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No.

108 – June 2002

United Kingdom Becomes Tenth Member of ESO


CATHERINE CESARSKY, Director General of ESO

On 8–9 July 2002 the ESO Council not surprising that the negotiations over Director-General of Research Councils,
meets in London to mark the occasion the details of U.K. entry were brief. In sent me a letter formally requesting that
of the United Kingdom becoming the late 1999, I began informal meetings the United Kingdom become a full
tenth country to join the European with Ian Halliday, Chief Executive of member of ESO in mid-2002. A working
Southern Observatory. Forty years ago, PPARC, the British institution responsi- group was then established to discuss
when ESO was created by the govern- ble for funding astronomy, to discuss possible in-kind contributions, and the
ments of Belgium, France, Germany, the U.K. joining ESO. At first, the U.K. detailed negotiations extended over
Netherlands and Sweden, the United expressed the desire to enter ESO pro- most of the year 2001. On 15 Novem-
Kingdom opted not to become a mem- gressively, by “ramping up” an initially ber 2001, I received a letter from Lord
ber, but rather to centre its astronomical small annual contribution to that called Sainsbury of Turville, the U.K.’s Parlia-
observations of the southern sky on a for by the ESO Convention, but it was mentary Undersecretary of State for
new telescope to be built in collabora- soon recognised that this was unac- Science, confirming that “the United
tion with Australia. The recent United ceptable to ESO. Early in March 2000, Kingdom wishes to accede to ESO
Kingdom’s interest in joining ESO when the British Parliament took up the membership on 1 July 2002, on the mu-
arose from ESO’s success in creating question of the U.K.’s entry, Lord Tan- tually agreed terms.” These terms in-
large optical telescopes, high-perform- law mentioned in a debate in the House clude the normal annual subscription,
ance instrumentation and data handling of Lords the discoveries to be expected the in-cash portion of the entrance fee,
methods, as well as the prospect of from astronomers using the VLT, and and the in-kind contribution (“which will
participating in key future projects such said, “Unfortunately, none of those as- include delivery of the VISTA [four-
as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array tronomers will be British – that is, if this metre] telescope, which will be [in-
(ALMA) and the development of ex- country fails to subscribe with our stalled at Paranal and devoted to in-
tremely large optical telescopes, where European partners in the setting-up frared surveys], ESO access to the
it was recognised that the scale of the costs of this incredible telescope. In ef- Wide-Field Camera on the UK Infrared
projects were such that all European fect, this will mean that astronomy will Telescope [on Mauna Kea], and a pro-
nations would be required to work to- hardly be worth pursuing as a career in gramme of e-science”). At the ESO
gether if these ambitious projects were Britain in the new millennium.” An ex- Council meeting on 3 December 2001,
to be realised in a timely fashion. The ploratory meeting between members of the Council unanimously approved a
participation of such a highly developed PPARC and U.K. astronomers with resolution in favour of U.K accession to
astronomical community as the United ESO Council members and executives ESO. In the UK, this decision has now
Kingdom’s will strengthen ESO by its on May 24, 2000 led to an understand- been ratified by the British Parliament;
significant contribution of intellectual, ing that the U.K. would seek to join the necessary letters have been signed
technical, and financial resources. As ESO as soon as possible, so that and exchanged; and the instrument of
part of its adherence to ESO, the British astronomers could participate as accession has been deposited at the
United Kingdom will contribute more fully and swiftly as possible in VLT, Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Paris, as
than 20 per cent of ESO’s annual oper- VLTI, ALMA, and future large telescope required by the ESO Convention. We
ational budget, an amount based (as development projects. In addition, the can now look forward to a new and fruit-
are the other countries’ contributions) special contribution to cover past in- ful era within ESO, significantly en-
on its gross domestic product. vestments by ESO would be provided larged by the accession of the United
Given the mutual benefits of U.K. partly in cash and partly in kind. By Kingdom, and with it a new era for
membership of ESO to both parties, it is December 2000, John Taylor, the U.K.’s European astronomy.

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T E L E S C O P E S A N D I N S T R U M E N TAT I O N

Status of VLT Second Generation Instrumentation


G. MONNET, ESO

I. The Call for Proposals

In the fall of 2001 and largely based


on the June 2001 Workshop “Scientific
Drivers for future VLT/VLTI Instrumen-
tation”, four main scientific objectives
were highlighted by the ESO STC:
(a) A Near-Infrared (1–2.4 µm)
Cryogenic Multi-Object Spectrometer
(“KMOS”) for the study of initial galaxy
mass assembly.
(b) A wide-field 3D Optical Spec-
trometer (“3D Deep-Field Surveyor”) for
the exploration of the early Universe.
(c) A Medium Resolution Wide-band
Spectrometer (“Fast-Shooter”), in par-
ticular to catch fast astronomical events
from Supernova explosions to gamma Figure 1: Schematic view of the deployable Figure 2: Simulation of multi-slit spectra in
ray bursts. cryogenic Integral Field Units in the ~ 8′ pa- the ~ 8′ × 8′ field.
(d) A High-contrast, Adaptive Optics trol field.
assisted Imager (“Planet Finder”) for
deep study of nearby stellar environ- Maccagni, Istituto di Astrofisica Spa- trometers fed by a huge image slicer.
ments. ziale e Fisica Cosmica – Sezione di The project is presented by Roland
Based on this selection, a “Call for Milano (IASF-MI). The local responsi- Bacon, Centre de Recherches Astro-
Preliminary Proposals” was issued in bles are Jeremy Allington-Smith (IAG- physiques de Lyon (CRAL). The Con-
November 2001, with the deadline set Durham), Olivier Le Fèvre (LAM-Mar- sortium regroups six Institutes, AIP-
on 18 February 2002. seille), Jean-Pierre Picat (LAOMP- Potsdam, CRAL-Lyon; ETH-Zurich;
Toulouse) and Paolo Vettolani (IRA- LAM-Marseille; the Physics department
II. The Result Bologna). of Durham University and the Sterre-
The cryogenic imaging and multi-slit wacht-Leiden (NOVA program).
The community answered very favor- Spectrometer FLAMINGOS-VLT is pro- • The 3D Wide-Field Optical Spec-
ably to the Call for proposals. Indeed, posed by the Department of Astronomy, trometer FAST (FAbry-Perot Spectro-
we have received a total of 11 answers University of Florida. The P.I. is Richard meter Tunable) is a 7′ × 7′ facility, built
from generally large Consortia. Given Elston and the Project Manager Roger around the scanning Fabry-Perot con-
the very significant work that went into Julian. It is a near-clone of the Fla- cept. The P.I. is Michel Marcelin, Labo-
the often quite detailed and in depth mingo-2 instrument currently built by ratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille
proposals, it is gratifying to see that this the Team for Gemini-S. (LAM). The Consortium regroups Bo-
Call was taken very seriously by our chum University, Byurakan Astrophys-
Community. I would like here to thank (b) “Wide-Field” 3D Optical ical Observatory, the GEPI-Obser-
all proponents for the effort they invest- Spectrometer vatoire de Paris, Keele University (UK),
ed to help maintain the competitivity of LAM-Marseille, Laboratoire d’Astro-
VLT instrumentation. • The Multi Unit Spectroscopic physique Expérimentale de Montréal,
Explorer (MUSE) is a 1′ × 1′ Integral Max Planck Institut für Astronomie
(a) Near-Infrared Cryogenic Multi- Field facility in the optical domain – ac- (Heidelberg), Osservatorio di Brera
Object Spectrometer (“KMOS”) tually a cluster of 24 identical spec- (Milano), Oulu University (Finland),

Three answers were received in total:


• KMOS1 is a cryogenic near-infrared
facility, with deployable Integral Field
Units feeding an array of identical spec-
trometers. The project P.I. is Ralf Ben-
der, Universitätssternwarte München
(USM) and Max-Planck-Institut für Ex-
traterrestrische Physik (MPE-Garch-
ing). The Co-PIs are Reiner Hofmann,
MPE-Garching and Ray Sharples,
University of Durham. The Consortium
also includes the ATC-Edinburgh and
the Universities of Oxford and Bristol.
• KMOS2 is a cryogenic imaging,
multi-slit and multiple integral field
Spectrometer. It uses an NGST-type 4K Figure 3: FLAMINGOS-VLT. Left to right: a) mounted on the VLT; b) global view; c) internal
× 4K IR array. The Coordinator is Dario functions.

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Figure 4: MUSE-like
1′ x 1′ field overlaid
with an Image Slicer
grid.

Figure 6: Main goal of the Planet finder is to


gain orders of magnitude in the detection of
faint sources near a bright star, as compared
to this 0.18″ FORS2 I band image.

Physical Research Laboratory, Ahme- • The Integral Field Array Spectro- Markus Feldt and the Project Manager,
dabad (India) and Université de photometry in real Time (IFAST). The Stefan Hippler, both of the Max Planck
Montréal. The project scope is quite P.I. is François Hammer (GEPI-Obser- Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg).
similar to the so-called Tunable Filter vatoire de Paris). The Consortium mem- The Instrument Scientist is Raffaele
upgrade of FORS1; it however also bership also includes APC-Université Gratton, Osservatorio Astronomica di
features a medium resolution (~ 104) Paris 7 and the Institut d’Astro- Padova. The Consortium includes
mode. physique de Paris. German Institutes (MPIA-Heidelberg,
• An STJ based Echelle Spectro- MPE-Garching, KSO-Tautenburg, AIP-
(c) Medium resolution Wide-band graph (SES). The P.I. is Mark Cropper, Postdam, AIU-Jena), Italian Institutes
Spectrometer (“fast-shooter”) Mullard Space Science Laboratory, (Padova University and Observatories
University College London. The Con- of Padova, Arcetri, Naples and Brera),
Four answers were received in total: sortium also includes ESTEC (NL) and Dutch Institutes (Leiden Observatory
• The High Efficiency, Intermediate the Universities of Cambridge, St An- and University of Amsterdam), ETH-
Dispersion Instrument (HEIDI). The P.I. drews and Southampton (UK). Zurich and FCUL-Lisboa.
is Per Kjaergaard Rasmussen, Niels The first three proposals feature clas- • A competing project (PF2) is pre-
Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics & sical cross-dispersed echelle spec- sented by the Laboratoire d’Astrophy-
Geophysics (Copenhagen) and the Co- trometers with an entrance slit or a sique de Grenoble (Anne-Marie La-
PI Lex Kaper, University of Amsterdam. small integral field input. Wavelength grange, P.I.) The Consortium also in-
The Consortium membership also in- separation is done à la UVES at the en- cludes LAM-Marseille, ONERA-Paris,
cludes Tuola Observatory (FIN), the Uni- trance of the instruments to get optimal Observatoire de Paris, OCA-Nice and
versities of Sheffield and Southampton efficiency. The last one uses a single Université de Nice, LAE-Montréal, Dur-
(UK) and ASTRON-Dwingeloo (NL). (echelle) grating, the order separation ham University, UCL-London, ATC-
• The Fast Instrument Echelle Spec- being done by a 1-D Superconducting Edinburgh and Observatoire de Genève.
trograph with Triple Arm (FIESTA). The Tunnel Junction (STJ) array. The two proposals are rather compa-
P.I. is Dario Lorenzetti and the project rable in terms of Adaptive-Optics
scientist, Fabrizio Fiore, both at the (d) High-contrast, Adaptive Optics firmware. On the other hand their sci-
Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma. assisted, Imager (“Planet entific line of attack is quite different.
The Consortium regroups seven Italian Finder”) The Heidelberg-led group aims at find-
Institutes, viz. the Observatories of Bo- ing planets from their reflected light
logna (OABo), Brera (OABr), Catania A High-Contrast, Adaptive Optics through high-Strehl imaging in J-H and
(OACt), Roma (OAR), Padova (OAPd), Aided System for the Direct Detection extremely accurate polarimetry in the I-
Palermo (OAPa) and Trieste (OATs). of Extrasolar Planets (PF1). The P.I. is band. The Grenoble-led group looks in-

Figure 5: Some types of potential “fast-shooter” targets.

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stead at the intrinsic planetary emission ly contacting the Project Principal capital and human resources cost of
in the K and eventually L band. Investigators. The ESO staff responsi- the selected facilities. It is thus quite ap-
ble for the four domains are respective- pealing that a number of Consortia in-
(e) First Generation Upgrade ly A. Moorwood for the KMOS, G. tend to raise a significant fraction of the
Monnet for the Surveyor, S. D’Odorico capital cost for these expensive facili-
In addition, we have received from for the Fast Shooter (& UVES up- ties.
Jean-François Donati (Observatoire grade), and N. Hubin for the Planet It may be nevertheless worthwhile to
Midi-Pyrénées) a VLT instrument up- Finder. Following current negotiations recall that a huge effort still remains to
grade proposal, aimed at turning UVES with the Consortia, feasibility studies be invested to complete and put into
into a high-resolution spectro-polarime- will start soon, with (partial) financing operation the remaining first generation
ter. The Consortium also includes the from ESO. On a longer scale, the goal VLT instruments; this is heavily taxing
Landessternwarte Heidelberg, Observa- is obviously to get efficient Teams to the present capabilities of both ESO
toire de Paris, University of St Andrews conduct these huge endeavors. and its community for “fast” deployment
and University College London. On the programmatic side, the inten- of these new, exciting, facilities.
tion is to initiate in the next 8-year peri- In Conclusion, I would like to again
III. Next Steps od the development of one second gen- extend our deep thanks to all pro-
eration instrument per year, starting in ponents for their valuable contribu-
Following recommendations at the 2003. This is of course a rough guide tions.
last April STC meeting, we are current- only. The actual rate will depend on the

VLT Quality Control and Trending Services


R. HANUSCHIK, ESO (UVES QC Scientist) and
D. SILVA, ESO (Head Data Flow Operations Group)

Why control quality? ment status. With the QC parameters reduction pipelines is to create calibra-
routinely collected over years, it is pos- tion products and support quality con-
Any observatory worldwide has staff sible to control, predict, and often even trol. Only after this comes the reduction
who permanently look into the perform- improve, the performance of the instru- of science data.
ance of the instruments and check the ments. With the large-scale use of data pro-
quality of the data. ESO’s Very Large This article describes the Quality Con- cessing pipelines, the Quality Control
Telescope has the operational model of trol process for the four presently oper- group has effectively also the function
a data product facility. This means that ational VLT instruments: FORS1+2, of assessing and improving the accura-
it goes beyond the day-to-day perform- ISAAC and UVES. This process will be cy of the pipelines. As a by-product, we
ance checks and promises to deliver extended and refined for the next suite provide documentation about the
data of a defined and certified quality. of instruments coming soon, VIMOS, pipeline functions from the user’s point
The Data Flow Operations Group in NACO, and FLAMES, and ultimately of view.
Garching (DFO, also frequently called expanded to all VLT instruments. The usual day-to-day workflow of the
QC Garching), provides many aspects QC scientists has as primary compo-
of data management and quality control nents: processing the raw data (calibra-
of the VLT data stream. One of the main How to control data quality tion and science) using the instrument
responsibilities is to assess and control pipeline, performing the quality checks,
the quality of the calibration data taken, The term quality control, though often and selecting the certified products and
with the goal to know and control the used, needs some definition. Quality distributing them.
performance of the VLT instruments. control, as we understand it, implies the One might say that the use of the
Information about the results of this control of the following: pipeline, once the process has been set
process is fed back to Paranal Science • quality of the raw data up properly, is mainly number-crunch-
Operations and to the ESO User • quality of the products and of the ing, while the quality checks require ex-
Community via QC reports and web product creation process pertise.
pages. • performance of the instrument com- The QC process. There is a natural
The constant flow of raw data from ponent involved. three-floor pyramid in the QC process
the VLT instruments splits into data Quality control does generally not im- (Figure 1):
streams for the science data and the ply aspects like the monitoring of ambi-
calibration data. The calibration data ent data (quality of a night), the proper
stream has two separate components: format of FITS headers, or the tracking
• calibrations taken to remove instru- of programme execution. Responsible
ment signatures from science data for these aspects, being part of Quality
• calibrations taken for routine daily in- Control in a wider sense, are other
strument health checks. groups, e.g. Paranal Science Opera-
The focus of QC Garching is to tions, and the User Support Group.
process these data and extract Quality Pipelines. Fundamental in the QC
Control information. This process of process is the use of automatic data
course does not replace the on-site ex- processing packages, the pipelines.
pertise of the Paranal staff. But it goes Without these, effective quality control
beyond the usual quick-look, on-the- of the huge amount of data produced
spot checks and provides a permanent by the Observatory would be impossi-
and in-depth knowledge of the instru- ble. In fact, the primary goal of the data Figure 1. The QC and trending pyramid.

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Figure 2. Quality plot for a UVES “formatcheck” frame. Such frames are taken daily to control the proper adjustment of the gratings and cross-
dispersers. Main focus here is the proper clustering of the line positions found (boxes 1 and 2 with the difference between predicted and
found line positions) and the proper coverage of all orders with identified positions (box 3).

• checking each data product instruments like UVES which have A bad algorithm may, for example,
• measuring and storing a set of QC the data transferred to Garching via be a wrong code for rms determination.
parameters per product, and airmail. Such an outlier would help to improve
• looking at the long-term behaviour of 2. Deriving QC1 parameters. The the code. A bad instrument setup could
these parameters. next step in the QC process is the ex- be a stuck filter wheel with the filter vi-
traction of QC parameters. These are gnetting the light path. A bad opera-
1. Checking each product. The numbers which describe the most rele- tional setup would be a frame labelled
first, and most fundamental, step in the vant properties of the data product in a as a flat, but with the lamp not switched
QC process is done on each pipeline condensed form. Since they are in most on. In short, evaluation of the trending
product. Is the frame over/under-ex- cases derived through some data ma- data is non-trivial and requires judge-
posed? Is it different from the frame nipulation (e.g. by the reduction pipe- ment.
taken yesterday? A set of procedures line), they are called QC1 parameters. Finding that a certain QC1 value is
creates displays and graphical informa- This distinguishes them from the QC0 stable over months or years may lead
tion like cross-cuts and histograms. parameters which mainly describe site one to relax the acquisition rate of the
Frequently there is a comparison to a and ambient properties like seeing, corresponding calibration data. This
reference frame. Without these proce- moon phase etc. may be a good idea since we should
dures, the QC scientist would be blind Across the instruments, there are al- avoid over-calibration. But one has to
to data quality. The mere fact that a re- ways QC1 parameters describing the bear in mind that for proving stability,
duction job was executed without a pro- detector status, i.e. the read noise, the one needs a good coverage in time, so
cessing error indicates nothing about mean bias level, the rms of gain varia- it is a good idea to have calibrations
data quality. tions etc. Other QC1 parameters spe- done more frequently than their typical
In practice, after some initial phase cific to spectroscopic modes are resolv- variation timescale.
when indeed everything is inspected, ing power, dispersion rms, or number of Certification. Once a product file
one usually decides to switch to a ‘con- identified lines. Imaging modes are has been QC checked, and its QC1
fidence mode’ in which, for example, controlled by QC1 parameters like ze- parameters have been verified to be
only every third night is inspected in ropoints, lamp efficiency, and image valid entries, the data enter the de-
depth, while for the others the trending quality. livery channel, which involves inges-
plots are consulted. This strategy is 3. Trending. The top level in the QC tion into the master calibration archive,
economic in case of very stable instru- pyramid is the trending. Trending is a usage for science reduction and distri-
ment performance, and mandatory with compilation of QC1 parameters over bution to the end users (if taken in
high data rates. Then the ‘human fac- time, or a correlation of one QC1 pa- Service Mode). By definition, the data
tor’, namely the possible level of con- rameter against another one. Trending are then certified. Rejected data are
centration, ultimately limits complete can typically prove that a certain instru- deleted.
product checks. ment property is stable and working as
Figure 2 shows as an example the specified. It can do much more, howev-
QC plot for the products of a UVES for- er. For example, trending can discover Components controlled
matcheck frame which is a technical the slow degrading of a filter, or aging
calibration needed by the pipeline to effects of the detector electronics. UVES has been operational since
find the spectral format. With an expe- Outliers. Within the trending proc- April 2000 and was the first instrument
rienced eye, just a second is needed to ess, main attention focuses on two ex- with built-in QC procedures as part of
know from this plot that everything is tremes: the outliers, and the average the pipeline. So it was possible to
fine and under control. data points. Information theory says measure and collect from the beginning
QC checks are also done on Paranal, that outliers transport the highest infor- a backbone set of QC1 parameters.
directly after frame acquisition. These mation content. But not all outliers are This set has been expanded over the
on-the-spot inspections are of quick- relevant for QC purposes. We need to last two years and is now almost com-
look character and apply to both raw distinguish whether the outlier comes plete. The two-year baseline forms an
and product data. They are extremely from a bad algorithm setup, from a bad asset from which many valuable pieces
important to check the actual status instrument setup, or just from a bad op- of information about long-term behav-
of the instrument, especially for those erational setup. iour can be extracted.

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Figure 3. This web interface (http://www.eso.org/qc/UVES/qc/qc1.html) connects to the QC1 data of UVES. The user may view trending plots,
and download the corresponding ASCII data. A quick-look panel for the current period links to all current trending plots, i.e. those which are
relevant for the present instrument health.

Trending UVES QC monitors the following instrument components (http://www.eso.org/qc/


UVES/qc/qc1.html):
With the QC1 parameters stored in a
database they become available for Component Property
trending. There is a central QC1 data-
base under development which will detector bias level, read noise, dark current; fringing
host all QC1 parameters and other re- gratings stability of spectral format; resolving power, precision of
lated information such as plots and dispersion solution
trending results. slit slit noise
The QC1 database can be consid- lamps, filters FF lamp stability, filter throughput
ered as the central memory about the all components efficiency
status of each VLT instrument. The goal
is to have available all quality informa-
tion from the complete operational his-
FORS1/2 have the following QC items (http://www.eso.org/qc/FORS1/qc/qc1.html,
tory of the instrument. This also in-
the FORS2 link has replaced “FORS1” by “FORS2”); MOS will be added eventually:
cludes information about interventions
(e.g. mirror recoating) and replace-
ments (optical components, detectors). Mode Property
Such information is vital for interpre-
tation of trending results. Moreover, General bias level, read noise, dark current, gain, contamination
with data collected over years, it be- Imaging zeropoints, colour terms, image quality
comes possible to detect slow degrad- Long-Slit
dispersion, resolution
ing effects. Preventive interventions Spectroscopy
and maintenance can be scheduled
properly.
ISAAC has the following QC items (http://www.eso.org/qc/ISAAC/qc/qc1.html),
with the long-wavelength arm being added soon:
Web pages
Mode Property
As part of the QC process, these re-
sults are published on the web. The General dark level, read noise
central Quality Control site is Imaging (short arm) Zeropoints
http://www.eso.org/qc/ which has, per
instrument, a link to QC and trending
results.
Under the URLs http://www.eso.org/ just information. Take as an example Some QC and trending
qc/<INSTR>/qc/qc1.html (where IN- the trending of the UVES spectral re- highlights
STR is any of UVES, FORS1. FORS2 solving power R. We do not just dump
or ISAAC), one connects to the QC1 all available numbers per date, but Compensation of UVES thermal
database and views trending plots and provide a documentation of the meas- drifts. The precision of the UVES spec-
ASCII data (Fig. 3). Here one also finds urement process, a selection of trend- trograph is limited by ambient tempera-
detailed documentation about the QC1 ing plots, a correlation with slit width ture changes. A one degree difference
parameters. and a comparison to User Manual causes an effective shift of the gratings
Our goal is to present knowledge, not values. by up to 1 pixel in cross-dispersion di-

6
rection (Figure 4). The daily for-
matcheck frames are compared to a
reference frame and used to measure
these shifts. Since the QC1 values
proved a general stability and a linear
slope of the thermal coefficients, a
compensation for such drifts was suc-
cessfully implemented in cross-disper-
sion direction, and the dispersion direc-
tion was corrected.
UVES filter degradation. The moni-
toring of the exposure level of the
Figure 4. Measured thermally induced drifts of UVES grating #4, without (left), and with (right)
UVES flat-field lamps gives control thermal compensation in Y direction. The QC1 trending data have been used to establish the
over the lamp and filter status. The coefficients for the automatic compensation of thermal motion in Y (cross-dispersion) direc-
filter status is especially significant for tion.
the quality of science observations. In
July 2001, the transmission of the
blue CuSO4 filter dropped, which Shared QC Off-line QC. The full set of quality
was discovered in the trending plot checks is applied in Garching – any-
(Figure 5). The replacement of the filter It is obvious that Quality Control must thing which is not time critical, but re-
gave the blue efficiency of UVES a be a shared responsibility between QC quires in-depth analysis, pipeline or
boost. Garching and Paranal Science Opera- post-pipeline procedures. This applies
FORS1 image quality. Figure 6 tions. There are always QC issues also to complex trending analyses re-
combines input data from pipeline- which require immediate reaction and quiring extended data sets. Examples
processed science images from intervention. These can only be proper- are photometric zeropoints which are
FORS1. It demonstrates that in most ly handled on site. With the data air- determined from all standard star data
cases FORS1 image quality is deter- mailed to Garching (which today is the of a night; colour and extinction terms
mined by the seeing and not degraded transfer mode for UVES, and soon for being derived for a whole semester; ef-
by potential errors such as telescope all VLT instruments), the typical reac- ficiency curves; sky brightness etc.
guiding. tion time on QC issues in Garching is Feedback loops. The exchange of
FORS1 zeropoints. Figure 7 shows 10 days. This naturally leads to the con- quality information between the two
the complete history of FORS1 zero- cept of shared QC which means that sites with QC activities is especially im-
points in the V band, spanning three part of the QC tasks are done on portant. The main feedback channel
years. Zeropoints measure the effi- Paranal (in real time, by daytime as- from QC Garching to Paranal are the
ciency of the overall system instru- tronomer), part in Garching (off-line, by web-published trending plots which are
ment plus telescope. There have been QC scientist). updated daily. These monitor the prop-
major interventions (see the caption for On-site QC. Basic quality checks on er function of all QC-checked compo-
details), but perhaps more interest- the calibration data are performed by nents. Any anomalies are investigated
ing is the fact that there has been a the Paranal daytime astronomer. Just in detail and reported directly to
general loss of efficiency by about 8% after exposing the raw calibration data Paranal.
per year, due to degrading of the mirror and pipeline-processing them into cali- IOT. The group responsible for
surface. bration products, the data are inspect- studying new results of trending stud-
ISAAC photometric zeropoints. ed visually. The on-line pipelines pro- ies, the development of new QC1 pa-
Figure 8 shows the zeropoints derived duce an essential set of QC1 parame- rameters or algorithms are the Instru-
by the ISAAC pipeline over a half-year ters which is fed into a database. ment Operating Teams (IOT). As a ver-
period. The sharp rise around MJD- Essential are those QC1 parameters tical structure, these have, per instru-
OBS = 52,200 is due to an intervention relating to fundamental instrument ment, delegates from each team which
which included a re-alignment. This im- properties which, in case of failure, is essential for proper operations, i.e.
proved the instrument efficiency by up would jeopardize the usefulness of the from Science Operations, User Support
to 0.2 mags. The long-term trend is due science data. Such instrument health Group, DFO, Pipeline Development,
to degradation, while the short-term parameters are e.g. proper adjustment and Instrumentation. The teams are led
scatter in most cases is due to fluctua- of gratings and filters, and proper CCD by the Instrument Scientist. It is here
tions of the night quality. setup. where all the expertise about a VLT in-
strument is focused and where the loop
between QC results and improvement
of instrument performance is closed.

Feedback into calibration plan

An example of successful feedback


of the QC process and the instrument
operations is the improvement of the
Calibration Plan. In principle, calibra-
tion data are taken to remove instru-
mental signature from the science data
(“calibrate the science”). In a more gen-
eral sense, they are taken to know the
instrument status (“calibrate the instru-
Figure 5. The transmission of the CuSO4 filter used for reducing scattered light in the blue ment”). Ideally, one would go for the lat-
arm of UVES dropped significantly in July 2001. This was only discovered in November 2001
when the corresponding trending procedure had been established. An inspection of that filter
ter goal since this provides the broader
verified its poor state: its coating was partly destroyed by humidity. Its replacement in knowledge about the instrument while
December 2001 has improved the efficiency considerably, which is clearly visible in the trend- including the requirement to reduce the
ing plot. science data.

7
Figure 6. Image been implemented in the calibration
quality of FORS1 plan, with calibrations for an identical
(width of stellar im- setup being repeated only every three
ages in arcsec) days. The only exception is the wave-
versus the image
quality measured
length calibration. The health check cali-
by a seeing monitor brations are executed daily in order to
(DIMM). Input data prove that nothing irregular happens,
have been collect- e.g. an earthquake which would clearly
ed from pipeline- break the long-term trending assumption.
processed FORS1
science images in Vision
filters UBVRI. Cor-
rection factors have Our QC process is continuously
been applied for
wavelength and air-
evolving, to meet the current and future
mass. Green dots needs of our main customers: Paranal
mark high-resolu- Science Operations and the ESO user
tion collimator data, black stands for standard-resolution. The broken line indicates FORS IQ community. Here are a few examples.
= DIMM. The red line is a fit to the data. FORS1 image quality is on average better than DIMM Although the QC1 parameters com-
seeing above 0".8. puted and controlled by QC Garching
are available via our Web pages, they
are not easily associated with the cali-
But in practice this is not even possi- are added the daily health check cali- bration products available from the
ble for simple instrument modes. For in- brations. On Paranal, an automatic tool ESO Science Archive. By the end of
stance, the imaging mode of FORS1 is used which collects this information this year, we hope to have a new QC1
has 5 standard filters with 4 CCD read into the daytime calibration queue. parameter database within the Archive
modes and 2 different collimators. Even this strategy still produces a domain. Once this database exists, it
Obtaining a complete set of calibration large calibration overhead both in terms should be possible for users to retrieve
frames, including twilight flats and stan- of exposure time and archive disk the QC1 parameters associated with
dard stars, is practically not possible space. So, after some initial epoch the calibration products they are re-
every night. As a more complex instru- when confidence has been gained that trieving from the Archive. This is partic-
ment, UVES has 12 standard setups, the calibration plan is complete, one ularly important in the context of Virtual
with roughly 20 different slit widths and may start thinking how to optimize the Observatory development.
2 CCD modes, and the parameter plan. In the case of UVES, it has been The calibration data flowing through
space becomes forbiddingly large for shown by the trending studies that the QC Garching contains a rich but large-
routinely calibrating all settings. most relevant instrument properties ly unexploited reservoir of information
Therefore, calibration data are usual- usually show trending timescales much about Cerro Paranal as a site. QC
ly triggered by the science setups actu- longer than a few days. Based on this Garching, in collaboration with other
ally used in the night before. To these experience a three-day memory has group within ESO, has started several
projects to process this information and
make it available to our customers. For
example, this year we will publish a
high signal-to-noise, high resolution sky
atlas extracted from many hours of
UVES observations, as well as a study
of optical sky brightness as a function
of lunar phase, lunar distance, time af-
ter twilight, etc, derived from FORS
data. Possible future projects include
the creation of lists of faint, secondary
photometric standards for FORS and
ISAAC, in collaboration with Paranal
Science Operations.
For historical reasons, our QC web
pages (http://www.eso.org/qc) are im-
plemented in a very heterogeneous
way. We are reorganising and revising
these pages to make them more homo-
geneous across instruments, and to
make it easier for our users to find the
information they need.
Of course, our main priority this year
is to establish regular QC operations for
the latest VLT instruments: NACO, VI-
MOS, and FLAMES, as well as extend-
ing our process to the VLT Inter-
ferometer complex. These instruments
introduce many new and complex
modes: optical interferometry, adaptive
optic imaging, high density multi-object
spectroscopy with slits and fibers, and
Figure 7. Three years of FORS1 zeropoints in the V band. Major interventions, causing steps
integral field spectroscopy. The under-
in the slope, have been mirror recoatings in February 2000 and March 2001, and sudden de-
grading of the main mirror due to rain in February 2001. The move to UT3/Melipal in August lying, detector based health and well-
2001 is invisible in this plot. ness QC process are essentially exten-

8
sions of our current process, but the de-
velopment of a higher level QC process
will be more challenging.

Last Words: Other DFO


Services

In this article, we have focused on


our main role: quality control for the
VLT data flow. To close, we briefly out-
line the other services DFO provides to
the ESO user community.
As mentioned above, the VLT QC re-
volves around calibration data. Most
quantitative QC is done using calibra-
tion products, e.g. dispersion solutions
or master flat fields. It is the responsi-
bility of DFO Garching to produce such
calibration products and then re-use
them in a number of ways. Calibration
products are ingested into the ESO Figure 8. ISAAC photometric zeropoints for Period 68, in photometric bands Js (green
Science Archive; they are included in squares), J (red diamonds), H (blue crosses), and K (asterisks). Horizontal axis is Julian Date
the standard data packages produced of observation (MJD-OBS), vertical axis is zeropoint in magnitudes. Last civil date of obser-
for Service Mode users; they are used vation on the plot is 2002-04-01.
within the on-line DFS Pipeline system
on Paranal; and they are used to pro- When a Service Mode run is com- ence and calibration data are proc-
duce science data products for Service pleted, DFO creates and delivers a essed using the current generation
Modes users. standard data package to the run pipelines may be particularly interesting
Another important DFO service is Principal Investigator. This data pack- to users.
processed Service Mode science data. age contains all the raw science and
Science data are only processed when calibration data, pipeline science and Acknowledgements. The QC proc-
an appropriate pipeline is available. calibration products when available, ess described here is the result of the
Science pipeline data products are de- and a variety of supporting listings and joint work of the QC Garching team
livered with the understanding that they reports. Technical support (e.g. media which is constituted, apart from the au-
may not be publication quality in all cas- manufacturing) is provided by the ESO thors, by Wolfgang Hummel, Roberto
es. However, these products can be Science Archive team. Mignani, Paola Sartoretti, and Burkhard
very useful for making the initial as- Last but not least, DFO maintains Wolff. We also thank our past DFO col-
sessment of science data quality and extensive documentation about what leagues Paola Amico, Ferdinando
for providing guidance on how to we do and how we do it, on our QC Patat, and Bruno Leibundgut, and all
process the delivered science data for Web pages: http://www.eso.org/qc/. our PSO colleagues, especially An-
a specific application. Our detailed descriptions of how sci- dreas Kaufer.

Recent NAOS-
CONICA Images
Walking on the Moon: The ability of NAOS
to do wavefront sensing on extended objects
was once again demonstrated by closing the
AO loop on the peak of a sunlit lunar moun-
tain. This image was obtained with CONICA
through a 2.3 micron narrow-band filter and
shows details down to 0.1 arcsec (which cor-
responds to a ground-resolution of 175 me-
tres, quite comparable to the resolution ob-
tained from lunar orbit with the NIR camera
aboard the Clementine spacecraft). The
NACO image covers a region of about
45 × 45 km.
(Picture credit: Eric Gendron and the NAOS
and CONICA consortia.)

9
NAOS/CONICA composite colour HKsL’ image of the Ultra-compact HII region G5.89-0.39. The diffraction limited image nicely resolves the
filamentary structure of the dust shell, which is most prominent in the L' band. At the distance of G5.89-0.39 of 2.6 kpc, the diffraction limit-
ed resolution of 60mas in Ks corresponds to 150 A.U. (Picture credit: Markus Feldt and the CONICA and NAOS consortia.)

News from La Silla


L. GERMANY, ESO

FEROS News: lapped that of the object fiber at the dis- fringing pattern for the Ic/Iwp filter. You
tance of the secondary mirror. This op- can retrieve these images, learn how
In preparation for moving of FEROS eration successfully restored the sky they were made and how to use them
to the 2.2m, a FEROS maintenance fiber throughput to the levels achieved at the following websites:
mission was completed in February during the original commissioning of
Fringing Pattern:
2002. The old efficiency of FEROS+tel- FEROS. The sky fiber now receives al-
http://www.ls.eso.org/lasilla/
escope was confirmed (around 16%), most 90% as much light as the object
Telescopes/2p2T/E2p2M/WFI/CalPlan/
but it was discovered that the sky fiber fiber over most of the spectral range.
fringing/
throughput had subtantially degraded
with time. We re-adjusted the orienta- WFI News: Bad Pixel Masks:
tion of the sky fiber+microlens inside For users of the WFI, we now have http://www.ls.eso.org/lasilla/Telescopes/
the fiber head, so that its beam over- available bad-pixel masks and the 2p2T/E2p2M/WFI/CalPlan/BADPIX/

10
REPORTS FROM OBSERVERS

Understanding the sources of the X-ray


background: VLT identifications in the
Chandra /XMM-Newton Deep Field South
G. HASINGER1, J. BERGERON 2, V. MAINIERI 3, P. ROSATI 3, G. SZOKOLY 1
and the CDFS Team
1Max-Planck-Institut
für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany
2Institut
d’Astrophysique, Paris, France
3European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany

1. Introduction neered using BeppoSAX, which re- which explain the hard spectrum of the
solved about 30% of the XRB (Fiore et X-ray background by a mixture of ab-
Deep X-ray surveys indicate that the al., 1999). XMM-Newton and Chandra sorbed and unabsorbed AGN, folded
cosmic X-ray background (XRB) is have now also resolved the majority with the corresponding luminosity func-
largely due to accretion onto super- (60-70%) of the very hard X-ray back- tion and its cosmological evolution.
massive black holes, integrated over ground. According to these models, most AGN
cosmic time. In the soft (0.5-2 keV) Optical follow-up programs with 8- spectra are heavily absorbed and about
band more than 90% of the XRB flux 10m telescopes have been completed 80% of the light produced by accretion
has been resolved using 1.4 Msec ob- for the ROSAT deep surveys and find will be absorbed by gas and dust
servations with ROSAT (Hasinger et predominantly Active Galactic Nuclei (Fabian et al., 1998). However, these
al., 1998) and recently 1-2 Msec (AGN) as counterparts of the faint X-ray models are far from unique and contain
Chandra observations (Rosati et al., source population (Schmidt et al., a number of hidden assumptions, so
2002; Brandt et al., 2002) and 100 ksec 1998; Lehmann et al., 2001) mainly X- that their predictive power remains lim-
observations with XMM-Newton (Ha- ray and optically unobscured AGN ited until complete samples of spectro-
singer et al., 2001). In the harder (2-10 (type-1 Seyferts and QSOs) and a scopically classified hard X-ray sources
keV) band a similar fraction of the back- smaller fraction of obscured AGN (type- are available. In particular they require
ground has been resolved with the 2 Seyferts). The X-ray observations a substantial contribution of high-lumi-
above Chandra and XMM-Newton sur- have so far been about consistent with nosity obscured X-ray sources (type-2
veys, reaching source densities of population synthesis models based on QSOs), which so far have only scarce-
about 4000 deg-2. Surveys in the very unified AGN schemes (Comastri et al., ly been detected. The cosmic history of
hard (5-10 keV) band have been pio- 1995; Gilli, Salvati & Hasinger, 2001), obscuration and its potential depend-

Figure 1: left: Composite image of the Chandra Deep Field South of 940 ks (pixel size=0.984’’, smoothed with a r=1’’ Gaussian). The image
was obtained combining three energy bands: 0.3-1 keV, 1-3 keV, 3-7 keV (respectively red, green and blue). Right: Similar image for the 370
ksec dataset from XMM–Newton, roughly to the same scale. The three energy bands are: 0.5-2 keV, 2-4.5 keV, and 4.5-10 keV, respective-
ly. A few diffuse reddish (i.e. soft) sources, associated with groups of galaxies can be seen. The color intensity is derived from the net counts
and has not been corrected for vignetting.

11
Figure 2: Number few arcsec from each other. The nomi-
counts (logN – logS) nal centre of the CDFS is α =
in the soft (0.5-2 03h32m28.0s, δ = –27°48′30″ (J2000).
keV), hard (2-10keV) This field was selected in a patch of the
and very hard (5-10
keV) bands from the
southern sky characterized by a low
1 Megasec obser- galactic neutral hydrogen column den-
vations of the CDFS sity NH = 8 × 1019 cm–2 and a lack of
(Rosati et al., 2002). bright stars (see Rosati et al., 2002).
The grey regions re- In Figure 1 (left), we show the colour
fer to statistical and composite Chandra image of the CDFS.
systematic errors. This was constructed by combining im-
Solid lines are pre- ages (smoothed with a Gaussian with r
dictions from model =1″ in three bands (0.3–1 keV, 1–3 keV,
B by Gilli, Salvati &
Hasinger (2001).
3–7 keV), which contain approximately
equal numbers of photons from detect-
ed sources. Blue sources are those un-
detected in the soft (0.5–2 keV) band,
most likely due to intrinsic absorption
from neutral hydrogen with column
densities NH > 1022 cm–2. Very soft
sources appear red. A few extended
low surface brightness sources are also
readily visible in the image.
The CDFS was also observed with
XMM-Newton for a total of ~500 ksec in
ence on intrinsic source luminosity re- and XMM-Newton surveys are now July 2001 and January 2002 in guaran-
main completely unknown. Gilli et al. providing strong additional constraints teed observation time (PI: J. Bergeron).
e.g. assumed strong evolution of the here. Due to high background conditions
obscuration fraction (ratio of type- Optical identifications for the deepest some data were lost and a total of ~ 370
2/type-1 AGN) from 4:1 in the local uni- Chandra and XMM-Newton fields are ksec has finally been accumulated. The
verse to much larger covering fractions still in progress, however a mixture of colour composite image of the XMM-
(10:1) at high redshifts (see also Fabian obscured and unobscured AGN with an Newton dataset is shown in Figure 1
et al., 1998). The gas to dust ratio in increasing fraction of obscuration at (right), smoothed with a Gaussian with
high-redshift, high-luminosity AGN lower flux levels seems to be the domi- r = 5″, using three energy bands (0.5–2
could be completely different from the nant population in these samples too keV, 2–4.5 keV, 4.5–10 keV), thus hard-
usually assumed galactic value due to (Barger et al., 2001; Rosati et al., 2002; er than the Chandra image. The analy-
sputtering of the dust particles in the Stern et al., 2002; Szokoly et al., 2002; sis of the XMM-Newton data is still on-
strong radiation field (Granato et al., see below). Interestingly, first examples going, but we can conclude that the
1997). This might provide objects which of the long-sought class of high-red- hard band sensitivity (5–10 keV) is com-
are heavily absorbed at X-rays and un- shift, high-luminosity, heavily obscured parable to the Megasecond Chandra
obscured at optical wavelengths. active galactic nuclei (type-2 QSO) image. The EPIC cameras have a larger
After having understood the basic have been detected in deep Chandra
contributions to the X-ray background, fields (Norman et al., 2002; Stern et al.,
the general interest is now focussing on 2002) and in the XMM-Newton deep
understanding the physical nature of survey in the Lockman Hole field
these sources, the cosmological evolu- (Lehmann et al., 2002).
tion of their properties, and their role in In this paper we give an update on
models of galaxy evolution. We know the optical identification work in the
that basically every galaxy with a Chandra Deep Field South, which
spheroidal component in the local uni- thanks to the efficiency of the VLT has
verse has a supermassive black hole in progressed furthest among the deepest
its centre (Gebhardt et al., 2000). The X-ray surveys.
luminosity function of X-ray selected
AGN shows strong cosmological densi- 2. The Chandra Deep Field
ty evolution at redshifts up to 2, which South (CDFS)
goes hand in hand with the cosmic star
formation history (Miyaji et al., 2000). At The Chandra X-ray Observatory has
the redshift peak of optically selected performed deep X-ray surveys in a
QSO around z = 2.5 the AGN space number of fields with ever increasing
density is several hundred times higher exposure times (Mushotzky et al.,
than locally, which is in line with the as- 2000; Hornschemeier et al., 2000,
sumption that most galaxies have been Giacconi et al., 2001) and has com-
active in the past and that the feeding pleted a 1 Msec exposure in the
of their black holes is reflected in the X- Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS,
ray background. While the comoving Rosati et al., 2002) and a 2 Msec ex-
space density of optically and radio-se- posure in the Hubble Deep Field North
lected QSO has been shown to decline (HDF-N, Brandt et al., 2002). The
significantly beyond a redshift of 2.5 Figure 3: Cutout of a part of the CDFS. A
Megasecond dataset of the CDFS (500
deep FORS R-image has been combined
(Schmidt, Schneider & Gunn, 1995; ksec from R. Giacconi’s guaranteed with the EIS WFI B-image and the GOODS
Shaver et al., 1996), the statistical time, augmented by 500 ksec director’s ISAAC K-image. X-ray contours are over-
quality of X-ray selected AGN high-red- discretionary time) is the result of the plotted on the optical/NIR data. The image
shift samples still needs to be improved coaddition of 11 individual Chandra shows diffuse X-ray emission for the bright
(Miyaji et al., 2000). The new Chandra ACIS-I exposures with aimpoints only a galaxies.

12
Figure 4: X-ray flux vey in the Lockman Hole (Lehmann et
versus R-band mag- al., 2001). Generally the 0.5-2 keV flux
nitude for the CDFS is given, however, for Chandra sources
sources (large sym- not detected in the soft band, the 2-10
bols) and the ultra-
deep ROSAT survey
keV flux is given. Sources are marked
in the Lockman Hole according to their optical classification
(small symbols). Ob- (see below). The Chandra data extend
jects are coloured the previous ROSAT range by a factor
according to their X- of ~40 in flux and to substantially fainter
ray/optical classifi- optical magnitudes. While the bulk of
cation (see below): the type-1 AGN population still follows
filled black dia- the general correlation along a constant
monds correspond fX/fopt line, the type-2 AGN cluster at
to type-1 AGN, open
red hexagons to
higher X-ray to optical flux ratios. There
type-2 AGN and is also a new population of normal gal-
green triangles to axies showing up at significantly
galaxies. The large brighter optical magnitudes.
asterisks indicates
type-2 QSOs (see 4. VLT optical spectroscopy
text). Small dots re-
fer to spectroscopi- Optical spectroscopy has been car-
cally unidentified ried out in ~11 nights with the ESO Very
CDFS sources, the
brighter ones of
Large Telescope (VLT) in the time
which have photometric redshifts. The solid line corresponds to an X-ray to optical flux ratio frame April 2000 - December 2001, us-
of 1, the dashed line is at an optical limit 3 magnitudes fainter. ing deep optical imaging and low reso-
lution multiobject spectroscopy with the
FORS instruments with individual expo-
field-of-view than ACIS, and a number which is only detected at K. Figure 4 sure times ranging from 1-5 hours.
of new diffuse sources are detected just shows the classical correlation be- Some preliminary results including the
outside the Chandra image. X-ray tween optical (R-band) magnitude and VLT optical spectroscopy have already
spectroscopy of a large number of X-ray flux of the CDFS-objects in com- been presented (Norman et al., 2002;
sources will ultimately be very powerful parison with the deepest ROSAT sur- Rosati et al., 2002). The complete opti-
with XMM-Newton (see Mainieri et al.,
2002 for the Lockman Hole).
In Figure 2 (from Rosati et al., 2002),
we show the Chandra cumulative num-
ber counts in three bands: soft, hard
and very hard (5–10 keV). The logN-
logS distribution shows a significant
cosmological flattening in the softer
bands, while in the very hard band it is
still relatively steep, indicating that
those surveys have not yet sampled
the redshifts where the strong cosmo-
logical evolution of the sources satu-
rates.

3. Optical identifications in the


CDFS a b

Our primary optical imaging was ob-


tained using the FORS1 camera on the
ANTU (UT-1 at VLT) telescope. The R
band mosaics from these data cover
13.6′ × 13.6′ to depths between 26 and
26.7 (Vega magnitudes). These data do
not cover the full CDFS area and must
be supplemented with other observa-
tions. The ESO Imaging Survey (EIS)
has covered this field to moderate
depths in several bands (Arnouts et al.
2001; Vandame et al. 2001). The EIS
data have been obtained using the
Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the ESO-
MPG 2.2 meter telescope at La Silla. c d
Figure 3 shows Chandra X-ray con-
tours in a selected area of the CDFS
superposed on a deep BRK multicolour Figure 5: Optical spectra of some selected CDFS sources obtained using multiobject-
image. The positioning is better than spectroscopy with FORS at the VLT (Szokoly et al., 2002). a: broad absorption line (BAL)
0.5″ and we readily identify likely opti- QSO CDFS-062 at z=2.822 (see also Giacconi et al., 2001); b: high-redshift QSO CDFS-024
cal counterparts in 85% of the cases at z=3.605, showing strong absorption lines; c: QSO-2 CDFS-202 at z=3.700 (see Norman
(78% for the shallower WFI data). Note et al., 2002); d: Seyfert-2 CDFS-175b at z=0.522, showing a weak high excitation line of
the very red object in the lower right, [NeV].

13
Figure 6: Hardness Following Rosati et al (2002), we
ratio versus rest show in Figure 6 the hardness ratio as
frame luminosity in a function of the luminosity in the
the total 0.5–10 keV 0.5–10 keV band for 165 sources for
band. Symbols as in
Figure 4. A critical
which we have optical spectra and
density universe with rather secure classification (Szokoly et
H0 = 50 km s –1 Mpc–1 al. in preparation). The hardness ratio
has been adopted. is defined as HR = (H–S)/(H+S) where
Luminosities are not H and S are the net count rates in the
corrected for possi- hard (2–7 keV) and the soft band
ble intrinsic absorp- (0.5–2 keV), respectively. The X-ray
tion. luminosities are not corrected for inter-
nal absorption and are computed in a
critical density universe with H0 = 50 km
s–1 Mpc–1.
Different source types are clearly
segregated in this plane. Type-1 AGNs
(black diamonds) have luminosities typ-
ically above 1042 erg s–1, with hardness
ratios in a narrow range around
HRj–0.5. This corresponds to an ef-
fective G = 1.8, commonly found in
type-1 AGN. Type-2 AGN are skewed
towards significantly higher hardness
cal spectroscopy will be published in sion lines and high-excitation lines indi- ratios (HR > 0), with (absorbed) lumi-
Szokoly et al. (2002). Figure 5 shows cating photoionization by a hard contin- nosities in the range 1041–44 erg s–1.
examples of four VLT spectra of uum source. However, already in the Direct spectral fits of the XMM-Newton
sources with X-ray absorption. The up- spectroscopic identifications of the and (some) Chandra spectra clearly in-
per two spectra show high-redshift ROSAT Deep Surveys it became ap- dicate that these harder spectra are
QSOs with restframe-UV absorption parent, that an increasing fraction of due to neutral gas absorption and not
features (BAL or mini-BAL QSOs), faint X-ray selected AGN shows a sig- due to a flatter intrinsic slope (see
which both show some indication of in- nificant, sometimes dominant con- Mainieri et al., 2002). Therefore the
trinsic absorption in their X-ray spectra. tribution of stellar light from the host unabsorbed, intrinsic luminosities of
The object in the lower left is the fa- galaxy in their optical spectra, de- type-2 AGN would fall in the same
mous, highest redshift type-2 QSO de- pending on the ratio of optical luminos- range as those of type-1′s.
tected in the CDFS with heavy X-ray ity between nuclear and galaxy light In Figure 6, we also indicate the
absorption and a ~7 keV Fe-line in the (Lehmann et al., 2001). If an AGN is type-2 QSOs (asterisks), the first one of
QSO rest frame (Norman et al., 2002). much fainter than its host galaxy it is which was discovered in the CDFS
The spectrum in the lower right shows not possible to detect it optically. Many (Norman et al. 2002). In the meantime,
a Seyfert-2 galaxy with heavy X-ray ab- of the counterparts of the faint X-ray more examples have been found in the
sorption and an AGN-type luminosity. sources detected by Chandra and CDFS and elsewhere (e.g. Stern et al.
The latter spectrum is characteristic for XMM-Newton show optical spectra 2002). It is interesting to note that no
the bulk of the detected galaxies, which dominated by their host galaxy and only high-luminosity, very hard sources exist
show either no or very faint high excita- a minority have clear indications of an in this diagram. This is a selection effect
tion lines indicating the AGN nature of AGN nature (see also Barger et al., of the pencil beam surveys: due to the
the object, so that we have to resort to 2001). In these cases, the X-ray emis- small solid angle, the rare high lumi-
a combination of optical and X-ray diag- sion could still be dominated by the ac- nosity sources are only sampled at high
nostics to classify them as AGN (see tive galactic nucleus, while a contribu- redshifts, where the absorption cut-off
below). Redshifts could be obtained so tion from stellar and thermal processes of type-2 AGN is redshifted to softer X-
far for 169 of the 346 sources in the (hot gas from supernova remnants, ray energies. Indeed, the type-2 QSOs
CDFS, of which 123 are very reliable starbursts and thermal halos, or a pop- in this sample are the objects at LX >
(high quality spectra with 2 or more ulation of X-ray binaries) can be impor- 1044 erg s–1 and HR > –0.2. The type-1
spectral features), while the remaining tant as well. QSO in this region of the diagram is a
optical spectra contain only a single Therefore X-ray diagnostics in addi- BAL QSO with significant intrinsic
emission line, or are of lower S/N. tion to the optical spectroscopy can be absorption.
For objects fainter than R=24 reliable crucial to classify the source of the X- About 10% of the objects have opti-
redshifts can be obtained if the spectra ray emission. AGN have typically (but cal spectra of normal galaxies (marked
contain strong emission lines. For the not always!) X-ray luminosities above with triangles), luminosities below 1042
remaining optically faint objects we 1042 erg s-1 and power law spectra, of- erg s–1 and very soft X-ray spectra (sev-
have to resort to photometric redshift ten with significant intrinsic absorption. eral with HR = –1), as expected in the
techniques. Nevertheless, for a sub- Local, well-studied starburst galaxies case of starbursts or thermal halos.
section of the sample at off-axis angles have X-ray luminosities typically below Those at LX < 1041.5 erg s–1 and HR
smaller than 8 arcmin we obtain a spec- 1042 erg s-1 and very soft X-ray spectra. larger than –0.7 are at particularly low
troscopic completeness of about 60%. Thermal haloes of galaxies and the in- redshifts. However, a separate subset
tergalactic gas in groups can have has harder spectra (HR > –0.5), and
5. Optical and X-ray higher X-ray luminosities, but have soft luminosities >1041 erg s–1. In these gal-
classification spectra as well. The redshift effect in axies the X-ray emission is likely due to
addition helps the X-ray diagnostic, be- a mixture of low level AGN activity and
Type-1 AGN (Seyfert-1 and QSOs) cause soft X-ray spectra appear even a population of low mass X-ray binaries
can be often readily identified by the softer already at moderate redshift, (see also Barger et al., 2001). There-
broad permitted emission lines in their while the typical AGN power law spec- fore the deep Chandra and XMM-
optical spectra. Luminous Seyfert-2 tra appear harder over a very wide Newton surveys detect for the first time
galaxies show strong forbidden emis- range of redshifts. the population of normal starburst

14
galaxies out to intermediate redshifts
(Mushotzky et al., 2000; Giacconi et al.,
2001; Lehmann et al., 2002). These
galaxies might become an important
means to study the star formation his-
tory in the universe completely inde-
pendently from optical/UV, sub-mm or
radio observations.

6. The redshift distribution

Figure 7 shows the optical magni-


tudes of the spectroscopically identified
CDFS sources as a function of redshift.
There is a segregation between type-1
and type-2 AGN at high redshifts, most
likely because the optical light from Figure 7: Left: Optical magnitudes as a function of redshift for the CDFS objects. Symbols
type-1 AGN contains a significant non- are as in Figure 4. An accumulation of objects in two redshift bins around z=0.7 (enlarged in
thermal contribution in addition to the the right figure) is due to a large scale structure in the CDFS.
host galaxy. Reliable redshifts can be
obtained at the VLT typically for objects
with R<25.5, however, some incom- gering of the AGN activity. Finally, there higher redshifts. The spectral shape of
pleteness already sets in around R=23. may be a relation between the surpris- the X-ray background may be related to
The CDFS has a spectroscopic com- ingly low redshift of the bulk of the the dust obscuration of the far-infrared
pleteness of about 60%, which is main- Chandra sources, the existence of the sources, which are believed to be the
ly caused by the fact that about 40% of sheets at the same redshift and the high-z equivalents of the ultra luminous
the counterparts are optically too faint strongly evolving population of dusty IR galaxies (ULIRGs). For some
to obtain reliable spectra. Photometric starburst galaxies inferred from the ISO ULIRGs the presence of heavily ob-
redshift estimates of the remainder of mid-infrared surveys (Franceschini et scured AGN has been inferred by
the sources indicate a redshift distribu- al., 2002). BeppoSAX (e.g. Vignati et al. 1999).
tion similar to the spectroscopic one. By no means does the CDFS redshift Therefore a relation between the faint
The completeness of 60% therefore distribution confirm the prediction by X-ray and far-infrared source popula-
allows us to compare the redshift dis- Haiman & Loeb (1999), that a large tions is expected. Indeed, a large frac-
tribution with predictions from X-ray number (~100) QSO at redshifts larger tion of the faint hard Chandra and
background population synthesis mod- than 5 should be expected in any ultra XMM-Newton sources have infrared
els (Gilli, Salvati & Hasinger 2001), deep Chandra survey. The highest red- counterparts in deep ISOCAM images
based on the AGN X-ray luminosity shift in the CDFS thus far is 3.7, while (Fadda et al., 2002, Alexander et al.,
function and its evolution as deter- there are two objects at z = 4.4 and z = 2002) and the redshift distribution of
mined from the ROSAT surveys (Miyaji 5.2, respectively, in the HDF-N (Brandt faint X-ray sources and Mid-IR sources
et al., 2000), which predict a maximum et al., 2002) and one QSO at z = 4.5 in is similar (see above).
at redshifts around z = 1.5. It is inter- the Lockman Hole (Schneider et al. The so-far deepest X-ray and SCU-
esting to note, that contrary to these 1998). This suggests a cut-off of the X- BA observations (Hornschemeier et al.,
expectations, the bulk of the CDFS ob- ray selected QSO space density at high 2000) did pick up only very few com-
jects are found at redshifts below 1. redshift. mon objects. Even deeper X-ray im-
The redshift distribution peaks at z ages in conjunction with deep surveys
~ 0.7, even if the normal star forming 7. Summary and outlook at the peak wavelength of the far-in-
galaxies in the sample are removed. frared background e.g. with SIRTF, are
This clearly demonstrates that the pop- Deep X-ray surveys have shown that therefore required. The Chandra Deep
ulation synthesis models will have to be the cosmic X-ray background (XRB) is Field South has been selected as one
modified to incorporate different lumi- largely due to accretion onto super- of the deep fields in the SIRTF legacy
nosity functions and evolutionary sce- massive black holes, integrated over programme “Great Observatories Ori-
narios for intermediate-redshift, low- cosmic time. The findings are consis- gins Deep Survey” (GOODS). GOODS
luminosity AGN. tent with the notion that most larger gal- will produce the deepest observations
In Figure 7 there is an interesting ac- axies contain black holes which have with the SIRTF IRAC instrument at
cumulation of redshifts in the range z = been active in the past. However, the 3.6–8 µm and with the MIPS instrument
0.6–0.8. We obviously have discovered characteristic hard spectrum of the at 24 µm and together with the Chandra
two large-scale structures at redshifts z XRB can only be explained if most AGN data provide the necessary depth and
= 0.66 and z = 0.73, respectively, which spectra are heavily absorbed (Comastri statistics to finally establish the FIR/X-
are made up of type-1 and type-2 AGN et al. 1995). Thus about 80-90% of the ray relation.
as well as normal galaxies in roughly light produced by accretion must be ab- In addition to the data described
the same proportion as observed in the sorbed by gas and dust clouds, which here, a large number of supporting ob-
field. The objects in these redshift may reside in nuclear starburst regions servations across a wide range of the
spikes are distributed across a large that feed the AGN (Fabian et al., 1998). electromagnetic spectrum are being
fraction of the field, so that they are The star formation history has been carried out or planned. We have pro-
probably sheet-like structures. At least determined in the last years based on posed to complement the already exist-
one of them (at z = 0.73) is also seen in optical and UV measurements (Steidel ing Chandra Megasecond observations
the K-band selected galaxy survey of et al., 1999). However, deep submilli- with two 500 ksec ACIS-I pointings to
Cimatti et al. (2002) and corresponds to meter surveys with SCUBA have re- homogenize and increase the exposure
several X-ray clusters in the field. It will vealed the existence of a large popu- in the GOODS are a to 2 Msec. Three
be interesting to study the correlation of lation of hitherto undetected dust-en- small regions in the CDFS have already
active galaxies to field galaxies in these shrouded galaxies (e.g. Hughes et al. been observed with HST, which pro-
sheets and to try to determine the role 1998), which may provide the dominant vides excellent morphology of the AGN
that galaxy mergers play in the trig- contribution to the star formation rate at host galaxies and photometry for the

15
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Using color-magnitude diagrams and spectroscopy


to derive star formation histories:
VLT observations of Fornax
CARME GALLART 1, Andes Prize Fellow, Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de
Chile, and Department of Astronomy, Yale University
ROBERT ZINN, Department of Astronomy, Yale University
FREDERIC PONT 2, Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile
EDUARDO HARDY, National Radio Astronomy Observatory
GIANNI MARCONI, European Southern Observatory
ROBERTO BUONANNO, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma

1. Star formation and chemical kel 1979; Aaronson & Mould 1980), These CMDs offer qualitative first
enrichment histories of the Carina (Cannon, Niss & Norgaard-Niel- glances at the star formation histories
Milky Way satellites sen 1981) and other dSph (Aaronson, (e.g. in the case of Carina, one can see
Olszewski & Hodge 1983). However, that there have been three major
During the last decade, the varied only in the last few years have these events of star formation), but their
star formation histories of the dSph gal- intermediate-age populations been quantitative determination requires a
axies satellites of the Milky Way have shown beautifully in the wide-field, ex- detailed comparison of the distribution
been revealed to us in detail, dramati- tremely deep CMDs of a number of of stars in the CMD with that predicted
cally changing our perception from the dSph galaxies. There is the extreme by model CMDs. CMDs reaching the
early idea that they were predominant- case of Leo I (Caputo et al. 1999; Gal- old main-sequence turnoffs are particu-
ly old systems. Some hints on the pres- lart et al. 1999a,b), which has formed larly useful for these comparisons be-
ence of, at least, an intermediate-age over 80% of its stars from 6 to 1 Gyr cause there are few uncertainties in the
population had been provided previ- ago, and the intermediate cases of Ca- theory for this stage of a star's life and
ously by the peculiarity of the variable rina (Smecker-Hane et al. 1996; Hur- there is less age-metallicity degenera-
star populations of dSph galaxies (Nor- ley-Keller et al. 1998; Castellani et al. cy. We have shown that with this
ris & Zinn 1975) and the discovery of 2001) and Fornax (Stetson et al. 1997; method, it is possible to break the clas-
Carbon stars in Fornax (Demers & Kun- Buonanno et al. 1999), with prominent sical age-metallicity degeneracy in stel-
intermediate-age populations. There lar populations for systems with low
1Currently: Ramon y Cajal Fellow. Instituto de
are also predominantly old systems like levels of metal enrichment like Leo I
Astrofísica de Canarias. Draco (Aparicio et al. 2001) and Ursa (Gallart et al. 1999b). However, in the
2Currently: Observatoire de Genève. Minor (Carrera et al. 2002). case of a more complicated chemical

16
Figure 1: Image of the central field in Fornax obtained by combining the V and FORS1 I images. Cluster 4 is in the bottom left corner. The
outline of the WFPC2 camera shows the pointing from which the photometry in Figure 2c was obtained. North is up and East is to the left.

evolution, the age-metallicity degenera- by the units. The extraordinary multi- used the VLT with FORS1 to obtain
cy may be more difficult to break plexing capability of FLAMES at the photometry reaching the oldest main-
(Gallart, Aparicio & Bertelli 2002), and VLT will certainly cause a breakthrough sequence turnoffs and CaII triplet spec-
in these cases, obtaining independent in this field in the near future. troscopy of a sample of red giant
constraints on the age-metallicity rela- A more economical – though less in- branch stars in the same fields. The ob-
tionship Z(t ) may be key to retrieving formative – way of obtaining metallicity servations and the main results are
unambiguously the star formation his- information involves low resolution described below.
tory. spectroscopy. The Ca II triplet offers the
Spectroscopic studies that would possibility of obtaining global [Fe/H] 2. Wide field color-magnitude
provide direct information on the metal- values for individual stars with relative- diagrams
licities of the stars in these galaxies are ly high precision (≤ 0.2 dex), and this
scarce, due to the large investment of technique has developed into the most We obtained old main-sequence
large-aperture telescope time required. popular way of using low-resolution turnoff photometry in three fields at two
Only a few high dispersion spectro- spectra to estimate the abundances of galactocentric distances in the dSph
scopic studies of stars in dSph galaxies stars in globular clusters and dSph Fornax, using FORS1 at the VLT. The
have been published so far, either from galaxies. observations were performed in service
Keck-HIRES (e.g. Shetrone, Côté & We undertook a study of the star for- mode in July 2000, with the require-
Sargent 2001 and references therein) mation and chemical enrichment histo- ment of seeing ≤ 0.6″, which is key to
or from VLT-UVES (Bonifacio et al. ry of the Fornax dSph galaxy with the perform photometry in fields affected by
2000), and all count the measured stars twofold approach described above: we stellar crowding. In some of the frames,

17
Figure 2: a) CMD for a FORS1 field centred in Fornax; b) composite CMD for the two fields situated about 11 arcmin North; c) WFPC2 CMD
of a subset of the central field, shown in Figure 1.

with exposure times as long as 750 the WFPC2 CMD; the FORS1 CMD, in- in December 1999. The central wave-
sec, the seeing was measured as good stead, seems to shows a smooth distri- length was 7490 Å, dispersion 1.06 Å
as 0.4″. In the central field, containing bution of stars in the subgiant branch, per pixel, and resolution R  1530. The
globular cluster Fornax #4, a total of that may be indicative of continuous excellent seeing conditions during the
3650 sec in V and 4700 sec in I were star formation. We are still investigating observations – most of the time below
accumulated. The other two fields were if we can definitely rule out discrete 0.8″ seeing – allowed us to use slitlet
situated at about 11 arcmin north of the burst of star formation with the FORS1 widths of 0.7 arcsec. We observed sev-
center of the galaxy, and total integra- data. en fields, with an average of 17 targets
tion times were 1850 sec in V and 4600 Our goal is to derive the complete per field. For each, two 20-min expo-
sec in I. The locations of these off-cen- star formation history in these fields, sures were acquired on two positions
ter fields were chosen by considering and test for possible spatial variations, offset along the slit by about 3″. This
the change in surface brightness using synthetic CMDs, and the input procedure allows the direct substrac-
across Fornax and then selecting fields on Z(t) from the Ca II triplet study (see tion of the sky from the unextracted
that would provide measurements of below). spectra and very significantly improves
similar numbers of stars in the central the removal of the contamination by
field and in the other two fields com- 3. Stellar metallicities from the night sky emission lines. Short expo-
bined. A composite image combining Ca II triplet
the V and I frames of the central field is
shown in Figure 1, where the outline of We obtained
the HST WFPC2 camera has been su- Ca II triplet spec-
perimposed in the position where HST troscopy for about
observations exist. The gain in area al- 100 RGB stars
lowed by FORS1 at the VLT is key to in the central part
measuring sufficient numbers of stars of Fornax, using
in parts of the CMD that are vital for de- FORS1 at the VLT,
riving the star formation history, such as
the subgiant branch and the horizontal
branch. Figure 3: Example
Figure 2 shows the CMDs at the two showing the excel-
lent sky subtraction
galactocentric distances. The CMD in
allowed by the
Figure 2a corresponds to the central dithering technique
field, while Figure 2b displays the CMD in one of our Fornax
of the off-center fields. Figure 2c shows targets. Top: raw
the WFPC2 CMD from Buonanno et al. spectrum. The sky
(1999). Note that the depth of the emission lines are
FORS1 CMDs is similar to that of the prominent, with the
WFPC2 CMD, but that the number of Ca II triplet lines
stars in the former is much larger, thus hardly noticeable
under them. Middle:
providing a better representation of the
the sky spectrum
star formation history, not affected by obtained next to the
small number statistics. In fact, a tanta- star spectrum.
lizing evidence of bursts of star forma- Bottom: the final
tion in Fornax was provided by the sky-subtracted spec-
sparsely populated subgiant branch of trum.

18
on the RGB pro- patible with parts of the CMD other than
vides a constraint the RGB? The Fornax CMD contains
on its age, and numerous features associated with a
therefore, a well particular age and metallicity, namely a
delineated age- horizontal branch, an important red
metallicity relation clump with a long tail at the bright end,
can be obtained, and a main sequence extending to MI ~
especially for the –0.5. These features indicate respec-
more metal-rich, tively the existence of an old, metal-
young stars. The poor population, a significant intermedi-
colors of most ate-age population, and a very recent
metal-rich RGB population, as young as 500 Myr old.
stars are much All of these are qualitatively compatible
bluer than those with the picture obtained from the RGB
of an old globular and the Ca II triplet, which indicates the
cluster of the need for a substantial amount of young
same metallicity, population to account for the blue color
and lead to the of the metal-rich stars.
conclusion that The locations of these evolutionary
Figure 4: Representative spectra for three stars spanning the lumi- they must be phases in the CMD depend on the
nosity range of our targets. much younger. metallicities and the ages of the stars
Indeed, while for (thus on Z(t )), while the numbers of
each given metallicity, stars older than stars in each phase depend on the life-
sures were also obtained on selected
 3 Gyr have a small range in color, the time of the phase and the star formation
red giants of three nearby globular clus-
younger stars are substantially and in- history of Fornax. To test if the derived
ters of known metallicity for calibration
creasingly bluer with decreasing age. In Z(t) produces stars in the right positions
purposes.
Figure 5 we display a preliminary ver- in the CMD, we computed a synthetic
Figure 3 show the excellent sky sub-
sion of the Fornax age-metallicity rela- model of the Fornax CMD assuming
straction that can be achieved with the
tion obtained by Pont et al. (2002). that Z(t) and a constant star formation
dithering technique discussed above.
Finally, using theoretical evolutionary rate starting 12 Gyr ago and stopping
Figure 4 shows three examples of the
models, we investigated the relation 600 Myr ago, to account for the ab-
quality of the spectra obtained for one
between the stellar population repre- sence of a very bright main sequence in
of the brightest, faintest and intermedi-
sented in the fraction of the RGB that the CMD. Z(t) was approximated by a
ate-brightness stars in our sample.
has been spectroscopically observed, linear interpolation between (Gyr ~ z) =
We find a large metallicity dispersion
and the total population of the galaxy. (15.0,0.0001), (10,0.0011), (2, 0.0036),
in Fornax, with about 20% of the ob-
(1, 0.0057) and (0, 0.008). We used the
jects having low abundances (–2.5 ≤
4. Combining Ca II triplet synthetic CMD code ZVAR (Bertelli et
[Fe/H] ≤ –1.3), and about 35% having
spectroscopy with the al. 2002) with the Bertelli et al (1994)
abundances greater than 47 Tuc
color-magnitude diagram: generation of Padova stellar evolution-
([Fe/H] = –0.7). The peak of the metal-
a coherent picture of the ary models. A Kroupa, Tout & Gilmore
licity distribution occurs at [Fe/H] 
Fornax star formation history (1993) IMF has been assumed, and a
–0.9. The most metal rich stars have
binary fraction β = 0.25, with mass frac-
Ca II triplet equivalent widths W(Ca) as
The Z(t) shown in Figure 5 was ob- tion q > 0.7 and flat IMF for the sec-
strong as the average of the metal-rich-
tained by combining the spectroscopic ondary stars. For a description of these
er LMC population in Cole et al. (2000).
metallicity with the position of the stars parameters and the way they are used
This allows us to put an upper limit to
on the RGB. But is our picture com- in the ZVAR code, the reader is referred
the metallicity of the stars in Fornax,
which lie in a somewhat uncertain area
of the W (Ca)-[Fe/H] calibration (see
Pont et al. 2002 for a thorough discus- Figure 6: Observed CMD
for the outer Fornax field
sion of this point). (left) and model color-
The combination of the spectroscop- magnitude diagram (right)
ic metallicity for each star with its color obtained assuming a fit
to the Z(t) displayed in
Figure 5, a constant star
formation rate from 12 to
0.6 Gyr ago, and a given
binary fraction (see text
for details). A few lines
around the upper main
sequence, and a few
globular cluster RGB loci
from Da Costa & Ar-
mandroff (1990) have
been drawn to guide the
eye. Note that the differ-
ent density of stars in dif-
ferent areas of the CMD
may be due to the fact
that the star formation
rate has been assumed
constant (we did not try
to model it a this stage).
Figure 5: Age-metallicity relation obtained Also the simulation of ob-
for Fornax from Ca II triplet spectroscopy servational errors is somewhat preliminary and an underestimate of the errors may cause the
and RGB photometry. See text for details. different width of the main-sequence and the different shape of the red-clump.

19
to Gallart et al. (1999b). The complete- Tuc, from Da Costa & Armandroff Buonanno, R., Corsi, C.E., Castellani, M.,
ness and error simulation has been (1990). Notice that the model RGB is Marconi, G., Fusi Pecci, F. & Zinn, R.
performed using a preliminary crowding somewhat redder than the observed 1999, AJ, 118, 1671
Cannon, R.D., Niss, B. & Norgaard-Nielsen,
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imaging for Fornax presented in Gallart for the fainter RGB stars, is known to Caputo, F., Cassisi, S., Castellani, M.,
et al. (2002). exist from other comparisons between Marconi, G., Santolamazza, P. 1999, AJ,
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played in Figure 6, to the right of the ob- evolutionary models. It has no effect on Carrera, R., Aparicio, A., Martínez-Delgado,
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cessfully reproduces the major mor- shown in Figure 5 is compatible with Castellani, M., Pulone, L., Ripepi, V., Dal-
l’Ora, M., Bono, G., Brocato, E., Caputo,
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Gallart, C., Freedman, W.L., Aparicio, A., Ber-
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Bertelli, G., Bressan, A., Chiosi, C., Fagotto, stars to galaxies..., eds.
tween the model and the observed F. & Nasi, E. 1994, A&AS, 106, 275 C. Leitherer, U. Fritze-van Alvensleben & J.
CMDs is in the color of the RGB. To il- Bertelli, G. et al. 2002, in preparation Huchra. ASP Conf Ser, 98, 328
lustrate this we have plotted in both di- Bonifacio, P., Hill, V., Molaro, P., Pasquini, Stetson P. B., Hesser, J. E. & Smecker-
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lar clusters M15, M2, NGC 1851 and 47 A&A, 359, 663 PASP, 110, 533

The ups and downs of a stellar surface: Nonradial


pulsation modelling of rapid rotators
THOMAS RIVINIUS, DIETRICH BAADE, ESO, Garching b. München, Germany
STANISLAV ŠTEFL, Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences Ondřejov, Czech Republic,
MONIKA MAINTZ, Landessternwarte Heidelberg, Germany
RICHARD TOWNSEND, University College London, United Kingdom

1. Introduction any expanding/compressing gas also radial pulsation (nrp) in a multitude of


cooler and hotter again. We see modes.
Usually one thinks of stars as stable these stars varying in brightness and Nonradially pulsating stars behave
objects, taking at least millions of years colour, and their spectra cyclically ap- similarly. But since these pulsations are
to evolve significantly. While it is true proaching and receding. The well excited from inside the star and are go-
that stars take such timescales to age, known Mira in the constellation Cetus ing on for millions of cycles, they ap-
they need not be “stable” in a static P = 330 day), or the Cepheids (P = pear more ordered as most modes are
sense over all that time. Many stars in 1…50 day), which help in measuring damped, and typically only one or few
fact undergo pulsations on timescales extragalactic distances, are such ob- high-amplitude modes are excited in an
between minutes and years, as for in- jects. Stars may not only pulsate radial- nrp star. The excitation process resem-
stance the Be stars Baade, Rivinius ly, however. Imagine a free-floating bles a Carnot process (as in an ideal
and Štefl reported about in a recent blob of water in a Space Shuttle, or a steam engine) where the role of the
Messenger issue (No. 107, p. 24). The big soap bubble. Before reaching a valve is played by a layer inside the star
most obvious pulsation mode is the stable spherical shape (or popping) that turns opaque with increasing tem-
radial one, where the star becomes big- they undergo damped wobbles. This, perature due to ionization processes
ger and smaller periodically, and like in a sense, is externally excited non- and becomes transparent again during

20
circumstellar origin, and the strong, trated towards the equator. BRUCE, oth-
narrow absorption “spikes” seemed to er than most codes before, can com-
require severe distortions of the stellar pute the surface wave pattern up to the
surface (see Fig. 1 for an example). critical rotation limit. It is therefore ide-
However, as will be shown, these fea- ally suited to Be stars, that typically ro-
tures could be modelled without any tate at about 70 to 80% of their critical
additional assumptions with a general- speed.
purpose non-radial pulsation modelling Also, BRUCE is one of the few codes
code. optimized for relatively long oscillation
Other hypotheses proposed to ex- periods (i.e. longer than the fundamen-
plain the line profile variability (lpv) of tal radial oscillation mode), for which
Be stars, and especially of ω CMa, in- horizontal motions are the most impor-
clude starspots and co-rotating clouds. tant. These are called g-modes (since
However, for none of them was a satis- gravity is the most important restoring
fying model able to reproduce the ob- force) and are comparable to water
served variations of more than a single waves in an ocean. Most other codes
spectral line. specialize in short period pulsation
Ever since the discovery of periodic modes, where radial motions dominate,
lpv in Be stars one has wondered called p-modes (from pressure) and
whether it could be the same process rather resembling sound waves.
that is responsible for building up the The input parameters required by
circumstellar disk. Since the mass loss BRUCE are stellar quantities (mass,
modulations of early type stars are not temperature, radius, rotation, and incli-
Figure 1: The pulsational variability of
very well understood in general, the nation), and the pulsational parame-
ω CMa in the Mg II 4481 line. The phase identification of the cause of the lpv in ters. At first look, this seems to be a dis-
(i.e. time) increases from bottom to top. Be stars also would be a step forward advantage of the code, because other
The mean profile, which is averaged over in hot star physics in general. codes require only the pulsational pa-
all pulsation phases, is shown in red, the rameters, but also only compute the
projected rotation velocity of the star is variability of the residuals from the
plotted as dotted lines, shifted to the stellar 2. A new model-code mean, not the line profiles themselves.
systemic velocity. The range of variabili- However, this is in fact a major advan-
ty exceeds the rotational range by about When the HEROS project started, tage, since the variability depends
40 km s–1 with a ramp-like form. The line
profile variability, well seen also in the asym-
none of the hypotheses introduced strongly on properties of the spectral
metric “spikes” at the most extreme blue and above was clearly favoured. At this line modelled, which in turn are deter-
red phases, is among the strongest ever ob- point, however, a new nrp modelling mined by the stellar parameters. The
served. code, the BRUCE/KYLIE-package, was extended wavelength range of echelle
published by Rich Townsend. Several data allows one to make use of the dif-
advantages made it the first choice to ferences of individual spectral lines
the following expansion phase. When attempt modelling the lpv of ω CMa formed at different stellar latitudes to
such a layer is close to the stellar sur- (and other pulsating Be stars). further constrain the model parameters.
face, stellar pulsation may be excited. For instance, the pulsational surface Therefore, the reproduction of the vari-
On the stellar surface nrp manifests wave pattern depends not only on l and ability and the mean profile, for as
itself as a global wave pattern, which m, but also on stellar rotational velocity. many different lines as possible, not
travels along the stellar surface par- With increasing rotation, the wave pat- only gives the pulsational parameters,
allel to the equator and causes the tern becomes more and more concen- but also the stellar ones.
periodic behaviour. This global wave
pattern can be described by means of
quantum numbers l and m, charac-
terizing the number of oscillation nodes
along the equator and across it, sim-
ilar to the two-dimensional oscillations
of a drumskin (or of the VLT primary
mirror, being exploited for the active
optics).
Such nrp might be very subtle, as in
our Sun, which pulsates in numerous
low-amplitude modes with P = 5 min. In
other stars, like the Be stars, how-
ever, the induced variability may look
so violent, that it was first claimed that,
if this were pulsation, the star would be
disrupted. In fact, browsing the spectra
of the early type Be star ω CMa after
the observations taken during the
HEROS project (Fig. 1, see also Baade
et al., op. cit.), we were convinced that
the periodic variability could not be Figure 2: The pulsational variations of the stellar surface as computed by BRUCE for an l = 2,
modelled without taking into account m = 2 mode. This sectorial mode has two node-lines in longitude l = 2), thus the nrp-pattern
repeats twice along the equator. The same model is shown for equator-on (upper row) and
also shocks and other non-linear ef- almost pole-on orientation, like ω CMa is seen from Earth (lower row, the “+” marks the rota-
fects. Most notably, the variability can tional pole). The radial motions are a factor of almost 10 slower than the horizontal ones, while
be observed out to higher velocities the ϕ- and θ-amplitudes are about equal. These three velocity fields are co-added and pro-
than the projected stellar rotational ve- jected onto the line of sight, before KYLIE computes the observed spectrum (see also Fig. 3).
locity, which would normally suggest a The temperature changes are caused by the varying pressure.

21
Figure 3: The projected velocity field, as seen from Earth, is dominated by the rotation and the pulsational θ-velocity for a pole-on star. At the
approaching limb of the star (blue), the co-added θ-amplitude increases the total approaching velocity, causing the extended ramp on the blue
wing of the final spectrum (see also Fig. 1). At the receding limb, rotation and θ-velocity have different signs, thereby reducing the maximal
projected velocity. A large part of the receding hemisphere is, therefore, projected into a narrow velocity range, causing the spike. The mod-
elled SII 5454 line is shown for illustration.

BRUCE computes the surface param- onto the line of sight. In the equatorial nificantly (see Fig. 3). But it is only
eters (such as temperature, gravity, view, the ϕ-velocity would dominate the about 15% of the true rotational veloci-
and projected velocity) of the pulsating visible variability at the stellar limbs. ty, so the physical effects on the stellar
star for a mesh of about 25,000 points The θ-component is almost perpendi- surface are much less severe. This way
on the visible surface (Fig. 2 has been cular to the line of sight, and thus sup- the polar inclination amplifies the con-
constructed from the BRUCE output). pressed by projection effects in the trast of the observed variability for g-
For each surface point the local spec- equatorial view. For a polar orientation mode pulsation.
trum is taken from an input grid of pre- of the star, the situation is reversed, Figure 3 demonstrates how under
computed data and shifted by the pro- however. The θ-velocity is now domi- these conditions ramps and spikes re-
jected velocity. The KYLIE program then nant, while the visibility of the ϕ-com- sult from the generic properties of a
co-adds these local spectra to the one ponent is suppressed. Since the rota- nonradially oscillating, rotating sphere,
that would be observed from Earth. tional velocity is also in ϕ-direction, it without the necessity to customize the
underlies the same projection. model code for the specific case of
3. Reproducing spectra The excess of 40 km s–1, by which ω CMa.
the variability is seen beyond the rota- The final parameter set to reproduce
How could this new code help in re- tional range (such features are also the spectral variability of ω CMa was
solving the seemingly contradictory be- called ramps), is therefore the true searched by computing and testing
haviour of ω CMa? The key is the al- maximal velocity of the θ-field. Since tens of thousands of models against
most polar inclination of the star. Figure this is 40% of the projected rotational the observations. The recent Mes-
2 shows the three constituents of the velocity at the small inclination of ω senger article by Baade et al. (op. cit.)
pulsational velocity before projection CMa, it alters the visible line profile sig- has already presented an example of

Figure 4: Comparison of observed phase-variations (black) with the modelled ones (red), including line blends. The phase averaged mean
spectra are plotted above. The good reproduction, also of the absolute mean line profiles (and their anomalies, like the flat bottoms), demon-
strates that the stellar parameters derived by modelling the variability provide a good estimate of the true quantities.

22
Figure 5: Periodic line profile variability (lpv) of low v sin i Be stars shown in the extreme asymmetry phase. The lpv of ω CMa is the strongest,
but not in principle different from other low v sin i Be stars. See also Figure 6 for a dynamical view of the lpv of FW CMa, ω CMa, and HR
4625.

Figure 6: Observed lpv of stars with different v sin i, shown as residuals from the mean line profile for two different lines. It is compared to
the ω CMa model being ‘viewed’ at inclinations between 6º and 70º to match the indicated v sin i of the observed stars. The apparently asym-
metric lpv of Mg II 4481 in 28 Cyg is caused by rotational blending with HeI 4471, visible in both observations and model data.

23
the resulting reproduction of the lpv of A complementary approach focuses observational evidence for a connec-
He I 4471 and Mg II 4481. In Fig. 4, re- on the observed lpv of equator-on (high tion between nrp and the disk forma-
sults for additional lines of helium and v sin i) stars. The lpv of these stars tion. Among other effects, the lpv pat-
other ions are shown, all computed with looks different from the pole-on ω CMa. tern of ω CMa changes in several spec-
the same set of stellar and pulsational But if ω CMa is proto-typical, the differ- tral lines during an outburst, which
parameters. ences should be just inclination effects. might provide the key to understand the
To address this expectation the model mass transfer mechanism between Be
4. Do all Be stars pulsate? of ω CMa was computed for a set of in- stars and their disks.
clinations, so that the resulting v sin i Just as the pulsational parameters
Since the periodic lpv of ω CMa is would be the same as for some typical are determined by the best fit of the
among the strongest known, the ques- Be stars. Then, the modelled variations variability, the stellar parameters can
tion needs to be addressed whether it were compared to the observed ones be determined by the best fit of the
is a typical Be star. (Fig. 6). The similarity of model and ob- mean absolute line profile. The model-
ω CMa is a B2 IV star. Since it is servations shows that the model of ling method described above offers the
known that Be stars rotate almost criti- ω CMa represents a typical early-type potential to combine these two steps in
cally, its low projected rotational veloci- Be star. a single analysis, due to the good re-
ty v sin i points to a pole-on orientation, production of both residual variability
which is also supported by the derived 5. Consequences and outlook and absolute line profile (see Fig. 6).
model parameters. If all (or most) other Since nonradial pulsation breaks the
such Be stars would show this kind of The main result of the modelling symmetry of the stellar surface w.r.t. ro-
periodic variability (possibly weaker, project is the confirmation that early- tation, one can even derive the stellar
but in principle the same), the lpv could type Be stars pulsate nonradially in g- inclination angle from the modelling,
be explained by nrp in general. modes. Based on the detailed model- while otherwise it is inseparably fac-
Although most Be stars are of early B ling of ω CMa, it could be shown that tored into the projected rotational ve-
spectral type, there are not too many this star is proto-typical, and that the locity v sin i. Rotation is becoming in-
bright ones in the same range of v sin i periodic lpv of early type Be stars creasingly important for understanding
as ω CMa. Searching archival data and in general is due to nonradial pulsa- stellar structure and evolution. A meth-
securing additional observations with tion. od to derive v and i separately, utilizing
FEROS, we found most of them to Several stars in the database, includ- the nrp pattern on the stellar surface,
show spikes like ω CMa, or a similar ing ω CMa, were observed to replenish bears great potential not only for Be
variability with lower amplitudes, i.e. no their disks via outburst events during stars, but for a much wider range of ob-
fully developed spikes, but global our campaigns. Although plain nrp can- jects, since nonradial pulsation is wide-
asymmetry variations, as is shown in not account for mass and angular mo- spread in the Hertzsprung-Russell-
Figure 5. mentum transfer into the disk, there is Diagram.

The VLT and the most distant quasars


L. PENTERICCI and H.W. RIX (MPIA, Heidelberg), X. FAN (IAS Princeton),
M. STRAUSS (Princeton University)

1. Introduction: optical surveys quarter of the entire sky, producing a tremely distant quasars, including more
for high-redshift quasars detailed multi-color image of it and de- than 200 new quasars at redshift
termining the positions and absolute greater than 4 and the most distant
Quasars are amongst the most lumi- brightnesses of more than 100 million quasar known, SDSS J1030 + 0524 at
nous objects in the Universe, allowing celestial objects. The SDSS will also z = 6.28 (Fan et al. 2001). Until a few
us to study them and any intervening measure the distance to a million of the months ago this was also the most dis-
material out to very large distances, nearest galaxies, producing a three-di- tant object known but it has been sur-
corresponding to look-back times when mensional picture of the Universe passed by a galaxy at z = 6.56 recent-
the Universe was very young. Finding through a volume one hundred times ly discovered by Hu et al. (2002).
and studying quasars at high redshifts larger than that explored to date.
is one of the best ways to constrain the One of the principal aims of the
physical conditions in the early Uni- SDSS is the construction of the largest 2. VLT observations of the most
verse. The mere existence of luminous sample of quasars ever, with more than distant quasars:
quasars at such early times, and the 100,000 objects spanning a large range revealing the conditions
implied presence of black holes with of redshift and luminosities, giving us of the early Universe
M ≥ 109 M place stringent limits on the an unprecedented hint at the distribu-
epoch at which massive condensed tion of matter to the edge of the visible The spectra of very high redshift
structures formed, thereby constraining Universe. quasars can tell us a great deal about
structure formation models (e.g. Efsta- Thanks to the accurate 5 band pho- the conditions in the early Universe. In
thiou and Rees 1988). tometry of SDSS, high redshift quasars particular, we can use them as probes
Most known high redshift quasars can be efficiently selected by their dis- of the intergalactic medium (IGM) to de-
have been found as outliers in color tinctive position in color-color diagrams, termine the state of any intervening ma-
space from the stellar locus in multicol- with characteristic colors due to the terial along the line of sight.
or optical surveys (e.g. Warren et al. main feature of the quasar spectra, viz., One of the fundamental questions of
1994, Kennefick et al. 1995). One the strong Lyα emission line, the Lyα modern cosmology is how and when
prominent survey is the Sloan Digital forest and the Lyman limit. During its the Universe became ionized (for a
Sky Survey (SDSS, York et al. 2000) first year of operation, the SDSS has al- complete review see Loeb & Barkana
which is systematically mapping one- ready found a large number of ex- 2001). When the Universe was very

24
young, after the recombination epoch Figure 1: A represen-
at z ~ 1000, the hydrogen was mostly tation of the various
neutral and homogeneously distrib- stages in the reion-
uted. As the first luminous sources ization of hydrogen
in the intergalactic
formed, i.e. quasars and the first gen- medium. Initially the
eration of stars, they started to ionize IGM is completely
the surrounding hydrogen. In the very neutral. The first
early stages only small regions around stars and quasars
each source became partially or totally (here in blue and
ionized, but as time passed and more red) form at the cen-
sources turned on, these “bubbles” of ter of the most mas-
ionized gas expanded until they finally sive halos, and start
overlapped. The time at which the hy- to ionize the sur-
rounding hydrogen.
drogen becomes completely ionized These ionized bub-
throughout most of the space, is called bles grow and then
the “reionization epoch” and marks in overlap: eventually
turn the end of the so-called “dark all the IGM becomes
ages”. The transition from a totally neu- completely ionized
tral IGM to a completely ionized state (Figure from Loeb &
that we just described is nicely illustrat- Barkana 2001).
ed in Figure 1 (from Loeb & Barkana
2001).
We can study the process of reion-
ization through the spectra of luminous
sources such as quasars: if a quasar is
still surrounded by neutral (or partially
neutral) hydrogen, its emission short-
ward of the Lyα line will be completely
absorbed. As a consequence we will
observe a sudden drop of flux in the
spectrum: this is called a Gunn- The VLT spectrum of SDSS 1030+ ify the estimate of the quasar age, so
Peterson trough. 0524 also clearly shows the presence the above result must be taken with
We have recently started several VLT of the ionized hydrogen bubble in the some caution.
observing programs of follow up obser- immediate surrounding of the quasar,
vations of SDSS quasars, including the the so-called “proximity effect”. As we 3. Metallicity of high redshift
most distant ones, using both ISAAC mentioned earlier, even if the quasar quasar environment: when
and FORS. In particular we have ob- starts shining in a completely neutral did the first star form?
tained optical and near-IR VLT spec- medium it will ionize its surrounding
troscopy of the most distant quasar very quickly. From the VLT spectrum Remarkably, the optical and near in-
SDSS 1030+0524 at z = 6.28 and near- we can measure the size of the bubble frared spectra of these high redshift
IR spectroscopy of the second most which is about 1.5 Mpc (physical size at quasars show strong NV and CIV
distant quasar, SDSS J1306+0356 at z z = 6.28). If we assume that all the hy- emission lines. These lines give us the
= 5.99 (Fan et al. 2001). The data were drogen atoms in a sphere of such ra- possibility to measure the presence of
obtained with ISAAC and FORS2 dius have been ionized by the quasar heavy elements (metals) in the qua-
through a director discretionary time photons and estimate the ionization sars’ broad line region. These metals
proposal, in service mode. Figure 2 rate from the quasar UV continuum, we are synthesized by the local stellar pop-
presents the VLT optical spectrum of can then infer a minimum time that the ulation and their abundance is related
SDSS 1030+0524: in the upper panel quasar must have been “on”, in order to to the age of the stars and to the histo-
we show the 1-dimensional spectrum produce a bubble of the observed size. ry of star formation. From measure-
and in the lower panel the 2-dimen- This time is about
sional spectrum. 10 to 13 million
The z = 6.28 quasar is indeed the first years depending
object to show a complete Gunn- on the exact shape
Peterson trough: the flux is consistent of the quasar con-
with zero, within the noise, over a large tinuum.
wavelength region, 8400 Å to 8710 Å; There are a num-
below 8400 Å, there is detected flux. ber of uncertain-
However, we cannot infer from this that ties, such as the
all of the hydrogen in the IGM was neu- exact density of
tral at this epoch: in fact only a small the gas in the qua-
fraction of neutral hydrogen is sufficient sar environment,
to completely absorb the flux from the the fraction of gas
ionizing source. What is definitely true that was actually
is that if we observe increasingly distant neutral when the
sources (e.g. Fan et al. 2001) the quasar switched
amount of flux suppression is rising on and the clum-
steeply so we can conclude that we are piness of the gas,
getting closer and closer to the epoch i.e. whether it was
of reionization. What we are probably distributed more Figure 2: The VLT/ FORS2 one dimensional optical spectrum of the
quasar SDSS 1030+0524 showing the lack of flux to the blue of the
observing at z = 6.28 is the end of the or less homoge- Lα emission line. The bottom line shows the error array derived from
reionization process, i.e. the stage in neously around the the sky spectrum and offset by –0.2 × 10–17. Below is a color repre-
which the ionized bubbles are overlap- quasar. All these sentation of the sky-subtracted spectrum on the same wavelength
ping. factors could mod- scale. The spatial (vertical) extent of the spectrum shown is 20″.

25
ment of C IV, Lyα and N V and from lim- We are presently carrying out a pro- photometry alone is not sufficient to find
its on HeII derived from the FORS and gram to detect such lines in a sample of such objects but needs to be combined
ISAAC spectra we were able to set con- quasars at redshift between 5 and 6. By with near infrared colors. The next gen-
straints on the metallicity in SDSS measuring the metal abundances we eration near-infrared sky survey, and in
1030+0524 and SDSS 1306+0356. will then be able to set limits on the age particular the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky
The metallicity turns out to be much of the stars and hence to the age Survey (see the article by Stephen
higher than the solar value. Com- of the Universe at redshifts as high as Warren in this issue of the Messenger)
parison with models for the formation of 6. From this age, constraints can then will provide the ideal complement to
metals (e.g. Hamann & Ferland 1999) be put on H0, Ω0 = Λ = 0: for H0 = 65, SDSS for the search of more distant
indicates that stars must have been Ω0 = 0.3 and Λ = 0.7, the age of the sources. Indeed UKIDSS has amongst
forming for several hundred million Universe is ~ 1.2 Gyr at z = 5, while a its aims the breaking of the redshift 7
years to produce all the metals ob- model with Ω0 = Λ = 0 has an age ex- barrier for quasars in order to deter-
served. Therefore the firs stars must ceeding 2 Gyr and a model of Ω = 1 has mine the epoch of reionization.
have formed around the active nucleus an age of 0.7 Gyr. Follow-up observations with 8-m-
at redshift ~ 8.5 or higher. Note also that class telescopes giving high-resolution,
the inferred age of the stars is much 4. Future developments and VLT high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of
longer than the age of the quasar de- contribution these luminous quasars in the Lyman
rived in the previous section, even con- series absorption regions will provide
sidering the uncertainty of both esti- The VLT will certainly give further valuable probes of the reionization
mates. contributions to our understanding of epoch (and beyond) and, in particular,
The VLT will soon give us more pre- quasar formation and the reionization measure the spatial inhomogeneity of
cise and reliable estimates of the age process. Future targets for VLT obser- the reionization process.
of the quasar environment. Emission vations will be provided by the SDSS in
lines from other elements, such as the next few years. From the space References
Fe and Mg can provide a better con- density of luminous quasars at z ~ 6 we
straint to the age of the stars since estimate that the SDSS will find a fur- Efsthatiou, G. & Rees, M.-J. 1988, MNRAS,
their abundance depends more strong- ther ~ 10 luminous quasars in the red- 230, 5P
ly on time. Fe is generated by super- shift range 6 < z < 6.6 over the 10,000 Fan, X. et al. 2001, AJ, 122, 2833
novae type Ia on timescales of about 1 deg2 of the total survey area (Fan et al. Greggio, L. & Renzini A. 1983, A&A 118, 217
Gyr after the initial starburst (Greggio & 2001). At even higher redshift (z > 6.6) Hamann, F. & Ferland, G. 1999, ARA&A, 37
487
Renzini 1983), whereas the production the Lyα emission line moves out of the
Hu, E.M. et al. 2002, ApJL, 568, 75
of Mg is dominated by supernovae optical window and into the infrared. Kennefick, J.D. et al. 1995, AJ, 110, 78
types II, Ib and Ic. So the ratio of Fe Thus the objects become very faint at Loeb, A. & Barkana, R. 2001, ARA&A, 39, 19L
to Mg should change dramatically after optical wavelengths due to the absorp- Pentericci, L. et al. 2002, AJ, 123, 2151
the first Supernovae Ia explode, i.e. 1 tion by neutral hydrogen gas in the fore- York, D.-G. et al. 2000, AJ, 120.1579
Gyr after the initial starburst. ground at lower redshifts. SDSS optical Warren, S.J. et al. 1994, ApJ, 421, 412

Evidence for external enrichment processes in the


globular cluster 47 Tuc?
DANIEL HARBECK, EVA K. GREBEL (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg)
GRAEME H. SMITH (University of California/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, USA)

1. Abundance spreads in globu- tern among their stars is therefore an elements, especially for larger samples
lar clusters important clue to the first substantial of stars, is to measure absorption band
production of heavy elements by mas- strengths of the CN molecule using
Globular clusters (GCs) have long sive stars in the early universe. low-resolution spectroscopy. The be-
had an appeal to astronomers as labo- Understanding the origin of the chemi- haviour of this molecule can serve as a
ratories for studying stellar evolution. cal inhomogeneity of GCs is therefore useful tracer of inhomogeneities in the
Part of their attraction arises not only of interest for cosmology as well as individual CNO elements.
from the vast number of stars that they stellar evolution. Absorption bands of CN occur at a
contain, but also from the common The abundance of the elements car- number of places in the visible spec-
properties that stars within a cluster are bon, nitrogen, and oxygen (C, N, and trum. As an example we show an inte-
often thought to share. For example, in O) in particular show large variations grated drift-scan spectrum of the mod-
one standard text book (Carrol & Ostlie among the red giants in many GCs (for erate metallicity GC 47 Tuc in Figure 1,
1996) we find: “Every member of a giv- a review see, e.g., Kraft 1994). These which was obtained in 2001 at the ESO
en (star) cluster is formed from the elements are of particular interest since 1.5m telescope with the B&C spectro-
same cloud, at the same time, and all they are the catalysts in the CNO cycle graph. The CN absorption band at 3883
with essentially identical compositions.” of nuclear fusion, in which hydrogen is Å is clearly visible and is marked in the
Despite this paradigm, it has been converted into helium. The abundances spectrum. Since the integrated light of
known for 30 years that the element of individual elements such as C and O 47 Tuc is emitted by a mix of stars, the
abundances among stars in a given GC can be measured directly by high-reso- existence of this strong 3883 Å feature
can vary significantly. Globular clusters lution spectroscopy, but this is very indicates that stars with strong CN
are the oldest star clusters known with time-consuming even with large tele- bands must be an important compo-
ages on the order of the age of the uni- scopes. An efficient alternative to prob- nent of this cluster. The integrated
verse. The chemical abundance pat- ing the star-to-star scatter in the CNO spectrum, however, cannot tell us

26
Figure 2: A color-magnitude diagram of 47 Tuc based on ESQ/MPG
Figure 1: Integrated spectrum of 47 Tuc from the ESO 1.5m B&C 2.2m WFI observations. From the main sequence region we select-
spectrograph: The strong absorption band of the CN molecule below ed ~ 115 stars for follow-up spectroscopy at the VLT, which are
3883 Å is clearly visible. marked by green dots. Approximate masses for stars at various lo-
cations on the main sequence are labelled in red using units of solar
masses.

whether all 47 Tuc stars have en- expense of C and O. If interior mixing is the lack of abundance spreads in heavy
hanced CN absorption or whether the sufficiently effective and extends deep elements such as iron in most clusters
CN features vary from star to star. A enough within GC stars, then some with CN variations. Finally, intermedi-
star-by-star analysis is therefore man- CNO-processed material could be ate-mass stars undergo significant
datory. dredged up to the surface. The efficien- mass loss while on the asymptotic giant
Studies of CN absorption band cy of deep mixing may vary from star to branch. Any CNO-processed material
strengths have been carried out for star; for instance stellar rotation, the lost via a wind from such stars may be
many stars in a variety of GCs. The first rate of which may vary among cluster accreted by other stars in the GC and
studies were conducted out with 2-me- stars, could induce mixing. Current stel- alter the chemical composition of their
ter-class telescopes and concentrated lar models do not predict deep convec- atmospheres without affecting their iron
on bright red giant branch (RGB) stars. tive mixing for stars at the MSTO. content.
Pronounced star-to-star differences in Scatter in CN band strengths has Stars on the fainter part of the main
CN content have been found for quite a nonetheless been detected for stars at sequence are the clue to the riddle of
few globular clusters (see Kraft 1994). the bright end of the main sequence in the CN variations. These stars experi-
In general, CN inhomogeneities in GCs a few GCs such as 47 Tuc, M71, and ence hydrogen core burning only,
are a common phenomenon and can NGC 6752. Thus, there are either other which has two major contributing mech-
be seen in moderately metal-poor clus- forms of mixing or diffusion processes anisms: the pp-chain (which converts
ters as well as in more metal-rich ones. occurring within main sequence GC hydrogen into helium directly) and the
With the use of increasingly larger tele- stars, or else stellar interior processes CNO cycle. The CNO cycle requires
scopes scatter in the 3883 Å CN band are not the main instigator of the CN much higher temperatures than the
strength has been found along the en- scatter. pp-chain to work efficiently. The contri-
tire RGB of some clusters, even ex- Other explanations for the CN varia- bution of the CNO cycle to the total en-
tending down to the subgiant branch tions include primordial variations, self- ergy production therefore is strongly re-
(SGB) and the main sequence turn-off enrichment and self-pollution. When re- duced for lower mass stars due to their
(MSTO) region (Cannon et al. 1998, ferring to “primordial variations” we lower core temperatures. If CN varia-
Cohen 1999a, l999b). mean that the molecular cloud that tions among main sequence stars are
The origin of the CN abundance formed a GC was not chemically ho- caused by CNO-cycle nitrogen enrich-
spread is still under investigation. A mogeneous. For example, a GC might ment and deep mixing, one expects the
very good introduction to current dis- have formed from two colliding gas scatter in CN to disappear along the
cussions can be found in Cannon et al clouds having different chemical com- MS simply because there is no mecha-
(1998), whose arguments we summa- positions, leading to a range of abun- nism left to alter the ratio of these ele-
rize here. Deep interior mixing is a dances in the subsequently formed ments. To investigate whether the CN
promising candidate for producing sur- stars. The time scale for star formation variations do indeed disappear, we
face CN enhancements in GC stars. In during the birth of a GC may have been have measured CN absorption band
the hydrogen-burning region of a star long enough to allow for “self-enrich- strengths for stars in the globular clus-
the CNO-cycle alters the abundances ment” by exploding supernovae; stars ter 47 Tuc as faint as 2.5 mag below the
of the elements C, N, and O. Although that formed after such events could be MSTO using the VLT.
the CNO cycle is a catalytic process, it enhanced in supernova ejecta. In these
will increase the nitrogen content of a two scenarios the assumption that all 2. Observations with the VLT
star, since the relatively slow N → O re- stars in a cluster had the same initial
action produces a “bottleneck” that chemical composition would not be The FORS2 MXU multi-slit spectro-
causes the build-up of nitrogen at the valid. The problem of these scenarios is graph at the Very Large Telescope

27
the flux F(38) in the absorption feature
with the flux F(39) in a nearby compar-
ison region just to the red of the CN
band.
F(38)
S(3839) = –2.5 × log10
F(39)
According to Cohen (1999a,b), we
used slightly different definitions of the
passbands (F(38) from 3861–3884 Å
and F(39) from 3884–3910 Å) than
Norris & Smith (1983) to avoid overlap
of hydrogen absorption lines that are
important for the hot MSTO stars. We
formulated a zero-point-corrected CN
index called δS(3839), defined such
that the stars with the weakest CN
bands have an index value close to
zero. Larger values of δS(3839) indi-
cate a stronger absorption in the CN
band. In addition to the calculated index
we visually assigned the CN absorption
strength for each star to one of five
classes ranging from CN-weak to
CN-strong. It turned out that for a few
stars the observations were too noisy
for classification. For some stars, while
we could identify the CN absorption,
the classification was uncertain. The
comparison between our visual clas-
sification and the measured absorp-
tion strength is shown in Figure 5.
There is an excellent correlation be-
Figure 3: Example of one of the slit masks defined for our FORS/MXU observations. The tween the two.
mask was created using the FIMS software package. In Figure 6 we plot the δS(3839) in-
dex versus the V-band magnitude of
the stars along the main sequence of
47 Tuc. The differences in CN band
(VLT) was used to obtain spectra for a cated software package (FIMS) which strength that are already apparent in
sample of ~ 115 stars in the GC 47 Tuc. is distributed by ESO. Thanks to this the example spectra in Figure 4 be-
We chose this cluster for several rea- software the mask creation process is come well documented by the δS(3839)
sons: (i) 47 Tuc stars are known to have very straightforward to do. Approxi- index values, especially for the faintest
inhomogeneities in CN absorption mately 115 stars were selected for the stars. In particular, the bimodality of the
bands from the tip of the RGB down to VLT spectroscopy to be observed in distribution stands out: Main sequence
a magnitude below the MSTO; the dis- three different slit masks. We show an stars in 47 Tuc seem to be either
tribution of CN-rich and CN-weak stars example of a slit mask definition in CN-strong or CN-weak. A bimodal CN
is bimodal (e.g., Briley 1997 and refer- Figure 3. distribution had been reported by other
ences therein); (ii) 47 Tuc is relatively The VLT spectroscopy itself was car- authors previously for stars on the
metal-rich by GC standards ([Fe/H] = ried out in service mode during several RGB, the SGB, and of the MSTO of 47
–0.7 dex). Consequently the stars on nights in September 2001. We chose Tuc. Our new VLT observations
the MSTO of 47 Tuc have atmospheres the B600 grating of FORS, which pro- demonstrate that the existence of this
cool enough to form CN, in contrast to vides a spectral resolution of 5 Å. The CN bimodality is independent of the
the hotter turn-off stars of the most met- wavelength range for all stars was cho- evolutionary state of the stars.
al-poor GCs. sen to cover at least 3700–5400 Å. The
To select candidate stars for spec- alignment of the slit masks to the refer-
troscopy we observed 47 Tuc in ence stars worked perfectly in service 4. Conclusions
September 2000 with the ESO/MPG mode, even in the crowded environ-
2.2m telescope and the Wide Field ment of 47 Tuc. The final spectra of the We have found a significant scatter in
Imager (WFI). The exposure time was 3 stars have an exposure time of 3.5 the CN absorption strength among
× 300 s in the filters Johnson B and V. hours. main sequence 47 Tuc stars at all mag-
The resulting color magnitude diagram nitudes in our survey. In relation to the
(CMD) for chip #1 of the mosaic cam- stars near the main-sequence turn-off,
era is shown in Figure 2. The subgiant 3. CN abundance variations on the importance of the CNO cycle
branch, MSTO and the main sequence the main sequence among the faintest stars in our sample
are clearly visible. The tip of the RGB is is reduced by at least a factor of ten due
not represented since these stars were Figure 4 shows example spectra of to the decreased core temperature.
saturated on the CCD. pairs of stars in three different luminos- Since this mechanism for altering the
For the creation of the slit mask, ity ranges. In all ranges, stars with ratio between C and N diminishes sub-
three fields that overlap with our WFI strong and weak CN absorption fea- stantially for the fainter stars, we con-
observations were preimaged with tures at 3883 Å can be found. A con- clude that stellar evolution is unlikely to
FORS2 with a seeing better than 1 arc- venient tool to quantify the CN absorp- be the only process at work that caus-
sec. The definition of slit masks for the tion strength is the S(3839) index es the star-to-star variations in CN
FORS2/MXU is supported by a dedi- (Norris & Smith 1983) that compares band strength. One concern of this in-

28
Figure 5: Visual classification vs. calculated CN band strength:
Green dots represent secure measurements of the CN absorption
Figure 4: Spectra of main sequence stars in 47 Tuc: we show exam- lines; red dots indicate that the measurement may be dominated by
ples of CNrich stars (blue) and CN-poor stars (red) at three different systematic effects (e.g., strong hydrogen lines). Stars with ≥ 18.5
magnitudes on the main sequence. Note the clear differences in the mag are plotted with triangles, brighter stars are plotted with circles.
λ3883Å CN band, in particular for the faintest stars. Note the excellent correlation between the measured absorption
band strength and the visual classification.

terpretation is that a decrease in the Carrol, B. W. & Ostlie, D. A. 1996, An Intro- Cohen, J. G. l999b, AJ, 117,2434
CN abundance spread among the duction to Modern Astrophysics, Addison- Kraft, R. P. 1994, PASP, 106, 553
Wesley. Smith, G. H. & Norris, J. 1983, ApJ, 264, 215
fainter stars along the main sequence
may be hidden by increased CN as- Cohen, J. G. 1999a, AJ, 117, 2428
sociation in the lower-temperature at-
mospheres of these stars. Model at-
mosphere analyses of the observed
stars could address this question. It
would also be valuable to observe
the CN band strengths of stars one
magnitude fainter than the current
sample. For example, our simple cal-
culations predict a decrease of the
CNO-cycle efficiency for such stars by
a factor of 100 compared to the MSTO.
If such deep observations also find CN
variations, then they would verify our
results.
While internal stellar evolution seems
unlikely as the origin of the CN varia-
tions in 47 Tuc, external processes may
have played an important role. Unfor-
tunately, from the low resolution spec-
troscopy alone, the true origin of the en-
hanced abundances of the CN-strong
stars cannot be determined. The next
step is to search for the fingerprint of
different enrichment processes: cluster
self-enrichment by massive stars ver-
sus accretion of material ejected in
winds from intermediate-mass stars.
High resolution spectroscopy with
UVES at the VLT might provide an-
swers to these questions.

References
Briley, M. M. 1997, AJ, 114, 1051 Figure 6: The δS(3839) CN index is shown plotted against V magnitude for stars on the main
Cannon, R. D., Croke, B. F. W., Bell, R. A., sequence of 47 Tuc. Secure measurements are plotted with green dots; red dots represent
Hesser, J. E., & Stathakis, R. A. 1998, uncertain measurements. Note the bimodal distribution of the CN absorption strengths, with
MNRAS, 298, 601 stars falling into two relatively distinct groups on the basis of the CN index.

29
Aerial view of Paranal, with the Llullaillaco volcano (6730 m) in the background, 190 km distant. (Photo: G. Hudepohl.)
OTHER ASTRONOMICAL NEWS

The UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey becomes an


ESO public survey
STEVE WARREN, UKIDSS Survey Scientist,
Imperial College, London

1. Overview posure. In addition to the wide field, the Galactic latitudes to a variety of depths.
survey will provide a wealth of informa- The surveys will take some seven
UKIDSS is the next generation near- tion revealed in the near-infrared be- years to complete, finishing in 2010,
infrared JHK sky survey, the successor cause of the lower extinction. and will require a total of 1000 nights on
to 2MASS. UKIDSS will use the UKIRT UKIDSS is a UK initiative and was UKIRT. Details of the five surveys are
wide field camera WFCAM, currently the idea of Andy Lawrence (IfA, summarised in Table 1. The Large Area
under construction in Edinburgh and Edinburgh) who is the UKIDSS Prin- Survey (LAS) covers 4000 square de-
scheduled for commissioning at the cipal Investigator. As part of the in-kind grees at high Galactic latitudes, to
end of 2003. The camera uses four contribution of the UK to the ESO mem- K=18.4. This depth is three magnitudes
Rockwell Hawaii II 2048 × 2048 HgCdTe bership joining fee the UKIDSS data deeper than 2MASS. The LAS will be
arrays (Figs 1 and 5). When commis- (raw, processed, and image cata- the true near-infrared counterpart to the
sioned WFCAM will have the widest logues) will be available to the entire Sloan survey. The Galactic Plane
field of view of any near-infrared cam- ESO community immediately the data Survey (GPS) will provide a panoramic
era in the world, capturing a solid angle enter the archive. UKIDSS is therefore clear atlas of the Milky Way disk, reach-
of 0.21 square degrees in a single ex- an ESO public survey, and the purpose ing K=19.0, surveying the strip to 5 de-
of this article is to inform the ESO com- grees above and below the plane along
munity about UKIDSS, describing the a length 180 degrees. The Galactic
plans, and highlighting the opportuni- Clusters Survey (GCS) will undertake a
ties for VLT science. For more details fundamental study of the faint end of
visit the website www.ukidss.org (Fig. the stellar initial mass function, imaging
1). The UKIDSS Consortium is a col- the nearest stellar clusters to a depth
lection of some 60 UK astronomers K=18.7. Finally two deep surveys, the
who are responsible for the design and Deep Extragalactic Survey (DXS)
execution of the survey. We welcome reaching K=21 over 35 square de-
the input of ESO astronomers to this ef- grees, and the Ultra Deep Survey
fort (contact details are provided at the (UDS) reaching K=23 over 0.77 square
end of this article). degrees, will study galaxies at high red-
UKIDSS in fact consists of five sur- shifts. Fig. 2 plots the combinations of
veys exploring both high and low depth and area of the five elements of

Table 1: Details of the five elements of UKIDSS. The quoted depths are total magnitude 5
sigma for a point source. The estimated number of nights for each survey includes an al-
lowance for poor weather. The Y band covers the wavelength range 0.97–1.07 µm.

Filter Area Mag. Limit Nights


sq. degs (Vega)

Y 20.5
Large Area Survey J 4000 20.0 262
LAS H 18.8
K 18.4

J 20.0
Galactic Plane Survey H 1800 19.1 186
GPS K 19.0
H2 300 —

J 19.7
Galactic Clusters Survey H 1600 18.8 84
GCS K 18.7

J 35 22.5
Deep Extragalactic Survey H 5 22.0 118
DXS K 35 21.0

Figure 1: This figure shows the UKIDSS J 25.0


website navigation menu (www.ukidss.org), Ultra Deep Survey H 0.77 24.0 296
and pictures WFCAM as night falls. UDS K 23.0

31
Figure 2: Compari- WFCAM will start UKIDSS early in
son of survey area 2004, just at the same time when
and depth in K of VST/OmegaCam will enter operation
UKIDSS against ex-
isting or planned
on Paranal, thus offering the opportuni-
near-ir surveys. Note ty to combine optical and near-infrared
the enormous range data as appropriate for the various
of the X axis, 10 or- surveys.
ders of magnitude.
The five UKIDSS el- 2. Science headlines
ements are plotted
in blue. The surveys Fig. 3 illustrates four of the principal
for comparison, plot-
ted in red, are: generic targets of UKIDSS. The head-
2MASS, the NOAO line scientific goals are the following:
deep survey, the – to find the nearest and faintest
ESO Imaging Survey sub-stellar objects
EIS, and the very – to break the z = 7 quasar barrier
deep FIRES VLT im- – to determine the epoch of re-ioni-
age of HDF-S (see sation
Fig. 3). The dashed
line shows the Eucli-
– to determine the substellar mass
dian relation be- function
tween number counts – to discover Population II brown
and depth, normal- dwarfs
ised to 2MASS. The – to measure the abundance of
position of a survey relative to this line is a measure of the volume of space surveyed. This galaxy clusters at 1 < z < 1.5
illustrates, for example, that for surveys for brown dwarfs 2MASS will detect many more than – to measure the growth of structure
the KPNO survey, and that the LAS is an order of magnitude bigger than 2MASS.
and bias from z = 3 to the present day
– to determine the epoch of spheroid
UKIDSS, compared against some oth- UKIDSS will cover at least an order of formation
er near-ir surveys. The basic point il- magnitude more area than any existing – to clarify the relationship between
lustrated in this plot is that at any depth or planned survey. EROs, ULIRGs, AGN and protogalax-
ies
– to map the Milky Way through the
dust, to several kpc
– to increase the number of known
Young Stellar Objects by an order of
magnitude, including rare types such
as FU Orionis stars

3. The five surveys: LAS, GPS,


GCS, DXS, UDS

Fig. 4 is a map showing the provi-


sional locations of the different fields
that will be covered by the five surveys.
Since the announcement that the UK
will join ESO the field selection has
been adjusted to a more southerly con-
figuration, to improve access from the
VLT. The selection of fields for the first
two years of observations is almost
complete, and the choices will be post-
ed on the UKIDSS web page in July this
year. A brief description of each survey
follows.

Large Area Survey (LAS)

The LAS was conceived as the infra-


red counterpart to the Sloan Digital Sky
Survey (SDSS), as well as an atlas for
identification of sources detected in
surveys at other wavelengths. SDSS
fields covering 4000 square degrees
will be observed in the four passbands
YJHK, with a second pass in J a few
Figure 3: Four of the principal generic targets of UKIDSS. Upper left: brown dwarfs - VLT/ years later, for proper motions. Open-
KUEYEN I-band image of the young brown dwarf TWA-5B, Neuhäuser et al., A&A, 360 (ESO ing the near-ir window will greatly clari-
PR 17a/00). Upper right: the highest-redshift quasars – optical colour composite of SDSS fy the make-up of low-redshift galaxies
J1030+0524, z = 6.3, currently the most distant quasar known (courtesy Laura Pentericci; see in terms of mix of stellar populations
article on p. 24 of this issue). Lower left: distant galaxy clusters – K-band image of the clus-
ter J1226.9 + 3322, z=0.89, with X-ray contours overplotted (courtesy Laurence Jones and
and dust content. The long-wavelength
Simon Ellis). Lower right: galaxies at very high redshifts – near-ir JHK colour composite of a data will also enhance the detecta-
small 36 × 36 arcsec subsection of the deepest near-ir ground-based image yet taken, the bility of distant galaxy clusters, as well
FIRES observations of the HDF-S, Labbe et al. 2002, submitted (courtesy Marijn Franx). as reddened X-ray/far-IR/radio survey

32
sources. However it is the opportunity
for finding new classes of rare objects,
because of the great volume surveyed
(Fig. 2), which is the most exciting
prospect of the LAS. In the search for
brown dwarfs the LAS will explore an
order of magnitude more volume than
2MASS, and therefore will be the most
powerful survey for both the coolest
and the least luminous dwarfs. We
hope to uncover the cool sequence ex-
tending beyond type T, also to detect
Population II brown dwarfs using prop- Figure 4: This plot marks the provisional locations of the survey fields, which are currently
er motion, and to discover the lowest being finalised. The LAS is shown in orange, and will cover the most southerly of the north-
mass dwarfs, possibly free-floating ern Galactic hemisphere SDSS stripes, as well as the three southern Galactic hemisphere
planets at sub-parsec distances. SDSS Stripes. The GPS is shown in purple. The gaps in Galactic longitude coverage of the
GPS are imposed by declination constraints 60 ° > δ > –15 °. The GCS fields are marked by
We anticipate similar success in the green circles. The DXS will choose four fields from the 5 fields marked by blue squares. The
search for the highest redshift quasars. UDS field selected is the Subaru-XMM field, located at J0218-05, and is marked by a small
Building on the success of the SDSS in red square inside the DXS field at that location.
finding z > 6 quasars (see the article by
Pentericci et al. on p. 24 of this issue)
we hope to extend this frontier to red-
shift z = 7 and beyond. This work em- similar in scope to the LAS in this re- galaxy clusters at z > 1. The purpose is
ploys the Y band, which covers the gard. to obtain constraints on cosmological
wavelength range 0.97–1.07 µm. This parameters. Ultimately we hope to
filter is distinct in wavelength from the Galactic Clusters Survey (GCS) make an important contribution to
SDSS z band, and the z-Y colour is reaching beyond the three-parameter
crucial for the highest redshift quasars, The GCS is aimed at the crucial H0, Ωm, Λ cosmology that describes the
so we preferred to give the filter a new question of the sub-stellar mass func- geometry and dynamics of the Uni-
name rather than call it z(infrared). tion. The stellar mass function is well verse, to obtain useful constraints on
In summary, the LAS aims to discov- determined down to the brown-dwarf the dark energy equation of state pa-
er both the nearest (outside the solar boundary but more or less unknown be- rameter w = P/ρ, and thereby to gain in-
system) and the farthest known objects low, and the question of whether the sight into the nature of the dark energy:
in the Universe! In between these two IMF as a whole is universal is unan- cosmological constant or quintessence.
extremes the LAS will also pick up the swered. The GCS will survey eleven Two other important goals of the DXS
intrinsically brightest Extremely Red large open star clusters and star forma- are (i) to provide the photometric cata-
Objects (ERO galaxies) over a volume tion associations in JHK, with a second logues for surveys at z > 1, including a
thousands of times bigger than so far pass in K for proper motions. These redshift survey similar in scope to the
explored. clusters are all relatively nearby and 2dF galaxy redshift survey, to measure
are several degrees across. The GCS the evolution of large scale structure,
Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) improves on current studies, not prima- and (ii) to quantify the contribution from
rily by going deeper, but by collecting both star formation and AGN to the cos-
The GPS will map in JHK half the much larger numbers, and examining mic energy budget, as a function of
Milky Way within latitude ± 5 degrees, clusters with a range of ages and wavelength over the X-ray to far-in-
covering arcs of longitude 15° < l < metallicities in order to address the is- frared region, and to measure cluster-
107°, and 142° < l < 230° (Fig. 4). Cur- sue of universality. The mass limit ing for the different classes of object;
rently under discussion is the possibili- reached varies somewhat from cluster normal galaxies (by type), starbursts,
ty of extending the survey by including to cluster, but is typically near 30 EROs, AGN.
fields in the Galactic bulge, as well as a Jupiter masses.
thin strip extending into the Galactic Ultra Deep Survey (UDS)
centre. The GPS will be scanned three Deep Extragalactic Survey (DXS)
times in K, improving the depth to K = The UDS aims to produce the first
19.0 and providing variability informa- The DXS will map 35 square degrees large-volume map of the Universe at
tion. This is deep enough to see all the of sky to depths of K = 21, and J = 22.5, high redshift, surveying a region 100
way down the IMF in distant star for- in three separate regions. The theme Mpc comoving across and 2 Gpc deep
mation regions, to detect luminous ob- of the DXS is a comparison of the prop- (2 < z < 4). Essentially the aim is to go
jects such as OB stars and post-AGB erties of the Universe at 1 < z < 2 as deep as is feasible over an area of
stars across the whole Galaxy, and to against the properties of the Universe one WFCAM tile (four pointings, Fig. 5).
detect G-M stars to several kpc. Addi- today. The DXS will survey a similar The depth has been chosen by refer-
tionally a narrow-band molecular hydro- volume at these redshifts to the 2dF ence to the detectability of a z = 3 L* el-
gen survey over a smaller area (300 and SDSS volumes, and the near-in- liptical that formed at z = 5. Accounting
square degrees) will be conducted in the frared gives coverage of the same rest- for the surface-brightness profile of
Taurus-Auriga-Perseus dark cloud region. frame wavelengths as SDSS. Much of such a galaxy, the required equivalent
The principal science drivers of the the DXS science relies on multi-wave- point-source depth is K = 23.
GPS are: (1) creation of a legacy data- length coverage. As the final fields are The prime aim of the UDS is the
base and 3-D Atlas; (2) study of star for- selected over the next year, at the measurement of the abundance of
mation and the IMF with emphasis on same time as XMM-Newton, GALEX, high-redshift elliptical galaxies. Supple-
environmental dependence; (3) detec- CFHLS, VIRMOS, VST, and SIRTF mentary goals are the measurement of
tion of counterparts to X-ray and gam- plans are finalised, international multi- the clustering of galaxies at z = 3, and
ma-ray sources; (4) AGB stars, PPN wavelength key areas will emerge. clarification of the relationship between
and Planetary Nebulae, including de- The principal goal of the DXS, which EROs, ULIRGs, AGN and protogalax-
tection of brief phases of stellar evolu- sets the scope of the survey, is the ies. The abundance of ellipticals at high
tion; and (5) brown dwarfs: the GPS is measurement of the abundance of rich redshift is a key test of hierarchical the-

33
Figure 5: Left: Focal Cassegrain design which achieves a
plane arrangement high degree of off-axis correction
of WFCAM. Each ar- and includes a cold pupil stop. Further
ray (blue) is 2048 × information can be found at
2048 pixels, with pix- www.roe.ac.uk/atc/projects. Tip-tilt im-
el size 0.4 arcsec. age stabilisation will be achieved using
The 2 × 2 arrange- the existing tip-tilt hexapod stage with a
ment of arrays is con- new f/9 secondary mirror. The large
tained within a circu- pixel size was chosen to maximise sur-
lar field of diameter vey speed. With the good image qual-
0.97°. Right: Filled- ity enjoyed by UKIRT the median see-
in tile after 2 × 2 ing psf will be undersampled. We pro-
macro-steps. Allow- pose to microstep with a 2 × 2 N +0.5
ing for the overlaps, pixel step to improve the sampling, in-
the solid angle of a tile is 0.77 square degree. The deepest survey, the UDS, will cover a sin- terlacing the data to create the final
gle tile. image.

5. Consortium membership
ories of structure formation, and the plane will hold four 2048 × 2048 PACE
scope of the UDS is sufficient to distin- HgCdTe arrays. The spacing between Membership of the consortium im-
guish between current competing mod- detectors is 90% of the array width. plies a commitment from the individual
els. The inspiration for the UDS came The array configuration is illustrated in to participate fully in the work of the
from the success of the HDF as a pub- Fig. 5 (left). The pixel size is 0.4 arcsec, consortium, which includes undertaking
lic legacy database. In the same way so the instantaneous exposed field of technical studies, preparing proposals
we expect that the UDS will be used for view of WFCAM is 0.21 square degree. and reports to the UKIRT Board, and
many important science projects that With this configuration a single com- contributing to the observing effort at
have not yet been thought of. plete seamless 4 × 4 tile is achieved in the level of up to 7 nights per year, or
four pointings, as illustrated in Fig. 5 equivalent contribution of effort in some
4. WFCAM: The UKIRT Wide- (right). Accounting for overlaps the sol- other form. Interested astronomers
Field Camera id angle of a single tile is 0.77 square should contact either Steve Warren
degree. (sjw4@ic.ac.uk), or Andy Lawrence
WFCAM is a cryogenic Schmidt-type The WFCAM focal plane has a diam- (al@roe.ac.uk).
near-ir camera under construction at eter 1.0°. The wide field of view has
the UK ATC in Edinburgh. The focal been achieved by a novel forward-

The Horsehead Nebula –


ESO/MPG 2.2-m telescope.
(ESO PR Photo 02a/02.)

34
Summary of the ESO-CERN-ESA Symposium on
Astronomy, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics
Held at Garching bei München, Germany, 4-7 March 2002

M. JACOB 1, P. SHAVER 2, L. DILELLA 3, A. GIMENEZ 4


1Chairman, Joint Astrophysics Division of the EPS and EAS
2ESO
3CERN (European Centre for Nuclear Research, Geneva, Switzerland)
4ESA (European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk, Netherlands)

Astronomy, cosmology and funda- steps in this analysis, and stressed the scopes. He mentioned the problem of
mental physics have thriving interfaces importance of the local calibrators. In biasing, and showed that future large-
and modern research topics that bring the future thousands of distant super- scale surveys such as that being
together scientists from these different novae will be accessible with the large planned on the CFHT will provide easy
domains. New results and open ques- telescopes. Y. Mellier spoke on the ob- discrimination. H. Böhringer provided
tions call for meetings covering all of servations of cosmic shear from weak the evidence from clusters of galaxies,
these fields. This year saw the first gravitational lensing, stressing the ex- showing that three independent ap-
such meeting jointly organized by the cellent agreement between six different proaches all give a good fit with the
three organizations ESO, CERN and teams working with six different tele- concordance model.
ESA. The symposium took place in
Garching on 4-7 March with about 200
participants. It gave a broad overview
and so consisted largely of invited talks,
with some contributed talks and over 50
posters on display.
The Director General of ESO, Dr.
Catherine Cesarsky, opened the Sym-
posium with an overview of the cur-
rent state of many of the fields to be
discussed at the Symposium. She
stressed the rapid pace of development
in all of these areas, ranging from the
spectacular convergence of the major
cosmological parameters to the discov-
ery of over 80 extrasolar planets.
N. Turok introduced the cosmology
part of the Symposium with a stimulat-
ing talk provocatively entitled “The
Early Universe – Past and Future”. He
challenged the relation of the remark-
able cosmic concordance picture with
standard inflationary models of the
Universe, and described a possible al-
ternative involving an infinite recycling
of the Universe through colliding
branes, in which time is eternal.
Possible tests could be provided by a
correlation of an all-sky CBR map with
X-ray surveys or by CBR polarization
measurements.
A series of talks dealt with the evi-
dence for and remarkable convergence
of the cosmological parameters. P. de
Bernardis described the amazing new
results from the current microwave
background observations. With the im-
proved data three accoustic peaks in
the structure of the microwave back-
ground are seen. Results will soon be
coming from the MAP satellite, which
has already surveyed 85% of the sky.
Polarization measurements will be crit-
ical in testing the adiabatic inflationary
scenario. B. Leibundgut gave the evi-
dence from high-redshift supernova
studies for an accelerating Universe.
He gave a critical assessment of the

35
A press conference was held during the Symposium. From left to right are Prof. Sir Martin Rees (Cambridge University), Dr. David Southwood
ESA), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (ESO Director General), Dr. John Ellis (CERN), and Dr. Michel Mayor (Observatoire de Genève).

A comprehensive overview of the only very weakly with matter, such as experiments have provided for the first
current state of our knowledge of the neutralinos. A claimed signal from the time a clear demonstration of the exis-
cosmological parameters was provided DAMA experiment at Gran Sasso has tence of the three-boson interaction
by L. Krauss. He started with the not been confirmed by other experi- predicted by the electroweak theory. In
Hubble constant, showing the excellent ments. Several experiments are pres- the framework of the Standard Model,
agreement between different groups. ently taking data and more sensitive ex- the LEP measurements have been
He summarized results from the CMB periments are in preparation. used to constrain the mass of the Higgs
fluctuations, the ages of the oldest P. Hernandez summarized the evi- boson, which is the only missing piece
stars, the baryon density from deuteri- dence for neutrino oscillations. Recent of the theory. The prediction is mH =
um and 3He measurements, the dark results using solar and atmospheric 85 +54
–34 GeV, giving good hopes for the
matter density from X-ray clusters, the neutrinos provide convincing evidence discovery of this particle at one of the
large scale structure results from the for neutrino oscillations, requiring that future high-energy colliders (the im-
Sloan and 2DF surveys, and concluded neutrinos have a non-zero mass. proved proton-antiproton collider at
that everything fits (the “concordance Neutrino oscillations are probably the Fermilab, which is presently in the com-
model”), but that the theoretical basis most important new phenomenon dis- missioning phase, or, more likely, the
remains unclear. covered in particle physics in the last CERN LHC). Gianotti also reviewed the
A. Vilenkin addressed the Cosmo- decade (although their masses are not hint for the production of the Higgs bo-
logical Constant Problems (CCPs) and sufficient to provide an appreciable son with a mass of 114 GeV, obtained
their Solutions. The two major prob- contribution to dark matter). Intense ex- by the LEP experiments during the last
lems cited were the value of the vacu- perimental activity is presently in year of LEP operation. Gianotti con-
um energy density, and the “time coin- progress. In the longer term, neutrino cluded that the prospects to discover
cidence problem” (i.e. why we happen beams with much higher fluxes will be the Higgs boson at the LHC are excel-
to live just at the time when the vacuum required to study this phenomenon in lent, as are the prospects to discover
energy dominates). He considered pos- detail, including the possible observa- the supersymmetric partners of known
sible particle physics solutions, Brane tion of CP violation. particles, if they exist.
World solutions, Quintessence models, The Standard Model of Particle Pierre Le Coultre showed how one of
and the Cosmological Anthropic Prin- Physics and the tests performed at low the LEP detector (L3) can be used as a
ciple. He concluded that the anthropic energies were described by A. Pich, detector for cosmic ray muons. The re-
approach naturally resolves both CCPs highlighting the very impressive preci- sults will constrain cosmic ray models
and opens windows to the super-large sion achieved in comparing measure- which are used to predict the fluxes of
scales beyond the visible Universe. ments with theoretical predictions in atmospheric neutrinos.
One of the major transition phases of particular cases. He also reviewed re- Despite its successes, the Standard
the observable Universe, the “Reioni- cent results on CP violation. During the Model of particle physics contains too
zation Epoch” when the first stars last year large CP violating effects have many parameters and theorists do
formed and ended the “Dark Ages” that been reported, and future experiments not see it as the final theory. In ad-
followed recombination, was discussed should clarify the mechanisms respon- dition, it does not include gravitational
by P. Madau. He described theories for sible for this phenomenon. interaction, and the mass of the stan-
the development of the early massive High energy tests of the Standard dard Higgs boson becomes unstable
structures, and reviewed evidence that Model were reviewed by F. Gianotti. when quantum corrections are taken
the helium reionization epoch may al- These include the studies of the W and into account. J. Ellis discussed new
ready have been detected. Z bosons at the e+e- collider LEP and physics which could solve these prob-
Direct searches for dark matter can- the discovery of the top quark at the lems. The most popular model is
didates were reviewed by C. Tao. Fermilab proton-antiproton collider. The Supersymmetry, which adds a new
Gravitational microlensing searches for W and Z masses are presently known scalar boson to each known fermion,
massive baryonic objects explain at with a precision of 0.05% and 0.0024%, and a new fermion to each known
most 20% of the dark matter in our respectively, and other parameters of boson. These hypothetical particles
Galaxy. Other searches focus on the the Standard Model measured at LEP have not yet been discovered, but the-
possible existence of hypothetical mas- are measured with typical precisions of orists are confident that their masses
sive, neutral particles which interact the order of 0.1%. In addition, the LEP are lower than 1 TeV, if they exist. The

36
hunt for supersymmetric particles will trinos interact weakly, so they are which indicate strong gravitational ef-
be one of the main activities at the LHC. the only particles that can provide fects. Only supermassive black holes
Ellis discussed additional theoretical information from the edge of the provide a plausible explanation for all
ideas which could give rise to unex- Universe and from sources deep inside such phenomena, although direct evi-
pected and spectacular events at the active regions. However, detectors with dence is still hard to obtain. Super-
LHC. very large masses are needed. F. Hal- massive black holes appear to be pres-
Stimulated by a recent claim on the zen reviewed the status of AMANDA, ent in most galaxies, and there are cer-
basis of high redshift QSO spectra that a large detector consisting of strings tainly enough to explain the QSO phe-
the fine structure constant Alpha may of photomultiplier tubes buried deep in nomenon. A. Eckart showed striking ev-
be varying with cosmic time, G. Fioren- the Antarctic ice cap and looking down idence for the black hole in the centre
tini reviewed other possible evidence to measure Čerenkov radiation in ice of our own Galaxy. The proper motions
for its variation. So far the only positive from charged particles. Other underwa- of stars in the inner region imply an en-
claim is that from the QSO spectra, ter experiments built on the same prin- closed mass which is almost certainly a
conflicting with the other evidence, and ciple are operating and in preparation. black hole.
more dedicated experiments will be The X-ray background has now been Gravitational waves were the subject
required to solve this puzzle. almost completely resolved into dis- of the next two talks. B. Schutz re-
The first of a series of talks on high crete sources by the latest satellites, viewed the possible sources of gravita-
energy astrophysics was given by E. van Chandra and XMM. As described by G. tional waves. The merging of two black
den Heuvel. He spoke about Gamma Hasinger, many of these sources in- holes of a million solar masses at z = 1
Ray Bursts, the most powerful known volve optically obscured active galactic would give an amplitude 5 orders of
cosmic explosions. The models involve nuclei (AGN), with accretion onto cen- magnitude higher than the detection
relativistic fireballs from either super/ tral black holes. The redshift distribu- threshold of LISA. The merger would
hypernovae (“collapsars”), or the merg- tion peaks at a surprisingly low redshift, take only minutes but the spiral down,
ers of neutron stars with other neutron z ~ 0.6, and there is a clear deficit at z with a varying frequency of 0.1 to 10
stars or black holes. A few thousand > 4, indicating a decrease in the space mHz, would take months. For stable bi-
such bursts have now been observed; density at high redshift, in agreement naries, observing the signal over many
the most distant so far known is at z = with earlier results on QSOs. Future periods greatly helps in reaching lower
4.5. The Swift satellite, to be launched missions such as Rosita, Duet and amplitudes. There is complementarity
next year, will provide rapid response Xeus may find some of the very rare between detectors on the ground (fre-
and accurate positions for follow-up by high-redshift X-ray QSOs. quencies above 10 Hz) and detectors in
telescopes such as the VLT. L. Woltjer gave an assessment of our space (set at frequencies below 0.1
H. Völk reviewed the subject of high- current knowledge of neutron stars. Hz), The amplitude sensitivity should in
energy γ-rays. In the region up to a few The masses and temperature fit the both cases reach below 10–22 K. Danz-
GeV, these γ-rays are detected by “standard solution”, and there have mann then outlined the prospects for
measuring their conversion to e+e- pairs been many models that agree. Pulsars detecting gravitational waves. He
in satellites, while at higher energies have provided new constraints and showed that resonating ground detec-
(up to 100 TeV) ground-based Čeren- problems, one of which was the rela- tors were limited to the detection of a
kov detectors are used to detect the tively few radio pulsars located in su- supernova in the galaxy but that more
electromagnetic showers produced in pernova remnants. Now it is known that promising prospects were offered by in-
the Earth’s atmosphere. Progress in there are objects in about 80% of su- terferometers. LIGO should reach to 20
this field is expected from the future pernova remnants. There has been a Mpc soon for such a signal, and to 200
Gamma Ray Large Area Telescope continuing debate over the velocities of Mpc in 2006. For LISA, prospects are
(GLAST) satellite mission which will neutron stars, and its resolution will be great for the observation of massive
study γ-rays up to energies of 100 GeV important in the understanding of their black holes merging anywhere in the
by means of a detector combining large origins. universe.
acceptance and excellent angular and The ubiquity of black holes in the S. Vitale described other space mis-
energy resolution. centres of galaxies is now widely be- sions on fundamental physics under
Studies of cosmic rays at extremely lieved. R. Bender outlined the evidence study at ESA. STEP should test the
high energies (up to 1020 eV) were re- for several cases. Spectacular new ev- equivalence principle at the level of
viewed by A. Watson. The interaction of idence has come from X-ray spectra, 10–18, 6 orders of magnitude better than
these particles with the Earth’s atmos-
phere produces extended air showers
which are studied by counting the muon
multiplicity in a large number of detec-
tors scattered over a large area. The
large Pierre Auger Laboratory in
Argentina will start data taking soon.
Another experiment, EUSO, will meas-
ure the nitrogen fluorescence from very
high-energy cosmic rays using detec-
tors mounted on the International
Space Station, with the advantage of
covering a much larger area than
ground-based experiments.
The presence of some reported
events of extreme energy (above 1011
GeV), such that proton primaries
should have been stopped by the
cosmic microwave radiation, raises an
important puzzle. With respect to pri-
mary charged particles, high energy
neutrinos and γ-rays have the advan-
tage of pointing to the source. Neu- Participants enjoying the Symposium buffet dinner.

37
the present limit. The ACES mission, on future, M. Mayor mentioned the new unit telescopes of the VLT are operating
the ISS, should produce a very high HARPS instrument for the ESO 3.6m with high efficiency, and the suite of
precision clock and the HYPER one telescope, the possibility of astrometry VLT instruments is rapidly increasing.
(free flyer) should study cold atom in- with Prima on the VLT, and prospects in Two survey telescopes are also being
terferometry in space with the prospect space. added. Adaptive optics systems have
of making very high sensitivity gyro- M. Perryman followed on from M. given the VLT images added sharp-
scopes. R. Battiston discussed as- Mayor’s talk by considering the ness, and the VLT Interferometer has
troparticle physics from space, pointing prospects for the detection of earth-like already started producing science, as
out that cosmic ray studies were the extrasolar planets – lower mass sys- outlined earlier by F. Paresce. A major
beginning of particle physics. He re- tems, in particular ones where life might new ESO project is the Atacama Large
viewed the studies of cosmic rays form. He described prospects with the Millimeter Array (ALMA), which, with its
made with balloons and satellites, and astrometric mission GAIA, due for 64 12-meter antennas operating at
the prospects for searches for new par- launch in 2010-2012. With its 1 micro- 5000m altitude, will become a millime-
ticles: antimatter, dark matter, and ul- arcsec accuracy, it will detect 20,000– ter/submillimeter equivalent of the
traheavy particles. A new detector with 30,000 planetary systems, and will find VLT/VLTI and NGST. It will be an equal
a sensitivity to anti-nuclei improved by ~ 10,000 planetary systems by photom- partnership with the U.S. and possibly
a factor of 1000 will be installed on the etry alone. The later Eddington mission Japan, with completion foreseen for
International Space Station. will detect photometric transits of 2011. Further into the future will be
G. Raffelt discussed how stars can 500,000 stars, including some 2,000 OWL, a giant 100-meter diameter opti-
be intense sources of weakly interact- due to earth-mass planets. The photo- cal-infrared telescope, and scientific
ing particles. One such particle is the metric accuracy will suffice to detect and technical investigations for this fa-
axion, which was conceived to explain planetary rings and moons. Finally, he cility are already well underway.
the absence of CP violation in the considered the conditions thought nec- The concluding lecture was given by
strong interaction. A CERN experiment essary for life. The DARWIN mission, M. Rees. He saw the Symposium as
(CAST) will search for axions using an with a launch date sometime after linking the very small with the very
LHC magnet pointed at the Sun and de- 2015, would be a 50-250m baseline in- large, and mentioned three major de-
tecting the axion – X-ray conversion in terferometer employing six 1.5m tele- velopments discussed at the meeting:
the magnetic field. scopes. It would make possible direct the discovery of extrasolar planets, the
F. Paresce described the first science imaging of solar systems like ours, and evidence on neutrino masses, and the
results from the VLT interferometer. A seek spectral signatures of possible determination of important key num-
large number of stellar sources with biomarkers. Surface imaging of earth- bers of the Universe in just the last few
correlated magnitudes brighter than like extrasolar planets may be possible years. He remarked on how conclu-
K ~ 6 and K ~ 3 have been observed with the next generation of extremely sions regarding the flat Universe and its
with the 8m and 40cm telescopes res- large telecopes (OWL, CELT), and very contents (5% baryons, 25% dark mat-
pectively, allowing the establishment of large space arrays. ter, and 70% dark energy) have come
tighter constraints on theoretical stellar During the last afternoon there were from independent sources, with amaz-
models. The great scientific potential of talks on the future perspectives at ESA, ing agreement, and the challenges they
the full VLTI system was outlined. CERN and ESO. Many exciting proj- pose to particle physics. In ten years
A group of three talks dealt with the ects are under construction or at the hence he expects the basic parameters
exciting new field of extrasolar planets. planning stage in all three organisa- to be well known, and he reflected on
E. van Dishoeck described observa- tions. D. Southwood gave a long and the two major challenges that may face
tions and theories of forming planetary impressive list of ESA space missions, us in the post-2010 era: an under-
systems. Infrared and millimetre emis- present and future, with five launches in standing from the very early (<10-12
sion comes from dusty disks surround- just the next year and plans extending sec) Universe as to why these numbers
ing many young stars. The chemistry of well over a decade into the future. He have these particular values, and an
these circumstellar disks, deduced concluded with comments on the role of understanding of cosmic evolution at
from observations of the many molecu- science in Europe, highlighting the dec- >108 yrs. In the latter context he con-
lar lines, provides essential clues to laration of the EU Council of Ministers sidered the possible detection of the
their evolution and planet formation. that “Europe should become the most earliest luminous objects, the formation
For future observations high angular competitive and dynamic knowledge and evolution of galactic nuclei and
resolution will be essential, and ALMA based economy in the world”. black holes, the mysteries and potential
will play a dominant role. Other impor- The future of CERN was reviewed by of Gamma Ray Bursts, and the proba-
tant facilities will include the VLT/VLTI, J. Ellis. In the short term most of the ble detection of gravitational waves
SIRTF, NGST and Herschel. CERN effort is devoted to the construc- from such objects. Finally, he speculat-
The spectacular advances in the dis- tion of the Large Hadron Collider ed on the mysteries of the very early
covery of extrasolar planets (from none (LHC), a machine where two proton Universe. In particular, why do the laws
in 1995 to over 80 today) were de- beams, each with an energy of 7 TeV, of our Universe have latent in them all
scribed by M. Mayor. There is a huge collide head-on with an interaction rate the complexity of our Universe? There
diversity, which was unexpected. Many of 5 108 s–1 in each of two general-pur- are now many models, and he won-
are at 0.03–0.05 AU, many have ec- pose detectors. The LHC and detectors dered how many Big Bangs? According
centric orbits, and typical masses are in are now in the construction phase and to the Cosmological Anthropic Prin-
the range 0.15–10 MJ /sin i. Most have physics should start in 2007. The LHC ciple, the laws of our Universe just hap-
been discovered from radial velocity will also accelerate heavy ions to study pen to be “the by-laws governing our
measurements. Photometric transits the so-called “quark-gluon plasma”, patch”. With the rapidly increasing data
have also now been observed – 46 of which is the state of matter of the early rates he anticipated the development of
them from one recent survey alone. Universe before baryogenesis. Ellis huge databases making possible a
And there are now 7 or 8 published sys- also reviewed the R&D activity on ac- wider participation in science, and he
tems with multiple planets. Many as- celerator technology which goes on in felt that the crescendo of the last few
pects are now being actively studied – parallel with LHC construction, to pre- years will continue with the great new
the origins of the “hot Jupiters”, the pare for the post-LHC era. scientific facilities becoming available.
mass functions of substellar compan- ESO’s current and future pro- Finally, over 50 poster papers were
ions, the orbital eccentricities, the rela- grammes were outlined by the Director presented, covering a wide range of ex-
tion to the metallicity of the star. For the General, C. Cesarsky. All four 8-meter citing topics including cosmological

38
models, Quintessence, the CMB, cos- The full proceedings of this Sympo- der Kruit (Univ. of Groningen), S. Vitale
mic shear, the cosmological constants, sium will be published in the Springer- (Univ. of Trento), S. Volonte (ESA), and
Gamma Ray Bursts, galaxy formation, Verlag series “ESO Astrophysics Sym- M. Ward (Univ. of Leicester).
galaxy clusters, gravitational lensing, posia”. We are most grateful to the Sym-
new space missions, probes for super- The Scientific Organizing Committee posium Secretaries Britt Sjöberg of
massive black holes, quasar absorption was comprised of: R. Battiston (Univ. of the ESO/ESA ST-ECF and Christina
line studies, experiments in fundamen- Perugia), R. Bender (Univ. of Munich), Stoffer of ESO for the organizational
tal physics, extrasolar planets and oth- A. de Rujula (CERN), L. Di Lella (CERN), work before and during the Sympo-
ers. The programme included a fasci- C. Fabjan (CERN), A. Gimenez (ESA), sium, and to the ESO students and fel-
nating special evening lecture by Jean- M. Jacob (JAD), F. Pacini (Arcetri), A. lows, led by Harald Kuntschner, who
Claude Carrière, well-known author, on Renzini (ESO), P. Shaver (ESO; chair), looked after the facilities during the
the subject of “Time”. M. Spiro (Saclay), B. Taylor (ESA), P. van meeting.

The Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud – ESO/MPG 2.2-m telescope (ESO PR Photo 14a/02.)

39
IAOC Workshop in La Serena: Galactic Star Formation
across the Stellar Mass Spectrum
The growing number of first-class as- Formation across the Stellar Mass • Initial Mass Function, Star Formation
tronomical research facilities make Spectrum”, held in La Serena from Rate, and Star Formation Efficiency
Chile also a more and more attractive March 11 to 15. The aim of the work- • Star Formation Theory and Support-
place for hosting scientific conferences shop was to join together the most re- ing Observations
with broad international profile and par- cent observational and theoretical re- • Disk and Planet Formation around
ticipation. Originally started as an infor- sults of Galactic star formation into a Stars of Increasing Mass
mal, biannual workshop intended to coherent picture of how stars form as a • Energetics (Jets, Winds, Outflows,
foster the scientific interaction among function of mass, with special focus on Infall, Ionizing Radiation)
the observatories in Chile, the “ESO/ recent progress made in the areas of • Multiplicity of Formation
Tololo/Las Campanas” workshop has intermediate- and high-mass star for- • Future Star Formation Studies at the
broadened its basis (and sponsoring in- mation. The high interest in the topic is International Observatories in Chile
stitutions!), and now includes the documented by more than 180 confer-
National Radio Astronomy Observatory ence participants, 80 from abroad. Ten Latest research results were shared
NRAO (as one of the main participants invited review speakers explored the in 40 contributed talks and 35 poster
in the ALMA project), and the Gemini similarities and differences between presentations, and an ASP conference
Observatory. This collection of observa- low-, intermediate-, and high-mass star proceedings book is already in press.
tories has been dubbed IAOC, Interna- formation in the context of: Excursions to the Gemini Observatory
tional Astronomical Observatories in site, and the nearby “pisco” vineyards
Chile. As its first conference, the IAOC • Structure and Initial Conditions of the complemented this vivid and success-
organized a workshop on “Galactic Star ISM and Molecular Clouds ful workshop. M. STERZIK

Astronomical Virtual Observatories


discussed in Chile
After the meeting organized in San- work consortium. After the opening expected from VOs, data quality as-
tiago by Conicyt in July 2001, “Large words by D. Alloin (Office for Science, sessments, bandwidth accessibility in
Databases for Astronomy”, the next ESO) and a brief address by C. Lazo Chile, ways of involving the Chilean
step to be discussed was the concept (Executive Director Conicyt), the par- community in this effort/challenge, etc.
of Virtual Observatory: given a set of ticipants enjoyed a series of enlighten- We ended the Topical Meeting with
databases, how can they be pooled into ing talks. The European AVO project some Chilean wine tasting in order to
one large data resource to be searched was presented by P. Quinn (DMD, thank the lecturers who had travelled
with appropriate data mining tools? ESO), while the NVO project developed such a long way to share with us their
Such concepts are currently being de- in the USA was introduced by T. Boro- vision and enthusiasm about the Virtual
veloped both in Europe and in the US son (NOAO). Then we had a report Observatory.
and it was felt very important that the by L. Campusano (U. Chile/Coni-cyt) Thanks also go to the secretary of
astronomical community working in about the initiatives of Conicyt on large the Office for Science and to the mem-
Chile be aware of and get a chance to astronomical databases in 2001. In the bers of the IT/computing team in Vita-
contribute to these new visions about afternoon, the ASTROVIRTEL experi- cura who took care of the practical
the astronomy of tomorrow. ment was reported on by P. Benvenuti organization of this Topical Meeting and
Therefore, a one day Topical Meeting (ST/ECF). of the accompanying tutorial on ESO
“Astronomical Virtual Observatories” Finally, three talks were devoted to archive practice which had been or-
was organized by ESO in Santiago, archive and pipeline setup: the NOAO ganized for students at ESO on Friday
with the sponsorship of Conicyt, AURA, survey archive by D. Shaw (NOAO), April 19.
NOAO/CTIO and Gemini, on April 22nd the pipeline and real-time archiving at The speakers’ contributions can be
2002. NOAO by C. Smith (CTIO) and the ESO found on the ESO/Santiago webpage
Attendees were from CTIO, ESO, astronomical archive by B. Pirenne at: http://www.sc.eso.org/santiago/sci-
PUC, Universidad de Chile, Universi- (DMD, ESO). Lively discussions took ence/VO2002.html
dad de Concepción, Universidad of place on various points including: new DANIELLE ALLOIN and
Valparaíso and from the REUNA net- types of astronomical research to be LUIS CAMPUSANO

Hunting for Planets –


GENIE Workshop at Leiden University
The search for exo-planets has had from space. Therefore, both ESA and etry which is well suited for directly de-
extra-ordinary success in the last 7 NASA have started the technological tecting planets.
years. About 80 objects classified as development for space interferometers In preparation for DARWIN, ESA and
planets have been unambiguously de- looking for a sister Earth. For ESA’s ESO have decided to collaborate on
tected, orbiting around nearby (10–20 DARWIN project, European industry is GENIE, the Ground Based European
pc) sun-like stars. However, finding working on laboratory experiments to Nulling Interferometer Experiment for
earth-like planets requires observations verify the concept of Nulling interferom- the VLTI. The goal is both to test the

40
necessary technology in a real interfer-
ometer environment and to become a full
facility science instrument for the VLTI.
From June 3–6 a workshop took
place at Leiden University, jointly or-
ganised by NEVEC, ESA and ESO, to
discuss the Nulling technology and the
science that is expected with GENIE.
The number of participants, 83 in total,
exceeded the expectations by far and
demonstrated the large interest of the
community in this subject.
The GENIE concepts discussed dur-
ing the workshop concentrate on a two/
four-way beam combiner operating in
the infrared (L, M or N band). Although
the N band is better suited for detecting
planets from space, on the ground the
calibration of the enormous thermal
background poses a severe problem.
Therefore the question remains open
as to whether the L/M bands are better
suited for DARWIN system tests. The
science objective of GENIE is to ob-
serve a couple of hundred candidate
stars for DARWIN in order to measure
the zodiacal light and bright extra-solar
planets. Many other science pro-
grammes (AGN, binary stars, T Tauri
disks around young stars, or debris
disks around main sequence stars) with
faint matter close to a bright source
could also take advantage of GENIE.
Kick-off for GENIE is in summer 2002, The poster image for the GENIE workshop held recently in Leiden. It shows an artist's im-
and the instrument is scheduled for pression of a possible DARWIN space interferometer superimposed on a photograph of the
commissioning in 2006. VLT/ VLTI, with the central beam combining satellite highlighting the VLTI beam combination
Andreas Glindemann laboratory. Figure courtesy of NEVEC.

Young Stars
in Old Galaxies –
a Cosmic Hide
and Seek Game
A group of researchers around M.
Kissler-Patig (ESO) studies the forma-
tion and evolution history of galaxies
through the study of their globular clus-
ters. Recently, the combination of opti-
cal and near-infrared images allowed
them to detect a “young” population in
a galaxy that was believed to be old.
Are some old ellipticals hiding their
true story? (See ESO Press Release
11/02.)
The figure shows a colour composite
of the elliptical galaxy NGC 4365, pre-
pared from two exposures with the HST
and one from the VLT. Many of the ob-
jects seen are stellar clusters in this
galaxy. There are also a large number
of background galaxies in the field. The
distribution of “old” (red circles) and
“young” (blue circles) stellar clusters in
NGC 4365 are shown.

41
Information from the ESO Educational Office
A. BACHER AND R.M. WEST (ESO EPR DEPT.)
The ESO Educational Office is in- ly stimulating for physics teachers from
volved in several on-going projects, all over Europe. The EIROFORUM
some of which take place within ESO Working Group has therefore made a
and others which are carried out in col- joint application to the European Com-
laboration with some of the other mission (EC) for “Physics on Stage 3”
European Intergovernmental Research in 2003, again under the auspices of
Organisations (EIRO). In this connec- the European Science and Technology
tion, the co-ordination that is now taking Week. On this occasion, it is the in-
place via the EIROforum Working tention to widen the programme to-
Group on Outreach and Education is wards other research disciplines, e.g.
playing an increasingly important role. biochemistry and to increase the num-
The close and efficient collaboration ber of participating countries to ap-
with the European Association for As- proximately 30. A new element will
tronomy Education (EAAE) continues. be a thorough evaluation of the project
impact.
Physics on Stage For the future, plans are being de-
veloped by the EIRO Working Group
Following the extremely successful for a longer-term collaborative project
“Physics on Stage” that took place dur- within the 6th Framework Programme
ing the year 2000, a second event in of the European Union.
this series was organised in April 2002,
mainly through the initiative of ESA, but Catch a star!
again in full collaboration with CERN,
ESO and some of the other EIROs. Within this year’s European Science
More than 300 participants met at ES- Week, a joint project between ESO and
TEC in Noordwijk (The Netherlands) the EAAE, known as “Catch a Star!”, “Catch a Star!” logo.
during a one-week conference, also has been set up at short notice, follow-
this time with active participation of high- ing an idea by EAAE Vice-President
level officials, among others the Dutch Rosa Maria Ros (Spain). The central By mid-June, about 130 projects with
Minister for Research and also the idea is that groups of up to three stu- more than 500 participants had been
European Commissioner for Research, dents and one teacher at a primary and registered. To participate in the final
Philippe Busquin (see photo). On this oc- secondary schools in Europe will round, the groups must send their re-
casion, the European Science Teach- “catch” a celestial object of their choice, ports to the organisers who will evaluate
ing Award for outstanding education ef- which they must then describe in some them; those which are accepted will be
forts was given for the first time. detail in a corresponding report. Full placed on the project website, ultimate-
There is an obvious and urgent need details are available at the project web- ly representing a tremendous source of
for continuation of this type of pro- site at: http://www.eso.org/outreach/ useful information, especially for edu-
gramme which has proven exceptional- eduoff/catchastar/ cators. The winners will be drawn by
lottery with the first prize being a trip to
the Paranal Observatory. However,
there will also be many other prizes and
the first 1000 participants will also re-
ceive a “Catch a Star!” T-shirt.

Couldn’t be without it

Parallel to that ESO/EAAE educa-


tional project, the seven EIROs are or-
ganising another Europe-wide pro-
gramme, known as “Couldn’t Be With-
out It” (cf. http://info.web.cern.ch/info/
scitech/). It aims at explaining to the
wide public how basic science is behind
virtually all of the technology on which
our daily lives depend. We are only
able to enjoy mobile phones, fast and
safe means of transport, effective
household machines etc., because
many generations of industrious scien-
tists have worked hard to unravel na-
ture’s secrets. This programme in-
volves the production of numerous
teaching kits for schools and there will
be a wide range of prizes to win for the
At the Final Event of “Physics on Stage 2” (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands): European participating public. It terminates with a
Commissioner Philippe Busquin (front row) listens to Danish physics teacher Mogens final, spectacular webcast from CERN
Winther. in November this year.

42
FAST 2002 appreciated by the teaching commu- the rare astronomical event that takes
nity. More than 500 requests have place on June 8, 2004, when the plan-
15 European high-school teachers been received during the past months et Venus will move in front of (“transit”)
with a special affinity to astronomy will from teachers all over the world and the solar disk – the most recent such
participate in the first teachers’ training many others have taken over these ex- event was in 1882; the next will be in
course organised by ESO (FAST 2002, ercises from the dedicated website 2012 and 2117. It is the intention to in-
cf. http://www.eso.org/outreach/eduoff/ (http://www.astroex.org/). In view of this volve the general public directly by pro-
fast2002/). During one week in August very encouraging development, it has viding easy-to-understand information
2002 they will listen to lectures by ESO been decided to translate these excer- about how this phenomenon can be ob-
scientists and participate in workshops cises into other languages; Dutch, served with simple means. By means of
mainly oriented towards new means French and Italian versions will soon numerous timing observations from dif-
and methods for astronomy courses at become available. ferent geographical locations, it is pos-
high-school level. Both the teachers sible to deduce the solar parallax (with
and the ESO Educational Office will gain Venus Transit 2004 some uncertainty), in other words the
a lot of experience from this first event distance to the Sun, and hence to climb
- and it is the intention to organise more Finally, and again in a close collabo- the first step on the cosmic distance
such courses during the coming years. ration between ESO and the EAAE ladder. Look at http://www.eso.org/out-
These courses supplement the more (and most likely with other future part- reach/eduoff/vt-2004/ for more informa-
general EAAE Summer Schools that ners), another educational programme tion, as this ambitious programme is
are also supported by ESO. (“Venus Transit 2004”) that also has the being developed during the coming
Also in this context, the ESO/ESA potential to develop into an exceptional months, in consultation with collabo-
Astronomy Exercise Series (see Mes- public and media event is now in the rators at Europe’s schools and plane-
senger 107, page 44) has been greatly process of being defined. It concerns taria.

ESO in the European Parliament


Astronomy and Astrophysics is not Addressing the committee members sented and they followed up with their
normally at the centre of attention at the for ESO were Dr Catherine Cesarsky, own views in a subsequent, lively de-
highest political circles in Europe. Dr Roberto Gilmozzi and Dr Richard bate. It was evident that both the aspect
However, the renaissance that our sci- West, while Prof. Francisco Sanchez of European competitiveness in sci-
ence is currently experiencing, not least spoke on behalf of the Instituto de ence and technology and the model
based on the spectacular success of Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC). The function of Astronomy was fully regis-
the VLT, has not gone unnoticed among deputies expressed strong interest in tered by the parlamentarians.
the decision makers in Europe. the comprehensive information pre- C. MADSEN, ESO
For ESO, both the entry of additional
member-states and the new and future
projects that aim at providing a solid
base for the further development of Obituary KURT HUNGER
European Astronomy and Astrophysics,
On May 27, 2002 Prof. Kurt Hunger passed away at an age of 80. Kurt Hunger
have had considerable effects. At the
was a true European and a passionate and active supporter of the European
same time, ESO’s technological and
Southern Observatory. He served on many ESO committees such as the OPC, which
scientific successes demonstrate the he chaired for several years, and the Council. He was President of the ESO Council
advantages and great capabilities of a from 1985 to 1987, a period extremely important for the organization. During this time
focussed and concerted European ef- Kurt Hunger together with Lo Woltjer as Director General became the driving forces
fort within an important field of funda- in the promotion of the VLT project in the member countries. Their success provid-
mental science. ed the basis for the development of ESO into the next century as one of the most
Taking account of this, the Com- powerful observatories in the world and a focal point of astronomical research in
mittee for Industry, Trade, Research Europe.
and Energy (ITRE) of the European Kurt Hunger studied physics and astronomy as a student of Albrecht Unsoeld at
Parliament decided to organise a 90- Kiel University. His research focussed on quantitative stellar spectroscopy and the
min Mini-hearing under the title ‘Cutting physics of stellar atmospheres. After several years of research in the USA he re-
Edge Science – A New Epoch for turned to Germany in 1968 to take on a professorship at the Technical University of
European Astrophysics’. This important Berlin, where he started to build up the Institute for Astrophysics. His work was ex-
event took place on 27 May in the Paul- tremely fruitful. He was very quickly able to form a group of active researchers and
Henri Spaak building of the European students and to establish astrophysics in Berlin in a very complicated period at the
universities. In 1976 he accepted a chair of astrophysics at the University of Kiel. This
Parliament in Brussels. It was chaired
was the beginning of the development of a new school of model atmospheres, ra-
by Mr Carlos Westendorp y Cabeza, diative transfer and quantitative spectroscopy, which became one of the most suc-
former Minister of Foreign Affairs for cessful groups in European astronomy. Many of his students pursued successful ca-
Spain and now chairman of the ITRE reers in astronomy and became professors or lecturers at German universities. They
Committee. The prime goal of the all met in September 2001 in Kiel to celebrate Kurt Hunger’s 80th birthday in a two
meeting was to give information about day science workshop dedicated to stellar spectroscopy. It was a deeply moving mo-
the many aspects of contemporary as- ment, when Kurt presented a science paper on the chemical composition of helium
tronomical research, from the current stars.
state of the science itself through the Those of us, who had the privilege to learn from him and to work with him, will re-
advanced technologies employed and member Kurt Hunger as a teacher and as a colleague, who was always on our side,
on to the related, societal aspects. As helpful and supportive. He was a man of great vision and of a great heart.
could expected, the plans for future in-
frastructures and large facilities played ROLF-PETER KUDRITZKI
a significant role in the discussion. Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

43
The “Pillars of Creation” in the Eagle Nebula, in infrared light – VLT Antu+ISAAC. Image by Mark McCaughrean and Morton Andersen,
Astrophysical Institute Potsdam. (ESO PR Photo 37b/01.)

44
German Foreign Minister Visits Paranal Observatory
Replicated from ESO Press Release 02/02 (7 March 2002)

tor General (European Co-operation) at


the German Ministry for Education and
Research.
The visitors were shown the various
high-tech installations at this remote
desert site, some of which have been
constructed by German firms. More-
over, most of the large, front-line VLT
astronomical instruments have been
built in collaboration between ESO and
European research institutes, several
of these in Germany.
One of the latest arrivals to Paranal,
the CONICA camera, was built under
an ESO contract by the Max-Planck
Institutes for Astronomy (MPIA, in
Heidelberg) and Extraterrestrial Phys-
ics (MPE, in Garching).
The guests had the opportunity to en-
joy the spectacular sunset over the Pa-
cific Ocean from the terrace of the new
Residencia building. At the beginning of
Figure 1: Minister Fischer (left) is received at the entrance to the Observatory by the ESO the night, the Minister was invited to the
Representative in Chile, Daniel Hofstadt. Control Room for the VLT Interferom-
eter (VLTI) from where this unique new
During his tour of countries in South Minister, accompanied by a distin- facility is now being thoroughly tested
America, the Honourable Foreign guished delegation from the German before it is put into service later this
Minister of Germany, Mr. Joschka Federal Parliament as well as by busi- year.
Fischer, stopped over at the ESO Pa- nessmen from Germany, travelled to In his expression of thanks, Minister
ranal Observatory on the night of Paranal, site of the world’s largest opti- Fischer enthusiastically referred to his
Wednesday, March 6–7, 2002. cal/infrared astronomical facility, the visit at Paranal. He said he was truly
Arriving in Antofagasta, capital of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). impressed by the technology of the tel-
II Chilean region, the Foreign Minister The delegation was welcomed by the escopes and considered the VLT proj-
and his suite was met by local Chilean Observatory Director, Dr. Roberto Gil- ect a model of European technological
officials, headed by Mr. Jorge Molina, mozzi, the VLT Programme Manager, and scientific cooperation.
Intendente of the Region, as well as His Professor Massimo Tarenghi, the ESO Later in the evening, the Minister was
Excellency, the German Ambassador to Representative in Chile, Mr. Daniel Hof- invited to perform an observing se-
Chile, Mr. Georg CS Dick and others. In stadt and ESO staff members, and also quence at the console of the MELIPAL
the afternoon of March 6, the Foreign by Mr. Reinhard Junker, Deputy Direc- telescope.

Figure 2: During the visit to the observing


platform at the top of Paranal: from left to
right, the Minister, VLT-Program-Manager
Massimo Tarenghi and Observatory Director Figure 3: The Minister, seated at the control console for the VLT ANTU telescope (Roberto
Roberto Gilmozzi. Gilmozzi and Massimo Tarenghi in the background).

45
ANNOUNCEMENTS

The Very Large Telescope Interferometer:


Challenges for the Future
A JENAM 2002 Workshop to be held at Porto, Portugal on September 4-7

Sponsored by the European Southern Observatory

The last quarter of a century witnessed the maturing of optical interferometry and associated technologies. The third millen-
nium started with common user facilities achieving first light: the Keck Interferometer, the Very Large Telescope Interferometer
(VLTI), and the CHARA array.
The VLTI provides a unique combination of sensitivity and number of baselines therefore opening to the ESO communi-
ty a mostly unexplored astrophysical territory. The challenge to the community is to make the VLTI a productive science ma-
chine.
This workshop will address optical interferometry science. It will start with a presentation of interferometry basics and of the
VLTI instrumentation (AMBER/MIDI). Most of the workshop is devoted to the presentation of the current status and future
prospects of interferometry science in the fields of exoplanets, stellar parameters and binary stars, young stellar object accretion
disks and outflows, imaging stars and their environments, stellar shells, pulsations and mass loss, nuclear regions of AGNs - torus
and broad line regions and radio jets, etc. The workshop will end with a look at competing/complementary facilities and a round
table discussion on future directions in optical interferometry science and instrumentation.

More details are available at:


http://www.sp-astronomia.pt/jenam2002/ws-vlti or contact ws-vlti@sp-astronomia.pt

Workshop Scientific Organizing Committee:


M. Fridlund (ESA), A. Glindeman (ESO), C. Haniff (UK), T. Henning (Germany), F. Malbet (France), D. Queloz (Switzerland),
A. Quirrenbach (Netherlands/USA), L. Testi (Italy) and P. Garcia (Portugal).

PERSONNEL MOVEMENTS
International Staff CRISTIANI, Stefano (I), Instrument Scientist
DARBON GONCALVES, Anabela (P), Fellow
HESS, Joachim (D), Associate
(1 April – 30 June 2002) QUEBATTE, Jean (CH), Manager ESO Photolab
TÜLLMANN, Ralph (D) Student
ARRIVALS
CHILE
EUROPE
KÜRSTER, Martin (D), Astronomer
BERGOND, Gilles (F), Associate LAGER, Michael (S), Associate SEST
BÖCKER, Michael (D), Safety Engineer MADEJSKY, Rainer (D), Associate
DIETRICH, Jörg (D), Associate PINTE, Christophe (F), Associate
HAASE, Jonas (DK), Astronomival Data Archive and
Pipeline Software Specialist
HARTUNG, Markus (A), Student
SCHEDL, Iris (A), Secretary

CHILE
Local Staff
DE FIGUEIREDO MELO, Claudio (BR), Fellow
FOELLMI, Cédric (CH), Operations Astronomer (1 March 2002 – 30 May 2002)
SANSGASSET, Pierre (F), Mechanical Engineer
SMOKER, Jonathan (GB), Operations Staff Astronomer
WILLIS, Jon (GB), Fellow ARRIVALS
ZALTRON, Paolo (I) Associate
ROZAS PAYCHO, Felix Alberto, Maintenance Technician

DEPARTURES
DEPARTURES
EUROPE
DELGADO BORQUEZ, Francisco, Software Engineer
CABANERO RODRIGUEZ, Susana (E), Student ROJAS BARRA, Manuel, Telescope Instruments Operator

46
ESO Fellowship Programme 2002/2003
The European Southern Observatory (ESO) awards several postdoctoral fellowships tenable at the ESO Headquarters, locat-
ed in Garching near Munich, and at ESO’s Astronomy Centre in Santiago, Chile. The ESO fellowship programme offers a unique
opportunity for young scientists to pursue their research programmes while learning and participating in the process of observa-
tional astronomy with state-of-the-art facilities. ESO facilities include the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Observatory on Cerro
Paranal, the La Silla Observatory and the astronomical centres in Garching and Santiago. ESO operates optical telescopes with
apertures in the range from 2 m to 8 m, and the 15-m SEST millimetre radio telescope.

The main areas of activity are:

• research in observational and theoretical astrophysics;


• developing the interferometer and adaptive optics for the VLT;
• operating the Paranal and La Silla Observatories;
• development of instruments for current ESO telescopes;
• calibration, analysis, management and archiving of data from the current ESO telescopes;
• developing the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA);
• fostering co-operation in astronomy and astrophysics within Europe and Chile.

The main scientific interest of ESO Faculty astronomers in Garching and in Chile are given in the ESO web site
(http://www.eso.org/science/facultymembers.html).
Both the ESO Headquarters and the Astronomy Centre in Santiago offer extensive computing facilities, libraries and other in-
frastructure for research support.
There are ample opportunities for scientific collaborations. The ESO Headquarters host the Space Telescope European
Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) and are situated in the immediate neighbourhood of the Max-Planck Institutes for Astrophysics and
for Extraterrestrial Physics and are only a few kilometers away from the Observatory of the Ludwig-Maximilian University. In Chile,
ESO fellows have the opportunity to collaborate with the rapidly expanding Chilean astronomical community in a growing partner-
ship between ESO and the host country’s academic community.
Fellows in Garching spend up to 25% of their time on the support or development activities mentioned above, in addition to
personal research. They can select functional activities in one of the following areas: instrumentation, user support, archive, VLTI,
ALMA or science operations at the Paranal Observatory. Fellowships in Garching start with an initial contract for one year normally
followed by a two-year extension.
In Chile, the fellowships are granted for one year initially with an extension of three additional years. During the first three years,
the fellows are assigned to either the Paranal or La Silla operations groups. They support the astronomers in charge of operational
tasks at a level of 50% of their time, with 80 nights per year at either the Paranal or La Silla Observatory and 35 days per year at
the Santiago Office. During the fourth year there is no functional work and several options are provided. The fellow may be host-
ed by a Chilean institution and will thus be eligible to propose for Chilean observing time on all telescopes in Chile. The other op-
tions are to spend the fourth year either at ESO’s Astronomy Centre at Santiago, Chile, or the ESO Headquarters in Garching, or
an institute of astronomy/astrophysics in an ESO member state.
We offer an attractive remuneration package including a competitive salary (tax-free), comprehensive social benefits, and pro-
vide financial support in relocating families. Furthermore, an expatriation allowance as well as some other allowances may be
added. The Outline of the Terms of Service for Fellows (http://www.eso.org/gen-fac/adm/pers/fellows.html) provides some more
details on employment conditions/benefits.
Candidates will be notified of the results of the selection process in February 2003. Fellowships begin between April and
October of the year in which they are awarded. Selected fellows can join ESO only after having completed their doctorate.

Applications must be made on the ESO Fellowship Application Form at http://www.eso.org/gen-fac/adm/pers/forms/in-


dex.html. The applicant should arrange for three letters of recommendation from persons familiar with his/her scientific
work to be sent directly to ESO. Applications and the three letters must reach ESO by October 15, 2002.
Completed applications should be addressed to:

European Southern Observatory


Fellowship Programme
Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
vacancy@eso.org
Contact person: Angelika Beller, Tel. +49 89 320 06-553, Fax +49 89 320 06-490, e-mail: abeller@eso.org

LIST OF SCIENTIFIC PREPRINTS


March–June 2001

1460. J.P.U. Fynbo, P. Møller, B. Thomsen, J. Hjorth, J. Gorosabel, 1463. M. Contini, S.M. Viegas, M.A. Prieto: The signature of high ve-
M.I. Andersen, M.P. Egholm, S. Holland, B.L. Jensen, H. locity gas in the spectra of NGC 4151. A&A.
Pedersen and M. Weidinger: Deep Lyα imaging of two z=2.04 1464. G. Li Causi, G. De Marchi, F. Paresce: On the accuracy of the
GRB host galaxy fields. A&A. S/N estimates obtained with the exposure time calculator of
1461. L. Vanzi, S. Bagnulo, E. Le Floc’h, R. Maiolino, E. Pompei, W. the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble
Walsh: Multi-wavelength Study of IRAS 19254-7245 – The Space Telescope. PASP.
Superantennae. A&A. 1465. F. Comerón, A. Pasquali, G. Rodighiero, V. Stanishev, E. De
1462. J. Reunanen, J.K. Kotilainen, M.A. Prieto: Near-infrared spec- Filippis, B. López Martí, M.C. Gálvez Ortiz, A. Stankov, R.
troscopy of nearby Seyfert galaxies. I. First results. MNRAS. Gredel: On the massive star contents of Cygnus OB2. A&A.

47
1466. D. Heath Jones, Ben W. Stappers, Bryan M. Gaensler: Discovery of an optical bow-
ESO, the European Southern Observa-
shock around pulsar B0740-28. A&A.
tory, was created in 1962 to "... establish
1467. T.-S. Kim, R.F. Carswell, S. Cristiani, S. D’Odorico, E. Giallongo: The Physical
and operate an astronomical observato-
Properties of the Lyα Forest at z > 1.5. MNRAS.
ry in the southern hemisphere, equipped
1468. L. Vanzi, L.K. Hunt, T.X. Thuan: Near-infrared properties of Blue Compact Dwarf
with powerful instruments, with the aim of
Galaxies: the link between solar and low metallicity. A&A.
furthering and organising collaboration in
astronomy..." It is supported by nine
countries: Belgium, Denmark, France,
Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portu-
gal, Sweden and Switzerland, soon to be A Note from the New Editor
joined by the United Kingdom. ESO op-
erates at two sites in the Atacama desert It is a pleasure to serve as editor of The Messenger, and to work with my col-
region of Chile. The new Very Large league Kurt Kjär, the technical editor, in this endeavour. This task is made eas-
Telescope (VLT), the largest in the world, ier by the fact that The Messenger has been developed to such high standards
is located on Paranal, a 2,600 m high
over the years, and for this I am most grateful to my predecessors, in particular
mountain approximately 130 km south of
Antofagasta, in the driest part of the Marie-Hélène Ulrich who has served in this position for the last eight years.
Atacama desert where the conditions are PETER SHAVER
excellent for astronomical observations.
The VLT consists of four 8.2-metre diam-
eter telescopes. These telescopes can
be used separately, or in combination as
a giant interferometer (VLTI). At La Silla, Contents
600 km north of Santiago de Chile at
2,400 m altitude, ESO operates several Catherine Cesarsky: United Kingdom Becomes Tenth Member of ESO . . . . . 1
optical telescopes with diameters up to
3.6 m and a submillimetre radio tele-
scope (SEST). Over 1300 proposals are TELESCOPES AND INSTRUMENTATION
made each year for the use of the ESO G. Monnet: Status of VLT 2nd Generation Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
telescopes. The ESO headquarters are R. Hanuschik and D. Silva: VLT Quality Control and Trending Services . . . . . 4
located in Garching, near Munich, Ger-
Recent NAOS-CONICA Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
many. This is the scientific, technical and
administrative centre of ESO where tech- L. Germany: News from La Silla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
nical development programmes are car-
ried out to provide the Paranal and La REPORTS FROM OBSERVERS
Silla observatories with the most ad-
vanced instruments. There are also ex- G. Hasinger, J. Bergeron, V. Mainieri, P. Rosati, G. Szokoly and the CDFS
tensive astronomical data facilities. ESO Team: Understanding the sources of the X-ray background: VLT identifica-
employs about 320 international staff tions in the Chandra/XMM-Newton Deep Field South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
members, Fellows and Associates in Carme Gallart, Robert Zinn, Frederic Pont, Eduardo Hardy, Gianni
Europe and Chile, and about 160 local Marconi, Roberto Buonnanno: Using color-magnitude diagrams and
staff members in Chile. spectroscopy to derive star formation histories: VLT observations
of Fornax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
The ESO MESSENGER is published
four times a year: normally in March, Thomas Rivinius, Dietrich Baade, Stanislav Štefl, Monika Maintz, Richard
June, September and December. ESO Townsend: The ups and downs of a stellar surface: Nonradial pulsation
also publishes Conference Proceedings, modelling of rapid rotators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Preprints, Technical Notes and other ma- L. Pentericci, H.W. Rix, X. Fan, M. Strauss: The VLT and the most distant
terial connected to its activities. Press quasars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Releases inform the media about partic- Daniel Harbeck, Eva K. Grebel, Graeme H. Smith: Evidence for external
ular events. For further information, con- enrichment processes in the globular cluster 47 Tuc? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
tact the ESO Education and Public
Relations Department at the following
address: OTHER ASTRONOMICAL NEWS
Steve Warren: The UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey becomes an ESO
EUROPEAN public survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
SOUTHERN OBSERVATORY
Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2
M. Jacob, P. Shaver, L. Dilella, A. Gimenez: Summary of the ESO-CERN-
D-85748 Garching bei München ESA Symposium on Astronomy, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics . . . 35
Germany M. Sterzik: IAOC Workshop in La Serena: Galactic Star Formation across the
Tel. (089) 320 06-0 stellar Mass Stectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Telefax (089) 3202362 Danielle Alloin and Luis Campusano: Astronomical Virtual Observatories
ips@eso.org (internet) discussed in Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
URL: http://www.eso.org Andreas Glindemann: Hunting for Planets – GENIE Workshop
http://www.eso.org/gen-fac/pubs/ at Leiden University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
messenger/ Young Stars in Old Galaxies – a Cosmic Hide and Seek Game . . . . . . . . . . . 41
A. Bacher and R.M. West: Information from the ESO Educational Office . . . . 42
The ESO Messenger:
C. Madsen: ESO in the European Parliament . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Editor: Peter Shaver Rolf-Peter Kudritzki: Obituary Kurt Hunger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Technical editor: Kurt Kjär German Foreign Minister Visits Paranal Observatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Printed by ANNOUNCEMENTS
Universitätsdruckerei
WOLF & SOHN The Very Large Interferometer: Challenges for the Future (A Jenam 2002
Heidemannstr. 166 Workshop to be held at Porto, Portugal, on September 4–7) . . . . . . . . . . 46
D-80939 München Personnel Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Germany ESO Fellowship Programme 2002/2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
List of Scientific Preprints (March–June 2001) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
ISSN 0722-6691 A Note from the New Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

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