Keen. Aeneas. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. Davis and J. Keen. for instance. Paris. historique Spiegel. by extension. xvII. 5. also relevant are G. or Lucretia could thus legitimately be included in the same visual thesaurus filling the libraries and the minds of the Valois. Presented to Richard William Southern.216 on Tue. romances were full of fibs. Yet for the period and the social group here under examination.101-102. commentedupon by Camille. ars et curres triumphans a ceulx qui vertueusement se partoient pour accroistre la seigneurie rommaine et augmenter le bien publique de leur cit'".42 In spite (or because?) of this opposition. les Rommains faisoient ymages de divers metaulx. Tite-Live. Ideal du prince et pouvoir royalen Francea la fin du MoyenAge (1380-1440).82
THE ART BULLETIN
of Jean de Berry's manuscripts. Paris. this moment coincided with the rise.LvII. Then. dans l'Occident midieval.119.
This content downloaded from 190.43Louenge could function as a catalyst
4 Frontispiece to Book I. xxxv." Journalof Medieval and Renaissance Studies. a cult of the pagan past. Most frequently it was the concept of louenge.Renaissance and Renascences Art. pour louenge et memoire. For Charles VI's tutor. Philippe de Mezieres. tapestries. 1987. Bibl. Publique et Universitaire MSfr. 1975. 1400. 129-148. it could justify the institution of secular imagery. arches and triumphal chariots to honor those who set forth virtuously to expand the Roman domains and improve the public affairs of their city. Baxandall. Krynen. that epitomized the relationship between present and past as mediated by art. 133. no figurative rituals alluded explicitly to a cult of the past. 2-4). and with the blazons of the kingdom's nobles. Mus&e This complex topic has not been addressed yet in a convincing 41 fashion. Francois Rath. for praise and memory. 399. the halls and chambers of noblemen were painted or decked with tapestries depicting the battles and conquests of past heroes. 57. 1976. Guen&e."45 Visual panegyric was indeed the realm where civic and ceremonial considerations overlapped with ethical and commemorative concerns. coupled with the mnemonic function.
40 Meiss. Paris. classical heroes and heroines. with the world of the onlooker.M. 1984. by Francion. This visual apperception of the past belonged to a very small fraction of the population. a deceptive fiction compared to the truth revealed by the Text. secular images helped to create what would become. Not surprisingly. See.136. of another identity that had surreptitiously slipped out of the hands of the clerical power. Petrarch's De remediisutriusque fortunae as quoted in M. By establishing a mnemonic experience distinct from the lessons instilled by religious narratives. clerics and moralists were prone to denounce the success of vernacular prose among the nobility. Geneva. Panofsky. as in this passage drawn from Alain Chartier's Quadrilogue invectif" "It is not without reason that. 80-83. stripped of their veils. in theMiddle TheWriting Heralds. Humanist Observersof Painting in Italy and the Discoveryof Pictorial Composition(1350-1450). most notably the residences of the churchmen. 100. invectif. R.40 Such images cannot be dismissed as anachronistic or picturesque: they attest to a specific historiographic conception whereby the scenery of past events was equated with contemporary ones and. simultaneously. 1981. L'Enluminure a deCharlemagne
42 Quoted in J. is taken up by Italian as well as French humanists. It was a specific prerogative of courtly audiences. specifically elaborated by Pliny in his Natural History (Bk. 1980. chap. 17.Geneva. wall paintings.ca. cat. And even if these excerpts focus on
ler. "Three ManuArtBulletin. Lord. ofHistory "Chivalry. theatrical representations.4' This isomorphic relationship between different orders of reality allowed the authentication of the past by means of the present and. as a reminder to all of the lessons of good conduct.
Boccaccio. x. Paris. 47 Saint Thomas. 25th InternationalCongressof l'image royale.. Exemplum.
.The Rhetoricof Examplein EarlyModernFranceand Italy. worthy of respect or
This content downloaded from 190. ca.)
monumental art. 1989. Summa. Msfr. 11.216 on Tue. 938.:::i:i:-li i
or :I 1.
6 Luxure and Cruaute. correct visual antecedents.136.119. Quest. According to the art of memory tradition. 345r (photo: Bibl. Recht.)
On links between exemplum and history writing. Nat. In fact. Nat.il-l:: l:: :::
Fill"::i. fol. of turning men into monuments was tantamount to remembering them.MANUSCRIPTS
IN LATE MEDIEVAL
Aw --::::-:-::: ::`: i .Faits et dits meimorables. Bibl. 1402. visual and written portrayals could single out contemporary citizens or past rulers.47 What is at issue." Europaische the HistoryofArt. Bibl. Nat. exemplary aims pervaded all forms of historical representations. 69-74. Msfr. 189-201.:i:i:
words of the fourteenth-century theologian and mathematician Thomas Bradwardine: Their quality truly should be wondrous and intense. Des cleresfemmes. 74r (photo: Bibl. Bibl. 1402.ca. as the most beautiful or ugly.D. Paris. Nat. such things are for the most part not average but extremes. 176-198. 282. or. 1986. 12420. then. if not imposing. Vienna. they had to be agentes. 1972. Nat. to influence social behavior by proposing. "Le Portrait et le principe de realite dans la sculpture: Philippe le Bel et Kunstum 1300.)
5 Humilityand Pride. Paris. Princeton. Stierle's brilliant analysis. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. and raise them from contextualized mortal beings to eternal paragons. if imagines were to remain effectively impressed on memory. the very act of carving and painting past heroes. 15r (photo: Bibl. La Sommele roi. Discussed by R. I'Exemple comme Histoire. Nat. Frbre Laurent. joyous or sad. 1294. in the
7 Venus." Poetique. art. according to the commonly accepted medieval etymology of monumentum as monere and mentem. "L'Histoire comme Exemple. see K.H. fol. because such things are impressed in memory more deeply and are better retained.46 Whatever their format. Lyons. fol. is the efficacy of images to affect the viewer. MSfr. However. Example as a rhetorical category in Renaissance texts is studied by J.
which belonged to Jean de Berry. 55Carruthers. such as battles. images underwent a narrative transformation that endowed them with a more transitive quality. 1988. 212-215. "The Correlation of Tense in the French Miami. however.. costumes. "The Time of the Exemplum.
This content downloaded from 190. material images by a fourteenth-century intellectual seems particularly meaningful. ainsi a noz doctrines nous pouvons le bien et le mal reciter. the color also very brilliant and intense. 80. Late medieval miniatures were. If images were capable of proposing and imposing political and moral agendas. Verb. and affects. Add. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. 284. In contemporary texts. Jacques Legrand. who considered colors one of the visual components cuing memory. they shared with coeval historical writing an ambivalent (but not ambiguous) status in which the succession of events was suspended for the purposes of presentation. and "historical 54 For the important distinction between "discourse" narration. 6)." 1. compartments. roundels. II." Problems zn GeneralLznguzstzcs. 5' For this change. pleasure is a gendered visual function. even more so than these. as is explicitly evinced in the scenes of Lechery and Cruelty in Valerius Maximus's very successful Faits et dits memorables(Fig. Le Tympande Conques. Jacques Le Goff. figures had to be as vivid as possible.216 on Tue."The Medzeval Imagznation.136. Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. and lascivious behavior (Fig. 64-70. But what kinds of feelings did secular images elicit? What did the Valois experience when viewing their features. in the monumental Bibles moralisees or in manuscripts illustrating Frere Laurent's Somme le roi (Fig. As such. not limited to secular images. 53-56. edifying intentions did not disappear. The embodiment of courtly virtues. with the establishment and the perpetuation of mundane power structures. their occupations."5 Even then.
4"Quoted from Carruthers. particular repulsiveness (Fig. 1973. or in another way made extremely ugly.V.C. 7) taken from a manuscript of the Cldres femmes. diss."4 Thirteenth-century manuscripts favored clear oppositional layouts by enclosing the dialogic elements into medallions. of a Thirteenth50 E. medieval audiences held them equally apt to arouse emotions. This is evident in such contemporary sources as a representation of Venus (Fig. sanguinary battles. contrasted with the portrayal of wicked monarchs. we can recite the
good and evil with our doctrines. along with the evolution of vernacular prose. elegant social rituals (Fig.52 It is particularly fascinating that color schemes also could contribute to such a semantic opposition. or friezes. images could act upon the viewer. edification. Profane images were concerned with the here and now. images.D. saturated with persuasively didactic intents. Bulletzn. 6). and their objects of desire graphically inscribed on a parchment leaf? Like recollection and ethical propositions. Furthermore. strong oppositional compositions helped to turn many manuscripts into powerful epideictic means to inform the viewer." quoted from Lusignan (as in n. Benveniste. in sum. pleasure was an essential component in the nexus of experiences offered by secular imagery. since painted characters usually remained encapsulated in magnifying isolation. 12). or captivating eccentricity (Fig. 1-8.84
THE ART BULLETIN
MARCH 1992 VOLUME
something ridiculous for mocking. the didactic function nurtured by a memory trained in things past and sustained by pictures based on formal contrasts was. Thus the function of the exemplumwas to bridge the gap between historical reality and the eschatological unknown".LVII. 1971. 410. Bonne.. As prescribed by the ars memorativa.55 and John of Genoa was not alone in believing that images stimulated devotional feelings more effectively than texts. the prestige ascribed to concrete.48 Thus. 6). Thomas Aquinas drew intimate connections between memory. Overlaps between figures were kept to a minimum. efficient production (Fig. strange of clothing and all bizarre of equipment. either of exceptional beauty (Fig. for instance. Kosmer. and sanctioned relationships between men and women."53 The "colors of rhetoric" was a familiar tradition. 53 "Et comme nous voions que le paintre met a une ymage pluseurs couleurs belles et laides a celle fin qu'elles se puissent mieulx monstrer l'une encontre l'autre. architectural components.5 By the fourteenth century. 1975. such as intense.
Text translated at the end of the 14th century by Simon de Hesdin and Nicholas Gonesse. L'Art roman de face et de profil. and delight. 9). Analogous in this respect to exempla.Paris. 4).. fiery red. Given the persistence of the "two-tiered" model even in today's historical writing postulating a high (written) and low (visual) culture. 7). see J. and the whole color strongly altering the appearance.119. For this manuscript. "A Study of the Style and Iconography Century 'Somme le roi' (British Museum Ms. further stated: "And as we see the painter applying to an image several beautiful and ugly colors so that each shows up better by contrast with the other. etc. plaisir is associated with images as often as memory and praise. 54180) with a Consideration of Other Illustrated 'Somme' Manuscripts of the Thirteenth. 5). of course. both confirming the reality of the narrative and structuring the imagination. Consequently. usurpers and treacherous subjects. their ancestors." Ph. 10).
was an instrument of conversion. What distinguished them from religious imagery was the reduced relevance of the eschatological perspective so central to religious imagines agentes. The firm conventions regulating the rendering of figures in courtly manuscripts constantly reinforced what was morally and socially appropriate or inappropriate. as. except when artists wanted to signify multitudes or states of chaos. inducing the acceptance or repudiation of a positive or a negative model. 1974.. see Meiss. 1984. and conversion had 49 "The exemplum to occur immediately. or wounded with greatly opened wounds with a remarkably lively flowing of blood. a thing of great dignity or vileness. positions in space. each personage was assimilated to a proper locus defined completely or partially by discrete pictorial elements (frames. Yale UniverArt sity." see E. miniatures articulated a powerful iconic discourse54 intended for the beholder's identification. fraudulent artisans.Chicago. 176. gestures. or murders or sexual intimacy. See also her "The noyous humoureof lecherze. but it is interesting that Legrand reverted the chromatic metaphor to its original and literal locus. despite the development of a continuous space. such as equitable rulers. 205-215. In the late Middle Ages.).
59 Huizinga. Sterling. "Un Mythe didactique chez Christine de Pizan: S6miramis ou la veuve h6roique. 131) is replaced by a naked Venus in the mid-15th-century example (fig. and it is tempting to read the one at hand as an indication of the author's and the patron's divergent inclinations toward women and sexual subjects. Guarino. See Meiss.) the French translation of Boccaccio's De mulieribus claris. Equally revealing is the analysis of figured objects in medieval literature by D. ConcerningFamous Women..Chicago and London. 1922. 333-338." which Johan Huizinga saw as characterized by a bewildering array of erotic manners. 1903.58 Boccaccio's austere moral view in his late career. La Peinture mdie'vale d Paris (1300-1500).H. etc. Miles. 37-52. xxiII. 62 Meiss. Loyau.136. Bumgardner. instead endowing her with all the codified attributes of courtly temptation. certainly did not correspond to the concept of love developed in French courtly society during the "waning of the Middle Ages. 60 The very success of a text like the Cleresfemmes among the French aristocracy is illuminating."6 The status of pagan deities (Ceres. 91-106. Boston. 273-279. I. History & Theory. The relationship between Christine de Pizan and the Cldres femmes is analyzed by A. Jeanroy. C. The EssaysofJoan Kelly. Nat.xxxv. Zaccaria. Female Nakedness and Religious Meaning in the Christian West. L. but all remain at a respectable distance. G. Ms fr. Chamb6ry and Turin. 1987. one holds a censer and literally incenses her." SecondaMiscellanea di studi e ricerchesul Quattrocento francese. Nat.
French translation completed in 1402 according to the colophon of the richly illustrated manuscript acquired by Philippe le Hardi from Jacques Raponde (Paris. Bibl. and J. the miniature forgoes allusions to such aspects of Venus's persona. 6v (photo: Bibl. She occupies both a central and a higher position on the picture plane." Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischenSammlungendes allerhdchsten Kaiserhauses. C. 64 The same issue is addressed by Camille. fol. 67-93. Bozzolo. attuned to an ecclesiastical perspective rather than to the Decameron's effervescence. original text ed. 1987. trivial there. 1403.
This content downloaded from 190. as are many female characters in the same manuscript. so that the scene seems a forceful contrast to that of the lasciviously clasped couple of the Faits et dits memorablesmanuscript (Fig. ca. Haarlem." MdlangesCharlesCamproux. See R.
glossing and reinterpreting the text it illustrated. Nat. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. XLVIII. where the "Youth Betrothed to a Statue" theme in Vincent of Beauvais's Miroir historial provides a significant example of a secular appropriation of a previously Christian motive: the 14th-century statue of Virgin and Child (fig.A. "Boccace et Christine de Pizan." Nouvelle Revue de psychanalyse. Milan. since it is often impossible to distinguish pagan from Christian figures without the help of the text. C. Le 'De claris mulieribus."59Sublime here. New Brunswick. the Virgin. 1967. repr. portraits et statues. de Winter.' principale source du 'Livre de la Cite des Dames. the paragon of illicit love. 1978. an image like this could undermine Boccaccio's intention. has calculated that eighty-three percent of French Boccaccio manuscripts were made for the aristocracy. Tuttele operedi Giovanni Boccaccio.56 For Boccaccio. 290. Bibl. 598). 1982 (Vols. was credited with the invention of brothels and the perpetuation of the most lecherous acts. by V. De mulieribus claris o delle donnefamose. In addition to the process of actualization. 598.64 The Valois could legitimately delight in pagan
am thinking in particular of Joan Kelly's analysis in "Did Women Have a Renaissance?" (1977). Msfr. all-male gathering known as the Cour d'amour dite de Charles VI. 61 Bozzolo. 1963.57 Venus in particular. 39. "Zur Kenntnis der kiinstlerischen Uberlieferung im spiten Mittelalter. 220-241. Carnal Knowing. 1974. 1963.W. carnal sins and feminine nature were indissolubly linked together. Paris. in Women.119. 1974. Regnier-Bohler. and the cycle significantly opens with a depiction of Eve (Fig. 23-25. 315-343.Montpellier. 12420). 279-338. 96-99 and 206-207." see M. 63 Workshop practices suggest that the same cartoncould be used for very different types of figures. A Survey of MedievalModel Books. Very interestingly. 53-77.216 on Tue. G. MSfr. Bozzolo and H. von Schlosser. Discrepancies between image and text are always culturally relevant. 287-290. the pictorial telescoping of the classical and the Christian past is a meaningful trait of the aristocratic visual culture of the late Middle Ages: pagan women usurped the forms of saintly figures and endlessly translated the ultimate Christian model. as for the entire medieval tradition.) is signified by the Christian attribute par excellence. 60Ibid. "Le Simulacre ambigu: Miroirs. 107-119. Boccaccio. Bibl.x. She is dressed in an aristocratic blue costume. In order to satisfy the tastes of a French courtly audience. 6). 8) assimilated to a contemporary woman as any other heroine of the cycle. Dulac. The miniatures make this proximity especially plain. "Christine de Pizan and the Atelier of the Master of the Coronation. see also Freedberg. IIand IIIin press). Paris. 93-105. Scheller.R. the halo. the casuistry of love was endless and it permeated a considerable number of social rituals. A second copy was given shortly afterwards to Jean de Berry (Paris. La Cour Amoureusedite de CharlesVI.~
8 Eve. 57 On the prescriptive urge exerted by Early Christian authors on women to suppress sexuality and to "become male. Nat. English trans. 132). 1982. however. 1981. surrounded by four men who pay homage to her.61 Before being recast in more positive terms in Christine de Pizan's sparely illustrated Cit" des dames. women were deemed unable to confine their sexual desires to the reproductive act and the few exceptions conformed to an allegedly canonical male restraint. Paris.' " Romania. Des cldresfemmes. 1989. such as the revival of ephemeral chivalric orders created for "the protection of women" and the fashionable. On this topic.MANUSCRIPTS
IN LATE MEDIEVAL
:. Minerva.62 this unprecedented collection of historical and legendary women offered a secular counterpart to hagiographic compendia. 19-50.
the Virgin suckling the Christ Child.67 Even if not as fanatically minded as Savonarola. see G. the duke of Burgundy.70 As a rule. as in copies of the Decameronor the frontispieces of Valerius Maximus's Faits et dits mimorablesmade for the French aristocracy." exclaimed the poet Jean Froissart when recovering a portrait of a past beloved. Accounts of sexually arousing images (including Pygmalion's statue) as well as the elision between image and prototype are central to Freedberg. Neale and B. flames. 2810. perhaps most often. Glorieux.66 Now.. 66 Camille. "artists took advantage of the privacy offered by each person's own book of hours to portray erotic scenes unimaginable in public art or publically displayed liturgical texts". according to Paul Saenger. P.Cambridge. The Symbolism of Churches ChurchOrnaments. Miles. burning-as of Froissart. Mass. Potentially. Hicks. Gerson. 8). 1986.R. biblical or otherwise. 1977.
9 Blemmyae.136. Suleiman.N. sapphires or diamonds. They also migrate into religious manuscripts. Paris. Camille. courtly images did not show naked figures on their own.ca.London. tory) passage The representation of nakedness. J. 1966. 1843. "The Virgin's One Bare Breast: Female Nudity and Religious Meaning in Tuscan Early Renaissance Culture. for. the eminent rector of the University of Paris in the early fifteenth century and religious counsellor to the Valois family. can heat me more than my image does. paintings. Bibl. Msfr. 1412. and referents as it had been posited from at least the twelfth century on in terms of an anagogic ascent of the worshipping viewer to the sacred archetype. 70 Another ofJean de Berry's manuscripts. 13) as well as of exotic or fantastic people. Fourrier. who encouraged people to burn "profane paintings.ed. S. which propelled him into an anamnestic dream without fulfilling its promise of her possession. 193-208. Meiss./escarboucles ne aymans. known as the Querelle du Roman de la Rose. Webb. nakedness was a charged index of lower-class status (Fig. representations. Paris.
. which are supposed to stop iron. On the contrary and even more easily.216 on Tue. 54. Friedman.. A. and texts inspire devotion. 1967. secular images. vii. It is worthwhile to remember that explicit erotic imagery only reemerged at the end of the Middle Ages. Because of their proximity to religious models. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. 194v (photo: Bibl. 306. secular images could turn into overt vehicles of sensual and sexual enticement: "No beryls.69 Yet nakedness appeared only in precise thematic contexts. ed.65 The best known myth of the conflation of image and referent operated by the desiring gaze. especially of women. 268. Geneva. Other conditions for exposed bodies included companions sharing the same bed or bath. offered to him by his nephew. inevitably displaced the question of the interplay between spectators. so that all occasion of vain thoughts may be and removed". while absorbing marital and extramarital love stories in place of the amor Dei.119.ed.. Nat.71 It was as if the late medieval representational regime required a pictorial surrogate for the viewer's gaze upon the unveiled object of desire-perhaps because it was not founded
"I1 n'est bericles ne topasse/Rubis. La parola e il fantasma nella cultura occidentale. 607-612. Jean sans Peur. a major shift in Western visual culture stimulated by new socio-economic conditions and the proliferation of secular products commissioned by laymen.Livre des merveilles." but his formulation belongs to the same semantic the (albeit more celebrafield-heat. vv. saintly.. Mass. 9). Cambridge. TheMonstrousRaces in MedievalArt and Thought. Agamben. like the courtiers in the Venus image..348. intervened. on Christine de Pizan's side.R.) did not specify exactly what he meant by "lecherous texts and paintings. 1981.Turin. one might recall that the 13th-century liturgist William Durandus praised the Greek Church for admitting only paintings "from the navel upwards. Nude figures surfaced in the margins of manuscripts where they were often cast in a literally perverted form./Qui me peuis faire escaufer/Ensi que mon ymage a fet". Nat. manuscript patrons could through a glance caress and possess exemplary but human feminine stereotypes. launched by a letter of protestation by Christine de Pizan.. He
Freedberg. and devout words. was admirably staged by Jean de Meung at the climatic end of the Roman de la Rose. to condemn the allegory which he obviously knew through illuminated copies: But what can inflame souls more than dissolute words and lecherous texts and paintings? We can observe that good. 116-122. 158-160. For a fine perspective from a philosopher. carbuncles or loadstones. 67 "Contre le Roman de la Rose." Oeuvres completes. 154-158. 298-337. J. at the end of the fourteenth century. This is why sermons are composed and images painted in churches..'"68 Gerson was clearly alarmed by the proliferation of deceitful imagery produced outside the guarded boundaries of the temple. esp.. topazes. 71 M. 317-377. and. On the issue of visual decorum. LeJoli Buisson.
This content downloaded from 190. see E. has best analyzed Pygmalion's story within the context of late medieval visual culture. Entirely or partially undressed women were depicted surrounded by men (or vice versa) in such contexts as baptisms or other ceremonial functions requiring partial disrobing. Stanze.
69 Erotic scenes invade manuscripts toward the middle of the 15th century... saphirs ne dyamans. Paris. as Pythagoras said. though it might partially coincide with "lechery.86
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exemplary figures and cultivate their taste for the past." was not singled out by Gerson. Le Dibat sur le Roman de la Rose.. Moreover. as in an endearing image of the uncanny Blemmyae drawn from the Livre des merveilles (Fig." The Female Body in Western Culture: Contemporary Perspectives.B. that of Pygmalion. For additional information on this quarrel. 1975. trans. Saenger (as in n. Jean de Meung's piece gave rise to a very interesting debate on literary ethics and poetic license./qu'on dist qui areste le fer. fol. bad ones lead to dissoluteness. 1977.
translated in 1414 by Laurent de Premierfait and Antonio of Arezzo. sothly for to say/ The remenaunt was wel keuerede to myn pay/ Ryght with a subtyl couercheif of Valence." Feminismand Art History.L'Enluminure(as in n. as opposed to
sixteen for the Cleres femmesand fifteen for the Decameron.136. 1955. 10). the enclosed garden. and.216 on Tue. Manchester. Paris. It is not possible thus to have nudity coincide with eroticism. Garrard. another biographical collection mostly dedicated to the changing fortunes of famous historical figures.ca. Broude and M."" What was to become the ultimate commonplace of Western art. 1983. see 0. sixty-nine copies have come down to us. v. for they did not "bracket out the process of viewing. 1957. not only as a premonitory signal of the shame befalling humankind after the Fall. The historical relationship between nudity. as was the case with the shapeless garments of previous periods. Elaborate costumes sculptured the body into an artifice that emphasized erotic zones rather than concealing them./ Ther was no thikkere cloth of no defense. seductive garment might have more ambivalent meanings than evident at first glance. who unfortunately skips the Middle Ages almost entirely. This must have been Boccaccio's most successful work in 15th-century France. attributes it to the Lugon Master." Les Cahiersdu ldopard d'or. D. Compare. This was customary
in medieval images for both sexes. For a complete list of illustrated manuscripts of Boccaccio's works. Boccaccio. the miniature contradicts the Bible and Boccaccio and the iconographic tradition alike. 1985-86. 1990. Dressing Eve in a finely crafted. L'Origine de la perspective. The Logic of the Gaze. 129-148. Watson. Branca. in a miniature from a copy offered to the duc de Berry of Boccaccio's Des nobles hommesetfemmes (Fig. Dtirer's famous engraving Draftsman Drawing a RecumbentWomen remains the most tantalizing collusion between the (re)invention of nudity and the origin of perspective. Hollander. vv. N. Alpers. 1974. ed.S.. the Cleresfemmesimage of Venus to an almost contemporary literary description of Venus given by Chaucer: "And nakyd from the brest unto the hede/Men myghte hyre sen. translated by the humanist Laurent de Premierfait. for instance." Studisul Boccaccio. as it were. Eve is as exposed as the prelapsarian Adam listening to her. The Nude. Given that the Middle Ages interpreted the clothing of Adam and Eve as a punishment. Visionand Painting.F. Washington. 190.75 The spectator of Eve's image was perfectly able to relish her bodily forms. But when Adam disappears.Venice.M. Gathercole. according to Bozzolo. 113-127. Des nobleshommesetfemmes. "Le Boccacedu duc de Berry. The text.C. Eve's textured appeal may have been almost subversive. 183-199. By dressing Eve before the Fall has actually happened. see V. without paying attention to different representational practices in this period. P. 85-188. Bryson 7" N. 1972. Bryson. and they relentlessly criticized aristocrats displaying exuberant fashions. 1975. Blanc. 1956.119. New York. 75The shape of dresses underwent a dramatic change toward the mid. Laurentde Premierfait's"Des cas des nobleshommesetfemmes. see S. See P. to perceive in the vertical towers and trees. is analyzed by P. esp.L. Eve's clothes materialize. This cannot be explained in terms of narrative necessity.
This content downloaded from 190. "La Naissance du vetement masculin moderne. Geneva. It requires no particular effort. Endowing costumes with a positively alluring signification was certainly a provocation for moralists. draperies. for the portrayal of both the cause (apple offered by serpent) and the consequence (awareness of nakedness) of the Fall does not dictate this choice of a contemporary. 243-251. Publique et Universitaire MSfr. despite the obliteration of her genitals."Chapel Hill. 1982. 74 B.New York.7' For example. idem. I. 1987.MANUSCRIPTS
IN LATE MEDIEVAL
s -~ 3. vetement masculin 'i la fin du Moyen Age. onto the pictorial surface itself. D. 77 The Parlement of Foulys. 40).14th century with the spread of the short male costume. 8). "Art History and Its Exclusions: The Example of Dutch Art. For a more specific account of the perception of new courtly fashions. 7v (photo: BPU) on the "peeping gaze" postulated by Brunelleschi's costruzione legittima. Meiss." Actes du Ier Congres International de l'Histoiredu Costume. "Vetement f6minin. 83-87. the erotic play between naked and veiled
The relationship between the "little hole" of Brunelleschi's experiment as described by Manetti and Lacan's "mirror stage" is theorized by H. For a brief comment sensitive to gender issues. 283. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. fol. Gagnebin. Le Point de vue des moralistes. deciphered through the bright and clinging textures in the typical close-up imposed by the medium. 94. Kirkham. however. as a loss. and V. 3-29.D. Damisch. Post. but also to avoid their exposure to the beholder of the image." Genava. Clark.74 Her body is erotically detailed. "Boccaccio visualizzato.72 Following Norman Bryson's suggestion of a historical dualism between representations calling for a "Gaze" as opposed to a "Glance.'" let alone to interpret the surge of it. 76 As implied by the very biased terminological distinction between nude and nakedness introduced by K. A Studyin Ideal Form." such images would belong to the latter category. as in the quite extraordinary image that opens the Cleresfemmes cycle (Fig. xv. and costumes is explored by A. since. Brewer. 1410.
10 Adamand Eve. 269-273. 1968. Bibl. Seeing throughClothes. courtly costume to shape Eve into an acceptable didactic model instead of the embodiment of Original Sin. and the shut door clear traces of this obliteration. ed." but rather inscribed it. further suggests that the multiplication of naked pictorial bodies in Western art should be linked to the suppression of the painter's and viewer's body within the logic of the Gaze as structured by monocular perspective.
119... such as naked women and the like.7' are even more self-evident."79 Even if the precise history of the advent of naked (female) bodies as the foremost locus of sexual desire still remains to be written. They exhibited a larger spectrum of realia than thirteenth-century Gothic manuscripts. Russell. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.Clues. Foucault.ca. and other heroines are to be found in H. Nat. see J. Both theologians associated "lecherous"pictures with innovative religious iconography. cannot be identified merely with the presence or absence of erotic contents. by either closely linking it to sin or by spiritualizing it. miniatures captivated the eyes. . for the scintillating layout of colors enhanced manuscripts that otherwise would have remained monotonously covered with dark patterns of written signs. . D. the exfoliation of a lavishly illuminated manuscript. 12 Minerva. The pictorial and historical differences between the draped Venus of the Cleres femmesand later representations. fol. visual systems of this period were regulated by the carefully orchestrated disclosure of terrestrialthings. xxxiv. Womenin Renaissanceand BaroquePrints. ArtemisiaGentileschi.136. 1989.Princeton. Law. MS fr. Washington. C. "The Archbishop on the Painters of Florence. Erotic desire. and analogous to the shift from Gerson's generic aversion to licentious images to Saint Antoninus of Florence's pithy stigmatization of artists who created images that stirred the libido. 1410. Based on an aesthetic of contained profusion.D.)
11 Cats.. 8" Huizinga. XLI. as if they represented similar deviations from the official canon."' secular miniatures initiated an irreversible reorganization of desiring perception by dissociating (sometimes against the texts) the customary links between profane vision. Garrard. Des clhresfemmes. 75-87. Nat. Paris. exh.Nat. 598.. Gaston Phebus. learn. 77-95." Myths. Bibl. 1959. and women. Miniatures lured because they produced a rhythmical sequence. which the Church had repressed for centuries. Paris. 1987. 1978. relish. and thus into another kind of regulation.iou
.C. Saint Antoninus's condemnation of heterodox representations of the Trinity are well known.A." Art Bulletin. "Titian. Boccaccio. 82 On medieval attitudes toward sexuality.. 79Translated and discussed by C.I
Nat.82 But the sensual pleasures induced by the turning of pages. 1450.. Ovid and Sixteenth-Century Codes for Erotic Illustration. See D. But what fictions did miniatures reveal to the noble eye? Late medieval miniatures evinced a world governed by order. Livrede la chasse.
. and Christian Society in Medieval Europe.Emblems. Bibl.. although his examples date from after the middle of the century. . not because of their beauty but because of their arrangement. 1971."8 it is certain that the ever-increasing presence of nakedness pictorial intimatelyparticipatedin the transformation of the ways of seeing at the end of the Middle Ages. a musicathat punctuated the text and introduced visual pauses where the gaze could rest. notes the "restraint displayed in fifteenth-century art. Sex. vices.88
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limbs. Venus. Chicago. National Gallery of Art.D. "Johannes Molanus on Provocative Paintings. Eva/Ave.. 315-316. The most far-reaching conclusions on the history of sexuality in Western society are still to be drawn from M. Along with other social forms of representation. On a purely perceptual level.216 on Tue. remember. slowly escaped from its control and migrated into the secular domain. such as Botticelli's floating goddess. . London.. 616.. 13r (photo: Bibl. but the censure directed towardthe first type of images deserves to be quoted: "They [the painters] are at fault when they make images that provoke to desire. TheHistoryof Sexuality.New York.
ca. in respect of erotic expression. Gilbert.)
dream. 36r (photo: Bibl. fol. and
78 More unusual examples of Eve. 80 The proliferation of nude women in Renaissance paintings as legitimized cultural objects responding to male scopic drives is taken up by M. Ginzburg.. The most systematic attack on sexually arousing images was formulated by Johannes Molanus in the De picturis et imaginibus sacris published in 1570. 1990. 1403."Journal of the Warburgand Courtauld Institutes. but it came too late and was doomed to remain ineffective. could be expressed in words but not in secular images. cat.
--Tw . Freedberg.1. yet were less prolific than Renaissance manu-
This content downloaded from 190. Brundage. 229-245. MSfr." On the contrary. naked women were common in theatrical representations and tableauxvivants. 1990. .
Cultural System. the fascinating Livre des merveilles (Fig.84 for instance. Taxonomy was. ed. Manuscripts of Gaston Ph6bus's Livre de la chasse (Fig. Lawrence. Paris. but functioned as models both of and for reality. the saintly dead and living. Ironically. are displayed in a number of stereotypical attitudes. More pertinent on this topic is R. they represent a fantasy of absolute social domination." as John B. Paris. 85According to the distinction formulated by C. 7v (photo: Giraudon/Art Resource. the Christian past and present. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.Y. geothus consumgraphic. "Menu pictures. LXXII. Aby Warburg's analysis of the cultural sadism involved in the figuration of peasants for the nobles remains exemplary: "Arbeitende Bauern auf Burgundischen Teppichen" (1907). 12). but also their circulation from one hand to another. and social knowledge visible-and able. These objects were not only material. mathematics. 1934. See also R. as denizens of visual myth. Sa Vie. Lacour. and the production of oil. operating in texts and social practices as well. inherited from the classical
"8Friedman (as in n. 9) domesticated the exotic Other by making it conform to a long-established tradition of mirabilia. Emblems of faceless productivity.136. the compensatory profits offered by such miniatures should be remembered when considering representational strategies of the Late Middle Ages. encouraged an imaginary capture of the social order and the feminine alike. the Church regulated or attempted to control the visual domain defined as sacred. 3. In a society in which images were a relatively rare cultural good. from the workshop into the collection.
IN LATE MEDIEVAL
scripts and paintings in which narrative and mimetic primacy produced a decisive increase of elements governed by perspectiva's rule. 84 Meiss. 1411-16. such as the Chlresfemmes. N. Banton. "Labeurand Paresse: Ideological Representations of Medieval Peasant Labor.G. Geertz. London. By classifying and tracking the objects they deemed worthy of enriching their environment and their memory. 1-46. 154. Miniatures. Lehoux. Musde Cond6 Ms 65. 4 vols. 367. M. as the astounding increase of illuminated manuscripts among the Valois attests. Le Gouvernement I'apanagedejean. de 1966-68. Secular images were not portrayals of actual social. the incisive account by J. During the entire Middle Ages. 1974. but codified and perpetuated an ideal world of order. duc de Berry(1360-1416). the accumulation of books and miniatures both necessitated the creation of archives and gained meaning from entering such sanctuaries. a strategy consistent with the only way the medieval West could represent the pagans.ca. 70). tamed wild animals by subduing them within the order of a directory and by displaying them in space for an all-embracing perception. 112-153. emblematically represented in one instance by Minerva (Fig. 1984. legislating the objects that mediated between the human and the divine.87 Images did not
. of course. 221-230. 1990.85 as evident in a scrupulously organized calendar miniature from Jean de Berry's Tr6s Riches Heures (Fig.
This content downloaded from 190." Programs of Medieval Illumination." Art Bulletin. late medieval rulers also ensured their proper survival in the libraries and memories of future generations. and specifically so in Jean de Berry's domains. Friedman has aptly called them. made objects of natural. 13). Other manuscripts. fol. 1932. Son Action politique (1340-1416). Like a sort of pre-colonial sales catalogue.) reflect this reality. 11). Leipzig. laboring under the panoptic gaze of a castle.83 Such images literally transformed textual enumerations into visual collections of real and imaginary beings.216 on Tue. 436-452. Jean de France. 86 In spite of its brevity. the apprehension of the world-as-representation was certainly a major power. TresRichesHeures dejean de Berry. ordered hierarchically according to specific spatial and chromatic devices. Alexander. the goddess credited with the invention of music.. Gesammelte Schriften. meticulous inventories described not only the physical aspect of manuscripts. Because of this capacity to categorize reality.86 The self-absorbed peasants. and thus to suture lacunary experiences. duc de Berri. weaving.. to categorize beings and events. and esp. of belle ordonnance. since the multifaceted concept of imago or simulacrum. 1966. Kans. the late medieval world was in a state of permanent social unrest." Anthropological Approachesto the Study of Religion. For the Valois. were a common idiom in manuscripts produced for the Valois. to impose an order where there appeared to be none. "Fields and Fortresses in the Tres Riches Heures. Late medieval visual systems devised their own organizational codes to posit reality. Chantilly.119. ethnic. or gender relations. Calkins.
87The basic study on Jean de Berry remains F.
dreams. 2). as objects of knowledge. 1967. and structured social relations shaken in actuality by anonymous producers of goods. or in marginalia.J. Collecting was a taxonomic act that permitted the elaboration of a class-specific memory. Response. were allowed to manipulate such objects only by delegation (though they could be appropriated or. Londonand New Century York. including M6di6vales and Studi sul Boccaccio.. fears and desires.90 it is certainly true that in late medieval art many pictorial subjects were increasingly disconnected from a religious framework and recast. Master. they played a prominent part in the identity formation of the upper ranks of late medieval society. mankind's likeness to God.. A Studyof Memory zn Medzeval Carruthers. French zntheTzme Pazntzng ofJeande Berry. Vernant. 1977. expropriated. Manuscrzts franpazses Padua. sacred vases. and "The Sculptures of Souillac" (1939). French zn the Tzme ofJean de Berry. 1983. from the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales in Paris. visions.119.Ideology Art. they secured objects that devised a historical memory. Brigitte Buettner received her Ph. etc). Meiss. until the thirteenth century. 89 For the status of art objects within the sacramental system. C. XLVIII. each of which addressed different communities and corresponded to specific modes of visual manipulation. Contemporarzes. relics. Myth and Thought among the Greeks. Cambridge. also embraced immaterial images (Christ as an image of the Father. they incorporated thoughts. (XVime and Image-makzng Idol. even better.1954. however. the considerable increase of available images responded to. d'Humanzsme Biblzotheque drawn attention to the 90 Meyer Schapiro. power.. the religious realm absorbed all secular motifs and themes. phantasms.NewYork..1989. As such. and fostered in return. then. apparitions. who allied themselves or competed according to the fluctuations of the art market. securing for viewers a certain control over the imaginary organization of the visible. Hopman. 156165. 01063].90
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MARCH 1992 VOLUME
eikon and eidolon88and repositioned by early medieval patristics. cultural and affective investment for the aristocracy. TheWanzng Huizinga. a more socially diverse range of consumers. 319-358. taxonomic. and pleasure. znMedzeval Camille. Londonand NewYork..). for instance. as shown by the solitary but intense dialogue between Jean de Berry and the Virgin in the Petites Heures. aesthetic. F. and solidified them into discursive lines different from those articulated by religious imagery. andXVth andtheNetherlands Centurzes zntheXIVth znFrance (1924). at least partially. into autonomous visual territories. The mutually reinforcing effects and affects mobilized by this imagery generated an aristocratic visual tradition engaged in everchanging confrontations with the pictorial propositions emanating from other social groups.M. 1974.1989.
were not passive illustrations of texts or mirrors of existing cultural patterns.M. Etude prznczdre collectzon dustyle"Gothzque Paris.P. Northampton. Fig. miniatures
"" As discussed by J. human passions. the variety of newly illustrated texts was instrumental in dividing the visual realm into thematic sectors. but evidently they operated simultaneously. TheBouczcaut 1968. de. 1986. trans. What is certain. Wirth. In the competition for the power of images and power over them. 2.D.Studzes Chicago. Sacred imagines belonged to a system of devices capable of setting in motion the redeeming translatio from worldly to divine matters through the sacraments and the sacramentalia (Eucharist. ThePowerof Images. See. New York. Internatzonal. The economic. Until then. The different functions of such images have been separated for the clarity of the argument. By the late Middle Ages. is that there is no such thing as a finite list of the workings of the visual. Crucifix.1974. "On the Aesthetic Attitude in Romanesque Art" (as in n. ofLzfe.1990. 24). szecle). andArt A Study Thought oftheMzddle Ages. J. courtly audiences of the late Middle Ages ruled over the fate of vernacular texts and profane visual spectacles. for a host of fascinating examples of the mutual contamination of things spiritual and things temporal. French Pazntzng ofJeande Berry. if not anachronistic.
Frequently Cited Sources
de Boccace des traductzons d'oeuvres Bozzolo. and London andThezr 2 vols. see J. and is presentlyat work on a bookon thefirst manuscriptof the Clkres femmes [Smith College.1985. New York. even within the chronological and geographic limits of this article. (Cambridge and Theory zn theHzstory of Freedberg. If the very distinction between secular and religious is problematic. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. "Th6orie et pratique de l'image sainte a la veille de la R6forme. Studzes znMedieval x). etc. except for some holy emperors and kings. incarnated the exotic unknown." et Renazssance. 1-55 and 102-130 respectively. de Phzlzppe Winter. Culture Lzterature.136.. and ideological functions delineated in this essay do not cover the entire field of semantic action for secular images.89 Laymen. mnemonic. duc de Bourgogne le Hardz." l'Vpoque
This content downloaded from 190. TheGothzc Cambridge. and other frames for sacred subjects in manuscripts.. Mass. rather.M.TheLate Pazntzng andthePatronage Fourteenth oftheDuke. La Bzblzotheque a apezntures surlesmanuscrzts d'une (1364-1404). exemplary. Secular images thus became a strategic site of economic. She has published in Europeanjournals.D.216 on Tue. TheLzmbourgs zntheTzme . has repeatedly pressure exerted by secular tendencies within ecclesiastical art. The very proliferation of secular images was itself a source of pleasurable power.2 vols. London. M. The Bookof Memory. bas-de-pages. both in Romanesque Art.P. embodied the desires and fears inspired by the female.. See also Huizinga. as in the representations of the labors of the months affixed to Gothic cathedral fagades. Furthermore. erotic.