Y. 14583


W. Wason


on China and the Chinese

BL 1411.AT4B36"""'*'' "''""

^^^K^ Buddha


3 1924 023 164 209




Cornell University Library


original of



is in

Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the




m m


















,0> <o>



[All rights reserved.']





Esq., F.R.S., D.C.L., etc.

Dear Mr. Fbrgusson,


I first discovered, in the India Office Library

a Chinese copy of the following work, I purposed to publish

an entire translation of
purpose, I


Being unable to carry out this

desired to



iu as complete a



But even here

fresh difficulties arose, nor


have been able to produce the following abbreit

viated translation, had
liberal support.

not been for your generous and


gladly avail myself, therefore, of your

permission to inscribe to you the work, such as


acknowledgment of your





hope that



be of service in supplementing

some extent,

at least)

your own labours

in the



Buddhist Archseology.


am, dear Mr. Fergusson,

Yours very



eqppng Aion5[ o^ vnvsi j B. J8(){)9q aqq S8ut. „ .iora aqj.toj 'aq \\\t^ %t.i:joop sii[ uoaq 3abi[ ix^qs pni3[nBra ^(e jeuoos ai^ puu 'imq ajitapu j ojooi aq").s\\% JO 8no jfiure^JBO si il^jiii p9C(ni'BnbD'B ap'Bni sq .

has an instructive note on this word.d. which includes his previous and subsequent •history. that originally the story of the "Abhinishkraflight mana"^ was simply that of Buddha's palace to become an ascetic. from his title Afterwards. INTEODUCTION. is there stated that the "Abhinishkramana Sutra" by the school of the Dharmaguptas Fo-penMng-Tcing. later than which we cannot place the origin of the story. about the end of the sixth century. Lotus.. p.. the same was applied to the complete legend (as in the present work). . " Leaving the palace for a religious life". It would seem from a consideration of the title of the seventeenth chapter. e. The expression used in the Chinese perfectly confirms his criticism Shi-hung chuh-kia. 333. may be derived from the It is colophon at the end of the last chapter of the book. A very valuable date. This work of the is a translation of the Chinese version "Abhinishkramana Sutra'V done into that language by Djnanakuta. who resided in China during the Tsui dynasty. § 114). Burnout'. a Buddhist priest from North India. i. a. is the title of the chapter in question. by the Sarvastivadas it is called Ta-chwangcalled ^ - Wasailief (Bouddhisme. "leaving the palace to become a recluse".

cap. 8th fol. that the Fo-pen-hing was translated into Chinese from Sanscrit.^ The first. chap. V°) now and Fo- lost. thing— hnt also from the remarks of Bournouf {Inirod. fol. " Amongst others. as "volumineux recueU de legendea relatives k la vie religieuse de Cakya.e. was in It five chapters (kiouen).. as " da cine". in one chapter. e. xx^ fol. xui. vol. [Kai-yuen-shi-kiau-mu-lu. p. Bud. chap. Tuen. that several translations of the "Legend of Buddha" are quoted under the name Fo-pen-hing. i. Kaiyuen-sM-Mau-mu-lu. the original of which was lost so early as the beginning of the Tang dynasty. to Ind. translation fol. must be borne in mind. y-) and in the " Commentary of Wong-Puh". Mahavastu. 69 or VO A. . .. not only because "vastu" is the literal rendering of "sse". Again. yen (great magnificence. in the German edition {Der Buddhismus. therefore. "Lalita Vistara") i. by a priest called Chu-fa-lan. §114) as "ta-king". iii. as the Fo-pen-hing. The latter writer speaks of the Mahavastu. of the Han dynasty. safely suppose that the original work was in circulation in India for some time previous to this date. § 114).^ We know from the "Chinese Encyclopsedia".VI INTEODUCTION. 452). gr. cit?j that a work called 1 The Chinese title of this book ia given by Wassalief {BoudAhisme. the "great thing or compilation". V°)> bearing the same it is name but ii.. which we have already alluded to. so early as the eleventh year of the reign of Wing-ping (Ming-ti). the work here translated is constantly referred to in the "Fa-yuen-chu-lin" (e. as the title ia plainly "ta-sse". That this is really the equivalent of "Mahavastu" is evident. \s op. i... however. by the Mahasanghikas it is called Ta-sse. i. There is allusion to another vol.. i.D. e." a description which agrees completely with the character of the work here translated. in either case I suppose there is a mistake of transcription. We may. stated (vol.

recently ^ This copy of the Fo-pen-hing. and translated into Chinese by Dharmalatsin. The inscriptions found on Buddhist original treatise ruins. who is generally placed 400 years after Buddha ." in five chapters. therefore. it is Again work (vol. if we suppose him to have lived somewhere during the first century B. i. chap. Sung dynasty (420-477 a." he adds.^ T^hese statements are in agreement with the opinion finally of the learned translator of the " Lalita Vistara". from the Thibetan.d. ii. V. cit. of Liang-Chau Ratnamegha. Index. xx. 2 The date of Kanishka is the great desideratum in the History of Northern Buddhism. fol. op. In his opinion. an Indian priest of the Northern Liang dynasty (502-555 a. composed originally by Asvagosha. vii sho-Mng-tmn-Jcing-fu. The date of Asvagosha is uncertain . is probably another translation of the one originally composed by Asvagosha in verse. of the is The Chinese word generally used to denote the class of Buddhist works known in Sanscrit as Udanas. called Fo-pen-Mng-king. "Lalita Vistara. in seven chapters. that work was adjusted in its present form at the last council held under Kanishka. is also called by many writers said that a Fo-pen-hing.^ although the must be attributed to an earlier date. xiii.).^ four hundred years after the death of Buddha.d. 3 "Histoiredu Bouddha Sakya-Mouni. (called was translated by a Shaman fol..) that this last-named translation pen-hing-tsaTh-hing. works composed in laudatory verses.). we know that he was contemporary with Nagaquna. cit).INTEODUCTION." . e. suh voc. chap. Mary Sum- mers." by Mme. "This would give it an antiquity of two thousand years. V. we shall not be wrong.C. The writer then addssometimes called Fotsan is op..

The Franciscan monk Piano Car- .^ 1 * . They have ever done so. however. it wiU be seen that the Eecords of the Books and of the stone Sculptures are in agreement. 5. as I believe. 'Eitel Lee. curi- Three Lectures on Buddhism. Asoka (about 300 B. found are pages following of the stories related in the sculptured at Sanchi. p.— INTRODUCTION. ^his But The mi- Devas (angels) at his birth childhood — his temptation in the desert of continual labour —the events of early —and his and travel—these points of agreehis life — the songs of the Suddhvasa ment with the Gospel narrative naturally arouse osity and require examination.) and the first century of the Christian era. viii Many discovered in India. and 'some.C. by the Kev. at BharIf the date of these topes is to be placed between hut. Some of these events I do not find named in any Chinese work within my reach.D."^ refers The legends to which of this writer heaven recognition — birth of a virgin—salutation by Asita (Simeon) —presentation in the and water — disputation with Temple—baptism by passed the doctors — temptation in the wilderness — in preaching and working miracles —transfiguration on the mount — descent into hell — ascension into his fire ^Hfe are these. The author of " Three Lectures on Buddhism" states. "the pre-existence Buddha in by angels heaven. E. " that nearly all the legends which claim to refer to events many centuries before Christ. cannot be proved to have been in circulation earlier than the 5th or 6th century A. i." etc. confirm this hypothesis. others are undoubtedly commonly referred previous existence of Bodhisatwa in heaven raculous incarnation — to.

] in ' It would be a natural inference that many of the events pels (compare the Apocryphal Gosthe " Gospel of the infancy". and Lives of the Fathers. pini reports tHat "the Cathayans have an Old and New Testament of their own. of this volume).^ We ing. cap. if we were quite certain that these Apocryphal Gospels had not borrowed from it. and other writers down to Hue and Grabet.INTRODUCTION. Compare also what Andrew Corsalis says in his letter to Duke Lorenzo de' Medici (do. wherever found.. . cannot doubt. the legend of Buddha were borrowed from gr.) In a Chinese work on the "Art of War" (under the heading ^a-lon-W— gun). that there was a large mixture of Eastern tradition. cxU. But all the evidence we have goes to prove the contrary." etc. 18). and religious recluses. It win. be enough for the present to denote this Christ's birth. by saying that all these legends or stories {erzdlungen). in fact. n. it is particularly mentioned that the Portuguese on their first visit to Canton from Malacca. and perhaps Eastern teach- running through Jewish literature at the time of and it is not unlikely that a certain amount of Hebrew folk-lore had found its way to the East. however. {YvXe's Cathay). " Wdtp. How then may we explain the matter ? It better at once to say that in our present state of would be know- ledge there is no complete explanation to offer. that they are. tion in the way Nor can we dismiss this consideraa late writer has done (Bastian. We must wait until dates are finally and certainly fixed. " exploded myths". spent the greater portion of their time in reading Buddhist books. the explanation would be easy. are equally worthless. xi. and buildings used for churches. passim. e. auffasmng der Bvddhisten". vide Yule. [For -other allusions. ix If we could prove that tliey were unknown in the East for some centuries after Christ. o^). "Our Lord learning his alphabet". xx. with the account given in chap.. cit.

ix." Many of the writers on " Buddhism" place such implicit faith in the statements of M. Peter (Ep. at least. cap. . August 26th. 3) of the earth once destroyed by water. known." We are told again (Lightfoot. St. St. i. " a Kingdom of Heaven.Keaders will observe several coincidences in tlie following pages beyond those already referred to. Hilaire as to adopt his clever epigrams as facts. 2 Compare for instance the remarks of the priest Migettuwatte. statements are more easily made than proved. the first romances were merely There can be no doubt that the present work contains as a woof (so to speak). Exerait. respecting the existence of "individual soul. p.^ would be out of place in a work like this to enter which seem to present such little dif&culty to the numerous writers on Buddhism. John's Gospel) that the Jews believed in the pre-existence of souls. is in agreement with the Buddhist story (vide Catena. without entering further into minute comparisons. e. be- metrical histories. and about to be destroyed by fire. The account given by St. as is well . Alwis that the coincidence is "very remarkable" (Pali Translations. 1873. 2.X mtercommumcation It INTRODUCTION. These annihilation. Talmud. The most singular of these is the aim of Buddha to establish a "Eeligious Kingdom" (Dharmaohakra). Bart. without enquiry. some of the earliest verses (Gathas) in which the History of Buddha was sung. in their lectures and articles. tell us that it teaches atheism. It would into questions be better. if they were not so frequently re- peated in the face of contrary statements made by those well able to judge respecting the matter. sub cap. long before the work itself was penned. in the Buddhist controversy held at Pantura. 16).^ I have called this work a "Eomantic Legend".. The singular agreement between the Buddhist "Metta. Kalpa). many other parallellisms might be pointed out. sub tioc. v. parti. of thought." and the "Charity" of the New Testament has called forth a remark from Mr. These cause. and a modified form of the metempsychosis. who. ii. and the non-existence of soul.

book will be found to result. pi. With if respect to others.. many of these are defective and some iucorrect. not (which I would fain have attempted) . I cannot doubt that am responsible for most of the restoratigns of pro- per names from the Chinese. It is plain. the Chinese ' An interesting identification is derived from p. . and the figtree and throne on the right. the boat in front is that in which he suddenly appears . as spoken in European provinces." Gathas were evidently composed in different Prakrit forms (during a period of disintegration) before the more modern type of Sanscrit was fixed the Eules of Panini. But no one who has attempted such a task as the converlike sion of obscure phonetic symbols. but from the stories which throw light on contemporaneous architectural works in India. I not of any scientific value. Tree and Serpent Worship. are frequently so confused the Greek chorus) as to defy exact analysis. found herein. that the occasion is a sudden inundation. from the trees being half immersed. which has hitherto baffled the curiosity of those interested in the subject. and the popular epics of the by Ma- h^bharata and the Eamayana. verses. It is satisfactory to be able to explain this scene. they are at least amusing. 2. when a fierce storm inundated the region of Uravilva. INTEODTTCTION. relates to Buddha.i One or two of these stories occur in the Paninterest of the The from any critical studies chatantra. fix the locality as in the neighbourhood of Uravilva. 302 in the present work. xxxi. the square or oblong dry spot in front. They were evidently composed in another dialect. (like xi even in the Chinese. Just as "the Eomance language "was first employed to signify the Eoman so these language. and lend an interest to the subject (from their very naiveU). from which we see that fig. is where Buddha had been sitting.

I all the available authorities with my own it. ledgments to Dr. and where I could find guidance or informa- have willingly and thankfully adopted It only remains for me to express my great acknowOffice. me temporary employto ment in find his department. that the errors are not of so grave a character as to mislead the student. through which I was able and use the Chinese work here translated. will be severe in criticising these naistakes. Eost.xii INTEODUCTION. the Librarian of the India but particularly for securing for for his invariable kindness in encouraging these studies. restorations. however. into intelligible language. . sounds found in this book. I hope. I have carefully compared tion.

" his * In the original the name of this disciple of Buddha is always rendered Muh-kin-Un. and again descends to earth. e. * I have restored the original " Tche-na-kiu-to.THE EOMANTIC HISTORY OF BUDDHA/ The Legend opens with an account visit of Maudgalyayana's^ to the city of Eajagriha.. part of the first section." first i. e." Djngnakftta. heaven. Being he transports himself by to his spiritual power from earth Buddha. I. termed " Fah-sin-kung-yang" exciting a disposition to nourish and cherish (religious principles). The original title is " Fu-pen-hing-tsi-king." which WassUjew 114." i.* a Shaman (of the) Brahman (caste and) a native of ^ (p. . "the pure abodes. which should be restored to Mugalan.^ In heaven he hears strange tidings respecting the difficulty of meetiug with a On his part. " Buddhismus ") translates "Biography of Sakyamuni and Companions." to Djnanakuta . who occupy the third tier of the Bupaloka. the Heaven known as that of the Suddhavasa kayikas. to beg his daily alms. he instructs the occupants of the heaven he visited in the mysteries of the law. early. CHAPTER The pin. ^ In the original. showing (as it would seem) that the Chinese version was made from Prakrit.

Bhikshunls. 119.. vide Jul.^ of North India. iii. and TJpasikis. with the preposition m. he was dwelling amongst the four orders of his disciples. that the Chinese explanation in the " Fa-kai-lih-tu " (Kieuen-hia-che-hia. In vindication of a translation I have already given of this title (" Catena of Buddh." * A garden of bamboos. "Methode. e. but Jul. to shine.p. 6 — like all the lords of the world (Buddhas) —ready to accom- — modate himself to all possible circumstances. denoting dispersion (and so agreeing with Ch. 8 In the Chinese " tseu-tsai. Thus gifted. 105." p.. ' For an account of Gandh&ra. — (" Collected Essays. Buddha) was residing in the city of Kajagriha. and was therefore named Djina^ possessed of all one. near Eajagriha." I will add here. 79. 12).) . or the Pali Sayan bhu (not communicated by others).. Sop. as equal to Swayambhu. This agrees very well with its derivation from ruch. where there is a similar restoration of Djnanabhadra." p. The tiha in the Chinese original explains the name by the rendering " virtuous mind or thought " (tih-chi). explains the term by the Sanscrit Frabhu. ^ Vair6chana. Hodgson seems to favour the idea that the Nepalese expression Nirlipt. is only another rendering of the same phrase." which is the general rendering of the Sanscrit Isvara ." p. e. Bhagavat (the Blessed i. Mr. universal briUiaucy. firmly grounded in the in and with ways of Heaven (heavenly conduct) the ways of purity and holiness possessed of independent in the practice of it — —perfectly acquainted being. pien). reverently adores (the name of) Vair6ohana' Buddha. On the other hand. the term is of very frequent occurrence in later Buddhist books. within the Kalanda venuvana.* with a congregation of the great Bhikshus. rendered into Chinese as pien-chao. is "present in every place " {pien-yih-isai-chu). 307. free for ever from the possibility of sorrow and pain. master or lord." No. TJpasakas.I THE EOMANTIC the country of Gaiidhara.' Thus have I heardj on a certain occasion.. At this time Tath^gata was established in the condition of a Buddha. i. five hundred in all. Bhikshus. wisdom— versed it. as a most flourishing seat of Buddhism. ' Literally " ocean of wisdom. ' The Vanquisher. 373). as equivalent to " the Omnipresent. i." compare " Dalai Lama. the infinitely wise. by whom he was religiously venerated and honoured exceedingly and besides these : (mass or heap of wisdom) from Julien's " Methode. e. It corresponds with Cabul and neighbouring district.

" we : ought all of us now to go to worship the venerable Mogalan. " These G4thas occur throughout the work we are translating. and paid reverence to his feet. vide Spence Hardy. i. there were various kings. were fiUed with joy. and holding his begging dish in his hands.. desiring to go his round to ask Then Mogalan standing alone. either in front. 6 ministers. is not found in the southern school. vi). and probably represent the old memorial verses. Shamans. they repaired to the place where Mogalan was. and heretical teachers all desirous to provide him with food and drink. e. even as the Gatha* says " Through myriads of Kalpas ! ! ' Diligently seeking the way of Bodhi. and then stood " Venerable Mogalan apart. just as a champion (Malla or Litchavi) stretches out or draws in his arm or his neck." chap. corresponding to " ekamantam " on one side. clothing and bedding and necessary — medicines. the honourable Mogalan at early dawn." Having spoken thus together. said. the world honoured. It is restored by Julien to Ldhadjy^ Mha. so far as I know. or the right or left hand.! : ! HISTORY OF BUDDHA. and nobles . 359. thus " I am somewhat early this morning for begging.B. Arahatd samma sambhuddassa ' one who through countless Kalpas has been diligently practising all the necessary conduct for attaining this condition. having arranged his robes. At this time an innumerable number of the Devas of this Heaven having observed Mogalan thus present in their midst. so from Kajagriha did he transport his body invisibly to the heaven of the Suddhavisa Devas. ' TDi-mien. p. M. and each one addressing his neighbour. witli Brahmans. 2 This title of Buddha. 2 For an explanation of these words. let me Having thought thus then first visit the Suddhav^sa Devas. by which a know- . and there stand awhile in a fixed position. At this time.i They then addressed him thus : seldom does this occur seldom indeed "Oh! venerable Mogalan. the four requirements (allowed to every Bfidhisatwa). entered the city of E4jagriha. It corresponds in a remarkable manner with the Greek phrase — " Anaxandron " ( " Juveutus Muudi." with himself. thought for food (go a-begging).. how hard is it to see or to encounter in the world one who is known as Buddha.^ Tathagata.

he bound up his begging dish in his garment. [The explanation given by Babu Eajendralal is fully borne out by the character of the GSthas in the present work. straightway proceeded to the place where Buddha was. and having washed his feet." " ! 4 THE EOMAKTIC After the lapse of such a period The Heavenly treasure appears with men The one difficult person to see in the world. with respect to the places he had visited: "World-honoured! this morning I have been to Edjagriha to perform my duty of begging alms . delivered innumerable profound and mysterious expositions of the Law made clear countless religious truths — —set forth to their very bottom endless meaning. the deepest and derived the greatest benefit from the instruction thus delivered.] 1 The expression Tathagata is so well known. just as a champion lets his arm drop down after exercise. then he reflected thus " Seldom seldom indeed beyond expression and difficult. so that all difficulties of these Devas were filled with joy.'" Having said so much he : ledge and history of Buddhism was perpetuated before the discovery of the art of writing. Having finished his necessary meal.' honoured by the world. Is simply this Buddha world honoured name ! — ' ! At this time the venerable Mdha Mogalan hearing this G-itha from the mouth of the SuddhavAsa Devas. etc. amongst men. and having arrived there. the venerable Mogalan forthwith descended again to Jambudwipa. and in their abode. after religiously venerating the foot of Buddha. and having by the way gone to the Suddhavdsa Heavens." vol. So he returned to Esljagriha. Having thus explained the law in its various relations. that it needs no . is it to see or encounter one who is called Buddha. i. difficult to meet with such an one who appears but once : ! through countless ages At this time the venerable ! Miha Mogalan. for the sake of those Devas. Vide Max Miiller's " Chips. p. 300. difficult to meet with Tathdgata. . After being thus seated. and then returned to his own place of rest. and forthwith proceeded in an orderly manner to beg his food from door to door. the Devas there spoke to me thus ' It is difficult to see. he turned towards Buddha and spoke as follows. his entire frame trembled with awe. and the hairs on his body stood on end . he took a seat on one side.

" 30. many and honourable. "Methode. — . a universal monarch. all called ! ! ! ! Pushya. and medicinal preparations. meat and drink.^ etc. infinite Buddhas as the groundwork of their future supremacy. or entire world {vide "Journal Asiatique. when I was a Chakravarti Baja meeting with thirty myriads of Buddhas. that only once in the midst of countless Kalpas does a Buddha appear At this time Buddha addressed Mogalan and said " Mogalan tion. conceived the purpose of arriving at the condition of a Buddha. bed furniture. he was then a Chakravarti Eaja. 3 Vide Jul. 4). remember in bygone ages meeting with nine myaU called K^syapa. who provided for their masters the four necessary requirements.s] At length I remember that Mai! I treya. * Teng-ming. etc. that is to say. " he who should come. "Mogalan sand called riads of Buddhas. etc. viz. aU called Dipankara. " Mogalan I remember in bygone ages. 5 I have not considered it worth while to enumerate these purely fictitious personages." ' A Kalpa. explanation it seems to correspond very closely to the phrase rendered from the Greek. One who governs a Sakwala. having been finished.^ that I met with thirty tens of myriads of Buddhas. but Mogalan I can remember the virtuous principles which were adopted by countless. called Vair6ohana. i. a saeculum or Simc of somewhat indefinite length. : ! 5 continued his address tlius " World-honoured this communicawonderful to hear. whose disciples. But from none of them did I receive an intimation that I should become a Buddha. that I met with eighty myriads of Buddhas. Mogalan I remember in bygone ages when I was a Chakravarti Kaja. so ! : ! the Devas of the SuddhavSsa Heavens have little knowledge and imperfect perception they may by their limited wisdom know — something of the affairs of a myriad kalpas^ or so . all of them named by the same name." tome ii.. No. clothes. ^ A Chakravarti Eaja. [and so with sixty thouDipaprabhasa.'' ete. for the first time.e. I felt truly in a strait how to understand what was said." HISTORY OF BUDDHA. etc. Mogalan I remember when in former days I was a Chakravarti Eaja. which was Sakya Tathdgata. all of whom were attended by disciples (hearers)..

S. Then Buddha." 2 Ananda. tell me. the chief of Buddha's disciples.^ and recalled to his memory the history of all the Buddhas of bygone ages. . Ananda Tathagata. A. stood on one side. in which the mind or soul is freed from all restraint. and after adoring his feet. now becomes the interlocutor. 1838. " World-honoured seldom indeed (do we meet with) Tathagata his body so pure. what are the memories that engage you in Samadhi. if he enters Samadhi. having finished his meal. a condition of ecstacy. ss.^ after the seven days had elapsed. B. went to the place where Buddha was. and in this condition he can remain either a kalpa or any portion of one. during seven days lost himself in eontemplation.: b " Mogalan kalpas. and enjoys perfect communion with the " other world. and addressed Buddha thus. after ! THE KOMANTIC this Vairochana preceded I also which me by more than forty began to aspire to the condition of a Buddha. 926 § 2. remembers through bygone ages all the Buddhas who have appeared. and his presence so full of dignity and beauty as now I behold.) At this time the world-honoured one was residing at Sravastl." Buddha now proceeds names found in the " to mention in detail the different This corresponds to the list of his predecessors. and obtained perfect wisdom and spiritual capacities. reflecting on the character of hundreds of thousands ! ! ! ! ! 1 Samadhi. At this time." as the succeeding sec- tion does to the "Eajawanso" (vide J. and what the rules and marks of it ?" At this time the world-honoured addressed Ananda. and said " It is even as you say. Buddhawanso. possessed of the saraesupereminent qualities as we have before briefly mentioned. Ananda. in the Jetavana Tihara.. B. and still more beautiful and ever more so World-honoured one with such boundless faculties for perfect abstraction as you possess.

. i Auanda Tathagata havinofinished his meal. and the cost of carving these words was 2. called 'of all the Buddhas. for the is wisdom of Tathagata all this ! And because Tathagata possessed of ! ! ages.' and passes over to that shore . gave them rest and peace. He was and was surrounded by a holy retinue Ananda! he had five thousand myriad of followers. This Indraketu Tathagata predicted that a certain Bodhisatwa should afterwards appear as a Buddha. there was a Buddha in the world called countless creatures. Vimala . who saved his compassion for all flesh. . he in his turn predicted the arrival of a Buddha called Grunaketu j he predicted Prttiketu he predicted Dasaketu." Ananda Samantabhadra predicted the advent of a Buddha named Chandra Tathdgata he predicted Pundara ."[This first kiouen of the Fu-pen-hing-tsi-king. and was strong to exercise love for their sakes.) Ch. passes away for any period of time and meditates upon the affairs that have occurred in other ages.617 taels (1 tael = 6s. and by the power of etc. for " That shore.. Ed. What then Tathagata practices with ease the Samadhi. down to Samantabhadra. he predicted ! . and so on ' for twenty-six generations.. aU fully arrived at the condition of arhats five the years of his life thousand years." an expression Nirvana —a condition of per- fect release.]' were CHAPTER The second " II." Buddha addressed Ananda. without let or hindrance. contains 5235 words. 8d. endless kalpas ago. of great personal dignity. part of the first section "exciting a heart ready to nourish and cherish the cause of religion. and this of all the Samadhis is the most excellent. " And so on through sixty -four generations of Buddhas. of myriads of 7 ! is boundless wisdom. of disciples. " Auanda I remember in previous Buddhaa . HISTORY OF BUDDHA. and be called TTttaraketu Tathagata. Indraketu Tathagata. he has therefore arrived at that shore.

! will attain it. viz. attended and cherished. I will hold fast in my memory and not let slip. " the wisdom of Tath^ata is perfectly and thoroughly possessed (by me).gatas down to the last. as he desires to make the boundaries (of his wisdom) large or narrow. nor men.! 8 THE EOMANTIC " Ananda. which has no bounds or limits.. and said. TathS. and he clearly perceives at a glance all truth. or inspiration of a God he " samanta chakkhu. I. "Worldhonoured that which I have now heard proceed from the golden lips of Buddha." At this time.gata." Ananda addressed Buddha. like as the Ananda addressed Buddha. in my own person. and said. And not long hence he At this time. BIy knowledge is that which has no limits or impediment. Sakya the great Teacher Using the pure and holy eyes of Buddha' Beholds. If there be a wise man Who desires to seek after true wisdom. or as he wishes to reflect on the wisdom all of all the Buddhas in large or small proportions. of Tathagata the way of Buddha Neither Devas.^ with his pure and heavenly • Buddha acknowledges no teacher. Let him read over the names of these Buddhas." i. e. World-honoured TathSgata truly knows the character of this wisdom . ' is (Gogerley). and each of them. Thus the wisdom Is inconceivable . each in his turn. received the promise of future perfection. ^ Aniruddha. one of the Sakya princes and a disciple of Buddha. is perfectly able to do so according to his wish. that which relates to the incomparable and infinite wisdom of the Buddhas. Are able to understand." At this time the world-honoured one proceeded to recite the lowing gathas : fol- " All these various Tathagatas.. Super-eminent for his power of " Divine Sight. the world-honoured addressed Ananda. all these Tathd. without any exception. his eye surveys all the boundaries of knowledge." . is it not so ? " At this time. "World-honoured! Honourable Aniruddha.

I. I can see countless others who. expression will be considered under a future section. can behold all the Bodhisatwas of all the Buddhakshetras. I can see others who. and the law of Images. with my pure and heavenly eyes. prior to their last incarna' I. to practice the attainment of wisdom. 365. others. e. e. under the Bodhitree. my power of perception is boundless. vide " Lotus. . remained silent and so he continued after the question had been thrice uttered. others emancipated and filled with joy others. eyes.. exceeding the 9 power of men's sight. and trace the virtuous principles which actuated them first of all to aim at the attainment of Supreme AVisdom.Heavens in their mothers' wombs. * This * whether to preach the law or refrain from doing so.. having pursued a consistent course of pure conduct in the presence of all the Buddhas. others. belonging to the Eastern regions of space. others.^ numerous as the — — — : ! sands of the Ganges. For a full explanation of these periods. for the sake of all creatures. ^pray explain to me the meaning of this. is able to see a chiliocosm of worlds (so is the sight of Buddha) but Tath^gata says. ' I. considering the distinction of two ways (of proceeding)'.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. on this." Buddha. I can see. ! the innumerable worlds of space. I can see. living within their palace walls. giving up their life. are now incarnated from the Tusita. Again. never should you attempt to compare the wisdom of Tath^gata with that of one of his followers. but then he opened his mouth and answered thus " Never. aiming at Anuttara Samyak Sambddhi. turning the wheel of the law*'. others I can see growing up as youths . at this moment.* for longer or shorter fection. others I can see conquering the four sorts of Satanic attacks they are subjected to. I can see all those Bodhisatwas who have received the prediction of their future perand those who are now advancing in the way to this end. others. Ananda. indulging themselves in sensual pleasures . ^ The joyous heavens tion. others finally rejecting the thought of becoming Chatravarti Eajas. in which all the Bfidhisatwas (beings about to become Buddhas) are born. exceeding the power of human sight. after they have entered Nirvana." p. For let me teU you. have left the true law to abide. and preparing to enter the perfect condition of Nirvana. and quitting their homes as hermits. seated in a becoming manner. I can see. I can see others who are born (tan-yuh) from their mothers' sides .

called Anuttara. And as with the Eastern. sowing the seeds of virtue for the sake of future ages. &c. and other quarters of space. and said. and Moreover. Ananda I remember in ages gone by. Buddha addressed Ananda. there was a Buddha who appeared in the world.. arriving at Rest Has sedulously prepared himself for coming. Again. Kakutsanda and Kanakamuni. after him.24 taels. Eemoving lust. Atyushagami [and so on for five generations] . Vipasyi . thus aimed at Bodhi ? " ! ! replied. and..' " At this time. Ananda asked Buddha this question "In all these what means did Tathagata employ for the purposes aforesaid ?" On this. and the various stages and histories of the 3uddhas. after him. Sikhi Buddha ! and Vishaman. Padmottara. Kasyapa. called Dipankara Tathagata. Exciting to religious sentiment. &c. And so the Gatha ' says. and the places where those seeds of virtue were sown. that Buddha. and by his side I laid the foundation of a virtuous life for the future perfection of Buddha. can I see the countless Bodhisatwas of the Eastern region of space. after him.] CHAPTER III. 10 periods. "Ananda listen and examine my words For your sake. sought to attain perfection. after these. At this time. there was a Buddha born in the world. Ananda.. Sikya muni Tathigata. for the benefit of future ages. addressed ! — it. I have practiced every virtuous principle by the side of Maitreya Bfidhisatwa. [The second kiouen contains 6481 words. baring his right : "World-honoured TathllBuddha thus gata in ages past. and cost 3. by religions service to the various Buddhas. "Ananda I remember when Dipankara Buddha was born into the world. by whose aid and instrumentality was shoulder. Western. I will recount the names of those Buddhas. after him. THE ROMANTIC Thus. Ananda arose from his seat.that countless cases ! — . so with the Southern. This eminently virtuous Buddha.

took my poor garment from the place where it lay.: ! HISTORY OF BUDDHA. in astonishment looked at one another. as on a bridge. they are not equivocal words for as Dipankara Buddha gave me this distinct assurance and instructed me. whilst I. Then I. and then I vowed that if Dipankara did not give me a prediction of becoming Buddha. but not one of them entered the muddy place to help Dipankara across. and undoing my hair. Seeing this. he caused a portion of the road to appear as if it were covered with mud. so that Buddha might cross over in perfect comfort. after some thought. by his Divine power. even as Dipankara.tha. Feb. Then the earth quaked six times. Accordingly. relying on the merit of my long preparation for this dignity I have now arrived at the condition of Anutara Samyak Samb6dhi. Vide this fable fully translated. Then all the people. in grief. spread out my skin garment on the muddy spot. 11 multitudes of people were spreading their priceless garments in the way for him to walk upon . possessed of the same miraculous power. and worshipped alike by gods and men . than ! Buddha. " Though the heavens were to faU to earth. they covered the earth with them completely. Ananda be assured The words of the Buddha Tet.. in anger. S. covered the garment with my hair. And the great ocean be dried up. took pity on me. I would not rise from out the mud. and Dipankara predicted that I should be born as Sakya Muni". And the great world be swallowed up and pass away Tho' Mount Sumeru were to crack to pieces. ! are true. and ! said. knowing my heart." this G3. A. " Ananda observe well my words. he again The world-honoured having pronounced ^ "Legend 2 This fable is aUuded to in JuHen. and having on me only a deer-skin doublet. . and dragged it away. of the Burmese Buddha. ' Alas for me Will not the world-honoured Dipankara pity my case and think of me in my distress ?' No sooner had I thought thus. J.^ on which those men. I took this off to spread on the ground. thought. 97. 400. And then I prayed that I might in future ages become a Buddha. 1873." p. and flung it on one side ." At this time the world-honoured one uttered this Gatha. ii. and also by Bigandet. so. K.

: 12 THE ROMANTIC addressed Ananda and said "Ananda! I remember in years gone by there was a Tathagata born. and in whose honour I scattered silver flowers and made a similar vow. and his name shall be Sakya-muni Tathagata. Ananda. and South. whereupon that Buddha addressed them thus ' Bhikshus do you see this man scattering upon me (or before me) these golden flowers? To which they replied in the affirmative. e. the West. fountains. were all ornamented. same token in many mediaeval legends. etc. he should without assistance walk seven paces to the East. after a Kalpa has gone by. and so the gardens.) ." p. that of Edward the Confessor when he saw the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus . Ananda at the time of the birth of Pad! ! 1 This notice of the smile of Buddha. in consequence of which. and towers of my capital city were all ornamented with the purest gold. and from whom I received a similar prediction. I ceased not in my earnest endeavours to obtain the requisite merit for arriving thus at perfection. and as a Chakravarttin monarch. and turned the pure and incomparable wheel of the law. in a city called Kusina. on one occasion I scattered some golden flowers before this Buddha. " Ananda. tanks. also when he smiled during the celebration of the Holy Sacrament' seeing the King of Denmark drowning as he fell from his boat. and uttered this vow. such as. that at the time of the birth of B6dhisatwa.' on which his disciples respectfully inquired the reason of his doing so. this man. on which he continued. whose name was Sarv4bhibu (Tsing-yeh-tsai) . I remember in ages gone by.. and gates. and shortly afterwards I attained the perfection of a Buddha. 'may I in years to come obtain a body endowed with all the distinguishing marks and properties of this world-honoured Tathdgata. and so I was born in countless worlds in the Brahma heavens. shall become a Buddha. Ananda from the remotest period till now it has always been the case. etc! 17. and on one occasion I was born as a king called Sadarsana. all of silver (as before). the North.' Then that Buddha knowing the thoughts of my heart immediately smiled gently. On that occasion. The very streets. among other births I was born as a king called Mahdsadarsana. illustrates the reference to the {Vide Carter's " Specimens of Ancient Sculpture. although I received this posi! tive assurance. there was a Tathagata called Padmottara. g. and this in consequence of my merit in giving the golden flowers..

and invited the priests and Bhikshus to come to it. Yakshas. "Ananda! I remember in years gone by there was a Buddha born called Atyushagami. (Kinuaras).') on which I received a prediction that after one hundred Kalpas. Mahoragas.' etc. South. Gandharvas. ornamented with That is. Ananda! I remember in years gone by there was a Buddha born called Tishya Tathagata.^ I obtained perfection. sub DOC.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. dug out of the earth. and his father and mother in name and life the same as mine. I offered to this Tathagata a Kusumana flower (The Kdsyapiya school says he offered ' a handful of gold. before named. Ananda Atyushagami TathS. cried out 'his name is Atyushagami (going very high).' and because of this he was so named by men.. and West there sprang up a Lotus for his feet to rest on. I remember in years gone by there was a Buddha bom S4kya Muni. when he wished to go to a town or village to beg his food. in whose honour I offered a handful of golden millet. the thirty-seven conditions necessary for those to {Tide "'Eite\ Handbool^" possess who are to become Buddhas. and so with a loud voice the supernatural beings. men and not men.gata. etc. and in consequence he predicted that after a thousand Kalpas I should become a Buddha called SSkya Muni (as before). and hence his name. at one time cried out with a loud voice in every place ' this great B6dhuatwa's name shall be Padmottara. on which occasion Sakra sent Visvakarman to build me a house. in one of my subsequent births I was born as a Chakravarti Baja called Sudarsana. on whom I conferred a house as a charitable offering. before whom I scattered a handful of powdered "Ananda ! called ' Literally a hole or sty different precious things. And so finally by fully keeping the B6dlii pakokika Dharma.. for it came to pass that countless thousands and myriads of Deras. 13 mottara Buddha.. when his feet touched the ground in each place as he walked to the North. East. In consequence of this I received a prediction that I should be born after five hundred Kalpas as Sakya Muni (as before . etc. Nagas. would proceed with footsteps six cubits from the ground. his name the same as mine.) ^ . Ananda I remember in years gone by there was another Buddha.' after which I obtained per! ! J fection (as before). etc. Asuras. etc.

and obtained a positive prediction to the same effect (after "Ananda! I born. pos! sessed of the four quarters of the world. there is no one like Buddha. from whom I received a positive prediction that after thirty-one Kalpas I should attain perfection. and obtained a positive prediction (ninety -one Kalpas)..14 THE ROMANTIC sandal wood. and as Brahma. after which passing through every kind of birth I was possessed of the most beautiful garments of Kasi wool. after which I was born as a Chakravarti called Agrajanman (teng-singj.] I offered aU sorts of flowers to him. . etc. Ananda after thus but no such being as Buddha have I seen !' applauding that Buddha. then that Buddha predicted that after ninety-four Kalpas I should attain ! perfection and be called Sdkya Muni. etc. remember in ages gone by there was a Buddha (true reason. called Chun-li ) ninety -three Kalpas). to whom I made offerings of the richest food. etc.. and having vowed as before. etc. dialectical discussions. to whom I offered a handful of pulse. and whilst this Buddha was residing in a Pansal. and then reached perfection. and then reached perfection. Ananda I remember in years gone by there was a ! Buddha born called Pushya Tath4gata. and standing on one foot. and so received the prediction that after ninety-five Kalpas. and afterwards obtained the half seat of Sakra and occupied it. [The K&syapiyas call him Kin-yih-tsai-li (Satyadarsi) . I have seen an end of all perfection in the world. Ananda ! after this predic- tion I relaxed no effort." Ananda I remember in ages gone by that there was a ! Buddha born called Sikhi. In every region of the universe there is none to be compared with him. "Ananda! I remember a Buddha called Viswabhft. below heaven. to him I offered a priceless robe. " Ananda I remember in years gone by there was a Buddha born called Tipasyi.. and the interpretation having attained incomparable skill in of the Sacred Books I obtained perfection. praying as before. ' Above heaven. and obtained a positive assu' That is a "leafy hut" or a cell covered with leaves. as weU as to his followers.' I was so overjoyed by beholding him that for seven days and seven nights with raised palms interlaced together. but after various births as a Chakravarti Baja. I repeated this G-atha of praise.

* and in the middle of the same Kalpa a Buddha called Devasruta.triya. Sakyamuni eighty thousand years.: . " And now to recount . " Kshatriya. a Buddha called Sarvabhibhu f five hundred Kalpas ago a Buddha called Atyushagami^ (doubtful) . Kanakamuni thirty thousand years KSsyapa twenty thousand years ." Kanakamuni. a Buddha called' Dipankara. Having finished their course. '^ Brahman. myself eighty years. one hundred Kalpas ago a Buddha called Sakyamunij* ninety-four Kalpas ago a Buddha called Pushya. ! 15 ranee (thirty Kalpas). [The Mahlsisakas say so. Ananda I remember a Buddha called Eakusanda. Vipasyi Buddha eighty thousand years . a hundred tens of myriads of Kalpas ago. Kshatriya.' and in the present Bhadra Kalpa'" Kakutasanda.] Padmottara Buddha lived eighty thousand years." ninety-one Kalpas ago a Buddha called Vipasyi.] Sarvabhibhu lived eighty thousand lakhs of years. and another called K^syapa.* ninety -three Kalpas ago a Buddha called Satyadarsi .' thirty-one Kalpas ago a Buddha called Sikhi. Satyadarsi Buddha forty thousand years . Gatha says " 'There are Buddhas who by their spiritual power Eemain in the world to receive homage from men.syapiyas say that Dipankara lived one Kalpa. Kshatriya. '5 . with a view to obtain for myself the perfection I now enjoy.'^ eighty-four thousand myriad lakhs of years. 1 Brahman. I remember one hundred asankheyas of Kalpas ago. but the Kasyapiyas say one Kalpa.'" Ananda Dipankara's life numbered Kasyapa. Kshatiiya. and myself. Kakusauda forty thousand years . HISTORY OF BUDDHA. The K3. ^ '' ^ ' 11 * " Brahman. Tishya Buddha sixty thousand years Pushy a Buddha fifty thousand years. And so the ! . by the side of Maitreya B6dhisatwa making these religious offerings to countless Buddhas. Ksha. And also others their object attained. ^ Kshatriya. Devasruta Buddha sizty thousand years . So I remember through endless ages gone by.. etc. ' Kshatriya. Brahman. Brahman. who enter Nervana. Atyushagami seventy thousand years. and another called Kanatamuui. [This is according to the Mahisasakas.' Brahman.

the true law endured 70. Vipasyi had two great Devasruta years.000 lakhs of disciples. the true of images 500 years. On one occasion Buddha was residing at ESjagriha. Atyuhad 70. in conformity with the laws of all the Buddhas. The true law Kakusanda had 40. . and the law of images 500 ! ciples. and the number of years. held three great assembut for a short time after his death.jawanso) belong- ing to the present kalpa (Bhadra kalpa). The great lion of the tribe of Sakya Having said all this. At this time the world-honoured one.000 years .000 lasted blies.' CHAPTER Containing a list of III. Ananda have 1250 disdays. addressed the Bhikshus thus " Listen and weigh well my words all ye Bhikshus. Kanakamnni had 300 years.000 disciples . Padmottara but endured law true disciples. etc. the 100. I. the law 60. disciples .000 lakhs of nahutas of disciples. the true law 500 years. the true law endured 60.000 but the true law lasted had 32.000 years. The various names. my years.000 years. shagamihad Sakyarauni had 1250 disciples. has finished his task. The endurance of the true law. years law 20. and the true law lasted 29 days. Tishya lakhs of disciples." . and the law And how all these various Tathagatas of images. Sarrabhibhu had 14.000 true law will last 500 years. And now I will briefly recite a Udana verse— " ' I have spoken of the gifts. 20. the true law lasted 71. with hundred in : all.000 for a short time. and the years of their lives The various assemblies of the disciples.. five Kalanda venu vana. years.000 disciples. IQ THE ROMANTIC after his "Ananda! Dipankara had 250 myriad lakhs of disciples. the law lasted 50.000 assemblies. Entered Nirvana after dwelling in the world. in the his great disciples. the true law lasted 500 Kisyapa had myriad d'isciples. 7 endured and disciples. Satyadarsi countless Pushya.000 death. 20." . kings (MaliarS.

" He also was a Chakravarti . his chief son was called "chi-che" (the wise one).] Thus things were settled in the first period. aU little Chakravartius." i. Among his thousand sons the chief was "i-fi" (ManSrama. ?) also called "tsz-yung. and the fruits of the earth flourished abundantly.245 taels. a Chakravarti. He ought to divide the lands and distribute to each of us a part for cultivation.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. so his days the earth called because he received instruction (lit. Bhikshus! Mahfi. Then they attend. etc. Mahd Sudar- Mah4 Meru].gara. there was no crime and no punishment.. he also his son was a Chakravarti. down to Sudarsana. [This fourth Kiouen contains 6490 words. who lived at Pattana Poura (Patna ?)." replied. his descendants were sixty-one. received rules) . that Maha-Pratdpa had a son called Man6bhirama. without precipices or valleys. and men governed and ruled according to law. he was called ITshatriya E&ja. equal agreement of all creatures. Meru. and cost 3. who lived at 1 Ta-ohung-so-lai-che-wang." And he acted accordingly. Maha-S5. . " When the earth was blished. at that time there firmly esta- was an eminent and wealthy Chakravarti called Sammata (ohung-tsah-chih). The last of that race was Sinhayana.] CHAPTER Bhikshus ! IV. [Hence he was called " Tai-chung-ping-tang. Meru's descendants were a hundred and one little Chakravartius. and we will pay back to our Lord a portion of the fruits. He was also called Kino. Having firmly established (order). and so on down to Mah4-Pratapa. and because he looked after the division and protection of the land. in was perfectly level. Afterwards Sammata'Eaja had a son : called Chun-shih. [and so on for eleven generations Sana. possessed of the seven insignia. e. 17 "gladly and with a believing heart do we first Then Buddha continued. then the whole body of sentient creatures addressed him thus " Our Lord and Master should now exercise his authority in punishing the wicked and rewarding the good. His son was Agrajanman (head-born).

twenty -five in number.0MANT1C Benares . his descendants. lived at Eajagriha. his sons and grandsons were fifty-six little Chakravartins.cient dignity and re- nown. and this became his common name . the last of these had twenty-five descendants. the merit of his ancestors being well exhausted. seeing that I am cut off from the line of kings ? Again he thought. that they received the reward of it in their various births in the world. the last " able to destroy" had ninety descendants. who lived at Hastinaponra. " all my predecessors. one thousand two hundred. they also called him 0-keuh (Okaka?). most pitiable. the last of these had two thousand five hundred descendants. the last of these was Narlyana. who reigned at Ayddhy^. the last of his descendants was called Nagadeva. was Hasfifty-six. Bhikshus I will now proceed to detail the names of the different kings who descended from TJ-Wang (Fish-King). [I omit other names. Ta-man-tso immediately gave over the kingdom to his great ministers. " If I do not become an ascetic then I shaU lose all connection with the line of holy men who have preceded me. and now I have no son. and his descendants laya. the last of this race was Ten-in-Sang (Pratapajati ?). and the excellency of their ! dominion over men and the great earth. his descendants were one thousand little Chakravartins. they shaved their heads. twenty-five last of these who lived at Takshasila.] Bhikshus you must know that these little Chakravarti mouarchs were all possessed of such merit. he was the last of this royal line. the was Gupta." Having reflected thus. lived at Sy^ua c?) . . who lived at Kusinagara. and surrounded by a vast multitude of followers he left the city and shaved his head. who having no son. he had a son called Chun-Sang (true born). and became ascetics . were in the habit of resigning their kingdom.^ who reigned at Mithila. who lived at KapiThe last of these was Brahmadatta. thought thus with himself. whom then shall I select ! to succeed me ? who is there of my race of sufB. who lived at Champa . and after a charitable bequest to the priesthood. who all lived at Kanyakubja . when they saw the first white hair appear. and men began to talk about his want of merit and degradation.18 THE R. the last of these tipa. and put on the ^ Makhadeva (Tumour). his last descendant was called Ta-man-tso (Mahakusa?). his descendants. As the poorest. his descendants.

took some soft pliable grass. anxious to go here and there for the purpose of begging food. on the spot where these two drops of blood fell. and religiously observed the precepts of morality. and then he died. regarded these two children as his legitimate offspring. which gradually tiU. and going to the forest they respectfully conducted the royal father.HISTORY OF BUDUHA. and acquainted aU the late king's ministers of the extraordinary circumstance of their birth. At this time his disciples. Then when they came to consult with the astrologers as to their . So then they aU went their ways. Then letting down the basket from the tree. unable even with his staff to go far. just at having begged their food came back again and beheld their old master j ast expiring. After they had gone so happened that a huntsman on his tour penetrated so far as these desert mountains . and coUeoting his bones raised a tower over them. and raising a mound of earth. At this time. very beautiful. up shoots of the sweet sugar cane. ripened by the heat of the sun. Then the disciples of the Eishi. and quite incomparable for grace. two drops of blood issuing from the wound fell down on the earth below. and hung him up from a branch of a tree. at a distance he perceived the Eoyal Eishi it (hanging in his basket from the tree). there immethis time his disciples to the spot. for fear the snakes or wild beasts should come and hurt him in their absence. and the two drops of blood on the ground. 19 robes of a hermit. to beg their food. at last. Meanwhile. his hairs were white. the years of his life having been extended to a great length. and then offered every kind of perfumed wood and sweet scented flowers before it. they nourished and diately sprang protected them. and persevered in all the practices of religious meditation. On hearing it the said ministers were greatly rejoiced. great white bird he immediately shot and supposing him to be a him dead. the Eishi having then been shot. both of the canes burst asunder. remembering that their royal master in his life-time had no sons. and from one there came out a boy and from the other a girl. Having done so. having collected wood they burnt the body of the king. and two children back to the palace of their had them properly instructed by the Brahmans. and having lined a basket therewith they put the Eoyal Rishi in it. and his shoulders bent. he finally obtained the five supernatural powers and became a Eishi . in honour of his memory. increased in size and height. his flesh withered.

viz. his mother. if you consent to give me what I ask. the first of his queens. what then? I will deck| myself out in the choicest attire. thought thus within herself. and I will adorn my hair with by every wile and device in my power I will enflame the heart of Ikshwaku to inordinate love. by washing. . Then when the two were reposing together. is not so able-bodied as they. and of incomparable beauty. then there must be no change or repentance on your part . nor so for king. was inflamed with excessive love towards her. if the king will grant it me. I will ask him to comply with my desire. the reply made was this " the first. and the only one I have. she came forthwith to the presence of the king. hut my son. the loveliest flowers. etc. the wife said " Great king be it known to you that I should wish to ask a favour. or because of the sun's rays having begotten him.! 20 THE EOMANTIC names. {the name given to the girl). born by the heat of the sun's rays on the sugar cane. as she intended. Torch-face (ulka mukha). with great earnestness.. if I succeed in so doing.. i. if you ^ No doubt it refers to strength of bones. and these are lusty • and strong. whose name was "long lived" (Janta). Then the ministers immediately made Ikshwaku king. and adorned her person. and SubhadrS. c. and then. which she perceived. although very fit beautiful. but Subhadra had only one. prepare my body according to the most approved method. Now it so happened that the second wife of the king being extremely lovely had four sons. " Great monarch ! without a rival (tsz-tsai). seeing his wife coming.i Then Subhadrfi. perfuming and painting." The queen again said. with much joy." Having reflected thus. when we are together in secret. and was glad to find her plan so successful. his name shall be Sun-born (Suryavansa). by what device then can I contrive to get this to the kingly office ?" my the place of son elected Again she thought " the king when he visits me overflows with passionate love. The king. " Great queen whatever you ask I will give without grudge. he shall also be called "born of the sugar 'cane" (Ikshwaku vlrudaka).. manly vigour." The king replied. " the children of Ikshwaku are four. very graceful. the bone-sign was not favourable to his being king). but his size and appearance of strength give no promise of his being king (literally. with the greatest care. shall be called Sujata (well born).

" Great king would that you would expel from the country those four sons of yours. then they shall not stop here. and I cannot recall my promise. " My sons. the ministers." Then the king promised to do what she had requested. if you can show me any wrong they have done within my dominions. and her request was that you should be banished. they arrived at a valley on the southern slopes of the mountains. supported themselves by hunting. soldiers. and all connected with them. " If I change then let my head burst into seven parts. 21 change then I will ask nothing. She asked me to grant her her desire. . her it is true. . the exiles proceeding northward. ficers. " Tour majesty has sworn that if you repent or recall your promise then your head shall split into seven pieces. and let my son Janta succeed you on the throne!" Then Ikshwaku Eaja replied at once and said. or what fault they had committed. ] Being thus banished. The king tells ! ! Then the concubines. the queen. come and desire permission to go into exile with the four princes. in the mountain heights. their sisters also. my sons. without any precipices or hillocks the lands fertile. and at early mom on the following day called for his four sons and said. and with no brambles or weeds. my four sons have done nothing worthy of exile . you have my permission to go where you please. artiand men of all professions. and there abode for a long whUe." Then the youths. on which the king gives his permission for them all to go." Then the king said." Then the queen said. you cannot dwell any longer within my dominions. with bent knees and clasped hands." The queen answered. desired to know what wrong they had done. broad and level. where abiding for a short time. and very Nothing but the most beautiful forest fi-ee from stones and grit. feeding on the game they shot. The four princes dwelling there. or what law they had broken. Then gradually going forwards. " I know. but shall be expelled at once. Toroh-face and the others." The king replied. arrived at the Himatala mountains. that they should be thus suddenly exiled and driven from the country.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. but it is the wish of Subhadra." [The mother of the four youths now comes to the king and asks if it be true that her sons are to be banished. that you are innocent it is not my doing or wish to expel you thus. they crossed the Bhaghiratht river and ascended the Snowy mountains above the river.

the Janibu flower." Then it came to pass that the princes abiding here. the Kumuda. the MuohUinda flower. Some of these flowers were just opening and some falling some in the bud and some burst from the bud . others ripe. the white Pheasant. Tortoises. the princes beheld the spot. Moreover. and others. Ducks. — — and on the four sides. 22 trees THE ROMANTIC grew tliere —the Sala tree. Geese. Again there were many varieties of birds such as the Parrot. the Kubi- Udamhara tree. and so on and on the banks of the lakes every kind of flower growing. etc. that surround the lakes. therefore. that in case they married not to marry wives except belonging to their own tribe. with flowers floating thereon the TJtpala. and spake thus to him " Great Brahman where now are my four sons dwelling ? " He replied. variety of fruit tree — such gusa. the Tinduka. gr. a distinguished teacher (kwo sse). the white Elephant. and rather than do so. and so on. the Kalabingka. to take their sisters and make them their wives .. overhanging the water the water perfectly pure and bright. At this time. they said one to another. the Padma. Besides this there were as the Amrapala. the water Buffalo. remembered the injunction of the king their father. as c. and so on. the the Kalila tree (kaliya ?). the Sumana flower. the Peacock. every kind of amphibious animal neither deep nor shallow Turtles. the Nyagrddha tree. the ripening. but on second thoughts they feared to pollute their race by such intermarriages. — and every kind of aquatic bird. When. Now in the midst of this delightful vale. the Danara Karaka flower. and so on. " MahSraja : ! ! . and so on some others passing off. and so making an agreeable shade. " Here is a place where we can found a city and establish our rule. the Panava. Jambu. among the trees . the Kuranya flower. again there was every — .. the Asoka flower. — — Again there was every variety of pleasant lake. etc. the Palasa flower. the Suryavansa Ikshwaku King summoned to his presence a great Brahman. the Patra flower. the Talas tree. the LinAmraka. there was an old Eishi living called Kapila. the Atimukta flower. and so at first they desired to do. the great numbers of wild animals there the Stag. there was a great variety of flowers there. the mountain Pheasant. tara flower. the Lion. all intertwining their branches..

sisters, etc.,


having gone to the Northern region, and settled there, have become the parents of beautiful children. Then Ikshwaku, because he loved the princes, his heart filled with joy, said " Those princes are able to found a kingdom, and govern
it well."

Hence the name S4kya fable), and because they lived under tents made from branches of trees, they are also called Sikya.i And because they lived in the place where Eapila had resided, their town was called Kapilavastu.

Now after three of the sons had died, the survivor reigned alone in Kapilavastu, and governed the people. He had a son
called Kuru, he had a son called Gokuru, he had a son called Uonjaw (Siuhahanu), he had four sons, the first called Sudhddana, the

second Suklfidana, the third Tulodana, the fourth Amritodaua, and one daughter called sweet-dew-taste (Amrita). Siuhahauu's eldest sou, Sudh6dana, succeeded his father at Kapilavastu. Now at this time, not far from Kapilavastu, there was a city called Tien-pi (Devadaho),^ in which was settled a member of the Sakya family, a rich householder, whose name was Su(pra) Buddha, abounding in wealth his house Uke that of Vaisravana of the Northern region. This nobleman had eight daughters, the first called ManasS. [or, it may be " Maya "], the eighth was called Mahaprajapati. This MahaprajSpatt was the youngest of all the daughters, and when she was born all the Brahman astrologers said, " This girl, if she has a son, will be the mother of a Chakravartin." So gradually they grew up, and became marriageable. Then Sudhodana desired to have Mah^prajapatl in marriage ; but the king.

Supra Buddha, refused until the seven elder sisters were married, on which Sudh6dana promised to provide for them all. Then Sudhodana taking the eldest and youngest himself, and giving two to each of his brothers, the king retired to his Palace with the two, and lived according to the rules of all the kings who reign
over the four quarters.

Vide Fa Hian, p. 83.


The same

as Koli.



The ascent and sojourn


(of Bodhisatwa) in the

Tusita Heaven.

At this time, BSdhisatwa Mahasatwa, from being a faithful and

obedient follower of Kasyapa Buddha, at the time of his death, was straightway born in the Tasita Heaven, at which time all the

Devas of that heaven gave him the name of Prabhapala,' and on he is so named. Then all the Devas announced the title by which he was known to ihe worlds above Tasita, and "the sound thereof reached even to the Akanishta^ Heaven. Then the Devas also sang together, and said, "Prabhslpdla B6dhisatwa has come to be born in this Tusita Heaven." The sound of this strain was heard in the Trayastrinshas ' Heaven, and in the Heaven of the four kings,* and it reached even to the abodes of the Asuras*; so that each one of them addressed the other in these words, " Prabhapala B6dhisatwa has gone up to be born in the Tusita Heaven." So, from the lowest abode of these Asuras, to the highest Heavens of the Akanishta, there flocked (innumerable beings) to the Tusita Heaven, to the abode of Prabhapala Bodhisatwa, to Lear the law from his mouth. Now the years of the life of the Tusita Devas is 4000 years. These years having past, then the five indications of change appear, that is to say, the chaplet on the head begins to fade ; the armpits exude perspiration ; the garments become less beautiful ; the body loses its splendour ; there is a restlessness on the chair or throne. And so it came to pass, when the Tusita Devas observed these signs affecting Prabhapala, they uttered a loud cry, and said, " alas alack-a-day " and speaking between themselves, they said, " Oh
this account
! ! !





Prabhapala will not be with us





Hou-ming, vide


But there


some confusion in

Julien's translation.


name was Swetaketu. " The highest of the Eupa (i. e., material) heavens. 3 That is, the Heaven of belkra, on the top of Sumeru. * That is, the four kings who keep watch over the earth. abodes were placed half way up Mount Sumeru. " The demons, or Titans, who live below the earth.

According to the " Lalita Vistara," Bodhis-






leaving our Heaven his spiritual qualifications are departing what can we do to keep him here ? " And so the sound of this lamentation reached upwards to the Sudarsana Heavens, and the Akanishta Heavens, and was repeated in every place, " Alas alas by the five indications, it is plain that Prabhipala will soon descend from the Tusita Heaven " and the news reached down even to the Asura rAja's palace and the cries of lamentation were heard in



every place, " Alas




he will soon descend


Devas of the Superior Heavens again descended to Tusita, whilst the Devas of the Inferior Heavens ascended and assembled together in one place so also the Nagas, the Takshas, Gandharvas, Asuras, Kinnaras, Garudas, Mahoragas, Kumbhandas, and so on, came fiocking upwards to the Tusita Heavens, and there assembled in one place; and then they all began to say one to another, " "We now see for ourselves that this Prabhapala is about to descend to Earth." [The five indications are apparent for twelve
this time, the


At this time, the Suddhavasa^ Devas said amongst themselves, " We have seen previously the expected Buddha descend from the Tusita Heaven, to be born in the world." Then all this innumerable multitude of Devas, beholding, by the infaUible signs, that Bodhisatwa was about to descend to be born in Jambudwipa, together uttered this cry, caUing to the people who inhabit the earth, " Te mortals adorn your earth for B6dhisatwa, the great Mahasatwa, not long hence shall descend from Tusita to be bom amongst you make ready and prepare Buddha is about to descend and to be born !" Now, at this time, there were dwelling in Jambudwipa, five hundred Pratyeka^ Buddhas, in the midst of a forest, practising their religious exercises ; these five hundred Pratyeka Buddhas, having heard this cry, immediately rose up into the air and went together to Benares j having arrived there, they began to exhibit their supernatural powers causing their bodies to ascend into space, and emit all sorts of brilliant appearances ; and then
years before the departure of the Deva, Ch. Ed.].
! ! !



1 The period of the life of these Devas being so long, they had seen previous B6dhisatwas descend to be incarnated on earth. ^ The Pratyeka Buddhas correspond very much in character to the old rishis or genii. They cannot teach the law for the benefit of others, but they can exhibit miraculous proofs of their dignity (principally by flying through the air).




having uttered a Gatha, one after the other, they ended their term of days and entered Nirvana, So then, at this time, Prabhapala B6dhisatwa, observing all this vast assembly of Devas, etc., his heart unaffected by any fear or inordinate emotion, spake as follows, " Respectable ones I would

have you know, each one of you, that I plainly see by these indications of my person, that I shall shortly descend from Tusita, and be born amongst men." Then Brahma, Sdkra, and so on, answering, said, " Venerable Prabhapala as you see these indications, it is necessary that you should shortly descend and be born in the world ; but, doubtless, you remember your former words and prayers (that this might really be your destiny) <" Then all those countless Devas, having heard these words, the very hairs of their bodies became erect, and their hearts were, filled with great fear and reverence ; so they clasped their hands, and fell down before Prabhapsila and adored him. Then Prabhapala replied, " Doubtless it is even so; the destiny which was certainly foretold, is now about to be accomplished ye, therefore, should reflect on the character of impermanency you should consider the character of the sad destiny that may await some of you in the future Consider well the impure character of all bodily forms ; that by the lusts of the flesh, and the desires of the natural heart, there is no escape from the bonds of continual birth and death. Now, as ye stand here with your fingers clasped in adoration, behold this body of mine, which I have not yet been able to cast off; and now I am about to quit it for ever weep not then, nor lament for me " Then all these Devas replied, " "Venerable Prabhapala oh would that in your infinite love you would not depart hence to be born."








V contains 6978 words,

and cost 3.489




the ascent aud sojourn of Bodhisatwa in Tusita.

§2. At this time, in the midst of the Devas of the Tusita Heaven, there was one called Gold Mass^ who for many years had, over and
1 Kin-t'hwan. This Deva " Lalita Vistara."


not mentioned by


in the


over again, gone


down to Jambudwtpa. Prabh4pala knowing this, addressed him thus: "Devaputra, you have often gone down to Jambudwipa doubtless, therefore, you know the cities,

towns, and villages, and the various lineages of their kings and in what family B6dhisatwa, for his one birth more, ought to be born."

The Devaputra answered, " Venerable I know them well, if you permit me, I wiU recount them to you." Prabhap41a replied, "Well! do so!" Then he spoke thus, "This great


Chiliocosm has one sacred place called the ' Bodhimandala,'i situated in a country called Magadha,' in Jambudwipa ; here, from

time, the kings have arrived at perfect illumination. Prabhapala in the midst of this district, is a river called ' Ganges


on the southern bank of that river, is an eminence where dwells an old Eishi; the name of the place is ' Vajra,' or otherwise, • Pandava-Vaihara (Vipoura) kudaka-parvata, [or, it may be, 'the
solitary-peak^-mount' called 'Paudava Vaihdra (Vibhara) knta'].
it in,

This peak is surrounded by mountains, which encircle it and keep as a string of pearls. In the middle of this (peak), is a little
' Mountain-abundance ; 3 and not far from the mount a large city called ' Eajagriha.' In this city, there was, formerly,

village called

a certain royal Eishi called



had, without inter-

ruption, descended from the Kshatriya caste (royal caste).


had a son caUed • Bahuka

and from that time till now, those who have reigned in that city have all descended from this Eishi in regular succession. If Prabhapala is to be born in Jambudwipa, it would become him to be born as the son of the king of that
' ;

said, " Although this be so, not a pure one; and the city is a frontier one, and the country hUly, and broken with valleys ; the ground stony and covered with weeds, etc. ; wherefore you may select another place where a Kshatriya family resides."

PrabhapMa answered the Deva, and

yet the pedigree

' The B6dhimanda is the area around the B6dhi tree, under which the B6dhisatwas arrive at supreme wisdom. ^ Is this the same as " the small rocky hUl standing by itself.'"

(Pa-hien, cap. xxviii).
' Those Chinese compounds which I merely translate.


unable to restore, I




in the Kasi Gclden-mass again remarked, " Prabhapdla country there is a city called 'Varanasi"; the raja Bishi called 'Shen-kwong'2; yon may, perhaps, think this family worthy of you " To which, Prabhapala replied, " This may be so ; but there are four heretical schools there, so that you had better look else!


Then the Deva observed again, " Prabhap41a in Kosala, in the city of Savaiti, there is a king called ' Griya '(?) ; the people numerous, and the king powerful j will it please you to be born

" No " said Prabhap41a, " for the kings of K6sala have descended from Matafi.gas,'" both on the mother's and father's side, of impure birth ; and in former days they were of small repute, without any personal courage or nobleness of heart the country comparatively poor, although there are the seven precious substances there ; yet they are in no abundance. Therefore, I cannot


be born there Then he said again, "In the Tadsa country, the city Kausambi, there is a king called 'thousand excellences' (tsien!

shing); his son, called 'pih-shing' (hundred excellences). That king has elephants, horses, the seven gems, and armies (the four

abundance ; will it please you to be born there?" To which Prabhapala replied, "Although what you say may be true ; yet the mother of the king of Vadsa was born of a strange parent, and therefore the son is not of pure descent ; you
sorts of military force ) in

must look elsewhere."
" This Vajora country has a city ; the people in peace and contentment the country enriched and beautiful as a heavenly mansion; the king called 'Druma raja'^; his son without the least stain on his scutcheon ; the king's treasuries fuU of gems, and gold and silver perhaps you will be born there."


said again,

called V&isali,'' rich in every kind of produce


This of course is Benares. Virtuous lustre. 3 Matangas, i. e., pariahs. Compare these and subsequent passages with the "Lalita Vistara" (Foucaux's translation, p. 24). * An old town on the Gandak Eiver, a little to the north of Patna.
' ^









To which Prahhap^la replied, " This may be so ; but the disposition of the people of that country is hard and self-willed; each one of them says • I am king ' ' Sufficient in myself! ' and so they are haughty and disobliging. Again, they are without proper

reverence for high or low ; arrogant and self-sufficient you must ; look elsewhere, therefore [the king, moreover, is not influenced by
just considerations in the administration of justice, saying,
is law,'




this is not



Golden-mass then
called 'Ujjayanii;
his son called

said, "In the MSvanti country, the city the king called 'bright lamp' (Pradydta?); Purna ; the king's personal strength very great

able to subdue

born ? " Prabhapala replied, "All this may be so ; but the king of that country -is governed or restrained by no fixed law, and believes not in the certain result of actions, good or bad, in a future state you

aU those around him; here may B6dhisatwa be

must, therefore, look elsewhere."
wlpa, has a great king, called

Then he observed, "Mathura,^ the Subahu

capital city of
will it suit


' ;

Prabhapala to

be born in this family? " To which Bddhisatwa replied, "That king is a heretic; how then can an expectant Buddha be born there ? Once more he rejoined, " This city of the white elephant ( Hastinapoura) ; the kings belonging to the Pandavas, of the greatest strength and beauty; unrivalled in the world; able to subdue all hostile armies ; perhaps you are agreeable to be born



replied, " This may be so ; but the race of the Pandavas, pure as it may be, is yet of confused and indefinite origin; hence we find the eldest son of that king {i.e., of Pan-

To which Prabhdpala

du ),



Tudistira,' spoken

Brahma Deva;

of as the son of Dharma, a the second son, called Bhimasena, is spoken of as

the son of the wind-spirit (Tiyu) E^ja; the third son, called ' Arjuna,' is spoken of as the son of Sakra ; again, there are two sons born of different mothers ; one Nakula, the other, Sahadeva these two are said to be the sons of Asuna (Asvin), the Deva of the


this reason, I cannot be born there."



In the province of Agra

(L. V.)




the city Then the Deva continued, "Prabhap^la Mithila the of king a by governed Jambudwtpa, is

of Mithila, in
family, called


; '

oxen sheep, and

horses, chariots, he possesses abundance of elephants, sort; together with all kinds of property of this

That king, pearls, and so on. countless wealth, gold, sUver, gems, and study of the true law j will Sumitra, is devoted to the practice
you, therefore, be born there



Prabhapala replied,

"What you have



so; Sumitra

Eaja may possess all this wealth,

and be devoted to

religion; yet


longer able to attend to the business of is old and decrepit, and no has already a large famUy of sons. his government; moreover, he

For these reasons, I cannot be born there." of the Golden-mass continued, "Prabhapala! besides these kings
country, who middle country, there are other kings of the frontier of Pindu, in hold heretical views ; for instance, there is the island which there is a kingdom governed by a king of the Brahman race ; pure he resides on the top of Pindu, and is called Moon-branch ' ; particular in in descent, both on his father's and mother's side ; religious devotions to- all the gods (JDevas) ; perfectly versed


in the knowledge of the four Vedas. " born in that family ?

Will you, venerable one, be

born I desire

replied, " It may be so ; but when I am be born in the Kshatriya caste, and not in that of the Brahmans. So pray look elsewhere." The Deva replied, " I have now named every kingdom I can

To whom Prabhapala

think of in Jambudwlpa ; every town, village, and the race of all the kings of the Kshatriya race; and now I am overcome with so much sorrow, in consequence of my failure to find a family worthy of you as a son, that my memory fails me as to any other name, and my mouth cannot further declare the character of these


Prabhapala replied, " It is as you say ; you are yet at fault in me a pure Kshatriya family, worthy of me as a son The Deva replied, " I, looking carefully and anxiously for a place

worthy of you when born, suddenly find I have forgotten one Kshatriya family."
Prabhapala replied, " What is the name thereof ?" The Deva continued " An ancient family, descended in direct line from successive Chakravarti Eajas, related to Ikshwaku, in



of the Sikyas

the far distance of antiquity ; they live at KapUavastu, of the race the king's name Suddhddana, son of Sinhahanu, ; celebrated among men and Devas ; perhaps you will condescend

to be born in that family."

Pribhapala replied, " It
this family from the rest.



— well


you have well selected
to this family,


remember belonging

and I am

you suggest. Devaputra it has ever been the rule that the expectant Buddha, when born, must appear in a family possessing sixty marks of excellence,
willing to be born in it as

what, then, are these sixty signs of exceUenoe ? 1. All the holy ones (Buddhas) regard that family with complacency. 2. That The origin of that family family must practise no wickedness. 3. must be perfectly pure. 4. The descent of that family, in every


must be


flaw or interruption.

the royal line. 7. All the kings throughout the line, by descent, must have had deep religious principles (deeply-sown, virtuous principles roots). 8. The origin of that family must always have been made a subject of commendation by the various Buddhas

— — The maternal descent must be without —It must, from origin, have been in




—The women of that family must be famed for —The young men must be famous for their — The disposition of the members of that famUy must wisdom. —Not given to songs or plays. be agreeable and amiable. — They must be fearless. —Not weak or delicate. — Well
sonal dignity.
their beauty.

— The members of that family must possess great per10.





gifted with intellectual power.


— Given to handy work.


Afraid of committing sin. 19. Not mixed up in trade, or eager in getting wealth. 20. Faithful in friendships. 21. Not given to kill either beasts or reptiles, or anything that has life. 22.

The names

of that family chosen

with discretion.


practice self-denial. 24.
or changeable.
fear to follow others.
for sin.

—Not easily led by others.

in obtaining charity

26.— Not doubtful or sceptical. 28. Adverse to slaughter.

—Not led by

—Able to — Not fickle

— No remorse

— Successful


— Liberal in



— Regular in

religious conduct,

wiUing to comply with

the rules.

—Pond of relieving others.
of signs, sixty-four


The " Lalita Vistara " makes the number

[Vide in

L. V. 27).

and what are these fect. — Her heart — EecoUective. 50. — Her 13. ? 1. — Her place of delivery well known — Her going abroad at the time of expecting labour. through the ten regions. 44. 9. slaves. —Not Her name propitious. — — — birth. body with every propitious mark. associations superior to all others. anger. 23. 38.— Exact in determining' the rules of reward and punishment. 30. 12._Strong and vigorous. Not deficient in any worldly possessions. 10. Buddha the time of B6dhisatwa's Incarnation when the constellation . —No envy." Such is the character of the mother of an expectant is. is 4. must be born of mothers possessing the thirty-two superior signs of female excellency. (?). 32 THE ROMANTIC 35.— EeEeverent to spiritual powers. — Expure. No family jealousies.— Pious to Devas. Pious to Shamans.— Associated with men of the high49. 24. 36. 22. — She of perfect virtue. 6. Without the faults of women. holy men. Not exacting on others. 18. — No hatred. 51. Constantly connected spicuous amongst such holy men. 20. 58. Obedient to her husband. Their family Their family associations not to be broken. 53. — No quarrelsome disposition. fearless. with Chakravarti Eajas. sheep. est dignity. 52. — Of great religious merit. Pious to Brahmans. 43. 2 — Her limbs per— Her gait perfect. mouth. 28. 40. etc. — No roughness. — Her — Her appearance beautiful. 59. 54. and doubt. horses. families. —Her heart always virtuously submissive.— The most distinguished by all The most con45. — No levity. Surrounded by very large retinues. or grace.— Fond of yet had a child. 5. Eeverent to mothers. tremely handy in female pursuits. 15.— — . Pious to Eishis and saints. oxen. 39. Ancestors. 19. 48. The race perfectly pure through every 57. — Her body. — Her heart without guile. pleasant recreations. 8. 41.— Great patience. 31. 37. — Her figure well proportioned. 46. — — — generation from " Devaputra ! its all very origin. when they become incar- nated in their mother's wombs. Well known spectful to wives. Eich in possessions. 42. 3. 29. 26.— Plenteous in grain. 27. 7. 25. elephants. 60. Possessed of all grace and virtue from the time of her 32. 47. — Obedient to fathers. Great modesty. — No anger. 11. 21. Hating sensuality. ]4 16. — — — — — — — — — — — — — Abounding in cattle. 55. and mind. — Without evil thoughts." expectant Buddhas. connections perfectly pure. 56. 17.

6). " Oh I wish my years in this heaven were passed that I might be born there with him \" A fourth Deva said. and after that the conception takes place." Then another Deva called out and said. there was a Deva who spake thus to another " Our Bodhisatwa Prabhapala is about to descend to be born amongst men he is about to leave our heavenly abode.wa shall be born ?" A third Deva said. a phantom. any longer. how shall we. without any true foundation . When he is gone. a bubble . "Prabh^p^la! venerable one! you are now going down to forget us not forbe born in the world of men. or enjoying the pleasures of sense but I am about to descend and be born among men (take this one-birth '). Again Prabhapala spoke thus " I now am about to assume a body Shan yeou) ." Then Prabhdpala B6dhisatwa again addressed the Devas. his mother must have undertaten the eight fasts (is this. so are all things which exist around ! ! '' ! ! ! : ! you. and " There is a cause for all the partings and separations that take place in every form of being. which secures me now Soon shall I obtain final from long continuance in the world. Before his conception. simply to give peace and rest to all flesh and to remove all sorrow and grief from the world. not for the sake of gaining wealth. 5. said. ' .'(Kama). : ! in this place ?" Then the other replied. Kwei ' 33 is in conjunction with the sun. in the midst of the assembly. and this cause is birth and Through ages past I death !' Be not grieved on my account have prepared for myself a destiny. be joyous or glad : ( . Prabhdpala BSdhisatwa replied to get us not " these Devas thus "Let not sorrow and grief affect you thus for I have already told you that all things are impermanent as the plantain-stalk . ' ! Corresponding to four stars in cancer (7. Mahipurusha ? . like the lightning flash (or. having completed his years as a Deva in this heaven . " Let not your hearts be sad Our great Bodhisatwa is indeed about to be born amongst men. but how much more certainly will he come back to us again. " How indeed ? how indeed what can we do then to obtain the privilege of going down into the world to see the place where our illustrious Bodhisat." At this time. fasted for eight days ?). Oh great sir At this time.! ! ' HISTORY OF BUDDHA. like a thing borrovfed which must be returned. a flash of light). ij.

and now. for soon he will descend to earth and be born amongst men.'' I have ever prepared my heart for the possession of supreme wisdom. What services shall we have to render ? What religious homage to pay. now for the time I name these particulars to you. and arrive at per- fect Eest. therefore. I am rived from joice. and all the happiness of its inhabitants. B6dhisatwa was in the habit of preaching the law for the advantage of the Tusita Devas. he began to speak to aU the Devas of the Tusita Heaven. about to consummate all in the acquisition of it. let me now therefore on your ! ! account recite in succession the names of the various modes of salvation (fa mun)." and then they raised their voices and said. You on your wise. or refuge. that you. i. last 1 The 2 Utuhadhvaja." Then all those Devas having heard these words said amongst themselves. . three objects of reliance. to preach the incomparable truth. sixty Yojanas each way. " the ! Venerable Prabh4pala. parts should each pray to be born in the world like- and so obtain deliverance from all sorrow. having obtained the result of my constant vows and prayers. Soon soon shall all the beauty and the glory of this heaven disappear. 37. on your part hearing them may derive joy and peace from their recital. "Look Devas look well at this Prabh^pMa B6dhisatwa Mahasatwa. to arrive at the goal of Anuttara Samyak Samb6dhi. as a means to your conversion." p. from time to time. In this palace.34 release. and said " Ye Devas assemble here and listen not long hence this body of mine shall descend amongst men. and be born in the world. forget it not for a moment. when the venerable one departs to be born in the shape of perish! able man !" Then Prabhdpaia rejoined— " Again truth of the doctrine I repeat in your ears the — all things are perishable — Let this be bound and fixed in your memories. Vist." equal in length and breadth. for the Buddhists. So on this occasion. and impress them on your memory. shall soon be born as a man. THE EOMANTIO Through ages past have I acquired the merit to be de'Buddha/ 'the Law/ 'the Church. the exalted one. " Lai. having repaired to this abode and taken his seat. Tou should reand not be sad.e. and now I go down to earth to be born." Now there was a certain palace in the Tusita Heaven called " Exalted Standard.

" Devas. and to seek after the brighter state of being. when all the flowers and the trees put out their sweets.' impressed upon his auditors that they should diligently keep them in their momories. assembled together in that heavenly palace to listen to what Prabhapala had to say. having repeated the necessary portions of the law (as before given). into the Eoyal Palace. sitting on his Lion throne. the young grass and other verdure freshly come forth. causing their hearts to be filled with joy and ravishment. at this time (I say) Prabha- 1 These hundred and eight gates of the law are given by M. Then Prabhslpala. neither too cold or hot. 46-7. by an and honoured by every kind of external homage. spake thus. the Winter being now mouth of Spring arrived. At the time of the junction of the constellation Kwei (with the sun)." At this time Prabhapala Bodhisatwa. the vernal air soft and serene. surrounded incalculable number of Devas. listen therefore and weigh my words whilst I recite these methods to you. . The Chinese list agrees almost entirely with his." pp. having heard these words. Foucaux.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. having delivered these one hundred and eight gates of the law. [Kiouen VI contains 6177 words.] CHAPTEK The descent At this VII. " Lai. and not let them slip. as are subject to life and old age. having by his excellent discourse led them to discard all thought and things so transient in their nature. Vist. and the opening time Prabhapila B6dhisatwa. 35 Then all the Devas of this Tusita Heaven. passed. and cost 3-09 Taels. in the hearing of all the Devas. brightly shining on every side. before the once-born B6d- hisatwa descends to earth to be incarnated he desires on your account to recite the one hundred and eight methods of salvation. and disease and death.

or be angry." Then Bddhisatwa. Mara^ and Brahma. not to calumniate . explain this as indicating ' is " Power and Wisdom. " Know well and consider. to pray that I may not covet. again spake thus to the assembled Devas. and I desire to produce in myself a loving heart towards all living creatures. the years of their sojourn in Tusita being come to an end.'" Then Prabh4pala B6dhisatwa. or hold foolish doubts. ! when B6dhisatwa was about to descend. His heart wholly free from any thought of sensual desire. and Eaja. however." ^ He is generally represented as descending in the shape of a white elephant. not to kill lives. and adopt all that is true and right. to have no irreligious conversation. ! even give up my kingdom rather than that you should not so act. if you desire it." " Mara. spiritual ! L j I anything that not to defraud any one. The tihas. without excitement. Vide (amongst others) PI xxxiii. I now bind myself to observe these rules. not to prevaricate . Sometimes called the " King of . and. Shamans and Brah- Maya. the wife of Suddh6dana Eaja. and in a manner enter the womb of Queen Maya. not to lie . descended from Tasita. special rules of self discipline. so as to avoid all heretical teaching. the author of evil. entered on the right side^ of Queen M4ya.' then that Maya on that very night addressed Suddhddana Eaja. I will " ' The Eaja beholding the Mother of B6dhisatwa Eespectfully rose from his seat before her. to have no sexual pleasures . his mind immovably fixed. that this is my very last and final birth. " As your heart desires act as you wish. Then Devas and men. The "incarnation scene " frequently met with in Buddhist sculptures. his heart at rest.36 pdla B6dliisatwa THE ROMANTIC MahSsatwa about bow to descend and to lie born. " Maharaja I wish from the present night to undertake the eight At this time. with a self-possessed. to wit. according to the Gatha. with no anxiety or confusion of thought. ye Devas all. wife of Suddh6dana and there rested in perfect quiet. and said. moreover. as other Devas had done. Eegarding her as his Mother or elder Sister." Then Suddhodana Kslja replied to M^ya thus. fixed heart and perfectly descended from Tusita to sojourn on earth. " Tree and Serpent Worship.

and gave me such joy as I never had before From this time forth I will no more partake of any sensual pleasure. be it known to you that last night I had the following dream. flowers. Then every creature beholding this began to speak to his fellow thus. should shake the powers of evil which true Nirvdna . "What does this sudden appearance amongst us portend?" Then the great earth quaked six times. to indicate that hereafter Buddha. and by the preaching of the four truths." waiting outside.. and eternal light mans.' there was a feeling of . etc. which shone through the entire lit up the gloom of the external mountain depth. where darkness reigns. 1 * God of the World of Pleasure " (Kama- Avitchi. and death to and men to flnd deliverance. etc. These explanations are part of the original text. she in the midst of her sleep had a dream to this effect. and shed it on the ground and so even down to the bottommost HeU of Avitchi." at other times the " loka). and all the mountains of the great Sakwala shook . to show that hereafter Bddhisatwa would arrive at perfect enlightenment. trees. beheld a wonderful light. joy instead of misery.HISTOEY OF BUDDHA.] B6dhisatwa having then descended into the womb of Maya the Queen. the seas roared. afflict the world. When they occur they will be printed — ia italic letters. The mountains shook and the seas roared.^ [_The light shone in the darlcneis.. and so with the other indications. and draw men to the the rivers flowed backwards to indicate that hereafter Buddha should life cause the natural tide of events. having arrived at perfect wisdom. descend thro' space and enter her right side. introduced without any comment. it appeared to me that a white elephant entered my right side. whilst all forests. They are probably of a later date than the thread of the narrative. 37 world. the no-interval heU the bottomless pit. and I pray you find out some interpreter of dreams who will tell me what this won! derful vision of mine may the women who were Then Suddh6dana called to portend. illuminate the darkness and ignorance of men's minds. "Maharaja. and the rivers turned backwards in their course. " she thought she saw a six tusked white elephant. the perpetual flow of be reversed. . his head coloured like a ruby (or red pearl). and every kind of herb. and bade them go in haste Death. exuded their rich nourishment." In the morning the queen addressed her husband SuddhSdana thus.

Brahmabhadanta. Ishwarabhadanta. having heard the king's words. who answered the messenger belonging to the interior (i. Eojana by name. If the mother. and able to interpret all dreams. thus it is written in the following Gathas ! : " ' If a mother in her dream. If she sees in her dream The Moon Deva enter her right side. Then Suddhodana Eaja addressed the interpreters of dreams. "we Then these messengers mands went forth to the palace mands. " Who is there on guard ?" Then there was before the gate a certain guard. of all kings. by name [as before]. and with them the three sons of old Kasyapa. That son. went forthwith to the presence of Mahanamaputra. Pindubhadanta. and soon both Mahanamaputra and they together entered within the royal palace. . the prime minister." orders to "Mahiraja has given Brahmans. perfectly understanding all portents. Visakabhadanta. Shall bear one chief of aU the world (Buddha)j profit all flesh . the harem). dressed the king. interpreters of dreams. Shall be. what is the interpretation of it ?" Then the Brahmans. The messengers then addare not disobey the Maharaja's comin obedience to the king's comgates. behold A white Able to elephant enter her right side." Then the messenger said summon to his presence the eight having heard his words. his prime minister.. behold The Sun Deva enter her right side That mother shall bear a son Who shall become a Chakravarti Eaja. to wit. That mother. these five. and said. immediately summoned the eight Brahmans aforesaid. Then Kojana. and cried with a loud voice before the gates. Tajnabhadanta. " Maharaja listen and hear the meaning of this dream. " Last night the Qaeen had this extraordinary dream [relating it]. e. to summon at once to his presence the eight Brahmas who excelled in interpreting dreams. and in the books of divine wisdom . in her dream. when she bears a son. who "I am here. the chief. borne of that mother. according to the explanation given by the old Eishis. — 38 and tell THE ROMANTIC Mahanamaputra. replied.

practising himself in acquiring the supernatural wisdom of the Genii. cattle."^ of tender age. . and said. his heart was filled with exand joy not to be surpassed. he distributed food. at this time. he added gifts of money and precious stones. having heard the words of the . Suddhodana Eaja. drink. "Mahadream of the queen is a very propitious one. not far from there. Equally poised between preference and dislike Able to save and deliver the world and men From the deep sea of misery and grief. flowers. Now. 39 Then the Brahmans addressed Suddhodana.. passages and lanes of the city. being scarcely eight 1 Naradatta. chariots. had arrived at great spiritual power. possessed of the five miraculous qualities (irdhipada). beyond the four gates. called " Tchapati. and also in the streets." in a village called " Ganganadt " . unguents.'" raja! the . and greatly reverenced him. horses. Tist. at this time. he was able. and after the propitious interpretation. giving to each just what was most requisite or most desired . Then. among the people of Eapilavastu. by putting away the love of pleasure (by self-denial. when a certain youth of the village aforenamed. Now. called " Narada. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. and who. and enter at his pleasure This Eishi dwelt very much at a the assemblies of the Devas. was a shady thicket called " increasing- length" (dirghavardaua?)." At this time." 103. and all with a view to conduce to the : ! prosperity of Bddhisatwa. and every kind of gift. place in South India. delicacies and fruits of the choicest flavour . ultation Brahmans. there was a certain Eishi called Asita. thoroughly grounded in all the wisdom of the various heretical sects. vide " Lalit. at will. the interpreters of dreams. clothing. and in after time arrive at perfect wisdom his name spread far and wide. and conferred every kind of present bidding them enjoy themselves as they list moreover. whilst all the people of Magadha said of him that he was a Eahat. to go to the thirty -three heavens. it happened that the Eishi was living in this grove. discarding the five desires). this Kishi was imparting the secret to others. He placed before them meats and drinks of the most exquisite character . Your Majesty ought now to have a very special regard for the queen for the child born of her will certainly be a holy child. having acquired the knowledge he sought.

then suddenly his mind conceived unutterable joy. I say.. saw plainly their appearance changing. practising the severest austerities. and he cried out and said. he paid him ceaseless worship. then. and the ! — four Maharajas. and their bodies becoming bright and beautiful. employed in brushing away. and when they heard the voices of Tleet-goer and all the angels singing on earth. they were delivered from hell . regarding one another. and receive birth (incarnation). there was a supernatural light spread every-where. and day and night controlling his mind to fixed contemplation. and removing. quickly. in the immediate neighbourhood of KapUavastu. sitting in the Tsang-chang grove. as many of them as in ages gone by had acquired any merit. Again. . This was just at the time when B6dhisatwa descended from Tusita and entered into the right side of his mother .40 THE ROMANTIC years old. on which occasion. was sitting on one side by himself. that ye may be born on earth. is to be born in the world . Asita perceiving these miraculous events (adbhuta dharma)." who. behind his master. "All ye wretched ones understand now that Bodhisatwa is incarnated . on which the youth made every sort of religious offering to the Eishi . to wit. and cried out with a loud voice. with the request that he would adopt him as one of his disciples ." Having said he ceased." Then the wretched inmates. Vir^dhaka Eaja. pray ye and vow with all your might. Now. went down to all the hells. but for some consequent act of sin had been born in hell. Dhritarashtra Eaja. and about to enter the right side of his mother. at the time of Buddha's conception. and the earth quaked again. now Mahapudgala Bodhisatwa is descending from Tusita. was greatly awestricken. and so their minds received great joy . and such as had acquired previous merit were born on earth. this. and the boy. having heard this cry. Then again there was a certain Deva called " Tleet-goer. these. Narada. all noxious creatures from coming near the Eishi. and the very hairs on his person stood erect j and he thought with himself. it so happened. with rapid flight. inconceivably holy. Sdkra Deva. on one occasion. and after Asita had accepted and used them. his thoughts perfectly fixed in firm composure. "what mean these miraculous portents?" Thinking thus for a little time in silence. "A great saint. that Asita was. was brought by his mother to Asita.

at the conception. or a blade of grass which M&ya has held in her right hand. from right to left. Virupatsha. hut rather is She sensible of great delight during the period and at the birth. giving constant pain and anxiety to the mother. At this time. gestation. or sit. of a Bddhisatwa . leaf. and birth of B6dhisatwa. the holy mother Mdya. felt the time of birth approaching. But Bodhisatwa Tcmains ever at rest. or depute For it is right that we Devas should guard the illustrious person of Bodhisatwa. or a the gestation and birth of BSdhisatwa. So also the mother of a B6dhisatwa suffers no pain. . such movement. having just completed ten months since her conception of Bddhisatwa. flee from the face of the mother of a Bddhisatwa. will infallibly heal the disease." \_There are four chief occasions on which this special protection is required. and the arrival at supreme wisdom. or sleep . consents to no nuptial intercourse. and not leave the task to men. and Vaisravaua " Sirs ! 41 E. Tree. Kinnaras should molest or hurt him. All demons who torment either man or woman. or at the birth. or. to earth to be lest surely. we ought to keep guard any of those noxious beings called others to do so.HISTOllY OF BUDDHA.ent). He always remains on the right side of his mother. if they cannot secure an opportunity of being touched. Then the father of the queen Mdya. the time of gestation.' the birth. She practises all the laws of purity. this is one peculiarity (ardbhuta dharma). whether the mother rise. fectly She suffers no extremities of heat or cold. given or sent to the sick person. addressing one another.} The Birth beneath the Pabt I. He is formed per- when he enters the womb .aja. All diseased persons are cured by the touch of the right hand of the queen Mdya. There are also several special circumstances that distinguish the conception. either during the — gestation. Supra Buddha. there is mo change from embryo to Arbuda (from stage to stage of developm. now that Bodhisatwa has gone down and watch ' ' born. this is another peculiarity. So also nothing impure takes place. vntho'wt movement . Such are the wonderful circumstances connected with then a shrub. said.

the constellation Kwei being now in conjunction. and he ordered. and all kinds of flowers to be scattered along it. I will send my daughter back to her home with you. surrounded by the vast retinue of warriors. to be ornamented with every kind of precious stone. filth. Vist." Then Suddhodana Eaja. 136] made level. and as she approached. then forth from Devadaho for her to sit upon. "As I am informed my daughter. for immediately the confinement is over. mounted on a white elephant. she set forth on her journey. Maya. at Kapilavastu." p. [tJie MaMsanghikas say his is Supra Bddhal. immediately issued orders to have all the to permit road between Kapilavastu and Dewadaho [vide " LaUt. on the eighth day. 413. and with special attendants going before to announce her approach. pleased at this request. M. the queen M&ya. the Devas having caused a perfectly beautiful gem-adorned covering to appear on the elephant's back And so. danciug women and guards. as I fear that when the child is born. the king. sent certain messengers to the king Suddhodana. accompanied by his daughter MSya. pebbles. horses. and already far advanced in pregnancy. and her person decorated with the choicest flowers and unguents. . she arrived at last at her father's house in the city of Devadaho . and thus ac- companied by music. in the second month of spring. and.42 THE ROMANTIC Grihapati (ohang-che) by name.. anxious to see the beauties of the ' The text here proceeds to explain that the Lumbini garden was so called after the name of the wife of the chief minister of Supra Buddha. and I have prepared for her reception the Lumbini garLet not the king be disden. and freed from all weeds. having heard the words of the messengers of Supra Buddha. went forth towards the garden Lumbini.^ At length. who presented to the Maharaja this request from the queen's father. moreover. elephants. and chariots provided by Suddhodana E4ja. the queen of your majesty. thus seated. my daughter will be short lived. came Supra Buddha and aU his ministers and nobles to meet and welcome her approach. I have thought it right to ask you name my daughter Maya to come back to me and rest in my house . and to have the ground swept and sprinkled with scented water. pursued her way. is now with child..B. and obstacles of all kinds . and every proper amusement. So it was the queen Maya.

forthwith." [Now this miraculous light is one of the signs of Buddha's future conquest over the powers of darkness and sin. Let not the queen bo distressed. soft as Kalinda cloth. in the garden. Maya rested awhile to admire it. a marvellous light spread around. the heavenly women who surrounded the queen. surrounded by dancing women. adorned as we have before described. " ! HISTORY OF BUDDHA. perfectly strait from top to bottom. . B6dhisatwa being thus delivered from the right side of his mother. addressed her down from thus : " The queen now brings forth the child. Thus. ] Thus — was Bodhisatwa born. the queen M4ya stepped her chariot. and holding the branch as we have described. then with conscious mind arose from his seat and was born. then that tree. standing thus with the branch in her hand. Bddhisatwa perceiving his mother. with clasped hands and bended knee. Now at the time of Bodhisatwa's birth. Mara. bent down its branches. there appears a beautifully tinted rainbow stretching athwart heaven . so did she take hold of that curving branch of the Palasa tree and look up into heaven's expanse. and Brahmans. no teacher Can equal him Able to deliver both Devas And men from every bind of sorrow. the queen with her right hand took hold of one J just as in the air. Sakra. its leaves variegated as the plumage of a peacock's head. the scent of its flowers of most exquisite odour. with a beautifully . Delighted at the sight. standing on the ground. Brahma. earth. Mdya. and gradually approached under the shade of the tree . admiring and looking at all Now. etc. We are here to support her ! At this time. and so passed from spot to spot. there was one particular tree called a Palasa.— . 43 Having arrived at the garden. perceiving this miraculous light said amongst themselves: "What means this wonderful portent. and its branches spread out in perfect regularity. and. Shamans. Able to divide the wheel of life and death In heaven and earth. and from tree to tree in the garden. and forthwith all the Devas and men. by the mysterious power of Bodhisatwa.

ent. in no childish accents. " In all the world I am the very chief. "Now I have finished my births . and cost 3. much Bodhisatwa was thus born. now shall I accomplish the end of my being. Bodhisatwa having thus been born without any assistance or support. from this day forth my births are finished. "Now may men rejoice.395 Taels. at each step. when Buddha arrived Bddhyanga (^vide at perfect enlighten- paid to him by Devas and men after his enlightenment.. advanced and wrapped the body of the child whilst the four Maharajas. and uttered these words. he attained also the seven sub voce). plainly pronounced. and as he walked. and so forth."] When arrived at [The seventh Kiouen contains 6790 words. there is no further form of life for me to assume. first looking to the east. no more shall I enter into the womb to be born . the I)evas may be glad. I have done all that I had to do . he forthwith walked seven steps towards each quarter of the horizon . mother has brought more may men ! forth a son. but according to the very words of the Gatha. wrapped thus in his swaddling clothes.] CHAPTER VIII.the royal in it. " Now then I have my last birth ." [Now this about his walking without assistance. he said. Birth beneath the Tree. is an adbhuta mouth uttered these words dharma. and become Buddha. whilst the words he uttered refer to the universal reverence Eitel. I have com^pleted my course . and also to . taking the child. Part II. there sprang from the earth beneath his feet a lotus flower in each direction his I . he said. His looking to the four quarters signifies his obtaining the four fearless rules. brought him and showed him to his mother." [This refers to the utterance of Bddhisatwa when he had arrived at complete enlightenment. and as he looked steadfastly . to signify that m." 44 fine THE EOMANTIC Kasika garment.

whilst the spontaneous appearance of the water refers to the natural consequence of these habits of mind to procure all that is desirable for their possession. after his enlightenment. cold and hot. Having arrived there. the superiority of life at the time of Bodhisatwa' s birth. and used. all the sorrows and afflictions brella. but found none. large as and death.] Then aU the Devas brought a golden seat for Bodhisatwa to occupy."y was a great minister of state (koue sse) whose family name was Basita. when lo before the very face of the mother there suddenly appeared two beautiful tanks. obtained complete release from. pointing to the power of Samddhi and Vipasina to remove all sorrow and desire.t took place at the time of the birth . went together to visit the Lumbini garden. refers to the calm and passionless method in which Buddha." etc. one of cold. a soft rain falling. with a golden handle.} [The light. "Oh! househuilder. there fell two streamlets of water. which done. and incident to the state of " birth At this time. . And so again from the midst of space. refers to the faith to arrive at which those Again. he refreshed and washed his body with the grateful streams of water. notices. without the gates. at that time Basita addressed the ministers and said.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. [This refers to the beautiful Lotus throne on which Buddha sat. etc. etc. refers to the excellency of his doctrine (wheel of the law) . the attendants looked everywhere for water. what is said about the Devas holding over the new-born babe an um- a chariot wheel. " Do you perceive how the great earth is rock- ' The text then continues to relate the miraculous events th3. with which the body of Bodhisatwa was washed. were able who heard the first teaching of the sage.l Bodhisatwa having been born. [These again are adbhuta dharmas. and the honour he received from all the Shamans. having arrived at supreme wisdom. which appeared at his birth.] [A gain.] [Again. hurriedly they ran in every direction. and his private name Mahanama. what is said about the trees and the flowers bursting into it refers to obscured even the sun. He. again. there standing. those 45 memorahle words he then spoke. the Devas singing together I omit these and scattering flowers. in company with various other ministers and Brahmans. when it is said that this miraculous light Buddha^s eminence as a teacher. the other of hot water ! which she mixed as most agreeable to herself.

" Oh ye sons of Sakya hurry away as fast ! ! ! ! Then the ministers replied. " The queen has borne a son oh so beautiful and such a lovely child a child without peer on earth and the Devas are as possible to MahS. and all the Devas chanting their hymns and praises whilst the flowers and ! — sweet unguents rain down through the void '. " And what news shall we give him when we see him. " come let us know. and his majesty seeing her so beautifully adorned. AU at once. perhaps. from the garden. there came tripping along a woman who came forth from Lumbini and stood outside the very gate where Basita and the Brahmans were in consultation ." So he took back the gems and desired that what- . and gave it to the wois scattering flowers about him. on seeing whom. seeing her high spirits. again he thought. 46 ino." they said .as THE ROMANTIC a ship borne over the waves are darkened ? And see how the sun and moon and deprived ! of their light. their hearts were fiUed with joy." Thus they deliberated together on the point. because of the news she brought ." Then a minister answered Mahanama and said. the great minister Basita loosed from his neck the string of precious stones that he wore. and could not contain herself for very gladness of heart and so she cried out." ! ! ! ! ! a heavenly light diffused round his person. and there man. just as the stars And see how all the trees are blossomof the night in appearance ing as if the season had come and hark whUst the heavens are serene and calm— listen there is the roU of thunder and though — ! ! ! there be no clouds. " No doubt these ( earth) to produce such results things are very wonderful and not to be accounted for. " This woman. what does your manner signify — is it good tidings or bad ? " To whom she replied." The great ministers having heard these words.raja. " These things are so yet it is nothing extraordinary . and they could not contain themselves for gladness of heart At this time. and so it will cause trouble. is a favourite of the king. will naturally inquire and find out where these pearls were obtained. but having done so. it is the nature of things " Another said. yet the soft rain is falling . "Oh! Sakyas! it is wonderfully good news!" "What is it then." Then she continued.! . she was greatly rejoiced. so beautifully ferand the air is moved by a gentle and cool tilising in its qualities ! and hark to the sound breeze coming from the eight quarters of that voice of Brahma so sweetly melodious in the air.

for I am about to destroy and extirpate the roots of sorrow caused by the universal evil of birth and death. whilst Lotus flowers sprang up beneath his feet. !" yet they withered not. queen Maya! rejoice and be glad! for this child you have borne is holy !" Then the child. in perfectly rounded accents. having heard this descrip- An exquisite example of state-craft. he himself began to question the woman straitly as to the character of the event which had happened.' gift. he walked seven steps. To whom the woman replied. "Great minister! ijrayUsteu to me well. 47 that this might redound Then dismissing the other Brahmans to go to the king and tell the joyful news. and holding him before his mother. and faced each quarter . having come forth from his mother's side. they said. he said.! HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. soft as the stuff of Kasi. came forth. or loins when the child was no rent in her bosom. there was the sound of beautiful music. "All joy be to you. sent by the Devas these the Devas wrapped round the body of the babe. respectively. . to refresh and cleanse the child's body as he stood there on the ground . unlike the words of a child. and though the sun was shining ! ! ! I ! fiercely. there ! came forth fell or side. the for our queen. and again there was brought to him a golden seat on which to repose wMlst he was washed. and there was the voice of people singing hymns of praise in every direction . and they held great chamaras in their hands waving them over the child's head whilst in the air. and whilst looking to the east. circumstances attending the birth of the child were very wonderful Maya. with which to shelter him. from the air there beautiful garments. ever merit would have attached to the to the woman's benefit.. but no instruments . and all the Devas brought a white umbrella with an entire gold handle. standing on the ground. it was large as a chariot wheel. ecHpsing the very sun and moon. and flowers beautifully gfcented fell down in profusion. " Amongst all creatures I am the most excellent . nor dried Then Mahanama. " No further births have I to endure this is my very last body now shall I attain to the condition of Buddha " then. Then such brightness shone around. without aid. said these words. standing upright on the ground." Then there came forth from mid-air two streams of water hot and cold. the child of her right side. the great 1 minister.

surnamed Mahanama is approaching in ! jesty's from the direction of a four-horsed chariot. cried out with a loud voice. "wonderM! in tbe midst of this world tbe into born great teacher has been Eaja. and yoking Then the great minister. Mahanama. and said to the minister." Having said this.. "May the king be ever victorious! may the king be ever honoured. has brought forth a son. and now he is getting down from his chariot. " Mahanama great minister of the Sakyas ! ! tell me why you thus come without preface into our presence. having gone forth into the midst of that garden. beautiful as gold in colour. "What can be the good news which Basita Mahinama has to tell that ? The ministers rehe comes so hurriedly to my presence " So plied. which was sounded when there was good tidings brought. settling surrounded by attendants on every side . Basita." then Mahanama. taking his drove. and Suddhodana to go Now tben will I myself wicked age circumstances. . having heard these words. the queen of the ruler of the city of Devadaho and Lumbini. he demands straightway to see the king. and said. heralded into the world by a supernatural light.' until his very strength king he sounded aloud the drum SuddhSdana E4ja was sitting was exhausted. Ikshwaku family ? exhausting aU in front of the gate of one of the of joy " Then the guard in front his strength in beating the drum king. " Let him be summoned to your majesty's presence. with belonging to the MaharSja. all his might. of joy. "Maharaja! your maof the gate replied. beautiful a to them and without waiting to see the of Lumbini straight to Kapilavastu. swift as the wind." wonderful these witb acquaint swiftest horses. Suddhodana. addressed Mahanama." The Suddh6dana replied thus to his ministers. Lumbini. fleet as the wind. from the gate chariot. THE EOMANTIC wonderful! <3oub«ess a immediately reflected. suddenly ! Mm affairs of state. coming before the king. Now. in surprise. your strength exhausted with beating the drum of joy " ! ! Then the your majesty's great minister. Meantime. he paused to regain his strength. replied. " Oh king queen. the " Who is it so abruptly dares to make this noise of his minister. beating the drum of joy and without any further words. and. e." 48 tion. i. and provided with a cradle by the Devas ! > The drum of joy. inquired hearing the sound of the joy-drum. ministers some important his with on his royal throne. at this time. the drum or gong hung in front of the palace. king.

called Kupa. for instance. your son. ! ! know.. for is it possible that your majesty has not heard that these circumstances ever attend the birth of heaven descended mortals . is born. gradually grew up from a little boy to be a mighty king who ruled the four empires of the world. and said. " Oh grant me the privilege of attending constantly on the Prince Eoyal " To whom Suddhodana replied. Then Suddh6dana Kaja pressed on Mahanama to give 49 him all particulars as to the portents that attended the birth. great ministers. " Yon are. called Vika (?) (or. as before. of that wonderful birth in the old times. Suddhodana Eaja thus addressed Mahanama." To whom Suddh6dana replied. And king. even as the Prince. andnotfor sorrow . On the way thither. what he had himself seen and heard. who was born from the hand of his father. as you wish. but entirely self-instructed. but in this case. Maharaja. Then Suddhodana replied. " be it so. and after his birth. and who. after being so born. Maharija. proceeded to Lumbini to conduct the Prince Royal to the city of Kapilavastu. Vaska). "Be it known to you. is it possible your majesty does not recollect the origin of your own house and family in days gone by when Ikshwaku was born from the sugar cane ? All these were born in a manner quite incomprehensible to us. " I scarcely . "Yes! very true. surrounded by ministers and oficers. that this prince will far ex! . Mahanama but all these whom' you have named were of great ! personal dignity and renown . in the case of the Brahman called Dashthaka. without any mother or has your majesty not heard of that king born in old times from his father's stomach. or of that one called Katspa born from his father's arm . "it is certainly an occasion for great joy.nama replied. he replied. or. Or has your ma- jesty not heard of a king in the old days. of a king from the head of his father (agrajanman). whether to be glad or sorry about these tidings of the miracles attending the birth of the child. was able thoroughly to explain the four Vedas. as. indeed. the bearer of good tidings tell me what recompense can I give? what return can I make for the news you bring ?" After some delay. HISTOEY OF BUDDHA." Then forthwith Mahanama. and the great ministers. without any human instruction whatever. and the time of their appearance. it is not so plain that such is the case " To whom Mahanama answered with great joy. on which the great minister related. who was born from a flower. have you not heard." To whom Mahd.

Senart. ! ! ! 1 The nature of the Chakravarti monarch has been exhaustively discussed by M. "Maharaja! recite to me I pray you the distinguishing signs of one who is to become a Chakravartin monarch! tell me. .kya race increase and ever flourish. To whom they replied as foUows. in judgment and resolute application . and the Brahmans. " Let there be no trifling in this matter. her face glowing with joy. immediately inquired of the king in these words." Auo. having looked at the child. 1873. Mahardja this child will certainly. become a holy Chakravartin monarch!" At this time. And BO. " Go tell the king he may enter the garden " Then a woman in ! ! attendance. of B6dhisatwa. for a father is naturally anxious for his son to excel others in quickness and knowledge. and approaching the king. they immediately dispatched a messenger to the Qaeen to congratulate her on the auspicious event of the birth and its attending circumstances. seeing the king in the garden. halting at length." " But what proofs have you of this superiority/' said Suddh6dana. To which the queen made reply." to Lumbini. they came Having ar- rived at the outer gate of the garden. in conduct and decorum. queen Maya.50 ceed ister. " The royal babe salutes his father. and prosperous for evermore even as we see that this babe will prosper! even so may the king and all the SS. addressed Suddh6dana in the following terms of congratulation. andfinds the latterfar more excellent and noteworthy." To whom the king answered. the mother. " Tour min- Maharaja. and of necessity. in the "Journal Asiatique. "All honoured be the King. and to express the king's desire to see the child.and ° Sept. all THE EOMANTIC those in the particulars you have mentioned. when this is so he rejoices naturally. what these are that my heart may also rejoice!" Then Siiddh6dana E4ja desired the Brahman ministers to explain and point out the distinctive signs of a Chakravartin monarch. the chief minister (Kwo sse)." replied again. took the child in her arms. has compared the various signs which attended the births of those before-named with the signs at the nativity of the To whom the ting Koyal Prince. beholding Suddhodana and the ministers. said. I pray you. "Not so! first of all send him to the Brahman ministers in attendance and afterwards let him see me " Then the nurse forthwith took B6dhisatwa to the place where the Brahmans were. At this time.

A universal monarch is always possessed of seven precious insignia. Then these all came to the spot. with musical accompaniments. turners dancers. a general). and athletes ?). and so forth. round and round like a wheel. and one . pole-climbers." No sooner had he thought thus than the skilful Visvakarman caused a precious palanquin to appear of itself. that he can fly throuo'h the air for the purpose of carrying on his government of the people . and discriminate whilst we recite the various signs of an universal monarch. Then the four guardians of the world (Chatur Maharajas). Then Suddhodana took immediate steps to have the road prepared. a horse. the his death a quiet. accompanied by vaulters. drumplayers. if there is a drought any where. changing their appearance. the streets of Kapilvastu adorned. an elephant. walkers on their hands (head down. assumed the garb of Brahmans. derived from all the ancient Shasters: A Chakravartin monarch is possessed of such personal virtue. a golden discus. tight-rope sword -kickers. feet up). so perfect that no human art could have made it so. a warlike minister (or. O king. and themselves took charge of ^ The narrative then proceeds to speak of the birth of previous Universal Mouarchs. even as one loves an only son. " Listen then. the water-spouters. at his birth all discord and enmity amongst men cease. to attend the cortije. and women of the place summoned to accompany the Prince on his Besides these. "And now what means of conveyance have I for my son in returning to the city. a treasurer. viz. stnt-walkers. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. 51 speaiing both to the king and queen. of youthful age and distinguished beauty. the pearl players (ball-players raders. he can cause the rain to descend . he ordered all the conjurers. and there is universal joy and fellow-feeling amongst all people. every kind and laughable exhibition.. ball-players (?). spear-twisters of such light (?). universally beloved and reverenced by his people.''^ Then Suddhodana thought with himself thus. tumblers. and all the singing men return. a fair wife. his body beautiful beyond human comparison . life These are called the seven is in- signia (sapta Eatnani). whilst he cares for and cherishes his people more than one would cherish a naked and perishing child. and there were none to be compared with it." ' . painless of a Chakravartin very long. a magic jewel. the masque- and all such..

there life none " I have looked through and examined every form of amongst men. took the child to pay the customary honours." [Kiouen Till contains 6550 words and cost 3. in his left hand he carried a golden water pitcher. at whose shrine the Sakyas paid unwonted honours. " And I find there is none tobe compared with him called the Allwise (Buddha)." At this time. instant destruction would follow. he went before the face of Bodhisatwa.] . of space. " Now my child may pay worship to this Deva. took the image of the Deva in the temple." Then his mother (or. there is no such being as is Buddha. he met whom those all exhorted he proceeded he as " My friends prepare the way. in these terms. is joined together in this old strain of laudation. "In all the regions such. clear the road for now the most ! ! excellent of mortals At this about to enter the city!" time. there was a Deva temple. changed his appearance into that of a young Brahman of remarkable beauty.275 taels to print. called "Abhaya" (wou wei). but is deserving of all worship . and his body clothed with yellow garments . not far from Kapilavastu. " This Prince of mortals is not called on to worship. the Deva's name being "Tsang Chang" (Dirghavardana ?). in earth beneath. and so furnished. for to whom he bows down. at which time a certain Deva. and addressed the nurse thus. nurse). and made it come down and bow before BSdhisatwa with closed hands and prostrate head. then Suddhddaua forthwith took the infant in his arms to this temple and addressed his ministers in these words. through all the worlds. " In heaven above.— 52 THE ROMANTIC the Palanquin of Bodhisatwa. let me adore him. and in his right a beautiful gem-adorned and staff. Brahma Eaja and the Devas of the Bupa heavens. with his hair'bound with the usual spiral twist. And at same time S^kra Devai-aja.

enter this my pure abode Incomparable for virtue enter this purest ! ! ! my pure abode !" Then Suddh6dana tives. five hundred merchant-men with gold. sent from five hundred different princes . "Oh! thou God among Gods I pray thee enter this my pure abode Oh thou captain ! ! ! of the ship ! enter this my pure abode ! Oh thou ! golden bodied. Eaja. they had (or. At this time there were five hundred Sakya princes (ministers) who. . arrived at the city . of which Kautaka was chief. with fountains. had prepared five hundred Viharas (pure abodes) for him to rest. on the delivery of which the bearers spoke thus " Ac: cept these things. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. on the day of his birth there were five hundred Sakya princes whom B6dhisatwa himself was by far the most illustrious there were five hundred Sakya princesses born. and with joyful heart and clasped hands paid reverence to him and said. in readiness for the return of Bodhisatwa to the city. &o. sUver. for the sake of those five hundred rela- for them. So it came to pass as he entered the city that each of these Sakyas stood 'Before the door of his own abode. moreover. there were five hundred children born of the concubines of Suddhodana. who became personal born. there were) five hun- dred superb umbrellas. appeared on each side of the city. enter this my pure abode Bestower of universal joy. §1. Eeturn from the Garden to Kapilavastu. and went round the city of Kapilavastu .. and five hundred golden dishes filled with different sorts of grain (as tributej.. there were five hundredchUdren born of the slaves of SuddhSdana. 53 CHAPTER IX. tanks. of whom Tasodhara was chief. five hundred lovely gardens. and so also five hundred white elephants appeared of themselves. of servants of the Eoyal prince . and precious stones. enter this my pure abode Eenowned in every place. of whom Tchandaka was chief . ! among creatures. Now. there were five hundred foals born of the white mares belonging to the Eoyal stud." At the same time came five hundred Brahmans and . O King ! which we offer in respect for the Prince now born. caused B6dhisatwa to enter each dwelling in succession whilst he prepared for him his own through consideration peculiar abode.

" Maharaja what great fortune is astrologers Then and ! Because of the great dignity of this chUd. and draw a true conclusion as to the child's destiny." Casting § 2. thought thus with himself. and took a hundred lakhs of offer tt) his child as he gave him the name. " since on the day of his birth all things were so perfectly accomplished. that his body is marked by the thirty-two infallible signs of greatyours ! And why ? ! ! marked there are two sorts if they be monarchs fChakravartius) but if Eeligious. 54 THE ROMANTIC their congratulations to great Kshatriya nobles. I wiU name him Sheng-li (Sarvarthassiddhai) (perfect prosperity). and thus addressed the King. tlie Horoscope. then they become perfectly illuminated (all-wise). the young child's name Shall be this — Sarvarthassiddha. to offer Suddh6dana E4ja. they finally drew their conclusions." Then gold to Suddhfidana opened his treasury. and said.. Suddhfidana BAja issued his commands that all the fortune-tellers should at once repair to the Palace to examine the child and cast his horoscope .— — . " What are the signs and the particular places of the signs. On hearing this. eaoli one accompanied by his wife. with earnest purpose examined well the child's appearance. Oh King. . and comparing what they saw with all that was explained in their Sacred Books." Then Suddhodana further addressed the astrologers. whether good or bad. Then. then they are all universal cerning which you speak ?" ' This is generally contracted into Siddhartha. Therefore. according to : the words of the Gatha " Thus within the King's palace All things were entirely prosperous. and are destined to be perfect Tathelgatas. "What name shall I give my new-born child ?"—and then he reflected. therefore. the Brahmans. conness. and on their arrival he bade them look well to every sign. Suddhodana seeing that all these things were perfectly accomplished. he is indeed born a king of aU that lives For know. And of persons so — Secular. &c.

8. Without stooping the hands reach to the knees. 20. ances. having heard this explanation. The tongue wide and long. 10. who dwelt on earth. 13. Possessed of delicate taste. 3. The voice soft as that of Brahma. All the teeth even. he exulted greatly. The Prince's fingers are tapering and long. 31. The mouth shaped perfectly within. The skin soft and smooth as the cotton of the Talas palm. 27. " : The of thii-ty-two signs of every great all. 16. his heart was fiUed with joy." 2 some confusion and this rendering is doubtful.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. all of it — first the sole of the foot full. The heel of the foot round and smooth. then the Eishis and the Devas. 21. 25. and of a golden yellow colour. 28. 14. 9. 30. and red. and close together. The four canine teeth [ya-(nga)] white and pure. The body above and below perfectly proportioned as the Nyagrodha tree. The fingers with round pliable joints. Between the eyebrows a white circle of soft and equally 2. 7. The instep high. plump and pliable hair.^ full and round. 15. and rejoiced." The King. 6. The hair of the body properly "arranged. 17. The hair the colour of gold. 22. Both the legs large and broad. An excrescence of the top of the head. The shoulders (?) round as the King of the Stags. II. 29. The flat 55 astrologers replied. 26. 5. 19. 4. when the supernatural light appeared and the earth shook. man are these following and level. The fingers and toes severally connected with a fine net-like membrane. 24. 12. The body pure. That which ought to be concealed is concealed. The body itself cool and pure. The eyes blue. beautiful and distinctly visible. . pliable. The teeth without discoloration or tendency to decay. 32. "Mahslrija! these are the thirty-two superior signs. The eyebrow constantly moving^ like that of the King of the oxen. 18. 23. The seven places. Every hair of the skin separate. Whoever is marked with these will become either a Chakravartin or a perfect Buddha. exclaimed with great 1 The French There is version of the Lalita Vistara gives "protuberin the Chinese. is perfectly Underneath both feet are the thousand ray'd circles. Possessed of forty teeth. The cheek-bones like those of the King of Lions. Kow at the time of the birth of Bodhisatwa in Lumbini.

B 1838 .56 joy. " To-day Bodhisatwa is born on earth to give joy and peace to men and Devas. all the Devas joined in this song and said. is in the " Southern Eecords. even up to the Akanishta Heavens." Then the Gods of the thirty-three Heavens took up the burthen of the strain. S." to turn the wheel of the Divine : city. just below the Snowy Mountains has been born a child of perfect ! — beauty. through all the Heavens of the Kama." E. the people stood looking on in wonder. and so forth.^ Then taking with him his attendant Narada he passed through the air. who.. life and death. that you have not heard that in the city of Kapilavastu. and to give sight to the blind. &o. others at their Entering the streets. and the Tusita Devas . others leaning over the balustrades. therefore is there this brightness." to whom they replied. some before their doors. " Is it possible. having heard these things. he passed through the crowded and arrived at the palace gates . ^ . asked them and said. descended from the Heaven in which he was staying to the Tsang-chang grove where he usually dwelt on earth. to shed light in the dark places. almost in the same words as in the previous account. distinguished by the thirty-two great signs. p. and said. for the good of men. to dispel the darkness of their ignorance. Here the description and locality of this grove are given." &o. Standing there he thought thus with himself " I will enter this city on foot. Eupa and Arupa worlds. 801." referred to a tdpaso (ascetic) called Kaladewalo. and to bring perfect deliverance from sorrow. windows. and by the eighty lesser ones. and alighted not far from Kapilavastu. "Excellent Devas tell me why ye are thus singing. " Now because Bodhisatwa is born to give joy and bring peace to the world. A. without any miraculous exhibition of my power as a Eishi. Then the four heavenly kings took up the strain. destined to attained Supreme wisdom and Law. to men and Devas ?" Asita. others on the tops of ' The story that follows and related by Asita. called Asita^ dwelling at peace above the thirty-three Heavens." Now at this time there was a Eishi. Vide Tumour's " Pali Buddhistical Annals. " This THE EOMAKTIC day Buddha is born. meanwhile. and waving your garments and caps for joy. observing this demonstration of joy among the Devas. immediately accepting them as true. therefore. and the Tama Devas.

addressed the Warder thus : " Go ! tell the King I am here." to whom Asita replied with the following salutation (chant) " Eternal peace to your Majesty. he exhibited his miraculous power. "I respectfully pay homage to your Eeverenoe. On which the King. attempted to make him bow his head in reverence towards the feet of Asita. and they said one to another. taking the babe. the King paid him reverence. and his perfectly beautiful and graceful body sparkled like gold his head like a precious covering. rising from his seat. his shoulders round." [Accordingly. his limbs perfectly proportioned. made the same attempt three successive times. Now when Asita came to look at the chUd. Then Asita rose from his seat and addressed the King " King make not the child bow his head to me but let me rather : ! ! worship his feet !" And again he recited this hymn of praise " O Oh seldom seen A great Being has been born rare event The tidings I heard in a very great being has been born Heaven are indeed true. the King.] Then Maya. taking the child in her arms. Asita and Narada proceed to the apart- ment where the child lay. and illuminated the great earth. and said." On hearing the message. permit me to supply all that you require. their houses." Then the King addressed the Eishi thus "What Eishi ? is it some lack of garis the occasion of your coming. all fixed in their attention 57 of the on the proceedings Eishi. I : : ! trust that your Majesty. ordered the Warder to conduct the Eishi to his presence without delay. unbaring his right shoulder and bending his right : ! ! ! ! — ! . but now he walks pace by pace. "When this Kishi entered the city on a previous occasion. with the same result. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. respecting this beautiful babe !" Then Asita. and presented his feet towards the Eishi. standing before the palace gates. of your great kindness. Asita. ments or food or other necessary ? If so. a bi. But the ohUd by his spiritual power turned himself round in his mother's arms. Being seated. his nose straight. and proceeded through the air to the Palace .. Why is it he does so ?" Meanwhile. "No such trivial matter as this.ightness like that of the Sun shone from his body. O King has brought me here to-day . but I have come from very far to see the child just born to your Majesty. with her hand gently raised." To whom Asita replied. will let me see the babe.

refuge in and submit to this child." ! " What are the reasons for your so doing ? I pray you expain yourself.. On inquiring the reason of this demonstration they said. took the child in his arms." will narrate Eishi answered. as a tribute of reverence ! ! self to To whom the Eishi answered. for a picture of this scene from Cave of Ajunta. " Because I know the excellency of your merit. Then Suddhddana addressed him and said. 58 THE ROMANTIC knee to the ground. When lo I saw all the Devas around me rejoicing and dancing for joy. on his part.' Then the Queen said. O King that with the deepest reverence of body and mind. " Venerable one surely you will let the babe reverence you by saluting your feet I" To whom the Eishi Queen . endowed with the thirty -two superior signs. and I from beginning to end the circumstances of the case. MahS. pouring water on the King's hands." '. of a Father Suddhddana. Devas and men should rather worship Him !" his seat. ' Know you not that this day is born in the world. then. and the eighty inferior ones and destined to become completely illuminated. in the Northern region just under the Himalaya Mountains in the city of the Sakyas." Suddhodana said. returning to on his knees. but having done so. I in my turn present To which SuddhSdana replied. I take Then Suddhddana said. " Tour Majesty gave them I in my turn gave them to this most excellent child. called Kapilavastu. . " Know. rested ! Then the King taking costly jewels and precious substances. Know then that I was some time ago dwelling in the Trdyastrifishas heavens. for. " I fail to understand you. presented them to Asita. " But because I Eishi I presented these things to you.rAja. and to preach the perfect Law." them to him." me ! ! perceive the superiority of this child's excellency. and. keep them youryou. O Eishi !" To whom Asita repUed. " Listen. both I and replied." page 248. " O great Eishi I offered these things to I beseech you. he at once presented them to the babe as an offering. received the gifts . perfect in every respect . Doubtless this child by his Divine wisdom is com- To whom the ! 1 Vide Speirs' " Ancient India. a very beautiful child. who. " Say not so. on the contrary. waving their jewelled caps and their garments in the air. and a Mother Miya.

p.. during which the latter speaks of the impossibility of the child ever becoming a Chakravartin. of the Hwastika. having spoken thus to the King.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. if. from left to right. he perceived by the powers of his intuition that it would be when he was thirty-five years of age. in addition to the thirty-two superior signs'. began to revolve in his mind at what age the Prince would arrive at complete emancipation. viz. and as evidence points out eighty personal signs on his body.' and On may escape the entanglements hearing this.075 CHAPTEE " Mahabaja. and turning to •" the right in imitation of the figure ^^ From this it seems that the figure in question.^] taels]. and exclaimed in his grief—" Alas woe is me !" whilst the ! — ^ One of these signs is this. even for our sakes. (For a very curious instance of this ancient practice of turning sun-ways. seeing plainly that he would not be alive when this took place.. B. as the astrologers predicted. " Irish Names of Places. And then Asita. the shape of the knees. how we and of sorrow all sentient creatures pain. began to weep. 367 ss. — . 29. and begin to preach the Law for the good of men. is the symbol of the sun's apparent movement. and preach the Law." For an account of these signs vide M. the scent of the body. Law. and so on. X. know for a certainty that the possessor of these will become a perfect Buddha." Asita.) Another sign is "the fleshy projection at the top of the cranium like a mountain." but the Chinese edition adds " These three signs are wanting in the original." and again " the top of his head so sublimely high that no man can trace it. [Kiouen IX contains 6150 words and cost 3. pletely acquainted with all events. there be also present on the person these eighty inferior ones. O King I came hither ! to see for myself this beautiful child !" [A long conversation then follows between Suddhodana and Asita.] ' [These signs refer to the colour of the nails." Second Edition.. past fore be able to preach the 59 and will thereand determine and future. that then he would be completely inspired. "The hair curly. vide Joyce. the mode of movement. and so considering.

but because I perceive not be privileged to listen to the declaration of the Law. but." ! — ! " Maharaja This is the reason why I weep. the future Buddha. oh. . oh. as follows " Be not cast down or sorrowful. Then the King. &c. ! ! ! What happiness from the birth of this child shall ensue The misery the wretchedness of men. because of the thousands who shall find deliverance from this sorrow. "Oh! Asita were not all things carefully attended to ? Did I not fulfil my duty on the birth of this my child ? Were not the signs and portents propitious that now you weep and lament thus ? Tell me. and not benefit by his teaching this is why I weep. the great Ministers. and arrive at perfect wisdom through the preaching of this your child. seeing the King's grief. on the contrary. and stricken in years My time of departure is close at hand Eeflecting on this strange meeting at his birth I rejoice and yet I am sad Maharaja greatly shall this redound to the glory of thy race " By grief ! — — ! ! . . shall disappear And at his bidding peace and joy shaU everywhere flourish. Not to meet Him when he shall have attained Supreme wisdom Not to hear the words of Him thus born miraculously What loss what damage is mine Alas I am old. Eishi why you are thus afflicted?" Then Asita replied. and that I shall not be found amongst these. down his cheeks and then the King and the Queen. whilst the tears filled his eyes and flowed down his cheeks. But it is as the udambara flower which appears only once in myriads of myriads of years." [Then Asita begs Suddhodana to explain all the circumstances . on this account I weep !" And then for the sake of the King he repeated the following Gatha stance is in the highest degree favourable that owing to my age I shall : and regret am I completely overpowered. which at the appointed time he shall proclaim to the world .— — . and who shall be delivered from the consequences of their errors and sins. sorrowfully inquired of the Eishi. so with the Buddhas. and that I should witness the birth of this child. and all the S4kyas wept with him. King for in truth I ! ! : ! no unpropitious circumstance whatever connected with the birth of the child . every sign and circumsee . ! 60 tears coursed THE EOMANTIC .

to prevent the possibility of any misadventure. step by step he advanced to the door . Then again Asita reflected as to the place where' Siddhartha should obtain final illumination. and. overpowered by worldly vanity. and after thus living to a good old age he died full of years. he would take him to Benares and prepare a Vihara for him to rest in. this is Dharma. of tlie birth (wMcli have already been related). and multiply around . let the king use such expedients as are necessary. having heard from the Father of the child an account of these miraculous occurrences was filled with joy. and so secure rest to himself. But Narada. you ought. Maharaja but that our words wUl be accomplished. and finally alighted at the village of Avanti. and been born in the world . and let us endeavour to prevent this result by such expedients and To whom the precautions as are advisable for the purpose. hearing of Asita's death.] And so Asita. bearing his body along with him. so as to obtain after a period the inestimable benefit of so doing. : ! But at any rate. began to withdraw from the Palace. holding Narada by the right hand he took him by the left shoulder and flew away through the air. and where he should begin to preach. Assist me then. And so he did . complies with the request." ministers replied " Doubt not. and that your son will become a Chakravartiu. Then Asita further reflected that he would impress the question of Buddha's birth on the mind of Narada in this way. Then Suddhodana. " Know ye my fears that the words of Asita will surely be accomplished. and thrice every day and thrice every night repeat in his hearing the tidings of Buddha's birth. 61 Suddh6dana having first respectfully offered to the Kishi twenty suits of raiment. and this chad wiU assuredly attain to supreme wisdom. only one of which Asita accepts. in South India. and secure for yourself Eest and Peace. this is Stogha. therefore. on account of the great fame which he had acquired as the disciple of Asita. spake thus to all the counsellors of his empire. and urge him to become his follower. and he perceived that the first would take place in Magadha and the second at Benares. Then Asita addressed Narada as follows " Be it known to you. was unable to attain to the knowledge of the three previous gems. rising from his seat.: HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. great ministers. or to say this is Buddha. my child. to become a disciple and practise the purity of a Brahmachari. that a Buddha has come forth.

*' contains 6. king's Then the ministers convoked the Brahmans. therefore. Moreover. moreover. So assembling the 100. to receive from him offerings and gifts. as the Gatha says "The heart of Suddhfidana fiUed with joy Desired to secure for the prince great merit. 32.. Gold. He To ordered. from the four regions. with a view to secure for the young prince the merit of such unbounded charity. so that in every temple and at every altar there might be held religious services on behalf of the not to say a word to the young Prince child's future welfare.000 in all. — 62 THE EOMANTIC the young prince as he grows up every worldly allurement. And then arriving suddenly at his right mind. summoned aU the Sakya princes and warned them when he grew up about the prediction of Asita. and then he called his ministers. "With golden-tipped horns and silvered hoofs. At each squeeze of the hand yielding a pint And preparing. Toung in years and of brilliant colour. nevertheless resolved to follow the advice of his ministers and use every expedient to avert it. according to the command.000 milch kine. He desired above all things to act according to the Law. who entering the Palace of Suddhfidana. Each with her calf behind her Her skin glossy. and ordered them to release all prisoners throughout his empire. endless rare and costly jewels.] [Kiouen X . silver. and so gradually draw him to love his home and family pleasures so that he shall have no desire to stray to the hills and desert places or to Then Suddh6dana.045 taols. practice austerities and become a hermit. his assembled ministers loose every captive in his empire." although his heart was filled with apprehensions that the words of Asita would yet be accomplished. he requested them to summon all the Brahmans throughout the kingdom. rich in milk. For the sake of securing good fortune to the prince These all he presented to the assembled Brahmans.090 words and cost 3. He. each received the appointed offerings during seven days. therefore. grain and aU such presents. . and to liberate every beast and creature that was bound.

his motlier tlie Queen Maya. is worthy of can declare the Law." all honour. being unable to regain ber strength or recover the joy she experienced whilst the child dwelt in her womb. My son And Maya having celestial abode. and assure him that her joy was now equal to that she experienced during the period of her gestation. selection of a foster-motlier (wife^s sister). For how coydd they bear to see all the their bahes become Ascetics ? Whilst others say^ that seeing wonderful miracles attending the birth of their child. Mahd. immediately assembled all the Sakyas and addressed them thus " Now that this babe has lost his mother. they die of joy." uttered this Gatha disappeared. that they should thus die on the seventh day after the birth of their child.prajapati alone is fit for this charge. and added this G4tha — " Freed from all partialities." To whom they replied " AU ye are too youug. where she was surrounded on every hand by countless Devas who attended her. and so they all agreed to : : ! ! : . 63 CHAPTER XL The 1. and that he should on no account grieve for her. gradually succumbed to her weakness and died. The Prince Eoyal now being seven days old. Ever thinking aright Without confusion from first to last. and act as a foster mother to the child ? " married Sdkya females replied " I I am able to take charge of the babe. and whence from time to time she descended to earth to comfort Suddh6dana. [Bui some of the old Masters say that this is a universal rule with the mothers of all Buddhas. returning to her Suddhodana. was translated at once to the Tr^yastrinshas heavens.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. having thus finished her earthly course. His faculties perfectly under control. who is there we may select to take her Then 500 recently place. Persevering without interruption. His appearance pure as gold. after this vision.] Maya.

§ 2. Both made and not made. as the shoot of the Nyagrddha tree gradually increases in size. silver. and allotted to her thirty-two waiting women eight to nurse the child. the royal prince's foster-mother. . till the moon arrives at its So the child| gradually waxed and increased in strength. " The five'kinds of grain. [Now Suddhodana Edja had two sons. Siddhartha and Nando. It became more than enough (thro' his influence).] At this time MahAprajSpati. at the period when the Asterism Chin (the last of the twenty-eight constellations) was passing. So that even supposing it were not sufficient (naturally)." his empire enjoyed complete peace and prosNeither plague nor famine or other evil came nigh the people. as the sun tends on the moon — first portion of each month. spake thus to the King " As your Majesty commands. thus did the child day by day increase. The Presentation of Gifts.. Now at this time Suddhfidana Eaja." attended him without intermission. eight to feed him. called Amritachittra. well-planted in the earth. had one son called Tishya. when truth and justice were perity. Thus the King and universally prevalent. Aniruddha and Mahanama . till itself becomes a great tree. the sister of Sud- dh6dana. SuklSdana had two sons. and wealth and jewels. and all kinds of raiment. The child causing his loving mother Always to abound in most nutritious milk. viz. and lacked nothing. eight to wash him. mitted the child to her charge.64 THE ROMANTIC Then Suddhfidana comelect Mahaprajapati for the purpose. eight to amuse him. These things were all self-supplied in abundance. my care Thus she sedulously over the child shall be most constant. and the asterism Koh (o and f in Virgo) coming on. and in every place the love of religion (the Law) increased and flourished as in the old times. as the Gatha during the fulness. Amritd- — daua had two sons. Nandaka and Batrika. Gold.

'braoelets arms and wrists. and formed a regular procession. Udayi. Vide •' Manual of Buddhism.e. rode in the precious chariot. they ordered chariots full of every sort of gift.A. who so frequently spoken of in this work. of the road accompanying the procession with fans to fan his body. 199. Moreover.: HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. whilst countless women." p. 801) . from the earliest time ever for the ! ! regarded as a sacred place." went with the child to the garden Vimalayuha. and the charioteer to cry out as he went. on the morning (of the junction) of the asterism Kwei (Pushya). p. the windows and the open vestibules. in addition to these. there were crowds of women on each side his person. viz. and to scatter the flowers on Moreover. all chanting the strain. as they went through Kapilavastu. No doubt Udayi. is the same as the Kaludayi of Tumour ( E." p. holding flowers in their hands. and with brushes to clear the road from impediments . necklets composed of every species of precious stone. " Five Jatakas. accompanied by the chief minister Udayana [Father of the Bikshu Udayi^'] and five hundred other Brahmans. to precede the Eoyal -Prince. whilst all the Sakyas joined round Suddhddana Eaja. men and women. 65 caused every kind of costly ornament to be made. "Every one who wants these things may now have them for asking. with the child on her knee. and having so made them brought them to Suddh6dana Eaja. 31). turbans and coronals. young and old. with every kind of ornament upon their person.. and so not cause us to have laboured in vain I" Then Suddhodana Eaja.B„ 1838. but he must not be confounded withLaludayi (i. and spake as follows " Sadhu Great E^ja would that your Majesty would permit us during seven days and seven nights to ornament the person of the Eoyal Prince with these costly decorations which we have made . desirous to see the face of the infant child.S. " This is indeed a lucky time. the simpleton) of the Somadatta-Jataka (Fausboll. Within this garden were assembled countless multitudes of people.. 1 is . for the legs and ancles. occupied the tops of the balconies and towers. and proceeded to the garden." Again they ordered every kind of music to accompany and go before him. there were five hundred Sakyas related to the Prince Eoyal. desirous to behold the Eoyal Prince. Then Mahapraj4pati. and cinctures. each one of whom had made other ornaments similar to the above.

with that of ashes so all the gems on his person were lost as the glowworm's spark in the light of day. and they all appeared dark and black. Its mountains. mounted into space and without being seen began to chant these lays called Vimala. and make it appear as a drop of ink. the glory of the prince's body eclipsed the glory of these gems. — within this garden there was a certain Guardian Spirit on this occasion. began to recite the following words " How strange how rare — : ! how strange! how seldom seen!" whilst all for joy. Then those men. Wow " Though this great and wide earth With all its cities. waved their garments. ! 66 THE EOMANTIC five At this time the chief minister. and rest upon the person of the child. even as a drop of ink. Needs not the adornment of precious stones. Having done this. and forests. the Spirit immediately caused innumerable flowers to descend from space. result of superior excellence. Would eclipse aU that gold. So fuU of splendour is it. with the hundred other Brahmans. seeing this wonderful miracle (ardbhutadharma). so that their brightness was not seen. who. In comparison with the fullness of true religious merit The brightness The of gems is as nothing. "Were all composed of Jambunada gold Yet one ray of glory from a pore of Buddha's body. the Father of TJd4yi.. utterly lustreless —-just as if we were to compare the brightness of the priceless gold. after which he returned to his own abode. rivers." Having uttered these words. whilst they attached the costly orna- ments they had brought to his person. and clapped their hands with delight. and with many smiles. . . towns and hamlets. called Jambunada. began in endless laudatory phrases to congratulate the prince. A man possessed of the distinctive signs.

without appearing to the sight of any. oh. appointed to watch over the young prince. arose from his seat. rising up. Then Visvamitra. and then. The "Lalit." to perform such ceremonies as were necessary for the occasion. and instantly fell prostrate at the him. officers of state. : " Whatever arts there are in the world. and in every respect the most suited to beof the prince. Whilst Visvamitra was thus abashed at his conduct. Whatever SAtras and Shasters 1 [Sing-mian. beholding the exceeding dignity of the prince's bearing. 67 The Prince § 3. p. when a propitious constellation was in the ascendant. . enters School. he looked towards each of the four and reddened with shame. summoned all his ministers and great : and addressed them as follows isters ! I am now in " Illustrious mina state of uncertainty as to the most learned appoint to instruct the prince. 120]." the Shasters. in aU and every kind of scholarlike to speak instruct to Then Suddh6dana despatched messengers to Visvamitra him thus " Will you. he sent the young prince to the Hall of Learning. and. Vist. and forthwith selected by divination a fortunate day. he chanted this song (Quarters. and summoned all the old men of the Sakya race mands. feet of the child and adored Afterwards.^ accompanied by countless other Devas." gives Subhanga." : man.— HISTORY OF BUDDHA. And now Suddhddana E&ja. there came from the Tusita heavens a certain Deva called Suddhavara. remembering that the young prince was eight years of age. less others. and most deeply versed in the exposition of the various Shasters whom I may Then the various ministers replied to the King as follows " Maharaja know that Visvamitra is the most perfectly acquainted ! with all come teacher erudition. surrounded by five hundred of the Sakya youths and count- male and female. unable to control himself. learned Sir undertake to — ! the Prince Eoyal in the various branches of polite learning and the usual manual accomplishments P" Then Visvamitra replied " I am ready to obey the Eaja's com- — Then the king was glad at heart.

showered down on the prince every sort of flower. known as G6s{rshachandaua^. the back) sprinkled with the most delicious perfume . whether Alexander's horse. or the Sankya Ox-head sandal. adorned with the choicest jewels. or the language of the Tirthi [this means "naked mem"]. taking these.' '"' guage of the Davida country (for Dravida?) [this means " Southern India"}. And is able to teach them to others. and returned to his abode. so called from its colour a fiery red. as Arrian seems to think. or the Tava language [this word " yava" has no recognised signification]. of Brahma Deva). or the Kia-lu-sih-cha (Kharosti) language [this word signifies "the lips of an ass'''^. [this word signifies "bright" or "solemn'" glare]. or the language of Uka (for "ugra"?).e. the royal prince first entering on his course of study. having finished this hymn.wood.68 This (child) is THE ROMANTIC ****** thoroughly acquainted with all. having bestowed gifts on the Brah- mans and having delivered the young prince into the care of his nurses and of Visvamitra. Bucephalus. The Deva. China']. or the writing called Pravani [this means " leaf of a tree"]. ' — is . or the language of the Dakshinavatas [this means " to turn to the right "]. was not so named from its color. In mitra Acharya. i. or in the writing used by Pushkara Eishi {this signifies the "Lotus flower "] or the Akara writing [this signifies member -divisions (is it Angara?)]. or the Mangala language [this word signifies "lucky"].. or the writing called Parusha [this signifies " a bad word"]. and not from its shape. and the outside (or. or the language called Ni [this signifies the language of the great Tsin country. returned to Ms Palace. or the lan- what writing will '. taking some most excellent slabs of sandal-wood. it a question worth considering. or the language of the Pitachas [this word means " to raise a corpse"]. or the writing called Anguli [this word signifies "fingers"]. Meanwhile. And now Suddhodana E4ja. to use as writing boards. or the writing called Sakava [this word signifies a " cow" or heifer"]. or the writing known as that of the Tananikas [this word signifies chariot riders"]. and spake thus : ! you instruct me ? shall it be in the writing of the Brahma Devas (or. he came and stood before Visva" My Master (Aoharya).

. language called [this signifies 69 the art of "numbers"^. or Kinnara [meitter man]. or the language [this signifies called Mana [i.e. saying. Gayanaprekchini [be- holding space]. or the writing called Pushpa [a "flower"]. or Autarikshadevas [Devas of space]. revolving]. writing [the sati" letters a measure equal to a "pint"].. or Uttakuru [the northern region]. or the language of Purvavideha [eastern continent]. or Gandharva [a Deva of music]. with a smiling " This face. or Naga [a dragon']. the language called Darada [name of a mountain]. Dharanipakchari [seeing the earth]. a man]. or Bhaumi Devas [earth gods]. Following the customary rules of the world. or tlie language called Anouroma.. Sarsanyagrahani [united wisdom]. or of Sagara [the sea]." The young prince. again addressed Visvamitra. or Mah6raga [a great dragon]. or Meigachata [the sound of all ieasts]. . replied in these GSthas child of rare and excellent wisdom. having recited these different languages. Eishiyastapatpata [the sufferings of all the Bishis]. or the language called Vyadashra "confused"^. or Taksha [no signification']. Yavaddasatara [ten sounds]. the language called "Sikyani" [no meaning]. Sasruta [all sounds]. or Garuda [golden-winged'^hird].e. Dvikuttarapadna [union of two sounds in one word]. or the language of Tchina [i.e. Aniboutta [not yet existing]^. of the " great Tsui" (or China)]. or Asura [no wine drinher]. or of Vajra [diamond]. Padalik(hita) [foot]. the Madhyachari of the " middle"^. Nikchepavartta [rejected. or of Nikchepa [that which is rejected]. TJtkchepavartta [raised and revolving]. 1 This is the general explanation of the Adbhutadharma section of the sacred (Buddhist) Books. the language called " Kousa" [this signifies a " bridle"]. or of Lekhaprakileka [gone after].— HISTORY OF BUDDHA. or Vikhita [fragments of food]. Adamourdha [this signifies to or the language " cover" or " repeat"}. the language called Deva [a God]. or of TJtohepa [that which is raised]. Sarvasatanisanta [all medicinal plants]. or Kakaruda [sound of birds]. or the language called " Vit- [i. Madhyaha- rini [middle flowing]. without any personal feeling of envy or shame. or Sastravartta or Kannavartta [revolving numbers]. " Of all these different styles of writing which does my master design to teach me ?" : To which Visvamitra.

In sounding the letter " ga ". the Prince. In sound the letter "kha". Com- . and began to learn the sounds of the different letters. Kshantedeva by name." To whom Suddhodana replied. Has deigned to enter my school. spake to time Suddhddana Eaja. pare the " Lalita Vistara" p. of which I never heard. In sounding the letter "I".— 70 THE ROMANTIC Himself. In sounding the letter " ta ". in virtue of his Supreme wisdom." 7. And now he has thoroughly recited from beginning to end The names of different writing. In sounding the letter " O ". Surely this is the Instructor of Devas and men. " Go summon 1 [And so on. me of a of war. gave forth the sound of each letter in the following excellent manner 1. pronounce it "ogha"(P). five hundred noblemen entered the college with the royal prince." 2." 8. with great joy. In sounding the letter " A.! At this ters of state for consultation. "Maharaja! the son of Supra Buddha. In sounding the letter " U ". on which occasion. pronounce " upagata" (?)." pronounce it as in the sound of : the word " anitya. pronounce it as in the as in the as in the word as in the word "gata "(?). Then all is thoroughly competent to teach the Prince aU the martial accomplishments of which you speak. pronounce " indriya. 4." 5." Who condescends to seek for a master At this time. pronounce it " karma. altho' acquainted with all the Shasters. In sounding the letter "ri". pronounce it " khanda. again assembling them thus " : all his minis- My Lords and Ministers ! —Which of you can military arts and the science struct Siddartha. pronounce it it word word word "riddhi. '. 124 n." it as in the as in the as in the word word 3. 6. whom tell skilful teacher of I may the appoint to in- my son p" the ministers respectfully answered the king and said. for all the letters (there are thirty-eight)].

" [Kiouen XI has 5615 letters. then Siddartha also replied. manly arts He excels all those who enter with him into competition. At this time Kshantedeva. I am self-taught" (and in the same way with respect to other things). uttered this Gatha : " Though young in point of years. Kshantedeva." " If so. diligent this occasion On labour). in which he might practice aU the athletic and martial accomplishments. On which. this 71 Kshantedeva to my presence . How easily he explains and asks learned questions. the prince requested his teacher to devote himself to the other SSkyas. " you have now the opportunity do so." — Suddhddana appointed a garden for his son's accommodation. In a moment he sees through every thing. " It is well. chariot racing. But. : ! — " Tour servant is ahle and willing to do so. engaged himself in every delightful recreation. This being accomplished and the youths having acquired skill — in all these arts .my thus son Siddartha in all martial accomplishments." he said. (This garden was called Kan-kii. archery. the teacher. Then the prince. "I will be my own inon which Kshantadeva applied himself to perfect the five hundred young Sakya noblemen in aU the arts of his calling riding the elephant. entering the garden with five hundred Sdkya youths." on whose arrival the Eaja spoke " Kshantadeva I hear that you are able to instruct . structor." "As forme. After a few days' study. or not ?" Then forthwith Kshantadeva addressed the king and said. is this the case. and so on.] ." replied the king. He surpasses those who have devoted years to Perfect in all it. bringing forth the different martial and athletic instruments. on his part. and cost 2-807 Taels. Yet without using any great effort.— HISTORY OF BUDDHA. began to attempt to instruct the Eoyal Prince.

accord- Now the up in the royal palace without ing to the desire of the eye or for the gratification of the mind such being the case. and so he separated himself from the other Sakya youths who were also in the several gardens enjoying themselves in the same way. flying through the air. with his knees crossed. sent certain messengers to the Prince Eoyal. and left his arrow fixed in the feathers. as we hare related.. But now. B. the young prince. . and whilst there amused himself by wandering in different directions. he was his brother-in-law." Then the Prince Eoyal answered the messengers and said. smooth and pliable as the leaf of the plaintain. he rested it in his lap. with his right hand he drew forth the arrow. passed over the garden.' pointing his bow. " If the bird were dead. seeing the bird thus transfixed with the arrow. p. According to Spence Hardy. Just at this time it happened that a flock of wild geese. it came to pass on one occasion that he was visiting the Kan-ku garden. Eoyal Prince. Devadatta. 61. and anointed the wound with oil and honey. having completed twelve years and being perfectly acquainted with all the customary modes of enjoyment. M. took it with both his hands.. send it to him without delay. The Prince Eoyal. up to the time of his eighth year. whilst the bird fell to the ground at some distance off in the middle of the garden. grew any attention to study. 72 THE ROMANTIC CHAPTER On § 1. shooting with his bow and arrow at whatever he pleased . on which the young man. but from his eighth year till his twelfth year he was trained under the care of VisTamitra and Kshantedeva. as men speak. At this time Devadatta. and fallen to the ground. his left hand holding it. and with his own soft and glossy hand. shot one of them through the wing. the excursion for observation. XII. it would be only right I should return it forthwith to you ." 1 Devadatta is generally caUed the cousin of Siddartha. but if it is not dead you have no title to it. such as hunting. who spoke to him thus— "Devadatta has shot a goose which has fallen down in your garden. riding and driving here and there. and sitting down.

my skill it was that shot it. where they had come together. on what ground do you delay to send it me ?" To which the Prince Eoyal answered. who assumed the appearance of an old man and entered the assembly of the Sakyas. And now. with respect to the difference between Devadatta and the Koyal Prince. but this bird belongs not to the wise and ancient men of the Sdkya tribe. and let them decide the question on its merits I" At this time there was a certain Deva belonging to the Suddhaif stOl you say that me. I shall thus receive and protect all living creatures ." ^ is by his own At this time aU the ancient men of the Sakyas at once confirmed the words of the would-be clansman and said." The Story of the Ploughing Match. was "The reason why I have taken possession of the bird is this. In the meantime. and brought it down. he who shoots and destroys act the loser and the disperser. 73 Then Devadatta sent again to the Prince Eoyal. . when I have arrived at the condition of perfection to which I tend. verily. then go and summon all vasa heaven. " Verily. various insects came forth from 1 The principle of this decision is not unlike that recorded of Solomon. and the message this: "Whether the bird he living or dead it is mine. driving the oxen and urging them on if they lagged in their speed. § 2. each labouring hard in the ploughing contest. when the Sun increased in his strength. then for a few moments they ceased from their labours. and spoke thus " He who nourishes and cherishes is by right the : keeper and owner. and took with him the Prince Royal to go to see a ploughing-match (or field cultivation or sowing). Then in the enclosed space were assembled the half-stripped men. and the sweat ran down both from men and oxen. it is as this venerable one says. Novr at another time it happened that Suddhodana Eaja assembled all the SAkya princes. and from time to time goading them to their work.HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. to signify that in time to come.

and began to think upon the subject of the sorrows and pain belonging to every form of life. came down in multitudes and devoured them. and flocks of birds. Then the Eoyal Prince. and then he addressed his attendants on each side." said he. seeing the tired oxen. gradually approaching the tree. and bade them disperse themselves in other directions.. PI. " Tree and Serpent Worship. and in the midst of all this ! wretchedness to know of no means of escape or deliverance But why do men seek for no release P Why do they not strive after rest from toil ? Why do they not contend earnestly for that wisdom which alone can lead them to escape from the miseries incident to life and death ? Oh where may I find a quiet spot for meditation to cast over these causes of sorrow in my mind . suddenly saw a secluded space under a Jambu Tree where he could sit in quiet. through the power of the love and pity which these reflections produced in his heart. " Alas alas ! how full of misery is human life." for I. And then. having watched the ploughing-match. and as he meditated. his heart was filled with grief. old age and disease. he sat down beneath its shade with his legs crossed. This incident seems to be the subject of Fig. in the interval of the ploughing exercises. being thus affected with sorrow on behalf of the whole family of sentient creatures." .?" ! — Then SuddhSdana.! 74 THE EOMAXTIC the ground. and. and the men toiling beneath the midday sun. finally. their necks bleeding from the goad. and. by means 1. he walked about in deep reflection.i : At ^ this time there happened to be five Eishis fiying. The Eoyal Prince. and the birds devouring the hapless insects. he dismounted from his horse Eantaka. he was wrapt into a state of unconscious ecstacy and. by separating his thoughts from every kind of impure or worldly taint. as a man would feel who saw his own household bound in fetters. wandering about and looking from place to place for a convenient spot for rest. What unhappiness there is in birth and death. xxv. having done so. he reached the first condition of Dhy&na. he exclaimed. accompanied by all the Sakyas. thinking about the misery attaching to the various forms of life. returned to the garden. " desire to be alone for a short period." Then.

born of Suddhodana Eaja. his whole person so bright with glory th at they could with difficulty behold him. looking downwards. but this is the Prince Eoyal. or Chandra Deva or Surya Deva. — — — — — — — — : ! ! The first Eishi said -^i " The world destroyed by the flre of sorrow ' Ho-lo-kia-pau-to. "How is it that we.HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. Then they said one to another. through the air. and. . possessed of great energies. they uttered the following verses of commendation one by one. standing before the prince. Lord of the world ? or is it Krishna Deva. who have in former times found no difficulty in flying through space and reaching even beyond Sumeru to the Palace of Vaisravana and even to the city of Arkavanta^. Then these Eishis began to consider "Who can this be?" "Is it Brahma. 75 of their spiritual powers. forthwith descended from the air. and when they arrived just over the Jambu tree in the garden aforesaid. Lord of the Kama Loka? or is it Sikra? or is it Vaisravana. belonging to the Sdkya race. beheld the prince underneath the tree. the Lord of the Treasuries ? or is it Chandradeva ? or is it Surya Deva ? or Is it some Chakravartin Edja ? or is it possible that this is the person of a Buddha bom into the world ?" At this time the Guardian Deva of the wood addressed the Eishis as follows " Great Eishis all this is not Brahma Deva. or Krishna. The glory which proceeds from one pore of his body is greater by sixteen times than all the glory proceeding from the bodies of all those forenamed Devas And on this account your spiritual power of flight failed you as soon as you came above this tree !" The Eishis. having heard the words of this guardian spirit. and beyond that even to the abode of the Tatshas. and thoroughly versed in the Shasters and Vedas. suddenly they found themselves arrested in their course. Lord of the Kama Heavens . or Sakra or Vaisravana. Lord of the Treasuries . They were going from the south towards the north. Lord of the World . yet now find our flight impeded in passing over this tree ? By what influence is it that to-day we have lost our spiritual power ?" Then the Eishis. called Siddhartha. sitting with his legs crossed. wishing to go onwards.

. " Have you any knowledge as to which way my son the Eoyal Prince has gone ? [These two former sentences are repeated in the Sanscrit original. he said. ters unexpectedly saw him sitting beneath the Jambu tree in the 1 Literally — " the water of the Lake of the Law." The second said " In the midst of the ignorance and darkness of the world There is one who can produce such brightness as this Once possessed of His most excellent Law. " Whatever miseries of life or death are in the world.] He has just now suddenly disappeared. and then flying away again they went on their way through the air. Ed. wherever he might be. 76 This one is THE ROMANTIC able to provide a lake of water^ for escape." ." Forthwith the king sent his ministers in every direction to seek Then one of the minisfor the prince." ! The third said " In the midst of the vast bog and wilderness of sorrow This great means of conveyance can carry us thro' all." The fourth said " From all the bonds and shackles of worldly sorrows There is some contrivance able to give good deliverance So this most excellent Law Can deliver men from all the bonds and shackles of life. they bowed down at his feet. Law once possessed (or revealed) This excellent Is able to destroy all the so<irces of sorrow. Once possessed of this most excellent Law." The fifth said. and three times proceeded to circumambulate the place. having for a moment lost sight of the prince. The darkness is dispersed— the world is illumined. Now at this time Suddhodana. Then we can pass over the three worlds without diiSculty. was very much alarmed. and asking a man who passed by. Ch.: :." Thus the Eishis. having saluted the prince with these verses. This great Physician is able to cure aU j And so the most excellent Law Is a perfect remedy for all the sorrows of birth and death.

or as of his son and. he summoned the king to the spot. and said over. but the shadow of the Jambu tree alone remained. And say what means this wonderful appearance of the prince. whilst he bowed down at the feet visible. So bright his body that he resembles Mah4 Brahma. " ! Sadhu Sadhu my sou has indeed great personal merit. god of Trayastrinshas. and going away on foot. and added Gatha " I now bend this body of mine Before the thousand radiated excellent foot. So wonderful the brilliancy of his spiritual splendour That it lights up with glory aU that wood !" Suddh6dana Eaja. having heard this intelligence.— — — HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. Then the minister. beholding this miraculous circumstance. having witnessed the sight. The brilliancy of his person like the brightness of the Sun Moon. was filled with awe." Then the king again bowed at his son's feet. lost in meditation and ecstasy. Then the Edja. immediately went to the spot beneath the Jambu tree. or as a lamp shines in a dark room. ! or Or S&kra Deva. exclaimed. just as in the darkest night a burning mountain belching forth fire from its summit is suddenly from the black clouds the bright moon emerges. Every hair of my body is imperceptibly moved. Or as the full autumn moon in the midst of darkness. Oh would that the king himself would come and see. filled with inexpressible joy. Moresaw that the shadows of the other trees had turned. ! So beholding my son as he sits in meditation. overshadowing the form of the prince. lost in meditation 77 and wrapped away in ecstasy. was filled with exultation and joy. wonderfully seated. the hairs on his body were ruffled and stood erect. this . lie " The son of the Mahardja is now dwelling Beneath the shade of the Jambu tree. This in truth is the great Master. shade. and there he beheld his son sitting cross-legged beneath the tree. With his legs crossed." And then he added these verses " As the flaming top of a mountain in the night. From whom the shadow of the tree turns not away.

There were hairdressers. tree Siddhartha the prince royal from the depth of his heart Causes the shadow not to depart. each of them for a different season of the year. his father Suddh6dana Eaja caused three Palaces to be constructed for him. TTnequalled in the world. on which one of the Ministers reproved them and said. Moreover.— 78 THE EOMANTIC Now for the first time since his birth Beholding unexpectedly the Prince lost in meditation. and every kind of delightful flower to please the senses. the king appointed a great number of skilful and distinguished personal attendants to wait on his son. for the summer . reached his nineAnd when at this age.. this one who sits in meditation beneath the Unmoved and unaffected as Sumeru. others to keep the Bezoar (new hwang). and make no noise '. And Of so the exceeding brightness. besides some to perfum'e his garments. the Betrothal of the Prince. others to keep the hair chapletsj others again . Cannot draw its shadow beyond this tree. they were making a noise and laughing. These palaces were severally sur- rounded by gardens. and passing the place where the king was.. dragging along a rahbit trap (?)." At this time there were some little children engaged in play. calculated for the winter . in which were tanks and pleasant streams of water. Some to rub his person. the third fit for the spring and autumn. etc. teenth year. the second a cool palace. etc. And now the Prince." ! On [Lit. though it is past noon. looking-glass holders. pushing —art—contention—marriage^ § 3. " And why may we not make a noise and play ?" On which the minister replied ! in a verse " The sun. " You children hold your tongues." On which they replied. growing up by degrees. and others to anoint and bathe him. The first a warm palace. others to smooth it.



were in charge of his wardrobe, every garment in which was made of Kasika material. [Whereas his Royal Father only wore Kasika on the outside, his under garments being made of every miscellaneous

MoreoTer, the prince was surrounded by servants both male and up on the purest food. The Prince himself partook only of the daintiest fare, and every sort of luscious fruit. Thus every day and every night brought him some fresh joy and pleasant diversion, protected by a beautiful white umbrella during the day, and sleeping under the finest gauze canopies by night. Now at this time Suddh6dana Eaja, having watched his son gradually growing up to manhood, once more recalled the words of the Kishi Asita to his memory, and in consequence he summoned the great ministers of the Sakya race to an assembly, and spake thus to them " Do you not remember at the time of the birth of the Boyal Prince that the assembled Brahmans and Asita all bare record when they calculated the babe's horoscope, that if he remained a prince he would be a Chakravartin, but if he became a recluse, he would be a supreme Buddha. Now then, my ilitiisters, teU me by what contrivance I can prevent the Prince leaving
female, brought


" Tou ought, O King to construct another Palace for the Prince, and let there be prepared

home and assuming a religious Then the Sakyas answered and

life ?


there every accommodation for voluptuous pleasures, with


and hand-maidens ; so the prince will give up the idea his home and becoming a recluse ; as the Gdtha says

of leaving

" The record of Asita Certain and unchangeable.

The Sakyas exhort

(the king) to build a palace.

Expecting to prevent (the prince) from leaving his home."

Then Suddhodana Eaja said again, " Sakyas which of all the daughters of our race is fit to be the wife of the Prince Sudd^rtha? At this time five hundred of the Sd,kyas exclaimed, " My daughter my daughter, is fit !" IThe two previous sentences in the The present is a digest. Sanscrit original are repeated several times.
! !

Ch. Ed.]

Then Suddh6dana E4ja began

to think with himself thus





and consult with him about taking then I shall but provoke him to disobey and thwart my design j and again, if I do go to him and consult, then I fear he will take the subject deeply to heart, and in the end not fall in with my views. "What then shall I do ? what expedient shall I adopt ? I will do this ; I wUl cause every sort of precious ornament to be made, and, when complete, I wiU offer them to the prince with the request that he will distribute them among the females of his tribe, and then, having trusty persons in watch, I will request
I do not go to the Prince Eoyal


to look well and observe the prince's countenance, and on whichever of the ladies he looks with tenderness, her wiU I select, and propose to him for a wife." Accordingly the king ordered every kind of jewelled ornament, and delightful trifle (un lung), to be made of silver and gold; and then he sent messengers throughout Kapilavastu to proclaim as follows " After seven days the Prince Eoyal desires all the ladies



Sakya race to assemble at the court, and after receiving them he purposes to distribute among them every kind of precious ornament and delightful toy. Let aU the ladies, therefore, come,
of the

as they are bidden, to the palace gate

!" ^

days passed, and on the seventh the Prince Eoyal, first going forth, arrived in front of the gate of the palace, and advancing towards his cushioned throne, he sat down. Thereupon the ladies, decorated with every sort of precious jewel, began to assemble in numbers before the palace, desiring to see the prince,


toys he had promised to bestow

more anxious to receive from him the jewels and precious upon them. The prince, seeing the ladies coming, took the jewels he had by him, and the ornaments which had been made, and began to bestow them as he proposed whilst the ladies, because of the grace and

beauty of the prince's demeanour, could not look him straight in the face ; but each one simply passing by and bowing the head in profound obeisance, took her gift and departed. And now, when all the gifts were exhausted, at the very last, there came a certain damsel of the family of Basita, of the Sakya tribe, whose name was Yasodhara, the daughter of Mahanama, the great minister of state, surrounded on every side by a circle of personal attendants, to see




Anc. Ind.,"

p. 126.

the Prince Eoyal.
her, she


"Witli an easy gait, and lier eyes fixed before advanced towards the prince, as one who had known him

in old time, and, without

any timidity, addressed him thus what gift or costly ornament have you The prince forthwith replied, " Tou have come too for me ?" late, the presents are all distributed." To whom she replied again, " And what have I done that you should not, have reserved one forme ?" To whom the prince said, "I do not refuse to give you one, but why did you not come in time." Now, on the prince's finger there was a very costly signet-ring worth a hundred thousand (pieces of gold). Taking this from his finger, he oifered Tas6dhara rejoined, "Tour Highness! I can it to Tas6dhara. remain here by your side, perhaps you may have something else
" Your Eoyal Highness

to give." of pearls


this the prince replied,

" Ton can take



you please;" to whom she rejoined, "It would be a pity for me to do that, and so deprive the prince of that which so much becomes him." Saying which, she departed in no very amiable temper.

The story
§ 4.

of Yasodbara. having arrived at com-


this time the world-honoured one,

plete enlightenment,

was addressed by the venerable Udayi as follows " How was it when you were still residing in your father's royal palace, and you offered to YasSdharA the priceless jewels and ornaments that adorned your person, you were unable to cause her any gratification ?" On this Buddha answered TTdayi as foUows " Listen and weigh my words. It was not only on this occasion that Yasodhara was discontented with the gifts I offered her, but from old time, because of an offence she had taken through successive ages, she has never been pleased with me." On which TJd^yi said.
: !

1 Here we have the first of the frequent episodes (Avadanas) which occur in this history. It is a story of Yasddhara in a pre-

In all these stories the supposition is made that arrived at complete inspiration or enlightenment before he enters on the narrative, and so is able to reveal all that occurred in time past.
vious birth.

Buddha has




Oh would

that the world-honoured

Buddha would recount


history to me."

At this time Buddha addressed the venerable Udayi and said, " I remember in ages gone by, there was in the country of Kasi, and in the city of Benares, a certain king who was an unbeliever. That king had a son who, for some trivial fault, was banished by his father from the kingdom. As he wandered along, he came to a certain Eevalaya, and having there contracted a marriage^ with a woman he stopped in the place, and lived with her. Now, after a time it so happened that, aU their food being exhausted, this king's son went out to hunt to try to get something to eat. It so chanced that on that day he shot a large sort of lizard, and having skinned it, he out up the flesh, and put it in a pot of water to boil. When it was nearly cooked, the water in the pot having boiled away, the king's son said to his wife, • This flesh is hardly done She immediately conyet, wiU you run and get some more water ?" sented, and went to fetch it. In the meanwhile, her husband, overcome with hunger and not having patience to wait, began to eat the flesh that was in the pot, and at last finished it all, without leaving a morsel. Just as he had finished, his wife came back with the water, and, seeing the pot empty, she asked her husband Where has the flesh gone ?' He immediately prevaricated, and said, 'Do you know, just after you left, the lizard came to life again, got out of the pot and ran away.' But his wife would not believe that the half-cooked lizard had really so suddenly come to life again and got away ; for she said, ' How is it possible ?' and so she thought to herself, ' the fact is, this man of mine has eaten it all up, and now he is mocking me by telling me this stcry about the animal running away.' So she took offence, and was always in a poor temper. "Now, after the lapse of a few years, it came to pass that the king, the father of the prince, died ; at which time all the ministers sent for the young prince, and immediately anointed him king. On this the king, having ascended the throne, caused every kind of precious jewel, costly ornament, and splendid robe, to be brought to him, and these he forthwith presented to his wife, the queen.

' It must be understood that in all these stories sions are rendered into polite English.




; ;



although so liberally and ungrudgingly

provided, her face revealed not the slightest pleasure or happi-

but she remained gloomy as before. On this tie king ad' How is it, notwithstanding the priceless gifts I have bestowed on you, that you still remain so gloomy and so sad ? You are jusf as unhappy now as you were before ?' Then the queen forthwith replied in the following GAtha,

dressed her and said,

" Most noble monarch listen In years gone by, when you went to hunt, Taking your arrows and your knife, Tou trapped and killed a certain lizard. Tou skinned it and put it on to boil, Tou sent me to fetch more water for the pot Tou ate the flesh, and did not leave a morsel Tou mocked me and said it had run away.'

And now,

TJdayi you should know, that at this time, the king was myself— the queen was Tas6dhard, and by this one transgression in those days long gone by, I entailed on myself this perpetual result, that no gift of mine or precious offering can ever

cause joy to Tasodhara."

The Competition.
§ 5.

Then those messengers whom

Suddhfidana had appointed to ob-

serve secretly the conductof the Prince Eoyal, having with great care watched the glances of his eyes as he was confronted with each of

the maidens or spoke to them— having observed all this with great attention, immediately sought the presence of the king, and addressed him thus "Maharaja! there happened to come to the


of the chief minister, Mahanama, who, after saying a few words to the prince, stood by him for some short time, and in a smiling way conversed with him. We observed how their eyes met, and what secret glances there were, and we doubt not about the meaning of these interchanges

amongst others, a daughter

of look




Then the King, having heard this report of the secret messengers, began to think whether the prince really intended to show preference for this maiden. At length, having selected a lucky day, he sent a certain Brahman, the Lord of the Empire, to the house of that S^kya Prince, Mah^nama, to deliver this message "I understand your highness has a daughter; let her, I pray you, contract a marriage with my son, the Prince Eoyal." Then Mahanama replied, " Our Sakya rules are these if a man excel all others in martial exercises, then he is crowned victor, and carries oflf the prize of the fairest maiden; but if he fail, then no such prize can be his. I fear the Prince Eoyal has been brought up


and has learned none of the


and practices of

chivalry, either in tilting, or wrestling or boxing; but

how can

child to one so utterly void of skiU in these arts, as I fear the prince to be ?" I

wed my

The messenger, viz., the Lord of the Council, having heard this, returned forthwith to SuddhSdana and reported it. The Eaja, on hearing the message, was afflicted with chagrin, for his thoughts
were these " These words of Mahinama, I fear, are true words;" and so he sat silent and still, lost in thought and cast down by

The Prince Eoyal, observing this, respectfully approached his father's presence, and three times in succession inquired the cause of the Eaja's grief. His father at first told him he had far better not inquire ; but on the question being repeated three times, he told the prince precisely how the matter stood. The prince, having learned the truth, spake thus to his father " Let your majesty issue a proclamation that I am ready to compete with all comers, in the arts and exercises of war ; or, is it not your wiU that I should so compete ?" The king, hearing these words, was much rejoiced, and could not overcome his feelings of exultation,
his reflections.

and turning to

his son

he asked him earnestly

— " And are you, my

and compete, as you say, against all comers in the arts and exercises of war ?" The prince replied, " Listen to me, Maharaja I am quite prepared and able only let the Sdkya youths be assembled, and I wiU challenge them all in the arts, and every feat of strength and skill !" Then
son, prepared to carry out this project,


the king ordered


to be proclaimed throughout the city of Kapila-

vastu, in every one of the principal thoroughfares

of every steeet, that at the expiration of six days,

and at the head and on the

Eeventh, the Prince Sidddrtha would


go forth to the place of tournament and contend in the arena, against all comers Then on the seventh day aU the Sakya youths, belonging to the five hundred families, with Siddartha at their head, having assembled together, went forth from the city and proceeded to the place of tournament. At this time the great Minister, Mahdnama, having caused his daughter Tas6dhara- to be adorned with every choice ornament (placed her in a conspicuous place), and made this proclamation

respecting the victor

— " Whoever the victor may be in this contest
my daughter as his prize."

of skill and of arms, he shall carry off this

Then Suddhodana and all the old Sfikya lords arrived at the jousting place, and with them countless crowds of young men and women, belonging to the ordinary population, desirous to see the prince and the Sakya youths contest for the prize. And first they
determined to compete in the art of writing, and they appointed Visvamitra to be umpire, to decide both as to the quickest and neatest and best writer among them. At this time Visvamitra, knowing ah-eady the prince's eminent skill in every kind of writing and his incomparable talents, smiled gently to himself, and repeated this Gatha :— " Amongst men, or in heaven above.

Amongst Grandharvas, Asuras, or Garudas, Whatever writing or books there be. The Prince is able thoroughly to understand them.
Neither I, nor any of you. Know even the names of these different writings. Although I am appointed here to judge and decide. Yet I certainly know that he wiU entirely surpass you."

Then those Sakya youths proceeded in a body and addressed Suddh6dana Kaja thus " We have found out that the prince, your

majesty's son,
best in this."

is far

superior to us in writing
figures, that

be an examination in the art of

but now let there we may know who is

Now, there was

metic, called Ardjuna

in the assembly a very eminent master of ariththe most skilful of all professors of the art.

the SAkya youths requested to act as umpire, saying, " Your honour wOl please decide as to which of us excels in the art of



and arithmetic."



; !



Then the prince proposed a Bum to one of the yonng SSkyas. The youth copied it down, but was unable to do it, and so with two of them and three; till at last all the five hundred copied it down, but could not solve it. Then the prince invited them to propose a calculation for him to make, on which one of the Sakyas ;" but he failed cried out, " I wiU give you a sum you cannot do [and so two, up to the whole five hundred]. Then Ardjuna, in
astonishment and delight, uttered this Gatha
! :

" Well done a victory this to be ever kept in mind Clearly answering every proposed calculation without error The five hundred SSkya youths challenged him to the trial j But though all together they made the trial ^"twas vain Oh ! what depth of wisdom and memory is here What power of calculation and what quickness Surely we have found a master of figures Able even to count the drops of the ocean Be silent, then, all ye Sakyas and hold your peace To contend with an one like this, ye are unable He who has exhibited such rare talents !" Ought only to be allowed to contend with myself








this time all the Sakyas, conceiving great reverence in their hearts for the young prince, rose up at once from their seats, and,

with joined hands, did him homage and exclaimed, " Sidd4rtha O mighty prince yours is the victory verily, yours is the undoubted victory !" And then they addressed Suddh6dana and said, " Wonderful wonderful good fortune is yours, MaharSja in possessing such a son gifted with such merit, such wisdom, such aptitude of speech, so sweet, so soft, so perfect in every word of his mouth !" Then Suddhfedana, filled with joy and satisfaction, turned to the prince with a smUe and said, " Well done but are you able, do you think, to compete with Ardjuna, the master of figures, in proposing some rare problem or expedient, in solution of questions of this sort ?" The prince replied, " MahArSja I am able to do so." The king answered, " If you are able to do so now is your time." Then Ardjuna, the master of figures, asked the prince the following question, " Eespeotable prince are you able to recite the numeration of figures above a lakh ?"








The prince


" I am


Then Ardjuna, the master of

figures, replied,

" If

Then the prince
is called

me hear you !" began, "One hundred hundred thousand
so, let

called a koti[i. e., a thousand myriad, [Gh.

a hundred kotis

an Ayuta [i.e., ten lakhs {Oh. ed.)], a hundred Ayutas a Niynta, a hundred Niyutas is called a Prayuta, a hundred Prayutas is called a Kangkara, a hundred Kangkaras is called a Vivara, a hundred Vivaras is called an Akshobya, a hundred Akshobyas is called a Tivasa, a hundred Yivasas is called an TJtsanga, a hundred TJtsangas is called a Bahuna, a hundred Bahunas is called a Nagabala, a hundred Nagabalas is called a Titibala, a hundred Titibalas is called a Vyavasthanaprajna(pa)ti, a hundred of these is called a Hetuhila (and so on in the centenary scale, as follows): a Kalap6ta, a Hetvindrata, a Samantalambha, a Gannaganti, a Nimaradjya, a, Madabala, an Agamada, a Sarvabala, a Yisandjnapati, a Sarvasandjfia, a Tibutagama, a Parikshaya; if this numeration is used it is done by pounds, ounces, grains, etc. contained in Mount Sumeru (when ground to powder). Above this is an enumeration caUed Dhavadjaganimana; above this there is another enumeration called Savani; above this is another called Pranada ; above this is another called Ifigga ; above this another called Kar6shtavata above this another called Sarvanikchepa, by aid of this numeration one proceeds according to the sands of one Granges, or two, and so on. Above this, again, is an enumeration called Agasava ; in this one proceeds according to the sands of myriads of kotis of Ganges Elvers. There is an enumeration above this called Paramanu pravesa." At this time ArdjUna, the master of figures, addressed the prince and said, "And as to the enumeration which depends on the number of minute atoms of dust as a basis, are you able to explain

this also


If so, be pleased to do so."

replied, " Listen, then, to what I ain about to Seven grains of these minute atoms of dust make one mote (such as one sees in a sunbeam), seven motes make one hare-grain (such as a hare raises in running?), seven hare grains make one sheep-grain, seven sheep-grains make one ox-

The prince


make a nit, seven of these a flea grain, seven of these a mustard-seed grain, seven of these a grain of barley, seven of these a finger-joint, seven finger^joints make
grain, seven of these

in martial exercises (continued). then.391 taelsto print. having placed at the distance of two krosas an iron drum as a target.e„ as far as one can walk with one inspiration of the breath). replying to the prince. of the Basita family.88 THE EOMANTIO half a foot (cubit). . i. five two of these a forearm. ! — there in a yojana?" [Kiouen XII contains 6. whUst Nando (Sundarananda) placed one The great minister MahSnama. O prince as well as in the art of writing. who are comparatively ignorant. who in all this assembly can tell me how many minute grains of dust there are in one yojana ?" Then Ardjuna.] CHAPTER The competitiou § 1. (The prince. the master of figures. answer the question yourself— how many minute grains of dust are said. " Most illustrious sir I indeed feel this question beyond my knowledge I am in utter confusion of mind." And then they added again. the master of figures. how much more Nevertheless. bows a halbard. Incomparable is thy skill and thy knowledge. and cost 3. eighty of these make a krosa. " "We acknowledge thy victory in these matters. ! thou art indeed pre-emineiit amongst us in the knowledge of figures.782 words. Devadetta placed one at four krosas distance. and all the S&ya youths were highly delighted and exulted with great joy. two of these a foot. let us now comdone ! ! pete in martial exercises At this time. Then Ardjuna. They took oflF their costly garments and jewels to present to the prince. eight krfisas make a ySjana. him they appointed umpire. I pray you others. the nar- rative proceeds). having answered the previous question. Now. and " Well done well addressed him in these laudatory stanzas. XIII. Then Ananda began the joust. six krosas off. four of these a bow. there was amongst the assembled S4kyas one great minister whose !" name was Sahadeva. twenty halbard lengths make what is called a breath {sih.

but all it the Sslkyas in the city cannot string that bow. which it penetrated through. the prince. " What sound is that ?" Then Then certain persons told them. taking the arrow in his right hand and fixing it." he then said." whereupon the prince inquired. who has a bow fit for me to use ?" Then Suddhddana E^ja was greatly rejoiced. Shall overcome all his opponents and his enemies. shot his arrow beyond each of the targets till it came to the one ten krosas distance. the prince. and bring it to him. called Sinhahanu. " There is . desired first and so bent it with his hand till it broke. He whom all the people and families of Magadha Now behold the conqueror with the arrow and bow Having perfected the six Paramitas by the force of his wisdom. Sorrow and Death. and hit his target in the midst. the sound of which filled the city of KapUavastu. and is ever honoured by offerings of incense his stand. and so with Devadatta and the others. Then Sidd^rtha. was handed to the Eoyal Prince. took the string in his right and with his finger in a moment he strung it and thrummed the string. hard Forthwith Ananda began. much when it.— . HISTORY OF BUDDHA. " Maharaja. having taken off. etc. not even Mahanama with strength. of his grandfather Sinhahanu. and filled the hearts of the people with fear as they inquired. Then the assembled Devas sang in space " Thus the most victorious and virtuous on (Hereafter) seated on the throne of the earth. audfiowers. " in the city." Then the prince desired his the bow at once. drew back the string of the bow home to his breast. who without even rising from his seat. placed one eight kr6sas as diamond. having taken the bow in his left hand. 89 Then Sidd^rtha placed a. and received the bow handed to him. target. less draw father to send for it when strung." Then the prince. and then disappeared in the far distance. where ?" To whom the Eaja answered. but could not go beyond. etc. " Is there no one. and replied. of all to try its strength. who has just strung the bow. on which account his father has bestowed upon him every sort of gift. had a bow which now is kept in a temple of the Devas. and with no show of great exertion. Mara. . ten krfisas off. " It is Siddartha. " Tour grandfather. teU me. Then of the was brought each it Sakya princes attempted to string all his but in vain. Euddhas of old.

They then agreed to compete with the sword. which caused the trees to fall to the ground. 90 THE ROMANTIC The Devas. Then the S4kya youths exclaimed. sent it entirely through the whole of the seven. and where his arrow entered the ground beyond the seventh. there was a succession of seven Talas trees close together through these trees they were accustomed to shoot. assembled in mass. they shot some through one and some through two. and fastened lighted tow on the top of their arrow . and there sprung up through the hole it made a spring of water. and so clean was his cut that the trees fell not until the Devas raised a fierce wind. as to who could strike the heaviest blow. S^kra.. Now let us compete in shooting for the purpose of penetration.) among These various feats of skill and strength are to be found the sculptures of Boro Buddor. Meanwhile. Then one of them cut through one Talas tree." Then they placed seven iron jars of water at equal distances. but the prince cut through seven. Then the Silfyas. prince taking an arrow. (And so the reverence to this time the contest continues. which the prince had shot as it passed through space. and all the Devas. and so disappeared. and the prince shot his arrow right through the seven. the Lord of Heaven." ^ Now not far off. without extinguishing the flame . took it to the thirty-three heavens. and even to day of the Arrow Festival is observed amongst them. having uttered these stanzas. 1 and boxing. Then they placed the figure of an iron boar between the trees. but the prince shot through the seven. in riding. and broke into a hundred bits. wrestling. showered down on the prince every kind of beautiful flower. were convinced of his prowess and skill. wherefore in that heaven this day was constituted a fortunate one. ' The Prince Siddartha has conquered all comers in this matter of distance. another through two. some of their The arrows going through one or two or three of the trees. seizing the arrow. copies of which have been recently published by the Dutch Government. paid it by scattering flowers and incense. it penetrated down to the very bottom of the earth (yellow fountain). . and the arrow entered the earth at some distance beyond. and his arrow then set on fire a grove of Sala trees beyond the seventh. who thought that the prince had not even cut through one tree. Then the S&kya youths allowed themselves conquered also in this exercise. which is called to this day the " Arrow Well.

called Nanda.— HISTORY OF BUDDHA. fiUed with envy on account of the prince's victories in all the martial exercises. Devadatta had scarcely departed when anot her Sakya youth. stepped in front of the elephant. Seeing it. the prince Then him. he asked somebody. feUed him to the ground with one blow of his right. "Who " Devadatta. having achieved the victory in every contest greatly rejoiced the heart of hie father Suddhodana. he deprived him of life. seizing his trunk with his left hand. accordingly." killed one blow. wishing to enter the city gate. with killed this elephant ?" to which they replied. The elephant. who back. was unable to do so on account of the carcase of the elephant lying in the way. taking left hand. when it so happened that Devadatta was just entering the gate (through which it was proceeding). Thus the elephant lay in front of the gate. about to enter the same gate of the city. He therefore ordered his own white elephant to be harnessed with every sort of costly housing. he exulted with delight which he could no longer repress. and. who. so that the inhabi- tants of the city could not enter or depart from it. approached. So he inquired of the people. " Who did such a deed as this ?" They replied. considering the great strength of Devadatta. with his right hand struck him one blow on the head and felled him to the ground. and observing the elephant lying as it was left by Nanda. and then hurling him round three times. and dragged him some seven paces behind the gateway. yet. seemly thing to do. . the elephant's trunk in his " None other than Devadatta." is about to return its Then Devadatta. f)l At length Sidddrtha. thought he. was astonished. who. and to be brought to the place of tournament for the prince to return to Eapilavastu. " It was Nanda." Then Nanda. he inquired of the passers by. "And who dragged him away from the gate ?" The crowd replied. was being brought forth from the city. the carcase of the creature is in the way of the people who want to leave or enter the city. " It was an unsaid. the prince." Then again he inquired. " Where is this elephant going ?" Whose reply was this " The elephant to the city on is going to fetch Sidddrtha. A little while after the Prince Eoyal himself approached. so he seized the elephant's tail with his right hand.

and a seemly thing to do. and there indulged themselves in every species of nuptial delight. caused a deep indent. repenting exclaimed. unskilful in martial exercises. And thus formed the deep ditch without the city." And then the prince considered with himself. as the Gatha says." At this time the great minister M^ahanama. he hurled it the air beyond the seven gates and the seven ditches of more than a krfisa's distance. entering which they retired to the inner apartments. falling on the ground. came to the Palace of the prince. and I pray him to accept my child in wedlock. And afforded the Prince every sort of pleasure. selecting a fortunate day. The prince with his hand hurled it thro' the air. sent every kind of present of jewels and costly ornament to Tas6dhara. Approached and entered within the royal precincts." Thus thinking.— . the Lord of Heaven." The prince on this said. Even as Kusika. ! Then the assembled multitude exclaimed. and dragged him to the spot where he is. " Wonderful wonderful what a strange and surpassing miracle is this " and then ! they added the following stanzas " Devadatta indeed killed the elephant. he took the elephant with his left hand. time is called the Elephant-ditch. "It was a right thing. which up to the present through the city. and brought up softly within the palace." . THE ROMANTIC who seized his tail with his right hand. 92 the youth. Whose fame was known in every land. the daughter of the great Minister. how then can I betroth to him my daughter ?' But now I have witnessed his skill. lying here so close to the city. attended by five hundred dancing women. Then the elephant. whilst she. Selecting a fortunate day for her marria<j-e. • The prince him is of his former rash words. And Nauda dragged it seven paces from the gate. "Notwithstanding this exhibition of strength on the part of these two Sakya youths yet the carcase of the elephant may cause a nuisance." At this time the prince. and raising it with his right hand. " (I said). Enjoys the company of Sasi his Queen. seeing the prowess : and skill of the prince. " Tas6dhar4.

choose one from the family of a minister of state. I desire none other but this child of the worker in metals . vfas addressed hy TJdayi as follows: "World- — honoured Tathagata how was it in days gone by when you first gained the company of Tas6dhara. who had a daughter very beautiful to look at. take this girl.' On this the parents of the youth. fearing he would put an end to himself. or even by her beauty but by superiority in competition with your rivals ?" To which Buddha replied. I have seen a girl.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. a worker in metal. 93 The Story of the ISTobleman who became a Needle• maker. he returned homewards to his parents' abode. by any means. in ages gone by. if you want a wife. not induced by her high extraction or family renown or riches. but it was so from very remote time. that there was a certain cunning workman in metals. and there addressing his father and his mother he said. went forthwith to the house of the .. for instance. and her body perfectly formed. living in Benares. the daughter of the artizan. whom I love with all my heart. having arrived at complete enlightenment. or defile the threshold of our door with her presence. " Listen TJdayi and I will tell you weigh weU my words It was not only on this occasion that I thus gained possession of Tas6dhar4 in marriage .' Then the youth replied. her eyes large and even. if I do not possess her I will put an end to my life. or of a nobleman. At this timethe world-honoured one. the child of a mechanic. and ! ! — — ! ! — ! ! ! desire to possess as : my wife. beyond computation. § 2. No sooner had he seen her than there was produced in his breast an ardent love. before named. ' It is no use my looking elsewhere for a wife. " In the house of So-and-So. I remember. for it benefits me not to live without her.' Then his parents replied to him thus ' Tou must not. so that there She was loved by many It were few in the world equal to her so happened that at this time there was a nobleman of Benares who had a son. or at least of a respectable householder. as she was looking out of a window in the tower of the dwelling where lived her father. Thinking of nothing but his love. And on a certain occasion this youth caught sight of the girl. who also was extremely personable and attractive.

he began to rub them to a great degree of fineness. he began to chant this song " ' Made of the smoothest. " ' Oh my how mad the man must be Tou cannot have the least reflection To come thus to the iron-master's house. . and with oil and polishing made them beautifully bright and clean. havingunderstood this. " Who'U buy my needles ?" ! ' " Then the nobleman's sou again sang a verse in reply to the maiden. went straight- way and self told their son just youth. went and provided hima worker in metals. if he only saw . of deftest iron-worker. purest iron. " Most fair and lovely maid Indeed I am not mad or rash ' My talent is that of a skilful handicraftsman.' Then the father and the mother said. Who knows quite well to make superior needles Tour father. I cannot permit my daughter to marry any one who is not skilful in working metals. He soon contrived to learn how to make needles.' ' ' man —one who clothes all that. and to none else will I give her.' " Thefather and the mother. Respectable Sir what possible use would it be for your daughter to marry such a iron worker and spake thus ' — riage with our son. Then making a needle-case of a joint of bamboo. ' I know yet I seek a fellow craftsman for my daughter. ! 94 THE ROMANTIC Tour daughter may contract a marBut the iron-worker said. standing at the what the man had said. and approaching the street. Shining bright and polished well.— ! ! — ! . and applied himself head of the road. The work Who'll buy my needles !' " At this time the daughter of that iron-worker was sitting at the window in the tower. she replied to him in the following sono- : . could never afford to give her either comforts or ?' and scarce food enough The iron-worker said. he went straightway to the abode of the iron-worker. And shout. and hearing the nobleman's son singing his ditty. Then the girl. and having manufactured a good many. being resolved to possess the with the tools fit for thoroughly to master the craft.

he again began to praise the workmanship and said. replied. it gently in a vessel of water. Eespectable youth you are skilful in making needles you drfll the holes well. ahout his needles. and then they asked him and said.' So he took out a third and showed to the old man. such a thing Such needles were never yet made ! Now my heart is glad indeed Tou may take my daughter.' Then the old people immediately called out to the nobleman's son to approach and come indoors. ! HISTORY OF BUDDHA. Having examined it. I have others better than that. Oh it is very fine work inThen the youth. and said. The old man. I give her to you !' " . the old man cried out 'Wonderful! never have I seen such a thing. Sir ! ! Oh my dear and is it ' true that you are able to I make beautiful needles ' ?' He replied.' ! my case far superior to this ! it. having looked at the noble youth answered others in — .' some of your ware. Let me see may have an idea of your skill. The old man then added. Would give your hand to me in marriage.' Then am able. Tou are indeed a clever craftsman. having examined it.' and. • Oh this is nothing. taking that needle in his hand. The old man. on seeing which the old man said. ' made ! 1 beautifully drUled indeed !' Then the youth Oh I have better needles than that . ' Well. he turned to the nobleman's son and said — ! " ' Never before have I heard or seen. being fiUed with delight. ' Very well made and drilled indeed !' Then the youth said.' Then the noble youth took out of his bamboo cane a needle to show him. and lo ' — ! !' Seeing thia. having examined it. cried out — ' Beautifully said. parents a man outside our door who has just spoken as I have told you. that I ' is nothing I have on which he took another out of his bamboo ease and showed it to the old man. ' This excels anything I ever saw. 95 And with yourself confer upon me " Then the there is boundless wealth !' girl ran down and told her father ' and mother the pur! port of the words she had heard. and sang it in a loud voice. who. placed deed it floated on the surface. The teauty and tlie finish of my work. you are able to make beautiful needles . ' This needle .' and so again and again till the sixth needle.' on which he took out another and showed him.— — . exclaimed.

and so also Devadatta. both in cattle and grain." At the same time. Now it happened that just at this time there was a certain noblemen in Kapilavastu." Being — . the three who exand martial exercises were Siddartha first. that at that "You must know. if you do not I will bring great Then Dandi was in much distress of mind. money and slaves.96 THE ROMANTIC said. Then Suddhodana. not too stout or too thin. to the house of the minister Pani. we ask you to give her to the Prince Siddartha in marriage. and he loss to you. ^vho spake thus " I hear you have a daughter called G6tami. He was very rich in every kind of property. and At this time then of all the celled in the arts ." — The Choice § 3. with jewels and precious gems of every sovt in vast abundance. then Nanda. sent a messenger. a chief minister of the family of Dandi. Then Buddha addressed Udayi and TJdayi. so that if I give her to Siddartha. the father of Nanda sent a similar message on behalf of his son. having selected a favourable day. She was young and in the prime of her beauty. sent a message to Dandi. whose name was Pani. so that there was nothing for his heart to desire more. and his palace was like that of Vaisravana. Brahman. a. the girl was TasddharS. and said. " I require you to give me your daughter in marriage. — they each demand her in marriage. not too white or too dark. and unequalled for grace. hearing of her fame." reflected thus— "These three powerful families have sons unequalled in skill and prowess. and so likewise if I give her to Nanda or Devadatta I know not what to do. He had an only daughter called G6tam{ she was very beautiful. time I was the nobleman's son. not on account of her distinguished family and not on account of her excessive beauty. and then Devadatta. and I have only one daughter. of Gotaml Sdkya princes. but I took her only as a witness of my skilful handiwork even so now I take her as a proof of my skiU (in other matters). and that I took her then to wife. having heard that Suddhodana was seeking Q-dtaml for Siddartha. I make the others my mortal foes. Not too taU or too short.

the six days having expired. At this time the maiden Gotami. Even ! ther — then he refused to tell her. after six days. " Dear Gotami since you insist upon it. immediately sent to the Eaja. father follow ! don't be distressed ! I will arrange this matter myself. 97 thus exceedingly perplexed. Then Siddartha with the Sakya youths around him. Then G6tami. I will give my father no further trouble than to ask for a man to and make my intention known. " Dear father. seeing her father thus silent and sad as he sat came to his presence and said. Then Suddhodana. trying to contrive some expedient by which to escape from the dilemma. she pressed him a third time to tell her the reason of his grief. " Whatever youths therefore desire to obtain her hand let them. because I do not know how to adjust this matter so as to avoid trouble. and begged him to proclaim through- my directions out the city of Kapilavastu that after seven days. you ought to let me know the cause of all this. nor inquire furthese matters are not for you to know. taking with him aU the old and reverend S&kya ministers. very early on the morning of the seventh." Then after six days all the Sakya youths. the SSkya princess. waited to see on whom the choice of GStaml would fall." Yet she asked him a second time." At this time Dandapani. having attended to Gotaml's directions. and surrounded all together to the place of assembly. " Dear making similar overtures. and then I will select the husband of my choice. would select a husband. Then Gotaml answered her father and said. assemble together fat the Palace) for her to choose one of their number. came H . and therefore. and notwithstanding a similar reply. were assembled at the Palace gate. " Honoured father why are you so sorrowful and pensive as you sit here in silence ?" To this still.HISTOEY OF BUDDHA." then he answered her and said. ! her father replied. G6tamt. he became pensive and sad and could do nothing but sit still and think over the matter. I am in perplexity and sit here in grief. nor try to conceal it from me. ! You must know then that Suddhodana E&ja me demanding you in marriage for the Prince Sid- but at the same time both Nanda and Devadatta are and threaten me with their anger if I do not consent. and bathing by countless multitudes of men and women. but when a fourth time she said. " Dear Gotaml ask me not. with Sidd4rtha at their head. arose. listen to my words and — ! weigh them well has sent to dartha.

having fastened it around the neck of Siddartha. accompanied by her mother. the Prince. is not so bedizened with jewels about his person. and his heart danced withdelight. and was dressed in his usual simply wearing his earrings. " Siddartha my Prince I take you to be my lord and my husband !" Then Siddartha replied. chaplet of the loveliest flowers. advancing past — all the youths in succession went straight up to Siddartha. and spoke thus " I take you to be my wife. you are now my own wife. looking on one after the other till she had observed the whole of the five hundred youths. I will take Sidddrtha as the husband of my choice. As to their persons they appear to I. and decorated their persons gems and costly robes. and then taking the jasmin wreath. and having three small golden flowers in his hair as ornaments. would dress himself out as these have." Then Suddhodana Eaja. me more like women than men. who had taken no attire. for I cannot suppose that any youth possessing manly qualities. pains to ornament his person. to the maidens and accompanied by her mother. she gently put her arm upon the back of his head and said. and having come she entered the Palace. had in the early morn anointed themselves with kind of unguent and perfume. indeed. around her head she of suite a by surrounded and. aU except Sidd^rtha. as a woman. seeing this wonderful course of events. answered her mother thus "Dear mother it seems to me that all these youths are very much deco- — ! rated with ornaments. " So let it be so let it be. she proceeded place of assembly. fit for a woman to respect in a husband. of whom Nanda and Devadatta were with every foremost. and her mother spoke to her thus " Whom will you select of aU these as a husband ?" Then GStaml. entered the assembly.— 98 THE ROMANTIC jewels the choicest her person she proceeded to decorate herself with wore a and the most costly robes. and having reached him she stopped. even as you say. cannot think of selecting one of these as a husband. so that he ! ! — — ." At this time Siddartha in return took a jasmin wreath and fastened it round the neck of the maiden Gotamt. But I observe that Siddartha. Then Gotaml." Then G6taml in her right hand holding a beautiful wreath of Sumana flowers (jasmin). was greatly rejoiced. there is no love of false appearances in his presence. Gradui^y she drew near. I do not think that he is of the eileminate disposition that these are my heart is well affected to him. Meantime the Sakya youths.

' Let us not quarrel over this matter. were pleased with the happy result. Siddartha causing the choicest gems which he possessed. At this time amongst those beasts there was a very beautifully marked tigress. TJdiyi. surrounded by five hundred dancing girls. and every jewelled ornament to be brought forth. and entering into the inner apartments she partook of the joys of wedded life. she proceeded towards the palace of the prince her husband. they hung their heads in shame and disappointment. XIV. and returned to their homes. So at last the beasts said one to another 'Come with me. and shouted at the top of their voices . " Listen. and all the people present. and wished Come with me. " Hurrah hurrah !" They struck up the music and waved their garments and their caps in the air. and let him .' and to possess her as their own. unrivalled All for grace of form and strength. one saying. and weigh my words well. each of whom wandered here and there seeking food according to its taste and preference. and was printed at a cost of 3. but I reipember in ages gone by that in the Himalaya region there were assembled together every kind of beast. and then. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. and again they cried. It was not only on lowing question — " What him the fol- Gotami rejected the proffered addresses of others and exhibited a preference for me. presented them to Gotami with which to adorn stiU more her person. It came to pass in aftertime. who had witnessed the proceeding. ! [Kiouen XIII contains 6726 words.. they danced and sang.] CHAPTEE §1 . but let the lovely tigress herself decide whom she will select for herself. the male beasts were on this account enamoured of her. and each in stealth slipped away in every direction. that UdAyi asked were the previous relations between yourself and Gotami that led to her selecting you as her husband from amongst all the Sikya princes ?" To whom Buddha replied. when the world-honoured one had arrived at complete enlightenment.' this occasion that ' another. 99 could not conceal or overcome it. her skin sleek and shining. Story of G6tami. Meantime.363 taels. But the S4kya youths were greatly oast down and dejected.

I am lord of all the beasts. or desire to have you Then came a large white elephant as my lord and husband ?' towards the tigress and addressed her thus—' I am the great elephant-king of these snowy mountains— in all warfare I am used as one that invariably secures victory. as you know all this. dear tigress. graceful form me and but I ask you. came the buffalo king. there are and feel none who would dare the sound of to speak to select replied to to compete with me. in the midst of those beasts. Such vast strength do I you cannot refuse to select me as a husband." .' So. whoever sees my form or hears my roar takes at once to instant flight I am not able further about my prodigious strength or my majestic and . . oh beautiful tigress.100 be her husband. herd came forward towards the tigress and spake thus 'Look well and examine my proportions and my form see how in the fore part I am large and powerfully made. then. to make the For this reason. take me as your husband. are filled with fear and trembling and take to instant flight. whilst in the flank I am graceful and sleek. and I am able to protect for other creatures. your body and entire mien are in the highest degree graceful now. I dwell in the midst of the mountains. you give proofs of abject terror and confusion ?' as you go. ' But you. and . first of all THE EOMANTIC Now at this time I was king of these beasts. purest and sweetest incense you ought to select me to be your husband. fit for a yoke to rest upon by ! ! ' which you may draw a chariot or other vehicle— how can I select you. and this beauwas Gotaml that now is. and advancing to the tigress he said. possessing such an objectionable form. the lion king of the possess.' tiful tigress five " Now at this time I was the king of these beasts. neck I observe a high projection. and as the tigress then selected me after my address.' " Then the tigress replied.' Then the tigress ' the lion and said. I have selected you as my husband. and I desire to honour and respect you henceforth as I ought your spirit . to do. ' Amongst men my very droppings are used. — pass my life without restraint. the other beasts were the hundred Sakya princes. Tour strength is very great. so in the present life Grotaml selected all me as a husband in preference to the Sakyas. if you come near to or hear the roar of the lion king. how then can I take you to be my husband " At this time.' Then the tigress Above the back of your replied to the buffalo king and said. and high and noble.

p. n. . should at any time be disgusted. S uddh6dana. in recollection of what Asita had predicted caused a vast hall to be constructed. daughter of Dandapaui. a thouconfusion in the different books about the wives In the present work there are three names given. In the first palace there were appointed a certain number of women to attend upon him for the §2. Tasodhara. Lou-ye. Yasodhar4 was queen of the first. 152. Vist. a thousand harpsichords (ku-chang). hut never saw her presence. [There are some Doctors of the Law who say that the attendants on Manddara only knew her name. All the women who waited on the Prince were together six myriads. Moreover.. viz. in the second palace (o'r apartment of the palace) others were appointed for the middle of the night . [Others say ten myriads. Burnouf (Introd. with a fialf-subdued light. a thousand dulcimers with thirteen cords (chuk). within the Palace he organised a performance of music of many thousand instruments . like that of the Autumn Sun when it is clouded over. amongst which were the following A thousand flatlutes of twenty-three strings (hong-hau). quoting from Ksoma. for the after part of the night. 278). surrounded by twenty thousand attendants. In the Lalita Tistara the names are Yasodhara. and all the approaches and passages con- nected with this he ordered to be constructed in a manner to conceal no dirt or refuse of any sort. Moreover. in which matters might be only half observed as it were. makes . time Suddhodana RSja established three separate palaces accommodation of the Prince. 101 Life in the Palace. perceiving such things. — (born of a Gazelle) and TTtpalavarna (^Lal. p.). HISTORY OF BUDDHA. Kieou-i (this corresponds to Gotaml) . and Gotami.^ Over the third palace Gotami 1 was queen. at the end of the Shan-men-yih-tung. lest the Prince. Mrigadja 1 There is much of Buddha..] In each apartment two myriads.. which is generally i-estored to the mother of Eahula Mrigadava. The Chinese memoir. and in the third. all of them S4kyaborn. Manodara. a thousand five-stringed guitars (in). and adapted for secret pleasures at any time .. At this during the first portion of the night. and besides these eight myriads of others who were not Sikya-born. viz. ManSdara [this means " thought-hold"} was queen of the second. Yaso(dhar4). gives three names. a thousand small : — drums.

1 . to exhort the women to renewed blandishments (vide infra).S. without interruption resembling in sound the uncertain and deep muttering that comes forth from a great cloud. Gopa. a thousand paudean pipes (sin). smiling at one another. and precious stones. and TJtpalavarna . sometimes chatting with one in words of soft dalliance.. Klaproth (Fo-koue-ki. speaks of Kieou-i as the wife of Buddha. indulging in every kind of soft caress. and the mother of Eahiila. etc. ! without leaving his palace. endeavoured.A. Gautamt) that Kieou-i is the same as Mahaprajapati. 102 THE EOMAKTIC sand large lutes (kam). Eemusat (Fo-koue-ki.— . on the other hand. it is said that Tas6dharfi.B. but in the Lalita Visiara (p. p.^ Thus then the Prince passed his time in the midst of a hundred thousand most beautiful and accomplished women. and Serpent Worship . it must be either G6tami. as the Prince Meanwhile Suddhodana Eaja. a thousand organ-like instruments (shang). a thousand fifes (tik). Asita. a thousand copper cymbals. Yasqdhara (E. says (sub. etc.816). 96. within the royal apartments of the Prince's Palace. a thousand bamboo flutes with seven holes (chi). Thus thus did the Prince pass his time with the beautiful women of his harem. ogling. conspired to amuse and gratify him with music and dancing. the scene of that plate can be no other than the appearance of Udayi in the Zenana. Tree. producing drums toerent sounds. and receive every possible pleasure. i.. who makes Buddha speak of his wife as Buddhakachau4. 1838. a thousand large drums. ) i . voce. but again. Eitel. even sort of pleasure at the as Sikra participates in every hands of his attendants. a thousand soft (sai ku). sighing. In any case I do not think Kieou-i can be restored to Gopa. are often confounded. AU these musical instruments. in recollection of the prediction of grew in years. p. enjoying every species of delight and receiving every service and attention at their hands. n. 2U4) makes Kieou-i the same as KatchanA. looking at one another with head inclined. Fig. silver. 1 This passage is well illustrated by Plate Ixxiii. embracing one another. p. a thousand dulcimers (pat chuk). a thousand viols (pi pa). adorned with every kind of ornament of gold. and Gop3. were played and accompanied by singing.e . 7ii. and regulated by movements of the hand by day and night. to remove from him the three wives to be Tas6dharjl. or Kumarl the former is the more probable.. whilst they. evidently guided by Turnour. a thousand conch trumpets (lo). glancing at one another.

And because he was mindful of the words of Asita. And constantly consulted with his wise minister (how to his purpose). having heard the du'eotions. . nor once removed without. 103 all acquaintance with suffering or other evil association. being fearful of some enemy arising who might overturn his kingdom. Eemoved from him all knowledge of sorrow or crime. n. n. belonging to this race is a — 1 Shen-lin-ni. 96.' and his own name Bimbasara. Foucaux. and see if there be anyone therein capable of overcoming me (in personal strength). These two men accordingly. or Srenya.lived within the palace of his father the Eaja. " Maharaja. proceeded throughout the limits of the kingdom and its borders in order. The ministers see to it that he. there is a very high precipitous mountain belonging to the Himalaya range underneath the wooded belt of that mountain there is a separate tribe of people called the Sakyas. my ministers. is prevented from doing so. and have a care to the directions of the king. frequently assembled his principal ministers to hold discussion with them on this subject. make diligent inquiry and search throughout the kingdom. in the Southern country of Magadha.— HISTORY OF BUDDHA. and for this reason he restrained him within the precincts of the palace j even as the Gatha says. doubtless for Srenika. In this manner for ten years the Prince." effect The Fear § 3. and so able to deprive me of my regal power j and if so. he addressed them thus " Do you. and surround him with subjects that might cause him to turn his mind to other pursuits than those of a religious life. Now at this time. vide 229." accordingly went forth and dispatched two messengers to go through the dominions of the Eaja. "Away to the North. . who. there was a king whose family name was Sanrani. . Being so assembled on one occasion. and when about to return homewards there was a man came to them and said. 2. because the Prince was increasing in years. of Bimbasara.

and this was the result. which wall had only one gate to it. this gate (or wall) was named. for if. if he became a recluse that he would be a Budda Tathagata Arahato Sammasambuddha.104 THE ROMANTIC youth newly born. moreover. the King of Magadha. been obliged to pay a general tax to mark his subjection to the latter. If he becomes a Buddha." ! — The Gates around the Palace. p. whose appearance is very beautiful. his love and compassion leading him to deliver and save all flesh then we ought to listen to his teaching and become disciples. if he remained in secular life he would became a Chakravartin. then it becomes me to reverence and obey him. in consideration of his spiritual power and dignity. and narrated what they had heard just in the same words. and possessed of the ten names peculiar to so great a Saint. § 4. So that looking at each or either of these beneficent results. Trans. and so we shall obtain peace and joy under his rule. as you say. On the day of his birth the Brahmans calculated his horoscope. and exhorted him at once to raise an army and destroy the child. At this time SuddhSdana Edja caused a wall to be constructed around the palace which the Prince Eoyal occupied. and rule over the four continents. etc. replied at once. " Eespeotable Sirs speak not in this way .) . lest he should overturn the empire of the King. that in view of the marks above named on his body. The Thibetan books. xx. after a long conflict with the King of Anga. His body possesses the thirty-two signs of a great man and the eighty inferior signs. possessed of all the insignia of a universal monarch. the first-begotten of his mother. and the most distinguished both of that territory and of that famUy. it is quite unnecessary to excite in myself any desire to destroy such a Being..^ Then Bimbasara. "Te1 Here is another of the singular coincidences of the narrative with the Gospel History. this youth is to become a Holy Chakravarti Eaja and to wield a Righteous sceptre. teU us that Bimbasara had. (Ass. 47. in every respect most admirable and in every particular perfect." At this time those two messengers returned immediately to Bimbasara Eslja.

and triple-pointed halberd (and other warlike weapons). Such great preparations and precautions did the King take. At this time dwelling in space there was a Devaputra called T'soThis Deva. in the very palace itself he constructed a similar gate that required two hundred men to open. dwelling in his palace and partaking of the five enjoyments of sense. to keep strictly the approaches to the palace. §5. The voice from Space exhorting him to flee. Moreover^ in the immediate garden-precinct of the palace he constructed a gate with a bolt and bar that required three hundred men to move. therefore. recited these verses " A man whose own body is bound with fetters. who yet Desires to release others from their bonds. again. began to consider and think thus " This Prabhapala B6dhisatwa Mahdsatwa too long a time is indulging himself with worldly pleasures. slian" (desert 105 —beast).. Prabhapala must be taught now quickly-! quick files the time. We must not permit these lusts to cloud and besot him. become a recluse). and the sound whereof could be heard at a distance of half a kr6sa. These three gates were guarded within and without with guards armed with morion and glaive. having watched the Prince Eoyal Ping ( make-pitcher for ten years dweUiug in the palace and enjoying every Sensual pleasure." On this Deva Putra T'so-Piug. recite some verses in praise of such a proceeding. and incite him to fiee from these things. — ! strengthen him to action. it will be too late. spear and bow. I will now. and when whicli required five the gate itself was rolled back on its hinges the sound thereof could be heard for a distance of half a y&jana. hundred men to open and remove. and that he ought at once to let them go and leave his house (i. and so ui-ge and ) . behind the gates were barricades constructed.e. in the middle of the night. of a tr6sa .— — HISTORY OF BUDDHA. and when the gate was opened the sound thereof could be heard at a distance and then. If I do not take some preparatory step in this direction. lest his son should leave the allurements of his home and wander away to the wild mountain solitudes. . his mind and senses to be darkened and deluded. to recognise the just limits of such things.

rather to encourage thoughts of Nirvana. It becomes you to leave your house and home All the things of sense (sanscara) are impermanent. Or as the sands on either bank of a river Whose very existence implies impermanence Or as the light which is produced by a lamp When produced quickly returns to nothingness . And all that is produced in the sequence of cause and And every individual substance Is the mere figment of the ignorant. Or as the restless and inconstant breeze Which suddenly changes. undertaking to lead others." T'so-Ping. effect. Thou virtuous one It is time now to give up your home. . Tour years are now complete. of their' own : accord. Tea as a heap of dust in summer-time. instead of fostering lustful desires. etc. and is never flxed Without any semblance of constancy or endurance. And at the same time. Like the potter's earthen vessel As a thing borrowed for a moment's use. As a wall made of dry earth heaped up. So all things which exist (sanscara). and increase the prince's faith in it. and to accomplish your ! vows. .— . the following verses were produced in exquisite tones " The things of the world are transitory Just as the flash from the cloud Honour'd one the time is come. moreover caused the songs of the women of the harem. ! . Ere long to be cast down and destroyed. ! ! ! As the inside of the plantain fruit (or tree) Shadowy as a madman's reflections Or as the empty fist which deceives a child. and then to free others. having uttered these Oathas in the regions of space purpose of exciting spiritual reflection. But having one's own body free. 106 Is like a blind THE ROMANTIC man who undertakes to lead the bliild. and stirring up the for the prince to cultivate the virtuous and meritorious principles which were lying dormant in him. Is like a man who has eyes.

" The prince. to your commands. sweep. Now it came to pass that the Devaputra T'so Ping desiring to draw the prince out of his palace and to bring before him in the garden certain sights which might induce him to quit the fascina- tions of his present life. proceeded from the instruments . —to effect this. Just as the silken thread Is produced from the distaff. my lord. and thereupon he summoned his charioteer." The charioteer. as I wish to ride out and inspect the lovely grounds of the surrounding gardens. The Excursions without the Palace. 107 Eemove the seed and there will be no sprout So aU relationships removed there is no knowledge (perfect idea). when the ladies of the harem began to play upon the instruments of music. and made be it known to you that the this communication "Mah&'Sja Eoyal Piince desires now to go forth into the garden grounds to — ! inspect the beautiful earth. There are birds of every kind whose notes are delightful to the senses. and water the streets and the precincts. The sounds seemed to him to be of this sort " Let the Holy One listen the grounds of the garden are lovely adorned — ! ! with choicest flowers and trees and fruits. resolved to proceed forth. he caused the songs of the ladies who surrounded the prince to convey this suggestion to him." At this time within the palace. and addressed him thus " My good charioteer draw forth and prepare for me at — ! once a choice and fitting chariot. so instructed. all of them with a view to cause the prince to quit the world and prepare his heart for Supreme Wisdom.— HISTOEY OF BTJDBHA. replied. such sounds as the above. " I wUl attend. § 6." Forthwith he sent the intelligence to Suddh6dana." Then Suddhodana caused vastu that all to be proclaimed throughout Kapila- persons within and Without the city should thoroughly cleanse. Or as a seed sown produces a sprout. . being in fact pious utterances of religion. hearing these utterances.

. that lamps should be hung up and down the streets. or a potsherd. placed in the immediate neighbourhood of these figures. be seen anywhere let nothing of an unlucky or sinister character anywhere meet !" the eye of the Eoyal Prince Forthwith. In agreement with these commands the city of Kapilavastu was forthwith decorated as above. 108 THE ROMANTIC so that not a stone. moreover. he assumed the attitude and look becoming his exalted position. Moreover. or deaf or impotent person. from silver all the trellis-worked lattices. etc. and having ascended it. with flowers. having done which he proceeded to the presence of the Eoyal Prince and announced that all things were ready for the tour of inspection whilst those that — through the gardens. disease. and proceeded forthwith through the eastern gate of the city wall. and harnessed thereto a team of horses beautifully decorated. on the trees . . etc.. together with figures of the other Devas. etc. made of and ornamented with jewels. that they should be. Moreover. had female names were decorated with ornaments worn by women. moreover. The trees of the garden. the King ordered it to be proclaimed throughout Kapilavastu by the sound of the drum and bell (gong) " All ye people! remove from every part of the city and the highways whatever can remind the Prince of old age. which had male names were decorated with ornaments worn by men. and also flags. that images of Suryadeva and Chandradeva. Moreover. decorated with every ornament. moreover. the charioteer prepared a delightful chariot. and proceeded to the place where the chariot was awaiting him. let no blind man. moreover. or any pollution whatever should and made lie in the way. . until it bore the appearance of the fairy city of the Gandharvas. which as the wind sighed might send forth a pleasing sound. the King commanded the garden to be swept and garnished in the same way. chamaras. and that at the head of all the crossroads vessels full of water should be placed . but that everyplace should be adorned delightfully smooth—that the choicest perfumes should be sprinkled on the ground. or death. bells should be hung. between the lattice raUs.. Then the prince arose from his seat. should be placed. That. ornamented with jewels and choice stones of every description. that flowers should be hung up and flags.

"And what is the sense of this term used in the world ?" The coachman answered. Siddartha inquired of his charioteer "What human form is this. having heard chariot driver again.— — — . To which he that this man is one applying to all alike ?" " Eeverend and holy youth know thou not a solitary instance of the character of age ! . whilst. the body of an old deorepid man." Just as the Gatha says " This name of old age implies sorrow and pain. as it .'" The prince again ' inquired. his head bald and bare. for these reasons I speak of him as old old. Is it his birth that made him thus or his age ?" — Then the coachman replied." Then the Prince Eoyal. the like of which I have never before seen ?" — even as the Gatha says " Illustrious coachman ! listen to me at once ! What man is this I see before my eyes. His body bent and crooked. the memory lost. came. by himself. " Old age implies the loss of all bodily power. Seeing him. Thus he stood right across the way of the prince as he advanced in the chariot. The limbs and joints in tremor all. and the breath from his mouth sounded. and his body bent down with age and infirmity he carried a staff in his hand to support hia tottering limbs. Gone all the pleasures of sense and the joys of wedded life. Law an universal replied. At this time the Devaputra T'so-Ping caused to appear before the eyes of the prince. HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. the decay of the vital functions. The senses blunted. like the raspings of a saw. his teeth gone. disobedient to the wiU. his head bald. so miserable and so shocking to behold. he gasped with pain. influenced by the spiritual power of the Devaputra T'so-Ping. his skin shrivelled up. asked his only one of the sort. 109 desiring to visit the gardens without the city precincts to exa- mine the beautiful trees and flowers.' as it is ! — and approaching his end. or is this " Is this man these verses. as he proceeded. and the gradual destruction of the mind and memory. This poor man before you is just At any moment he may die his life is uncertain such an one from morning till night . in one of the streets. " Great Prince this man is what is ! called 'old.

where he now is lost in meditation and serious thought. turning the chariot.110 but that this is THE EOM ANTIC the common lot of all that lives— all that is born must come to this if life is preserved. with a view proceeded towards the palace. he ! — !" At this time the charioteer. " If lives must share in this common lot !" ! and even I must soon become worn out and decayed as man. sat city. but desired me to return to the palace. and as soon as the prince beheld this form he did not wish to go further. let us return to the palace it were better ior this be so. I cannot think of proceeding further towards the gardens whither we were going to sport and laugh. were aU agreeable and pleasant?" To whom he replied. this old ! me to pass my time in thinking ' how to contrive to escape. having entered his and gave way to thoughts of the laws of this character " So then I too must become old old age being universal. and commanded me to turn his chariot homewards. " Even so even so Holy Prince the rich and the poor alike are destined for this everything that The prince replied. ! — — ! ! — .^ "Wonderful! wonderful. indeed! This is precisely what Asita the soothsayer predicted. prince. warning me not to let the prince leave his home. when there appeared in the middle of the road an old man bent double with age." on which the king at once inquired the cause of this. or at least to palliate this evil of age ' replying to the prince." on this the king exclaimed. spake thus " According to your command. when arrived halfway to the garden was unwilling to proceed further." The prince then asted. " Por scarcely had we got halfway. and the charioteer added. Then the down upon — his throne. O Prince I desire to act. his personal appearance wretched in the extreme. Turn your horses homewards. " And my body old as this object before ! —must ! I also become ! me ?" ! The coachman answered. as he went to the garden. lest he should behold that which would induce him to become a recluse I" Then the King resolved to increase within the palace of the prince the means of indulgence and objects of desire. how may I escape and deliver my body and soul from such calamity ?" Then Suddhddana inquired of the charioteer "My worthy coachman tell me whether the objects observed by the prince. "MaharAja be it known to you that the prince." and forthwith.

he saw the prince riding in a royal chariot drawn by great elephants. Tet the prince desired to go forth— and lo the old man Eeturning within his palace grieved and distressed Alas he cried.67 taels. More than doubled the sources of pleasure in the palace. on that very night caused Suddhodana Eaja to dream seven different dreams. The second dream was on this wise. Hoping thereby to induce him to become a King. lifting to carry it through Kapilavastu. he dreamt that he saw a great imperial banner lite that of ludra. carnal pleasures — [This book contains 7. § 1. and thus proceed through the Western gate of the city. proceeded finally went from the city by the Eastern gate. . The third dream was that he saw the prince seated in a fourhorsed chariot. that I cannot escape this lot The King." ! ! So the prince dwelt still in his palace. who. around which were gathered innumerreligious recluse. King Suddhodana. having heard thereof. very magnificent. — able crowds of people. as soon as Suddhfidana had retired to his couch and faUeu asleep. Now it came to pass that the Devaputra T'so-Ping. His heart fearing lest his sou should become a recluse. his father. still desiring to cause the prince to arrive at a resolution to become a by the exercise of his spiritual power. and indulged himself in all having as yet only this one subject of doubt or cause of distress. Ill to prevent him from longing to leave the society of his female companions for the outer world and this is what the Gatha says : " Within the palace every source of pleasure and joy.! ! ! — HISTORY OF BUDDHA. And they were of this sort . it and and holding it up.269 words and cost 3.] CHAPTER The Dreams of XV. and so driving he passed through the Southern gate of the city.

The sixth dream was that he saw in the midst of Kapilavastu a high tower. and as he sat he scattered towards the four quarters of heaven countless jewels of every kind. and recalling the visions he had seen was greatly troubled. but in the morning when I am seated in my palace. After which he issued his commands to all the Brahmans. "It shall be even as your majesty com- mands. to the LalUa_ Vistara the king . and flung it by handfuls on the ground. replied. on the top of which the Eoyal Prince was seated. and exhorted them in these words " Most honourable Sirs be it known to you that during — ! the present night I have seen in my dreams strange and portentous visions there were seven distinct dreams which I will now I pray you. not very far off. strange doubts that filled his mind. interpreters of dreams." The ministers of the council having heard this charge laid' upon them.112 The fourtli THE ROMANTIC dream was that he saw a magnifioently jewelled and proceed through the Northern gate discus fly through the air of the city. The seventh dream was that he beheld outside the city of Kapilavastu. honourable Sirs recite (he recites the dreams) let — : ! not these dreams escape your memories. let them be brought to my mind (that they may be interpreted). awaking from his sleep. six men who raised their voices and wailed greatly and wept. which were gathered by the innumerable concourse of living creatures who came together for the purpose. dream was that he saw the prince sitting in the middle and holding in his hand a large mace smote therewith a large drum. seated in the midst of his attendants. whilst with their hands they plucked out the hair of their heads. within his kingdom. had the dreams again recited to him according to his directions.^ At this time Suddh6dana. to his side within his palace all Then he forthwith summoned the great ministers of his Council. and surrounded by my attendants. and his limbs trembled on account of the The fifth of the four great highways of Kapilavastu. in these terms "All ye men of wisdom explain for me by interpretation the meaning — 1 It will be noticed that according has only one dream." At morning light the King. so that the very hair on his body stood erect.

oh wise !" Brahman tell me. the Devaputra. the meaning of my dreams ! I . " MahirAja be it known to you that we never before have heard such dreams as these. 113 are these of the dreams I have dreamt in my sleep [as before]. in the middle of the hours of sleep. the Prince my son ! these doubts of mine ?" At this time T'so-Ping. his doubts. who is there can satisfy If. one by one. and perceiving the sorrow and distress of the King. and we can! not interpret their meaning !" On this Suddhodana was very troubled in thought thus with himself does not become a Chakravarti Etlja. hastened to the presence of the King. And now my heart is troubled exceedingly. hearing these words of the Brahman. being present in the inner palace of Suddhfidana Eaja. and with certainty to satisfy aU." • now the dreams Then all the wise Brahmans. I saw these seven visions [here he recites his dreams as before]. be it known that my dreams were of this sort." before him addressed ! — Then Suddhodana E^ja immediately ordered him to be brought and when he had arrived he joyfully addressed him. suddenly disappeared from the interior. It to his presence. began to consider each one in his own heart.— HISTORY 01" ETJDDHA. what the meaning of these visions could be . —" his heart. after observing his condition. not knowing whether the interpretation of these visions is good or evU. his appearance dignified and self-possessed. oh wise Brahman that you can' interpret my dreams ? if so. and assumed the appearance of a Brahhis hair dressed in the usual manner and the customary cap on his head. and under this form he stood at the gate of the King's palace and cried out in the following words " I am able fully to interpret the dreams of Suddhddana Eaja. arrayed in the skin of the black deer." Then the gate warders. interpreters of dreams. . But do thou. and prostrating themselves man with him in these words " Mah4raja be it known to you there stands at the palace gate a Brahman who with his mouth announces his ability to interpret your dreams. it cannot but be that the very dignity of Chakravarti Eaja comes to an end in the world my heart within me is exceedingly distressed. and he after all. tiU at last they addressed the King and said. having un- derstood the desire of the King. ! was but yesternight. " Is it true.

would turn the precious wheel of the perfect Law for the good of gods and men. vol. signifies that the prince. surrounded by innumerable Devas. having left his home and attained perfect enlightenment. This is the interpretation of the fourth dream. This is the interpretation of the second dream. This is the interpretation of your first dream. will soon give up his present condition. and begun to turn the wheel of the Law. when your Majesty dreamt that you beheld a richlyjewelled discus proceed through the North gate of the city. Then T'so-Ping Devaputra forthwith replied to the King and be it known unto you that the first dream. p.^ "Again. your son. vide Lotus. anxiously ex- pecting to liear the interpretations. translated by Stas. 346.114 Having spoken THE ROMANTIC thuSj the King remained silent.'^ This is the interpretation of the fi. will forthwith attain to the knowledge of aU things (Sarvadjfia or Sarvasandjna) and the ten powers of mind (Dasabalas). ^ is . " Again. Vaisaradyas. " Maharija ! which you saw the vast multitude surrounding the Banner of Indi-a. proceed from the city and become a recluse. when the King saw in his dreams the prince sitting in the midst of the four highways of Kapilavastu beating a mighty drum with a mace held in his hand j this signified that the prince having attained to the condition of B6dhi. that the sound of his preaching should extend through the Highest Heavens fthe Heavens of Brahma) even as the sound of the drum is heard through the inferior worlds. Julien. 1. "Again. when the Maharaja dreamt that he saw the prince riding in a chariot drawn by ten mighty elephants. proceeding from the South gate of the city. having left his home. this signifies that the prince.na." Les Avaddnas. this signified that the prince. This the interpretation of the third dream. " Le Eoi et le grand tambour. ^ This dream corresponds to the AvadS. and carrying it forth from the city gate. and. he shall likewise arrive at the condition of perfect fearlessness. p. this signifies that the prince having left his home and attained the perfect knowledge before-named. in said.fth dream. and proceeding through the West gate of the city. when your Majesty dreamt that you saw the Eoyal Prince driving in a four-horsed chariot. " Again. when your Majesty dreamt that you saw in Kapilavastu The four intrepidities. " Again. i.

HISTORY OF BUDDHA. This is the interpretation of the seventh dream. having explained the dreams of Suddh6dana Eaja. Parbata Katyayana. without any reflection. Sanjipayatijitaputra. to wit. and let there be no more anxiety or distress. whilst sitting within the palace. " Again. wUl scatter the precious gems of the Good Law in every direction for the sake of Devas and men and the eight classes of creatures. giving rein to his passions. whilst countless multitudes of creatures were gathered together collecting these precious gifts. Man on the Eoad. whilst the world is perishing — ! I must arouse him by some spiritual manifestation. . compose your heart then. T'so-Ping. for in truth these dreams are of the most felicitous character. resolved to increase yet more the enticements to sensual indulgence in the palace of the prince. Mavakaragosaputra. "Mah^r^ja your heart should be fiDed with joy and not with grief. the Devaputra. ! world. then. this signifies that the prince. Adjnitasa Eimbala. and Kirganthajatiputra. 115 a high tower. he caused the prince. Then the King. the Devaputra. he suddenly disappeared. suddenly to conceive a desire to make another tour of inspection through the gardens without (the city). and was no more seen. This is the interpretation of the sixth dream. Seeing the Sick "^b § 2. having arrived at perfect wisdom." Thus T'so-Ping. again began to bethink himself thus " This Prabh^pala Bodhisatwa Mahdsatwa is still living within his palace indulging himself in mere animal enjoyment. and the prince seated on the top scattering precious gems towards the four quarters of heaven." Having thus reflected. having heard these words. he further addressed him and said. when your Majesty beheld the six men outside the city Kapilavastu weeping and lamenting and tearing their hair this signifies the misery and distress of the six heretical teachers whom the prince after his enlightenment shall discomfit and expose. hoping thus to prevent his going forth to see the . Pouma Kasyapa. And so the prince still remained in the indulgence of his animal passions." Thus speaking. Now.

sighing for death . The coachman and proceeded through the South gate of the city. in this plight. and awaiting your orders. immediately addressed his caldron. he still is this ! ! what and hearing his coachman and said. "Even so. I will go to raise him up. a sick and pain-worn man. his limbs cramped and helpless . every now and then lying down in the dirt through exhaustion till at last. raise me unable to rise — ! up to sit upon the road. pale and miserable. his unhappy being ? his body emaciated and wan. took his seat with the dignity and appearance of a king. At this time T'so-Ping Devaputra caused to appear in the way. and the flowers. without remedy ! Tor this rea- . 'Alas! alas! pity. he exclaimed with much difficulty in suppliant tones " Oh I humbly intreat you. and the ornamentation of the trees of the garden. " The chariot is even now ready. Then the coachman. : through weakness. giving evidence of agonising suilering. without refuge or protection. " Who breath like the steaming of a endures his misery." Then the Devaputra. his skin yellow as parchment. seeing or this wretched object iutreaty. " Then the prince summoned his coachman again to his side and My worthy coachman I wish to take another drive without ! the city towards the gardens for the purpose of seeing the trees replied. and as he goes groaning and sighing ' Ah me what pain !' and again. daily looking for death. father and mother both forgotten— no one to sympathise with him . my lord! as you say !" Then having received his instructions. "Sacred Prince! this man's body is unsound and deprived of all vital power and grace. scarcely able to draw his breath. with cramped limbs and swollen belly." 115 THE ROMANTIC said." Then the prince rejoined. who issued similar instructions throughout the city for the decoration and cleansing of the streets and highways. approached the prince and said. and slowly ad- vanced towards the gardens without. master! pity!' Indeed I cannot bear to hear such misery. having prepared a magnificent chariot. mounting into the chariot. "And what does that signify ?" The coachman replied and said. just before the prince. T'so-Ping. this is a sick man." Then the prince. he forthwith sent the intelligence to Suddhodana Eaja. inspired the coachman to answer thus— "Holy youth listen to me. without help." Then the prince.

Sitting stiU he reflected on this misery of sickness What joy can I have. Then Suddhodana Kaja inquired of the coachman whether the prince had enjoyed his visit to the gardens or not. or is it Is this sickness confined to the case common to men generally ?" To which the coach" It is not restricted to this man alone. then. O charioteer then I feel in no temper to go to the gardens to enjoy the beauty of the trees and flowers ." Then the prince. ! " The Prince Royal. seeing I cannot escape this ? Dissatisfied with the pleasures of sense. Which caused him to loathe the thought of pleasure. What man is this enduring such pain ?' The coachman replied to the prince ' The four elements ill-adjusted. the prince lived within his palace stiU absorbed. himself.— — — — " HISTOEY OF BUDDHA." Thus. Such happiness and incomparable felicity did he inherit Prom his former good deeds and virtuous conduct. even as the Gathas say man men replied. turn again to the palace. what anxiety ?" And again h. to the sorrow and grief of the King. lean and worn. night and day. therefore sickness is produced. turn again. 117 Prince ! he is caJled a sick man !" And so tlie Gatha says " The Prince asked the coachman and ' said. "I will do as your highness commands. in the pursuit of sensuous pleasures. "alas! if this be so. who recalled the words of Asita." someday be sick?" asked the prince. Though possessed of the most lavish means of enjoyment.e said. " If this really be so. " before us. what fear. After a time desired to go forth to the gardens to enjoy In the way he saw a sick man. and in consequence he resolved to increase even more the inducements to pleasure within the palace of the prince. ." The coachman repUed. that he also mast some day be reduced by sickness to the condition ef the man he had seen. for a long time dwelling within his palace. sat pensively and sadly reflecting on the truth he had heard.' Again the prince inquired. but gods and " And must I too alike are unable to avoid this misery. On which the charioteer explained the circumstance which had occurred. son. having returned to the palace.

addressed beating their breasts with grief.— ! 118 THE KOMANTIC Beholding the Corpse. Then he saw the people lift up the bier and carry it along. Then the Devaputra caused to appear before the prince as he rode onwards. beauty of appearance. to leave these foolish pleasui-es and become a Eecluse. To which the coachman answered. And still again T'so-Piu^. Then the same preparations and precautions having been adopted." And so he again caused the prince to long to go forth from his palace. witnessing this scene. no more shall he see father . reflected within himself as he beheld the prince thus engaged in self-indulgence and pleasure—" How can I best stir up this PrabhJpMa Bodhi- satwa. who on his part forthwith reported the matter to Suddhddana Eaja. Whereupon the prince. others throwing dust on their heads . " Respectcoachman who is this lying thus on his bed. he is one with the stones and the wood. and turning to his coachman he asked him. tearing their hair and and visit the gardens beyond the city. just as the dead wall or a fallen leaf. his head wrapped up. Who is this Ljing upon the bed borne on the four sides by men. some were spreading over it every kind of coloured grass (?). others waOing cries as could and lamenting and weeping drops seldom be heard fast as rain. his heart was overwhelmed with sorrow. and surrounded by people lamenting and weeping as he is carried onwards ?" in able ! — the words of the Githa "The gracefully -formed and ruddy prince Asked his respectable coachman. calling his charioteer. or desire.?' Then T'so-Ping Devaputra by his supernatural power caused the coachman to answer thus " Most holy prince this is called a dead body (or a corpse] laid out)." "And what is a dead body?" inquired the prince. covered with strangely-coloured garments. such sad and bitter The prince. others striking their heads across either arm . whilst on the right and left were weeping women. the prince went forth. a corpse lying on a bier in the road. § 3. " Great prince this person has now done with life he has no further — ! ! . the Devaputra. him as before. And surrounded by friends weeping and lamenting " ' .

. " If this be really so." Then the prince again inquired. and this body of mine must die and become like this. or any sense." Even as the GStha says die?" . Now just as the prince was entering his palace gate. the dead body lies. About to be separated for aye from the object of their love. then what have I to do with pleasure. AH its friends surrounding it and calling lamentably on his name. rich and poor alike. dear coachman." Then the prince replied. or why should I go to the garden to find enjoyment ? chariot and take me what you have said.— — HISTORY OF BUDDHA. also To whom he said." Then the prince entered his palace again. looking with a sort of wild expression on the prince. Inert as a log or a stone. or mother. on hearing the reply he was deeply grieved. Whether their present condition be good or bad. it so happened that outside there was standing a certain mad astrologer who. brother or sister or other relative called ' 119 j and therefore it is a dead body. cried out "All ye folks Within seven days from listen to what I have to say and attend ! Turn again. back to O coachman turn again your my palace that I may meditate on ! — ! ! the present time this prince shall have possession of the seven gems which attend the person of a Chakravarti. and continued to urge on the prince every mode of gratifying his sensual desires. " This G-ods is the final destiny of all flesh and men. All creatures at the appointed time meet the like fate. And so matters still continued.' " as the G-dtha says " Without thought or mind. must die. " Must I. "Most holy prince! your sacred body must also come to this and die for neither Devas or men can avoid this inevitable fate. and sat silently down and pondered on death and the impermanency of all things. first at his face and then down over his body." Then Suddhodana Eaja asked the coachman [as before].

who gave orders as before. and restrains his appetites and his bodily desires . proceeding with such slow and dignified steps. but. " And what is the calling and conduct of a mendicant ?" The coachman answered. as far as he can. asked the coachman—" Dear coachman who is this man in front of me. as before. Prince for this reason he is called a mendicant. " Honoured Sir tell me. by his spiritual chariot. not far in front of the with a shaven crown and wearing a Sanghati robe. The prince having observed this figure before him." Then the prince asked again. the prince addressed the mendicant and said. his head shaven. unlike the white-clad mendicants. he gives himself to charity. and so going with measured pace along the road. I pray you. he does good to all. with fixed attention. he is in agreement with all men. On this occa§ 4." " If this be so.120 THE KOMANTIC Beholding the Shaman. with his right shoulder bare. Then the prince. coachman and let me speak to him." said the prince. the prince directed the coachman what in his turn acquainted Suddhfidana Eaja with the circumstances. " Grieat prince this man constantly ! and avoids wrong . a the Devaputra man power caused to appear. looting neither to the right or the left. having set out on his excursion. And so it came to do. done. neither killing nor poisoning any one . his alms dish too of a purpUsh shining ! hue. in his left hand holding a mendicant's alms bowl. to pass that six days more elapsed during in his palace. and is fall of sympathy for all. ! ! ! ! . Then again the Devaremained which the prince putra stirred him up to desire once more to go abroad to enjoy the pleasure of beholding the gardens beyond the city. " and he is of such a disposition. who sion. what man you are !" At this time the Devaputra T'so-Ping by his spiritual power caused him to answer thus—" Great prince I am called a mendicant !" "And what is practises vu-tue. his garments of a reddish earthen colour. like the stone ' toi ' ?" Then the Devaputra T'so-Ping excited the coachman to answer thus " Holy youth and illustrious prince this person is called a — ! mendicant (parivrajika)." This drive up to him. and hurts nobody. in his right hand a religious staff.

505. This is the way to regard the character of a mendicant. to think no and do none . Thoroughly emancipated from all personal consideration. resuming the conversation said. suddenly the prince entered the as- sembly and came up beside the King. homeless one). and desires nothing so much as by some expedient or other to give life to all creatures and to do harm to none .] as impermanent. and having performed three circuits round him in token of respect. " Then Suddh6dana Edja. trembled as a tree shivers that is struck by the whole weight of an elephant's — ! ! ! 1 Here follow some "verses of emancipation. on the contrary. Or dwelling on the cold earth in the place of tombs. — . he re-mounted his chariot." Then the prince. the world and its ways. his hands clasped and his body bent. and to seek Nirvana All King are changeable and transitory. ' To desire above all things the condition of Nirv&na. and being seated." which proceed from the air.i Then Suddh6dana Eaja. for this reason." worldly things. having descended from his chariot. but. Freed from all earthly objects of desire Frequenting the solitary pits or forests or beneath a tree. proceeded to the spot where the mendicant stood. who has forsaken friends and home in order to find deliverance for himself. and bowing his head to the ground worshipped him. the heart equally affected. vide Introd. . and spake thus " Would that your majesty would hear me I wish to become a mendicant.' ordered his coachman to drive homewards towards the palaoe. you are able to behold (or regard) all objects evil of sense (sansara) [or the SamsJcdras.. p. that ?" inquired the prince. these I omit. O prince I am called a ! mendicant (parivrijika. Done with hatred or love. being surrounded by the circle of his ministers within the palace.' " Then the prince. "Venerable one and what is the character of the preparation necessary for ! arriving at this condition ?" "Illustrious youth ! if (To which the mendicant replied). then this wOl lead to the condition of a mendicant as the Gatha says " To regard all earthly things as perishable to benefit all creatures (by your life . n. and teaching)." the mendicant rejoined. having heard these words. 121 " who has left " It ia one. — HISTORY OF BUDDHA..

while he gave way words— "Alas alas my son. hearing'." and so by his power — he restrained in them aU tendencies to sensual pleasures." Then for the sake of the King. were exceedingly rejoiced. so overawed the women that they could but whisper among themselves " Surely this is Chandra Deva. and began to show such blandishments as in the Palace of Ishwara the Apsarasas use. my son. and the tears coursed to his grief in these thoughts as these prevail with you . and the time for your becoming a recluse is not arrived. come down to earth . . seeing the prince. he uttered the following Gatha [a mere repeStill Suddhodana Eaja continued tition of the above sentiment]. let not such ! ! body. and a man who knows this. and then you. Tree and Serpent Worship. countenance. according to the Vedas. forsake the world and become a recluse. having sat down. when old. Then the prince. that they were neither able to desire any indulgence or even to laugh i Then Suddhodana ESja. after his son had left his presence. Let not my son think of !" giving up the world at his tender age Then the prince answered. every youthful monarch should fulfil his kingly duties. After a few years more. they clapped their hands and sang and danced. Ixxiii. retired to within the palace. and he not resist ? ! Maharaja! all earthly things are changeable and transitory .the words of his great ministers. "Your majesty cannot prevail against my resolve for what is it ? Shall a man attempt to prevent another escaping from a burning house. etc.122 THE KOMANTIC down his cheeks. 1. Then the prince. and yet does not attempt to get free from the trammel of worldly occupations. Then Suddh6dana. And so the women. is no wise man. overcome with hesitation. I shall give up my kingdom and retire to the forest. burst again into tears and looked beseechingly at his sou with an earnest to urge his plea. and the ministers also addressed the prince and showed him how. you are young. On this the prince. called for the coachman and asked him the circumstances of the ! 1 Plate Such appears to be the character of the group in Fig. will succeed me. for. by displaying the beautiful signs of his person (the superior and inferior marks). they surrounded him. my son. and afterwards. the Moon God.

. seeking counsel and advice. contains 6. egress.18 taels." ^ That is. elephants — who continually cir- cumambulated the royal escape. laid the case of the prince before him. of Udayi." said he. " By what stratagem.] CHAPTER The Exhortation At XIV. Then the S^kya princes undertook to assist in carrying out any measures necessary to prevent Siddartha leaving his home. if the prince escape. placing at the head of each crossroad patrols of chariots. and cost 3. " can we keep Siddartha in the palace. young man of distinguished ability and At the same time. a Suddhfidana E4ja. Mahanama or Basitu. the Eaja summoned all the S^kya princes and begged [laid the same case before them] them also to use such expedients as they thought necessary to effect the same purpose. " fail to provide amusement for him night and day j let there be no all — interval of darkness. palace. last excursion. ' this time the Chief Officer of State had a son called Udayi. remember. there will be no other sources of pleasure within the palace. and prevent him becoming a Eecluse ?" rising talent.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. having called this youth to his presence. fumes." she said. he also surrounded it with additional enclosures. and at every gate placed guards of various descriptions to prevent prince and the outer world. let there and never be without wine and burning perbe guards at every door to prevent ingress or For. 123 After whicli he resolved once more to increase the temptations to pleasure within the palace. And now Suddhodana and the Sikya princes surrounded Eapilavastu with additional guards. all possible intercourse betwixt the [Kiouen XV.360 words. so as effectually to prevent any Then again Mahapraj^pati Gotaml within the palace assembled the women of pleasure and upbraided them with their want of influence over the mind of the prince " Let none of you. horses.

and forthwith set themselves Some postured themto employ every art to enamour the prince. p. The connection of this myth with the mediaeval story of the Unicorn being capable of capture only by a chaste maiden is too evident to require proof. Tree and Serpent Worship. {Vide Yule's * Marco Polo. The prince. seeing that aU these means were useless. others with their fingers in their mouths produced every sort of bird-like whistle. looking on with a sort of vacant stare. twirling it in his hand. enamoured by the breezes of the evening. " This story of Ekasringa (^Unicorn) is one frequently alluded to in Buddhist books (Catena. forthwith drew the flower out and. vol. added to the Horse. others told him different kinds of lascivious story. And yet amidst aU this the prince was unmoved. Now there was one woman amongst the rest who. he disease. and urged them to use every desire to keep the prince engrossed in pleasure. with her own hand taking a Malika flower from the front of her head-dress. ii. others offered him flowers.^ And when he saw them all sitting silent and sad he likewise reproached them and said. sub. The later story of Ms seduction by the maids of Anga probably alludes to the Sun's passage westward.) 124 Then THE ROMANTIC Udslyi also entered into the quarters of the women. It was probably the origin of the story of Sringha found in the Eam4yana {Talboys Wheeler. so incomparably fair and accomplished in every art of of the Eishi's discourse as you are ?" And then he reminded them Devayaua and Ekasringa ^. old age. scattered the leaves on the ground. thought ?" and paid but Httle heed to the wiles of the women. Eitel's Handbook. of India. selves before him. Plate Ixxiii. 1. to denote strength or juvenescence. 11).. p. 1. the emblem of the Sun. " Why sit ye thus silent and dejected. fastened it on to the breast of the prince. Plate Ixsiii. "and shall not you be able to enlist the affections or excite the desire of the prince with whom you live ?" Then these women. The original myth was doubtless derived fiom the shadow of the Sun when on the meridian. Hist. 260 . This one-horned figure became afterwards known as the Unicorn. This also seems to be the case in Fig. besought — 1 This appearance of Udayi in the interior of the palace seems to be the subject of Fig. and others.' Then Ud^yi. absorbed in his thoughts about " How may I hope to escape these. voce). and death. . Tree and Serpent Worship. conceived in themselves a very strong desire. who were aU overcome by the fascinations of fair women. having heard these words.

Eespect to a husband is won only by his being capable of participation in pleasure. . but yet what are these pleasures of which you speak to me? I see only one thing." Then he added this G^tha " The happiness of a woman is to respect^ (her husband) TJd^yi. I wish. or the contrary. in your conduct. but that you rather hate. to speak plainly on the present occasion. to warn . however well they may speak of you with flattering lips." having uttered this Gatha.'coutinued his conversation thus " Great and holy Prince as I have now undertaken to act as a. 125 and repeated this Ms friendly advice. and deliver." Then he added a Gatha— 1 That is to respect in the discharge of all conjugal duties." Then the prince. will find it difficult to honour you at heart. that worldly enjoyments are perishable. relieve. and dislike their society. it would be unfriendly if I remained silent after observing that which I consider commendable. rich and poor. avoid. friend to your Highness. therefore. Such a man is indeed a true and illustrious friend. . and I ask you to bear with me as with a friend. the prince to listen to Gathfi.— — . " I will recount in brief tlie marks of a friend. Without respect. ! and in tones like the thunder -roll. and therefore the thoughts of my heart are sad and not tending to outward exhibition of joy. I observe that your Highness is wrong in not yielding to the importunities of the ladies of your palace . replied Is to be like a tree without flowers. having only beauty. But why should you think it wrong to act according to our natural tendencies ? The very first principle of a woman's being is to allow her the privilege of loving some one. having heard the discourse of in words of deepest meaning. as courteous. — mSTOKY OF BUDDHA. when doing well to exhort to perseverance When in difficulty or danger. When doing wrong. ITdayi. . and said. and I reject none of your advice . Then — ! This respect is the highest source of her content. to assist. If your Highness persistently refuses to indulge yourself in these objects of desire. " ITdS-yi I accept your offer of friendship. and seeking the gratification of her desire. then the world.

Again. According to the subsequent narrative Tasodhara was not delivered till six years after. may observe. Doubtless the passage in the text is an attempt to reconcile the accounts found in the diiferent schools. practised their arts in causing pleasure. death. It was adorned with every kind of jewel and beauIt appeared even like the Eoyal Mount Sumeru tifully formed. Fix (the mind on) these (three). birth. disease and death These four only extirpate them.). their beauty faded another think how sad their reflections then ! " The condition of birth. Yet there is birth and old age. it seemed that from . on which the went once more into the chamber of the women. however. — We . 1 This is an ambiguous sentence. [On this night the Qaeen Tas6dhard found herself about to be delivered. — And my another light ! heart —whom will ! it not love ?" And then he continued—" Udayi see them as they will only regard these women in be when they are old. old age. old age. 126 THE EOMANTIC " The glories of the world though they be joy-giving. and on seeing one how much more stupid of a man in such a place and surrounded by such companions to be merry and amorous !" Then he added this Gatha skins wrinkled. disease If thus fixed. with the events narrated in the subsequent pages. the Queen Mother Gotamt. called PrajSpat!. Again.the midst of this royal standard a bright light shone out.— —— .^'\ On this night. seeing the darkness went down . 389. n. that the agreement of the passage cited from the Abhinishkramana by M. standing upfrom the midst of the watery earth. their and gone. A man is but as a brute-beast or a bird. also. nevertheless an amorous desire is present." prince. Suddhodana on that night dreamt that he saw in the midst of the city a royal standard like that of Indra fixed in the ground. whilst no one in the place was able to get before it to stop it or hinder it. who surrounded him on every side as they And so they discoursed until the sun coming on. in her sleep had the foUowiug dream she thought she saw a white ox-King in the midst of the city going on in a wistful way bellowing and crying. proves that the work we are now translating is known in Thibet. and reaching high up into space. disease. p. Foucaux (Lalita Vistara. which lit up the world on every And then from the four quarters of heaven he thought he side.

and these.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. "Tasodhari. and having taken the standard the gates opened and they went out. then. the prince turned to her and said. fall to the earth. naturally so graceful and attractive. beloved why are you so restless and alarmed ? Tour breathing indicates distress. I saw my hands and my feet of themselves drop off from my body. gathering together over the it. The same night Yas6dhar^ was greatly troubled in her sleep. as you have just awoke. deprived of I saw a great mountain. filled with doubt and anxiety . the cause of all this ?" Then Tasodhara. I saw the Sun and Moon. fall to the earth. appeared coming towards the city. I saw myself suddenly stripped to the skin and left without clothing. I saw my chair. a grateful shade when. is Tchandaka. distilled a soft rain above ! ! — — ! ! ! ! ! falling through space. whose it me name away and went off with it. tell me. and all the stars standard. in the King's palace. and enjoyed your caresses. adorn my head-dress. I saw my body. and your heart is oppressed . but you are within the city surrounded by guards. I saw the various ornaments worn on my body. nor amidst the mountains. suddenly overturned. I saw a very beautiful umbrella spread over myself and affording that son of the slave. Sacred one in my sleep I saw aU the great earths around us shaking and trembling I saw the gi'eat standard of Indra. saw some clouds and soft voices 127 rising. what is it affects you that you start so ? My Tasodhara is not in a Sitavana (cemetery). there are no wUd beasts here. came and snatched I saw all the choicest jewels that — . composed its four legs. whilst flowers fell round it sang sweetly. on which I have sat for so many years. replied as follows " My prince in my sleep this night I have beheld twelve visions oh let me tell them and bear with me whUst I speak. with their retinues. and a beautiful white umbrella with a golden handle appeared over it. broken in twain. suddenly. with many tears and almost choked with sobbing. cut off and dispersed here and there. and had twelve dreams which disturbed her exceedingly. I saw the couch on which I have so often reposed with you. or robbers to frighten youj but in this place there is peace and But yet I see my Tasodhara's safety and no cause for alarm heart is greatly affected. and at last the four Kings of heaven. well protected . suddenly. or in a desert . suddenly become perfectly horrible and ugly. Being unable to rest. necklets and bracelets (scattered) as the water is driven. nor in a place for burning bodies.

Prince which cause me this distress. disappear. having heard the words of the prince. I saw the city of KapUavastu suddenly converted into a waste. I saw all the frightful to behold. . suddenly burst into flames from I saw a beautiful tree fall down in utter ruin. let not such anxieties as these molest you or cause you distress !" Then Tasodhar4. to your rest Tou are young in years and your body delicate and soft. blown down by the wind. trees and flowers scatter their leaves and the tanks all dry up. I saw the Sun. Manual. and the entire world left in pitchy darkness. who protects it on every side. and indeed I cannot tell whether they be indications of good or bad fortune— or what wiU be the result." Then he addressed her and " Dear wife fall though you had seen a thousand standards broken and to the earth. whether my life is coming to an end. with its glorious light. ." Then self — "It the prince began to reflect. I saw the moon and all the stars which surround it suddenly fall down and perish.^ 1 The original is more explicit. p. without one spot of delight. yet let none of these things trouble or alarm you dreams are but the empty products of a universal law . suddenly stand without one of the gates and raise his voice in lamentation and wailing. 128 THE ROMANTIC four corners and its of all the precious substances. But the text tion of his explains this by saying that he desired to hush Tasfldharft's suspicions.These five dreams are given with slight variation by Spence Hardy. I saw the guardian so spirit of this city. dear wife. " Such were the dreams.. returned to her couch — ! and slept. that these dreams have appeared to Tas6dhar4. whilst the prince reposed by her side.' Moreover. and am still dis! tressed in mind. or a thou- sand suns and stars showering through space. I saw a number of fully-armed men hastening in every direction towards the four quarters of the world. and thought thus with himis because I shall soon leave said. Sufficient at any rate to show that up to this time the prince was not weaned from the gratificasenses. on the same night the prince himself had five dreams. return. his person beautiful and so magnificently attired. I saw a lighted torch which was in the city depart from it. or whether your love and society is to be taken from me on these accounts I was troubled in my sleep. 167. . my home ! and become a Eecluse. witHn the Maharaja's Palace enclosure.

at midnight the guard exclaimed in a loud voice." "Mudra. Secondly. Palace. — At this time all down and to Kapilavastu. still all within the palace was and quiet. come and lick his feet. At informing them of the anxiety of Suddhodana. : 129 whioli were these first. One of the Devas. whilst the Prince dwelt within the palace and the chief oificer of the guard. he dreamt that he saw four birds. and it was just beginning the second half. told the persons composing the guard that during the watches the pass-words should be these. black from their feet up to their knees. to see that the prince did not escape." And he. Then the first watch being passed. he dreamt that he saw a certain plant called Kin-leJi^. Fifthly. who protected the precincts. I do not know what plant Km-leh can be. moreover. flying from each Quarter. Fourthly. on which he reposed and went round it on foot the top of without pollution. his head reposed on Mount Sumeru as a pillow. they were of every colour. the Devas of the Suddhavasa Heavens came The men of the city were wrapped in sleep. ' The Sinhalese account says it was an arrow that proceeded from the navel. but as they came and fell at his feet. The Flight from the § 2. his right — arm rested on the great Western Sea. the great sea on the East supported his left arm. warned them to be especially watchful throughout this particular night.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. this time. he saw in his dreams four head of white cattle. . " Prosperity to his Sacred Majesty long And so the first half of the middle watch life and happiness !" went by. he saw a lofty and wide mount of impure substance. lie dreamt he saw the great earth stretched out for him to use as a bed. and both his feet stretched out to the great Southern Sea. " Komperah. and the predictions of the soothsayers respecting his either being a Chakravarti or a Beoluse. slept. come towards him. and it reaching even to the Akanishta Heaven. Compare this with the story about Vishnu. growing up oat of his navel." "Angana. they all became white. Thirdly.

" And then " Alas like ! the prince proceeded farther to reflect in this this ! way— this what great misery is filth. "This sight should give me joy! as far as it steels my vow heart to resolve to aim at the highest religious happiness. he reflected thus " It is only the fool who is deceived by the outward show of beauty for where is — . a mirage. others partly in bed and partly out. and the instruments of music scattered^'here and there in utter disorder. and to to deliver aOl men who are left as it were without a Saviour. and caused all the women who were asleep in the chamber around Siddhartha to contort their bodies into every kind of unseemly position. by his spiritual with their eyes half-closed. shall obtain deliverance That man and a body free from con- tamination. . and in the lurid light observing the women lying about in the unseemly attitudes just described. Then the prince. the flowers and when the The wise man. some called Dharmacliarya DeTaputra. the beauty decorations of the person are taken away. regards them as a dream. and the decorations of jewels. others dribbling from their mouths. lying in all directions. What an impure ! place is a vessel fiUed with ! Oh what madness is is it to desire such pleasures as these as poison. snorting through their throats. etc. as he stiU gazed on the scene in the chamber. then approacted the palace.— ! ! 130 THE KOMANTIC and power entered it.' so put away ignorance." chaplets withered and dead all And then he " repeated this Gdtha ! world how false and deceiving so than woman's appearance Because of clothes. This place hateful—this place is deadly And again he reflected." etc. a phantasy.. seeing the vanity of ? such fictitious charms. the jewels removed. suddenly waking up and seeing the braziers and lamps all untrimmed and defiled with oil. the gaudy dress laid aside. some half clothed. and do not permit himself to be deceived. etc. grinding with their teeth. ' And All these charms are but a phantasy. unreal as a dream. But if a man bring himself to consider How impure the And nothing more . seeing all this. The fool is fiUed with mad desire.

he looked up into heaven and beheld the countless stars of the night.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. having heard the words of T'so-Ping Deva- At this time. perceiving that the time was come for the prince to leave his home. holding in their hands vases full of perfumes. came to the city and did likewise. with an innumerable retinue of Gandharvas discoursing sweet music. and to cause 131 in their them ! to find a refuge and a place of safety present distress I see in the spectacle before time of my own rescue is at hand !" me a sign that the . and then. raising his head. Then beholding the precious couch on which he had been accustomed to lie. I indulge in the pleasures of sense— never again —this is the last time !" . he paused and invoked the Universal Spirit. he descended to earth. to abide in the palace and enjoy the pleasures of life . he struck it with his hand as he uttered these words. and having encircled the city of Kapilavastu three times. with an innumerable retinue of Kumbhandas. to descend to earth. to be incarnated in the world. and proceeded slowly through the outer apartments. " Prince the vows you have made from time to time. standing at the eastern door with closed hands. Then Virudhaka Devaraja. all these vows have been accomplished. " Never again wiU. proceeded from the Eastern quarter. approached Devaputra. proceeding from the Southern quarter of space. and standing with clasped hands he bent his head towards the spot where the prince was standing. designing to come to the spot where the prince was. immediately put on his richly-adorned and invaluable slippers for the purpose of rising to look round the place once more.awake. seeing that the prince was said. began to assemble from the different Quarters with their followers. from henceforth I entertain such thoughts in his right no more he raised Then taking hand the richly-adorned net-like curtain it which divided the chamber from the outer hall. to be born in the Tusita Heaven. T'so-Ping him and ! putra. Then the four guardian Deities of the world and Divine SJkra. And so also the Western "All the Buddhas" —a phrase introduced —to signify " the Universal Spirit. And now all the Devas and men are looting to your leaving your palace and becoming a Eecluse !" Then the prince." > by later Buddhism . Then Dhritarashtra.^ after which.

the second accompanied by Nagas holding every kind of gem and jewelled ornament. born on the same day as myself. Then also Sakra Devanam.] CHAPTER On § 1. having heard these directions. and the hairs on his body stood erect.132 THE EOMANTIC and Northern Kings [the first accompanied by Takshas holding burning torches. my horse Kantaka. born on the same day with himself. up into the Heavens at the stars of round the city.368 words and cost 3. came from the Trayastriiishas Heavens and did litewise. still gazing upwards into heaven. and he spake thus " What fear. Tohandaka. . and seeing the prince thus looking up into the Heavens during the depth of the night. without noise. began to doubt in his mind. having heard the prince speak as he to become an ascetic. in the silence of the night.] came and did likewise. all the Devas are come down to earth to confirm my resolution. abandon all and become a recluse !" Then the prince. to shake the determination of the this time his did. costly perfume. he heard the Devas chanting this song " Holy Prince the time has come the star is now conjoined. the time has come to seek the Highest Law of Life . or what foe Then the prince. and addressed him thus " Tohandaka bring hither. " you shall soon know all but now bring me my horse Kantaka I" ! [Kiouen XVI contains 6. therefore. looking night. he called his coachman Tohandaka. LeaviDg tlie Palace to become a Eecluse.. his body trembled. delay no longer amongst men. the star Kwei in conjunction. holding every sort of heavenly flower. and just as the star Kwei was in conjunction with the moon. thought thus with himself " Now. At made up mind that he had now resolved . I will go the time has come " Thus resolved. beheld these countless beings assembling — ! ! — ' — !' — ! — alarms my master that thus in the night time he orders me to bring his horse ?" " Tohandaka !" the prince replied. etc. desiring. etc. &c." Then Tohandaka. precious ohaplet.184 taels. XVII. with innumerable Devas.

p ! his lovely Apsarasas. HISTOEY OF BUDDHi. in order to be born in the world and become a recluse. but all in vain for by the power of the Devas they were stiU bound by sleep. What foe or rebel or traitor do you fear The world is at peace There is no public commotion. Tchandaka for if formerly when I was a Deva in the Tueita Heavens. rejoices' in his garden. O Prince! in this palace. listen to their and rest at ease !" ! Then the prince. If your Highness really desires to go forth to visit the gardens.— ! !. addressed Tchandaka in a soft voice. " But. O Prince all the world says that hereafter you will certainly become a Chakravarti Baja. " Psha your " what folly. in consequence of my sense — ! . Why then call for your horse ? Let your heart be content in the midst of these your fair companions by charming songs. if you now are determined to give up But here the Prince. seated on your jewelled throne." ! Tchandaka. and partake of their pleasures. prince. and with his foot to move the Hmbs of the women. As the Lord of Heaven. S4kradevanam. surrounded ! ! ! ! . My heart is me my horse Kantaka I am resolved to become I a recluse. coveting nothing so much as your attention. thus " Tchandaka born on the same day with myself. again replied. a view to attract the attention of the guards of the palace " Holy Prince surely there is a right time for doing every thing Is this then a time for having Mm — ! ! your horse harnessed and equipped. or distress The whole earth is under the rule (umbrella) of one Holy Prince Why then do you require your horse Kantaka to be brought Prince! within your palace at the present time are numberless women They lie around you on every side. fearing lest the people should be aroused. I vowed to give up all that glory. so are you. this is not the right time. in order to rousg and wake them. how can this be. he addressed 133 in a loud Toioe with. Then Tchandaka proceeded to pluck the headdresses (or hair). and were affected by none of the efforts made to arouse them. And my desire to I remain here is gone I Tchandaka bring fixed. be assured ! That all within this palace is in my sight * as a grave ! ! As a pit filled with noisome insects and worms As an abode in which Kakshas dwell together * * ! * * Tchandaka I realise the misery of these delights. interrupting him said. on hearing this.

To which the prince replied. and the unutterable grief he would feel if his son carried out his purpose. O Tchandaka I am bent on seeking that higher and more exceUeut platform (found alone in the religious life) . "My love to my father is not less than his to me. everything is impermanent . the changes and alternations of love . for I aim to rescue them and all men from their misery. for this reason. But now. as I exhort you. ! O Prince. and bring him hither. "Because. and give up the aim which then actuated me ?" Again Tchandaka urged the age of the prince's father. then may I well be drawn to strive after such a state. nor do I love all my relatives less . from enmity . by the power of the Heavenly Spirits. "I see the evil of worldly things. "Are yon. and every future consequence now prefer the short life of it. and seeing the deep purpose of his heart— notwithstanding the commands of the King that the Prince should be kept within the palace. Firmly bent on disobeying the King's command. . of propitious birth my purpose is fised !" " And why are you so influenced ?" urged Tchandaka. shall of a man." Tchandaka then j'ou really said. and I desire to find out the Law of Deliverance to prove my love to them to be greater even than theirs. " Tes Tchandaka. disease. and attain to a royal condition. "if the world can secure freedom from birth and death . worthy Tchandaka contradict me no further ." ! ! Tchandaka having heard the prince's entreaty. made up his so the mind and said. without taint or pollution. "Because. but I feel my heart filled with awe and fear in consideration of the misery awaiting them all if they continue in this condition of birth and death.: 134 of the evil and misery of I THE EOJIANTIC impermanenoe and birth and death. once more." answered the prince." said the prince. and harness my horse Kantaka." "And how do you prove the superior excellency of that life?" rejoined Tchandaka. even though a universal monarch. oh Prince " And Gatha says 1 " Tchandaka. but go. "I shall obey your commands. thus resolved ? Do ! purpose to leave the world and to become an ascetic ? " The prince answered. from old age.

caused the sound to be deadened and destroyed. and from over the manger took down the beautifully adorned bit (kavika) of Kantaka. e. — ! ! — my horse ! Then the Prince. The sound of this neighing could be heard at the distance of half a yojana. even to death. then comes sorrow again. by their spiritual power. i. Eesolved to harness in all his trappings the horse Kantaka. with the soft of the lotus silky fingers of his right hand. Then Kantaka. hour of battle know how to exert yourself. he led him round forthwith to the place where the Prince was awaiting him. neighed loudly as he came up. show yourself now equal to this struggle after the joys re- sulting from the sacrifice of home in pursuit of a religious life. but all the Devas of the Suddha (pure) heavens. but now. Then the Prince. Tou must pat forth your strength and advance bravely. and then above the way of the Prince's departure. seeing his master standing there in his youthful strength. and then tying him fast to a stake. oh Kantaka even for you is for the sake of the world. because I am earnest in seeking how to afford universal It deliverance from misery exert yourself bravely. patted the back of his Eoyal steed. Thus having equipped the horse. Kantaka your master desires to seek the ever life-giving law (law of sweet dew. and all that lives. born on the same day with the Prince.. " Now then. fearing lest any one should be aroused." Then Tohandaka forthwith proceeded to the stable." . filled with unutterable delight. king of horses. fiUed with a transport of joy. and putting it into his mouth he led him forth from the stable. vowed a mighty . he rubbed down his back before placing across him his beautifully soft and pliable adorned with gold and gems of every description this he placed a gold net-work covering. and when passed. and said in an encouraging tone. of a bright colour. my brave Kantaka in the to place an obstacle in the way. standing there on the ground. With 135 a. and so put an obstacle in saddle-cloth. view to the accomplishment of Bodhisatwa's ancient vow. To exert oneself in reMgious pursuits is difficult. yea and those like you I am now struggling then advance bravely. ambrosia). nor permit any one Tou. smooth as the leaves even as that of red ore. flower. my own Eoyal steed. to secure ! ! victory . The joys of this world are brief and transitory. HISTORY OF BUDDHA.

he leapt on to the back of Kantaka. and THE ROMANTIC said." Having said this. Eakshas. on this occasion it opened On this. "Oh! may there be no obstacle placed in the way of the Holy and Eeverend one. flocked round the royal steed Kantaka and accompanied him as he went. " Oh ! Tchan- daka. on the approach of the ." Another Devaputra spake thus. and — then bade him go on and bear him well for this last time. holding on to the saddle cloth. holding in their hands umbrellas. who now desires to deliver the countless creatures of the world from the sea of trouble. surrounded the Prince. and even up to the Akanishta regions. Heaven-dwelling Devas. came together at the time of the Prince's departure. of propitious birth. belonging to the Suddha Heavens. even as a evidently the subject of Plate exclaimed. etc. Earth-dwelling Pisachas. Thus he advanced slowly towards the outside gate of the Palace." The inner gate of the palace. unbars itself and stands open for him to pass. countless Asuras.136 and earnest vow. who now desires to leave his home and cross the sea of Life and Death." Then the Prince addressed Tohandaka and said.. on ordinary occasions." is lix. Tchandaka portent ! strength to open this gate Prince it on ordinary occasions it but now. when opened could be heard at a krosa distance noiselessly of itself. Einnaras. which generally could be heard at the distance of a krosa. " This shall be the last time I mount a horse whilst leading a secular life from henceforth. "Tree and Ser- . Garudas. that good fortune " Oh would ! may attend the Master of the ship. Then the Devas. Mahoragas. who uttered this sentence in a loud voice. no steed shall bear me. and each one held the feet of Kantaka underneath. At the time when the Prince mounted on to the saddle cloth of Kantaka. Now there was at this time a space-dwelling Taksha. as I now am. this Patrapada and the older Takshas dwelling in the air. after this. the Suddha Devas deadening the sound of Kantaka's feet. there was a Devaputra when the Prince first made up his mind to quit his home. " "Wonderful requires an exertion of great ' This scene pent Worship. ilags with golden beUs. . so that he might go quietly. proceed in advance and observe the way.^ Again. called Patrapada .

rode on slowly towards the Vyala gate. but aU these alarming appearances were overpowered and removed by the spiritual energy of the good Devas of the Suddha heavens. than not fulfil my vow to seek to save aU flesh from the fearful ocean of birth and death. rather would I drink the deadliest poison. of the Kama loka. he exclaimed " Eather would I have my body crushed by a rock. again. in front of which there was a Yaksha chief on guard.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. Then the Prince. towards the gate. having got beyond the city. as he said. the cruel and Malignant (Pisuna). " What means this. they resolved to open the gate when lo it silently flew open — ! of itself! At this time. he had five hundred other Yakshas in attendance. whose name was Shen-jih (good or propitious entrance). I enter not the city again. said one to another. Mara Eaja." After reflection. or the crashing of things together. he made the appearance of a great torrent rushing from a rock. he caused the appearance of a great and rugged mount . however. fierce 137 wind divides and opens the cloud whicli has collected in heaven. caused by his spiritual power all sorts of strange shrieks and noises to be heard. also of a fiercely burning conflagration ." The Devas. but rather was . " Oh valiant youth to have thus gone forth from the city." The Prince having passed this gate. these seeing the Prince coming slowly onwards. were filled with joy. and now to ! ! ! these words.! . or starve myself to death." and then with raised hands they addressed him and said. and with his lion's voice. fearing the consequences of his so doing. that Siddartha should be advancing towards our gate at this time of the night ? Surely this is not a fitting time for such an excursion. vowed a vow. seeing the Prince leaving his home. hearing this resolve. right in front of the Prince . whilst all the spirits that kept guard at the gates and ramparts of the city exclaimed " E ven so even so may the Prince fulfil his purpose. passing through the gate to the outside. feared not nor was with joy. like the rolling of thunder in the air. turned round and looked at it. " Never again will look back " ! The Prince hearing filled alarmed. again." Then the Prince. and his hair was moved with the earnestness of his resolve. " This is the very last time that I will pass through this gate.

He is able to cure and completely remove the disease Behold here is the great Torch of Wisdom To illumine those who are deceived or in doubt. You may exhaust the waters of the Ocean. . Able to shed light throughout the universe. Able to instruct the entire world ! By the brightness of his perfect wisdom and full knowledge. But words unless they are fulfilled are vain. men in after days erected a pagoda(tower) and called it " the tower of the lion voice utterance. the Deva " If a of which tree on this occasion uttered these Gathas : man should desire to destroy the tree. ! 138 I enter this city gift of Life). here is the great Physician of all Who can thoroughly heal the maladies Whether ! men ! be sickness. . or death. it Behold here is one highly gifted. first He must As thoroughly kill its root. to destroy a living creature one cats off its head Cross over the water and you shall reach the other shore. Here is one able to draw them out at once ! Behold. They breed At verses troubles." On that spot also there was a great Nyagrodha tree." this time the prince replied to that Deva in the following "Tou may remove from their base the Snowy MoiTntains. and in the end destroy happiness.— — " . old age. The Firmament may fall to earth. Whoever dwells in the darkness and gloom of ignorance. But my words in the end will be accomplished. till THE EOMANTIC I have attained the draught of sweet to and entered on the road dew Nirvana— then I (the will return ! Now on the spot where the Prince stopped without the city and uttered these words with his lion voice. To him the brightness of this glorious light shall soon appear. ." At this time also the Devas of the Suddha Heavens added these Gathas " Behold here is the great Medicine King Able to destroy the poison caused by Sorrow Is any one wounded by the arrows of Love.

Pisatchas." etc. Then the Suddha Devas. and that Tchandaka. All these accompanied the prince as he went. cried out with a lamentable voice. beating her breast. to find out where the prince was concealed. " Alas alas and have we at last been deceived by the prince " and then she uttered a great cry and fell to the ground. bursting forth from a dark and heavy cloud. and all the Trayastrinshas Devas and the four heavenly kings. and sprinkled over him cold perfumed water. Then the women conveyed the news to Suddhodana that the prince had fled. tearing her hair. until. etc. And so also Maha Brahma. and sandal-wood as they advanced. Able to deliver and take across etery class of living thing. ! 139 ' . leading the way. in obedience to this command. his flight. "I do not see the prince I do not see the prince " And then Tasodhara. dispersing the gloom. after these stanzas. arrayed in their several manners. but the ! — ! ! ! ! ! ! — prince. . and Kantaka. Behold here is the great Master of the ship. and said. Then the Devas of the Kama Lokas likewise assumed bodies like young men (manavas). immediately opened their mouths. Meantime the women of the palace gradually awoke from their sleep. he commanded him to dispatch soldiers in every direction.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. And so. "All hail! (Namo) highly honourable!" and then they went before him and scattered the glorious light of their persons on every side. and seeing herself alone on the couch. and went on before the Prince. and said. search was made. and his attendants. surrounded the prince. Sending then for the captain of the guard of the city gate. nttered a great cry. the horse. shines forth in its strength. and lighting up the path even as the Sun. he recovered. incense. after a short interval. and suddenly began each to cry out. Suddh6dana. Then the minister in attendance raised him with his hand. on hearing this. besides countless Gandhervas. to Show him the way. having awoke. and casting away from her the jewels and ornaments that adorned her person. etc. and scattering flowers. were missing. protected by the Devas who accompanied him in remained undiscovered. "Alas alas my sou my dear son I" and so fell fainting on the earth.

knowing that Tchandaka and Kantaka were now weary. and pleasant fountains and. uttered this vow " This is the last time I will ever dismount from my steed and this is the . they came to the place where the Eishi Po-ka-pi dwelt. The Prince. in fact. and said "I will alight here. escape from the endless toils Probably EamagSma. having left the city. replied. and as the sun rose. having first enlisted Tchandaka's serious attention. The Mahdsiaviras say a hundred ySjanas. § 2. and also the birds and beasts ! _ and the flowing water. [The Mah&sanghikas say twelve ydjanas. " But why. my heart rejoices to escape from the condition of royalty. 140 THE KOMANTIG The Onward Progress of the Prince. " Great prince this is a spot close to the village of Lo-ma (Eama). And so the horse Kantaka proceeded. to receive in return support We build a trade to get profit All men are engaged in seeking their own good." And then he Kantaka with affectionate words. for a distance of two ySjanas. tingly estate from no consideration of fear or dread of its but with a view to seek deliverance from the bond- age of the world. ." then the prince. directed Tchandaka to proceed before him onwards in the direction of the village of Lo-raa (Kama?). "What place is this?" to whom Tchandaka replied. — ." ^ Then the prince. O prince. have you acted as you have. 1 I do. springing from his horse on to the ground. which was without any selfish or personal consideration. Then the prince asked Tchandaka. and the place where the old Eishi dwelt. by becoming a mendicant. seeing the forest. with a light and easy pace. and also assured Tchandaka of his love and kindly feeling." Then Tchandaka replied. " I have given up my responsibilities. and come to this Mount ?" Then the prince.— . from the middle of the night to the time of the rising of the morning star. Tchandaka. spot where for the last time I have alighted.'] Then they arrived at a ^village called Mi-ni-ka. : : . and rest. repeating this Gatha addressed " We nourish children to found a house We obey our fathers. and. because I have now found peace . he addressed the former.

that then you would arrive at perfect enlightenment. 4. without any interruption or cause of disquiet. in perfect peace and righteousness. O prince the soothsaying Brahmans. or any cause of fear. of birth and death. the master of the treasury. and go whithersoever he lists by the precious jewel he is able to light up the darkness for a distance of seven yojanas]." [By means of the precious discus the Chakravarti is able to travel through space. and possessor of the seven insignia of empire. My mind is completely fixed." " Oh. all predicted that you should become a Chakravarti monarch. First of all the discus jewel.— . when you were born. O Prince. and having attained this condition that you would then estab- The Prince replied: "And when was there nothing else said ?" and on the prince urging him — ' Here follows a description of the other insignia. . without an enemy. and the ruler of soldiers. he added "All the soothsayers agreed that if you gave up your kingly state. Moreover. that you should have a thousand valiant sons able to subdue enemies. When the body begins to get old and feeble. 3. mio-hty as follows generally become mendicants after four circumstances have occurred. you should govern the all — entire earth. Take the horse Kantaka and depart. But in your ! case none of these things are so. to say what it was. 1. Tohandaka. possessed of the greatest happiness. then the pearl jewel. and return to the king's palace. and became a recluse. When left they have become worn by disease. HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. : Then Tohandaka addressed the prince ! prince men 2. 141 Now then. ^ "Thus. moreover. Tehandaka allowed that there was. the horse. When stricken by poverty. this prediction was uttered. king of the whole world. skilful in the art of casting horoscopes. . When they are without friends. Tou know my heart and my love to you I am now freed from the love due only to relatives." And then he repeated ~ this Gratha : ~ "Xo further conversation do I purpose to hold. the woman. I will become a religious mendicant. do you take my horse Eantaka. able thoroughly to understand and explain the discourses and books which treat on the subject. the elephant. as a universal monarch. and establish the universal empire of their Father.

how much more should I recollect all that occurred after my birth. alas aU earthly pleasures are transitory and perishable this alone prince thus : " Oh. Tchandaka. limb by limb. Tou know perfectly that the Eishi Asita gave but one certain pre: diction^ and that was that I should become a preacher of the sublime doctrine of religion. listen. and cost 3. And. in astonishment and fear.559 words.142 lish THE ROMANTIC a kingdom of rigMeousness. and establish the kingdom of the Highest Truth upon earth so that I am certain that such is my destiny. all the Devas in that heaven assured me that I should arrive at perfect enlightenment.279 taels. ! lect this prediction — : ! — — ! — endures. and piece by piece . Tchandaka. For.] CHAPTEE Cutting off XVIII. giving " Tchaudaka. everything that happened is perfectly known and remembered by me . with his own hand." [Kiouen XVII contains 6. I now give you this precious Mani pearl. by declaring the sublime doctrines of religion. Moreover. addressed the mighty prince and are you really able to recol? for it was agreed amongst all your kinsfolk that this prediction should never be named in your presence. his royal it head-dress the priceless Mani pearl that adorned : and. or to return again to my home. speak idly no longer. than forego for one instant my fixed purpose to become a religious recluse. spoke as follows dh6dana Maharaja . the hair and wearing the soiled garments. took from it. I would rather be burnt in a fiery furnace . and bid you return with it to my father Sudto Tchandaka. At this time the prince. and whilst in this state." Then the prince added " O Tchaudaka. I would rather be ground to pieces by a falling mountain. after due . to my last words I would rather be cut in pieces. lest it might awaken in you a desire to attain to the condition of supremo wisdom (B6dhi). and when arrived in his presence." Then Tchandaka." Then the prince rejoined " Tchandaka in former days I descended from the Tusita heavens to assume a body in the womb of my mother .

and so my loving Father. to enlighten those who are living in dark and gloomy error. " 1 — . never more shall my body be so adorned " and then. to bring back those who have wandered from the right path. uttered this vow " Never again shall my body be adorned with such things as these . and deliver them into the hands of his kinsfolk. having licked them with his tongue. and Kantaka. illustrious Tchandaka. and it wUl be much for your own advantage. to remove from the world all sources of sorrow and pain for these purposes I have left my home . having taken them. At length Tohandaka. salutation. nor by any angry or resentful feeUng . handing them all to Tohandaka. the horse. having repeated this G^tha." The prince. continued in these words. tell him that I seek no personal gain or profit by what I do.) time the prince greatly commended Tchandaka. bid 143 on him dismiss all grief or useless regrets my that I am influenced by no delusion in leavaccount . therefore I have left life. Then Tchandaka." Then the prince. he bade him take them back." (The same ideas are repeated through a succession of arguments with Tchandaka. having fallen at the feet of the prince. to save them from the constant recurrence of birth and death. seeing me thus rejoicing in carrying out this purpose. that I look for no reward— not even to be born in heaven— but that I seek solely the Mm men (aU flesh). Seeing the existence of this impermanenoy every moment. I on this account am seeking for deliverance. should shake off every feeling of regret and sorrow on my account. A period of change must come sooner or later. consents to go — back. answered and said. and am about to adopt a religious Let not my father grieve on this account. " Because I am desirous to get rid of this source of sorrow. and wept many tears. my home. and embraced them. taking from off his person the At : — jewels and precious ornaments that he wore. Then the narrative this continues. by consenting to return as I desire you. is A man bound in the fetters of lust and self-indulgence useless regrets the victim of grief and for such a man one may be distressed. assure ing him thus. and said " Tou do weU you do well." And then he added this Githa benefit of — : " Even supposing there were love and affection for a long time.— — HISTOKY OF BUDDHA.

like a diadem. and what further messages you sent to them. and not permitting one hair to fall to the ground. into the hands of Tchandaka. with a joyous heart. having perceived him. I will return again to Kapilavastu. the prince. and severed them from his head . " These and paid them religious worship festival has ever in the midst of the garments are not those of a religious mendicant. spake thus " My friend is it convenient to you to attend to me or not ?" to whom he replied. " Go back. Mahapraj4patl. Sakra. in colour Kke the TJtpala flower. . having attained to this. and tell them that I am bent on the acquisition of supreme wisdom. still perceived that his garments were rather those of a Deva than a recluse. to the palace. he said. what answer I shall give to Suddhodana wisli to know." Then the prince. "It is quite convenient. with a sharp razor in his hand. such persons live mountains . Among them was one who transformed himself into the appearance of a hairdresser. shaved from off the prince's head his bright curling hair. wearing on his head a wreath of Sumana flowers . and all my kinsmen. casting them into the air. who is there can provide me with . whilst Sakra Deva raja. called " The festival for honouring the hair-diadem of Bodhisatwa. and. drew forth his sword from its sheath. and that. and having also had the hair that covered his head. and from that time till now a been observed by those Devas. having delivered the gem from his head-dress." To whom the prince said. -frith his well-sharpened razor. with a joyous heart. collecting the rosy curls." said — — — ! Then the hairdresser." "Then be good enough to do so at once. and. ascending upwards. having with his own hands taken off all his j ewels. he seized with his left hand his rosy curling locks. Tchandaka. and stood stiU. clean shaved off. carried them to the thirty-three heavens. holding it in his right hand. and. and my foster-mother. then. Then the prince. he approached the prince. paid them divine honour in company with the other Devas. and salute my father. caught them before they fell to the earth. and the other decorations." Then the prince. Considering this. At this time all the Devas of the Suddha Heavens a great congregation were assembled together not very far from the spot where the prince was seated.144 THE EOMANTIO prince. gathering them all in his heavenly robe. Eaja and your kinsfolk when they ask me where you are living.

— HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. The prince. towards the place where — the Eishi Bagava (Po-ka-pi) dwelt. Then the Prince. to comply with your request. and mounting up through space proceeded at once to the Brahma Devas (or to Brahma Deva) to give them the opportunity of paying it religious worship which when Bodhisatwa perceived his heart was filled with joy. proceeded alone." And the exchange was accordingly completed. Bodhisatwa spake as follows " From this time I swear that I wiU. that I may be clad according to the rules of At this time one of the Suddha Devas. Grudge not to give it me in exchange for this heavenly garment. clad in his Kashya robe. addressed him in these words—" Oh worthy man of the lonely mountains will you exchange your Kashya robe with me for my Easika garments ? the price of this robe is at least one hundred thousand lakhs of gold pieces." The hunter replied. what use would that dirty Kashya robe be to you?" and he repeated this G^tha ! . and forthwith he clad himself therewith. having beheld Bfidhisatwa clothed as a . being a Deva. and thus gradually approaching the spot where the prince was. Meanwhile Tchandaka. Now being thus shorn and robed. and gave his Kasika robe to the other. . on me. and then stood still. respected sir. soiled Kashya garment. "I am quite agreeable. he came to within a short distance of him. perfumed as it is with every kind of sandal-wood scent if you possess yourself of this. — ! 145 mountains and religion?" a Kastya robe suet as is worn by the hermits who frequent the forests. wh'o. with his bow and arrows in his hand. transformed himself into the appearance of a hunter wearing a dirty and much- In his hand he held his bow and arrows. having dismissed the weeping Tchandaka. having per- ceived the thoughts which troubled the prince." Then Bfidhisatwa. be known by no other name than 'the Eeoluse' (Muni). therefore. " This is the robe of a holy recluse Not becoming one to wear who carries the bow Bestow it. was filled with joy. on his part. and cause my heart to rejoice. receiving the Kashya robe. having perceived him thus attired. by the exercise of his spiritual power flew away with the precious garment.

flowers were robbed of their beauties. he at last reached Kapilavastu . stood still and He embraced the head of Kantaka as he wept. 146 recluse. hermit in the mountains. and there was naught but desolation. and. it was like entering an empty and deserted abode. Within and without on every side The fountains. the very gardens were dried up. and as they looked one at another in bewilderment. before only occupied half a night. raising their voices in lamentation. they came in succession and enquired " Where then is the Prince ?" Tchandaka weeping and overwhelmed with grief could make no reply. the tears coursed down their cheeks." But when Tchandaka entered Kapilavastu. Thus gradually advancing. And again he sighed and wailed with grief. after eight days they reached the palace. as it were. of the Prince . Then when the people saw Tchandaka return with the horse." with astonishment and with awe. afflicted with sadness on account of the absence of the Prince. which had raised his voice in bitter lamentation.. whilst they exclaimed "Alas alas let us go and trace the steps ! ! me to return with the Prince himself now dwells as a The people on heaa-ing this were filled of the Prince (Lion) to the place whither he has gone . it would be better for us to dwell there with the Prince. but the horse Kantaka. than here without him for alas in his absence all beauty has left the place. for his presence alone As the Gratha says remain here. first leaving his home proceeded on for half the Tchandaka exhorting Eantaka to proceed apace But overcome by grief. Then the people. trees. As the G4tha says : " B6dhisatwa on night. but without Siddartha. THE EOMANTIC and -with shaven crown proceeding alone. followed Tchandaka and Kantaka as they went on through the city towards the palace still exclaiming " Where where is Siddartha ?" At length Tchandaka replied to the citizens as follows " How could I disobey the orders — ! -. through grief and weariness. and ! ! there like is no longer inducement : to a wilderness. It has become it was that lent it grace. and deprived of all energy On returning. overwhelmed with grief. and it was he who commanded Alas ! his horse to the city." . Kantaka. was occupied eight days in the journey.

mouths exclaimed ' Wonderful strange ! Without Siddartha this city is a wilderness. and the females within the two Palaces (of the King and Prince).! " ! HISTOEY OF BUDDHA.. but no Prince. slain — and his grief was intolerable. just as he would have appeared if the Prince had been by his enemy in combat so it was. all of them started up and exfor they . " The 147 men With their within the city hearing the words. "Oh! sad. with the other ladies of the palace.' Now it came to pass that when the horse Kantaka was re-entering the Eoyal precinct. — The Prince claimed "Beyond doubt. and had entered into the Hall of Penitence to practise the rules of purity and self-discipline. weeping. sat down. And the horses also whinnied with joy. and so were fiUed with delight. with the other ladies of the Palace. that he neighed in recognition of his home— on which the people within doors. Now Suddhddana on account of his great love to the Prince. both MahSprajapati and Tasodhara. crowded to the windows." he exclaimed. attracted by the sound. son again. and as he observed the familiar spots where the Prince had walked. And so also Mahdprajapati and Tasodhard. fiUed with sorrow. has come home again!" And then filled with joy. was overwhelmed with grief at his loss. the Prince has returned. with a view to propitiate the Devas and Divine Spirits using — every sort of religious expedient to effect his one desire to see his Then it was that Tchandaka. entered the precinct of the Eaja's Palace. Meanwhile the thousand kinds of birds that were kept around and within the Palace. who had been prostrate with grief. he passed the Palace gates. . weeping and with great lamentation. and cried " the Prince has come back the Prince has returned!" But when they saw the horse and Tchandaka. The place where he dwells has become the favor'd city. or slept. and had neither adorned their persons nor used any care in arranging their garments or jewels since the departure of the prince on hearing the sound of Tohandaka's voice. holding Kantaka by one hand and in the other the priceless' jewels belonging to the Prince. hearing the well-known sound of Tchandaka's voice. they left their places of observation in sorrow and retired within the preein<!ts. with one accord attuned their throats to a joyous song j beUev«d in truth that the Prince had returned.

Tchandaka . the purpose of seeking Supreme Wisdom far and now he dwells in the mountains soiled garments. unable to control herself. having seen the bright gem belonging to the Prince's head dress. etc. Mke a cow bereaved of its calf. Their head dresses and other decorations scattered. with shorn locks and Mahaprajslpati having heard these words of Tchandaka." away. with both arms raised in anguish they wept and lamented. Eespecting Tchandaka's Eeturn... "Oh! Tchandaka. my chUd " The tears coursed down her cheeks. their hearts overwhelmed. With both hands raised above them in the air. as they exclaimed. with Tchandaka and the Koyal horse Kantaka. where hast thou taken our beloved Prince? Where is our Siddartha ? " etc. At this time Mahapraj^pati and GotamJ. " See how they weep hearken to their sad lamentations ! ! [Kiouen XVIII contains 5964 words and cost 2. but when they beheld only desiring to see the Prince and the horse Kantaka. they raised their hands and smote themselves in their anguish. ! ! ! . for the Prince Siddartha has forsaken the world. uttered every kind of lamentable cry. The tears fell in thick succession from their eyes. were both of them filled with distress . whilst the frequent tears coursed down their cheeks as they spake of the absent Prince.982 taels]. CHAPTER XIX. 148 crowded on to tlie THE EOMANTIC balconies and gazed through the open lattices. and the other personal ornaments belonging to him. And so the G&tha says: ' Those ladies of the palace. she raised her hands and said. But seeing the horse and the servant only. To whom Tchandaka replied " Oh mighty queen ! with its pleasures. "My son my son alas. Casting away their jewels and their choice garments again. Looked through the windows to see the Prince returned.

I raised a thousand difiSiculties. oh lady that this was the work ! ! — ! 1 The repeated details are omitted. unable to bear the reflections of the weeping Tasodhara. her limbs lost their power fell 149 and to the all ground as one dead. and endeavouring to obstruct the horse's advance but there was no sound heard. the noble steed. Tasfidhard. some smote their bodies.^ Meantime. therefore. Then the ladies of the Palace seeing MahSprajapati in this and hearing her lamentations. the Prince's resolution to leave his home. like the fish on the ground. oh lady. I fruitlessly attempted by force to awake you and the others from their torpor calling them by their names and plucking at their hair but in vain. neither has Kantaka. I vainly tried to arouse you. done wrong. oh Tas^dharsi. deserves not to be reproached . replied "Tour slave. some twined their arms around each other. some smpte their breasts. for he has committed no fault indeed. Then Tchandaka. whilst on every hand were heard the sounds of lamentation. some wandered disconsolate hither and thither. . weeping and bending their bodies in grief. ! ! ! — — — the Prince. reproached Tchandaka with having stolen away from her in the middle of the night her lord and husband (in various ways). some tore their hair. as the wind bends the tender palm others. they wept and wailed as they cried " alas alas where is our Prince ? alas where is our Lord ? Alas and in this way they gave vent to their feelings some rolled their eyes with grief. themselves gave way to unrestrained grief. some looked at each other and wept. writhed in anguish on the earth J thus in every way they showed their grief at the loss of condition. overcome witli grief. calling with my might to those around. the poisoned arrow in his side so did they wander to and fro. Thus it was Tchandaka and the horse Kantaka stood. from your sleep. And so. weeping and waUing the whUe. just as the stricken deer wanders at random through the brake.— " ! ! HISTORY OF BUDDHA. For I opposed with all my power and with many tears. after the Prince had mounted his horse on the way. giving way to her grief and indignation. and she at length. and all my efforts were useless Taking it for granted. with his head bowed and his fingers closely intertwined.

who in his turn gives way to excessive grief." (Tchandaka then proceeds to relate to Tas6dhara all the circumstances of the flight of the Prince. With clasped hands and bowed head. ! rajas Then Suddh&dana Kaja spake thus. oh water. Or it may be " the only reparation you can make — is to die. possessed of a thousand eyes. the pride of the S&ky a race ? Death should be your lot. the husband of Sachi. subject." And then again.) [Kiouen XIX contains 6570 words and cost 3. the disconsolate monarch broke out into frequent reproaches against the horse Kantaka.— ! 150 of the Gods.^ or else take me to the place where my ! ! ' ^ After this follows an account of Tas&dhara's grief. why didst thou bear from me my much loved son. Oh that Sakra rdja. ! right and left. For indeed we deserve not your anger." And so the Gatha says " Unable to bear the tears (of the Eoyal lady) any longer. whilst lying on the earth.^ and after this he acquaints Suddhddana ESja with the same circumstances." . " Oh ungrateful steed who heretofore received from me every mark of affection and proof of kindness. and attain to Anuttara Samyak Sambodhi. Tour ladyship should not thus reproach me and the horse. the ruler of heaven. I dared THE ROMANTIC no longer oppose it. I replied. of fire. The same § 1. of the of earth. that really left his house my son having and become an ascetic. may soon arrive at the highest degree of sanctity. would assist my son to ac- that aU the spirits of the wind.285 taels]. would now protect and prosper my son. " Oh that the Devawho rule over the earth (the four regions) and defend the inhabitants thereof. Mahabala DevarSja. and all the Devas who surround him on the complish his desire . CHAPTER XX. and finally falls senseless to the earth. continued. and the spirits of the eight divisions of space would aid in this great undertaking.

and finally attain- — ! ! ing to the condition of Supreme Wisdom. afflicted himself. Eemember. If. counsellor of state. my life is but a burthen. Eecollect. and bring ! — back my son . oh King the words of Asita ! ! That the Prince would not desire to be a Chakravarti Eaja. As the Gatha says. And. for in his absence I have no pleasure in life. as for example. Oh my son. moreover. the horse Kantaka having . and again recover your self-command It is not right that you should thus exhibit the feelings and the conduct of ordinary men. quickly go thou hast returned Without my son. ! 151 son dwells." Then these two ministers in obedience to the King's words immediately set off in search of the Eoyal Prince to bring him back. it was Siddhartha's plain destiny thus to become a recluse. "go then. in recollection of this. ! take me whence As that of a man sorely afflicted without a physician." Thus Suddh6dana voice. "Wie-hwa-man (drooping-flower-band).: " !! HISTORY OF BUDDHA. in recollection of his son. that nothing could prevent him leaving his home. who in company with the chief Brahman. seeing Suddh6dana Eaja thus giving way to grief as he lay upon the earth. and I will share with him his mortifications. his heart heavily afflicted. that in former days other kings gave up their royal estates to become hermits. Maharija! the words of the soothsayer Asita. then bid us go in search of him and bring him back we dare not disobey you Then Suddh6dana Eija replied. Maharaja." ministers having thus set out. How much less to indulge in sensual The worldly pleasures. turning from one side to the other. apart from thee my life is but for a moment " And so the ! Gatha says " Kantaka And thou steed of mine. ye two. his body and mind both indicating his misery these ministers aforesaid appreached the king together and said "Maharaja it is time you should overcome this grief. and your heart still is afflicted to this degree. weeping lying on the bare ground and waUing with a lamentable At this time there was a certain wise minister. " It was the destiny of the Eoyal Prince to be thus EeooUect. and my days are a burthen to me. your majesty still desires your son to return.

called " taking the Kashya garment Tower . has now become a recluse indeed He will assuredly attain to Supreme Wisdom. Afterwards he was born in the Trayastrinshas Heavens. the Eoyal Prince." and so where Tohandaka and Kantaka left the prince to return home. and answered them not. there were some men who ventured to ask him some question or other. as the sou of a celebrated Brahman of remarkable piety . he left the Heavenly region and descended to earth. He will assuredly banish the sorrow and bring deliverance to all !" Now a tower of commemoration was erected on the spot where the prince cut off his hair. and was born in the city of Na-po. § 2. "This Eishi must be one of the Sfikya race. has truly left his home Siddartha. and so. he came into the company of Tathagata. and with their voices uttered his praises as they sounded their joyous instruments of music. The consideration of different Eeligious Systems by the Prince. who having heard it." and so also on the spot where B6dhisatwaput on the Kashya garment there was in later time a tower erected. gradually as he grew up. immediately explained to him the system of cause and effect (the Nidanas). the countless Devas who surrounded him were filled with an ex- uberance of joy. a tower was afterwards erected called "the Eeturn of Tchaudaka and Kantaka Tower. Then these people speaking to one another said. and had been born in heaven.153 THE ROMANTIC heard the reproachful words of the King in his affliction. Now then the prince. obtained perfect release and entered Pari-Nirvana. having with his own hand cut off his flow- ing looks and clothed himself in the soiled garments of a hermit. unable to bear the sorrow that afflicted him. . and pains of life. lay down and died. the prince. and its name was the "cutting-off-hair Tower. in Central India. who knowing that he had formerly been the horse Kantaka. and when he discovered from that abode that Tathigata had attained to Supreme Wisdom. and so bring salva- — ! ! tion to all living creatures. but he remained silent." Now as Bodhisatwa went along the way in deep meditation." hence he got the name of Sakya muni. And their strain was this " Now then Siddartha.

as the Gatha says " The Elephant-King Bfidhisatwa. Deprived of aU jewels or costly robes. looking up and perceiving the glorious person of Bodhisatwa as he approached them. Then B6d( hisatwa proceeded forward from that village of Ho-ni-me-ka ^ Anumegha?) and gradually directed his course towards Pi-ye-li (this is for Pi-che-li. his heart was strengthened. having heard the sound of B6disatwa's voice. and met the eyes of the hermits who occupied the place . His body emitted a light dazzling the eyes of the Eishis. 153 Then B6dMsatwa (as he went) reflected thus with himself "I have now for ever given up my royal estate. were flUed with a feeling of reverence. for medicinal purposes . gives Anupyia. were There filled with joy . and as Bodhisatwa had discarded his jewels and his Kasika garments it must have been from his body that this glory proceeded. And so also the kine which the Brahmans kept for religious and sacrificial purposes. And it came to pass when Bddhisatwa entered within the place of this Eishi that a miraculous light spread on every side through the hills and the woods around . Vaisali). Clad in his poor hermit garments of brown colour." Then the Brahmans. Now in the midst of his way thither there was the abode of an old Eishi whose name was Bagava (Po-ka-pi). i. And all the birds around. . these. p. no doubt. were also other old Brahmans in the neighbourhood who were employed in gathering all sorts of roots.. whilst began to pipe the other living creatures indicated their feelings of delight. who rigorously practised the Eules of a religious life within the grove of trees. 2 That is.e. Viisali.— HISTORY OF BUDDHA. there is now no room for repentance or change the thing is done !" — — Having reflected thus. would represent the 'loTpiKoi of Megasthenes. I have left my kindred and my home . although their milk had just before been exhausted. with his Lion-step. in the country belonging to the Malla Princes. and leaving everything they were engaged about. flowers and various kinds of wood " . in indication of their joy . when Bodhisatwa entered the grove their various notes. and yet they were in doubt what to think. and stood before him. e. without any hesitation or doubt.Bigandet. these. i. . they hurried straightway to the spot where B6dhisatwa was. 62.

and respectfully approaching Bodhisatwa offered their gifts to him with great reverence. We all respectfully request your Holiness to take up his abode with us in this wood. Or one of the Devas dwelling in the storied-heavens. others said. which ran of its own accord from their teats." Then another Brahman of the company. Whatever fruits.— 154 yet THE EOMANTIC when Bodhisatwa appeared. Vide Colebrooke. took of all that they had. addressed one standing by and said." ' whilst with. in buying and selling and getting profit for me. seeing all these wonderful portents. For why ? we find that in the world men speak thus I must nourish and bring up my sons in order that when they grow up they may help to establish and benefit my family name. Then those Brahmans. perhaps." To him another Brahman answered "It is even as you say. there has been a supernatural light shed around us . For otherwise whence comes this light. tbeir udders again filled themselves mUk. " Welcome. But with this one it is not so. said among themselves. 262. or roots. or flowing streams are here these all are at your service. reverend Sir in the world men do nothing but think of themselves. they have a reference in all they do to their own advantage. " This surely is one of the Vasu Devas ." and so the G^tha says " This is either one of the Pasuva Devas. so that when I am old I may be able to devote myself to religious inquiries and practices.' It is thus men generally think and speak. etc. Bright as the sun first rising on the world. he provides nothing for himself. Here it is easy to obtain peace and rest. having observed the grace and force of B6dhisatwa's manner. practising their religious austeries within that wood. " He is one of the Star Devas(?). p. "Venerable one it seems to me that this is no other than a child of Heavenly birth. thoroughly acquainted with the human heart." Then all those Brahmans. he seeks the good of others and not his own. Holy one. — ! — ' — ! 1 Or. and as they bowed themselves before him they said. Here it was all the old Bishis dwelt who sought after final delivetanee. who now by means of this expedient desires to accomplish some iUastrious purpose. or medicinal plants. . Pasuva. for ever since he en- tered the wood.

desire to ask Venerable Sirs ! I some questions. which gradually increased in size and strength down to the night when Bddhisatwa left his home to become a recluse. that those trees decayed and died . After observing the way in which the community was engaged. approaching by degrees to his side. let not your heart then be troubled. then i« this very place I will set apart a spot (garden) for my own use. ' 155 To-day I must s&t about this. saying. and increased as they grew. Then one of the Bishis. observing the Bishi's anxiety and his absent manner. if you will permit me so to do. therefore my heart is sad. that this was a bad omen. and your head hung down in grave reflection as you sit ?" Then that Bishi answered Bddhisatwa and said. towards midnight. and thus there is no real profit to the world. but mow) suddenly they have disappeared.HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. on . Now there was one Eishi particularly bent on his religious duties." Then Bddhisatwa addressed him and said. and was conceived in the womb. they began to decay and to die. to be born as a Sakya Prince. was filled with grief and began to think within himself. in former days there sprung up two golden-coloured trees. Bodhisatwa entered into the following conversation and said. " Venerable Sir ! why is your brow thus clouded. " Those two trees were first produced by the power of my religious merit. and when I attain to the condition of Supreme Wisdorri and begin to preach. On that night they suddenly decayed and disappeared." Then Bddhisatwa again asked. to whose abode Bodhisatwa proceeded. ashed him. which grew. observing this phenomenon. and my head drops as I sit here lost in thought. It was because I left my home last night bent on this object. where I may expound my doctrine. and beheld their religious practices day by day. as he hung down his head." Then Bddhisatwa inquired further " Venerable Sir ! at what time did those trees first appear ?" The Bishi answered. and seated himself. "Illustrious child of Heaven! in this place where I dwell. venerable Bishi . in loveliness and grace . and portended some calamity about to happen. " And when did they disappear ?" Last night." .'] Thus it was B6dhisatwa dwelt among these Eishis. " I have but and so — just entered on a course of religious discipline. At this time Bddhisatwa. and are no longer to be seen. " If is now just twenty-nine years ago. for men think of nothing but about themselves.and said. and to-morrow about that.' " [Now when Bddhisaiwa descended from the Tusita Heavens. it came to pass that in the grove where these Eishis dwelt there sprung up of themselves two golden-coloured trees.

desiring earnestly to find some higher destiny. and we. others with the dragon-beard plant . relatives. some again dwell in cemeteries . others in holes . some on pestle-hamox. In future years you may return and bo born even in Hell. in Heaven. suffer pain that you may be born And then he in continued. or the mashed shrubs . some clothe themselves with hempen vesture . again there are others who take just water enough to preserve life. .— 156 THE ROMANTIC "Venerable brother !" they replied. seek after a birth heaven to enjoy there the happiness he covets. he forgets that in . and so the Gatha says Then B6dhisatwa addressed the " • Tou give up And and worldly delights. etc. others pull out the hair of their heads . etc. as far as Amongst us possible. or with filthy rags . yet provides no means of final deliverance . Not considering that after being thus born on High. whilst others eat nothing but the stems of one particular tree (ekadruma). others use fire to their inconvenience . or of the Dukiila (?) tree. others raise both arms above their heads and keep them so . "you may ask any questions you please respecting our religious discipline. or to be born again amongst men. or sprouting shoots of plants (t'he). others with grassy robes others with the cotton of the wild caterpillars ." perceive that your system. Eishis once more and said. others eat the excrements of the nothing but the roots of certain plants. wUl explain everything to you in detail. some again sleep on boards. others turn always to the sun . mers . or of the Kanikala tree . " If a man. friends.' " all. some on chips. some on tree-trunks. others under the open heavens j others stand in water . thus it is these different Eishis practice self-mortification. others with deer skins . " I although it promises the reward of Heaven to certain persons. because of the sorrows of life. others with the rags off corpses. others pull out the hair on their faces . there are some who mortify themselves by eating nothing except edible herbs (tsae). others fibres of different . others with the fleece of the black sheep . others sit in one fixed posture on the earth. or the tender stems of the Nyagrodha tree. others have their hair spirally-twisted. others cleanse not their bodies from filth. whilst in turn they give themselves to profound meditation and ardent prayers and vows to be born in Heaven.

First bring the mind to be quiet. ought to be most meritorious suffers poverty and hardships ought necessarily to enjoy future happiness as a consequence of his present affliction . venerable and learned Sir do you find with our system of re- The body — — — ! ligious discipline?" B6dhisatwa answered. and hereafter again you will return into this very condition that you now hope to escape from." They added again " But our system involves other rules than those we have named. 157 the distant future lie will not escape the recurrence of evil. the man who now roots. instead of striving to get rid altogether of the body. is like a stone or tree. because." argued Bodhisatwa. and that those very Eishis who now afflict their bodies will once more return to the same condition of sorrow and pain as that from which they are now striving to escape. They do not consider the ever-recurring evil of future births. Coveting the joys of Heaven.— HISTORY OF BUDDHA. because of this very desire they return again in brief space to that inconstant state of life they have left. venerable Sir speak not thus ! ! say not so ! ! For this very pain we suffer gives us assurance and peace There . They strive by penance to fit themselves for joy. and so get rid of the suffering body. they seek some happy state of birth. and be born in a condition that can never change. oh. the body is excited. they consider nought about the very nature of the body. So it is when men come to die. then surely the wild beasts who are contented with grass and or. "Tou afflict yourselves to-day with every kind of mortification. and let the body decay and perish. that its condition involves the necessity of decay and therefore of change. Permit the mind then to exercise its office. what satisfaction or peace (absence of fear) can such a system afford?" They replied. again. but these things are not so. " as long as — you are not satisfied about final escape." " And what good will these do. be true." Then the Eishi answered Bodhisatwa thus " What fault then. " Oh.' " Again Bodhisatwa continued "If what you just now affirmed about abstention from sufiicient food as a ground of merit. And so the G4tha says " ' Because of the ever-changing mind. being overcome with fear. knowing nothing at all.

and yet seeking hereafter to be born in heaven! What ignorance what delusion is this The Eishis replied " Illustrious Eftjaputra you have but a ! ! : I In days gone by. countless holy men practised this method of self-discipline in this very place. Countless Eishis of regal birth. desiring to make an ." Bodhisatwa replied." "And yet what assurance have you. disease." said Bodhisatwa. who rules over the city of Mithila. by undergoing these mortifications. ! ! ! — this region. in a loud voice. that you have escaped the necessity of returning to the same condition you are now in ? what assurance have you that you have for ever got rid of sorrow ?" They replied. wonderful delusion Alas alas what deceptive speech for where is the promise of escape in the end ? the future joy involves the necessity of birth and death." " " 158 is THE EOMANTIO it. then. great merit attaching to religious discipline and obtain beautiful and excellent shapes elsewhere. " But there is no wisdom in this. for would a wise man seek for something apparently profitable if he knew that it involved as a consequence future loss. would this be the work of wisdom ?" Then one of the Brahmans of the company exclaimed. that we may secure happiness and joy as a ! ! ! certainty. and old age. yet they do not destroy the necessity for birth and death. myriads of such persons. and therefore of future misery The Eishis continued "Venerable Efijaputra! the monarch of partial ! : ! ! ! knowledge of our system. return! ing to a condition of sorrow hereafter : ? " ! Then Brodhisatwa resumed " Unhappy world hating the demon Death. and we are confident that by this we shall get rid of these ungainly bodies of ours. "Wonderful! wonderful! This E&japutra tells the truth! this is true wisdom for would a man eat something sweet and agreeable if he knew there was poison concealed in it ? And so with us. How can we help. sought to attain to future bliss Bodhisatwa said "A thousand myriad years (perhaps you would say) Oh. "Venerable Sir Not so it does not follow that we shall hereafter return to sorrow for the express purpose of our present discipline is. "that after obtaining the excellent and beautiful bodies of which you speak. Although these rules of ours may secure for us some immediate reward.

if the body were polluted and filthy. he asked the Eishis. and said "Venerable sirs and what place is that yonder ?" They said " In that place the corpses of men are exposed. that all men who worship the Gods — — Bodhisatwa said " I will ask you.HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. if a man. what is the character of this system ? " They replied "It is a custom which has been handed down from very remote time. To seek a good by doing an evil is surely no clean safe plan. there are others buried there. and by what reason?" The Eishis answered " According to the Vedas." They replied is simply this. or dear friend." At this time B6dhisatwa." Bfidhisatwa said "Pray explain what this was." Bddhisatwa said again "But in what way. in worshipping the gods. to be devoured by the birds j and there also they coUect and pile up the white bones of dead persons. having a body defiled with blood. why should he not kill his child. such as . in worshipping the gods. and so do better ? Surely. then. then. and preserve the bones in heaps." Bodhiaatwa replied " This system of religion. — — ! bodies also from the trees ." Bodhisatwa asked-—" How can the system which requires the infliction of misery on others be caUed a religious system ? Surely. hoping hereafter to attain the happiness of heaven. wiU the shedding of blood restore it to purity. nevertheless. How. there can be no merit It is but a confused and ilLogical system. the space beneath which was used as a cemetery. — — is a true system of Eeligion. in killing a sheep ! this. and so does well." — " The system must sacrifice. it would not be made pure or offering — — — by returning again to the filth and rolling in it. inviolable 159 compact. and what we find the old Eishis said." The Eishis answered —" This. sacrifices a sheep. his relative. sacrificed to the gods countless victims of various kinds. then. observing that not far from the place where they were seated there was a clump of trees. that those who worship the gods should do it in this way. which consists in up sacrifices slain by the hand of those engaged in it tell me. they burn corpses They hang dead there also. as you perceive .

" and so the GS. to their former homes.tha says. Amongst them there was one very ancient and venerable Eishi. at sunrise. and so discoursing. whilst they came up. whilst others are left there upon the ground. all those Eishis followed him as he went from place to place. the time of sunset approached. remained there that night. if possible. turn not your back nor leave us. then. but now you have gone it seems like a wilderness. For. and in a short time attain their wish by going to heaven. and sat down beneath its shade. returning to the abode of the Kishi who had first addressed him. perceiving them thus following him. desires to preserve his body. dreading lest they should come to life again . of spect for Bfidhisatwa. — ! ! ! ! — ! Mm — ! ! ! " Venerable Now you For this of ours that was so pleasant." And then the Eishis explained how that those who tended the dead in these cemeteries. or willingly enter the jaws of some devouring serpent Thus it was Bodhisatwa discoursed with wise and choice speech in the company of these Kishis. Then Bodhisatwa. that they may return.. all those who seek for birth in heaven come here to practice their religious duties. becomes suddenly like a desert reason. and some sat and others stood surrounding him." if the Eishis added their requests that. On the morrow. B<5dMsatwa . and addressed Eoyal birth from the time you came amongst us the place in which we dwell seemed to be fiUed with a self-born pleasantness. did so with the hope of being hereafter born in the world as men in eminent and wealthy positions. indeed. immediately selected a certain tree. Oh would that your reverence might be persuaded not to forsake our company. and then to be bom again to suffer! These foolish men are like those who thrust themselves !" into a fire. Then Bodhisatwa rejoined "That men should practice these modes of self-inflicted pain for the purpose of securing such reWhat ignorance and what delusion what turns Sad sad inconstancy and unrest — to auifer. and performed these various offices for them. sir ! this wood have left it As a man who Then all loves life. who had conceived in his heart a great rethus " Venerable sir. Venerable sir you should not leave the place where so many holy men in days gone by have carried out their daily duties . 160 THE ROMANTIC have been slain or put to death by tbeir relatives. B6dhisatwa.

who has obtained a and great renown for wisdom. " The holy king-born son of the great Sakya race." said he. To whom he replied. immediately set out in a well-appointed chariot from KapUavastu to trace the progress of Bodhisatwa. and that he must go elsewhere and seek for a more complete release. his nose long. and hastened on to the spot where dwelt Alara . who was in the habit of sleeping on ashes. may it " be so even as you say So it was Bodhisatwa left the company of the Eishis. kuudika). and arrive at the condition of Perfect Wisdom for which you now ! — ! ! seek. " and may you in the end attain your aim. his body shrivelled. At this time the two messengers. and in his hand the hermit's water-pot (kwan. having heard Bddhisatwa speak. and accompany him whithersoever he went. Eepair to him. moved with pity for the king. yet there would be no peace for him in the pursuit of their aim. by degrees. they might follow him. Not far hence there lives a Eishi whose name is Alara. and by your religious practices may you obtain your desire. And to return to the Eishis when in possession of Perfection." To whom B6dhisatwa replied " Venerable Brahmachari. venerable one receive his instructions.HISTOKY OF BUDDHA. . as he perceived they desired to make him their chief and follow his instructions. you had better go. that these things could not be SO. and wearing the polluted garments of the dead. 161 would not remain with them. and so the Gatha says. § 3. " follow out your system taught by the old Eishis. for although his mind was somewhat divided. " Meanwhile. they came to the abode of the Eishi Bagava. his eyes bleared. Thus. Eesolved with fixed mind to go onwards to the abode of Alara. and be born in heaven " Then an old Brahmachari. — ! Having conversed in lucid speech with all the Eishis. addressed him thus " Virtuous one your resolve is a high one ." The King's messengers return home. and i£ you are so purposed. mentioned above.

this time Bodhisatwa. either to partake of the ripe drink the cool water of the place." and then they stood before B6dhisatwa. we have come to inquire of awhile. His body. whose only son Siddartha. through a terror of birth and death. The two messengers. bereft of all its jewels. return with us to our abodes. has left his home for the purpose of searching after complete deliverance. perceiving them. they saw him sitting beneath a tree in fruit. " May every prosperity attend yon. " We are the ministers of Suddh6dana ESja. having paid low reverence Having rested at the feet of the Eishi. and said " It is true what you have heard. approached towards Bodhisatwa. Having come Leaving us. We beseech you. and spread all around the brightness of its glory. or to the midst of a grove. immediately derespectfully saluted him. has now gone on to the abode of Alara. has now gone onwards towards the abode of the Eishi Alara . and being dissatisfied with our doctrine. scending from their chariot. like the beams of the sun piercing through a dark cloud. rose up and advanced towai-ds them. the Eishi employed every you about him. Then the two messengers explained the object of their journey. and being dissatisfied with our religious system. overcome with grief at your departure. has sent us to beseech you not to enter on your religious Hfe in the desert mountains without some further trial. nevertheless emitted a soft and dazzling light. and gradually advancing. disease. sacred youth . that eminent person did stop here Then the — with us. means to alleviate their fatigue. therefore. and and said. and said. of the Ikshwaku race. Desiring to find complete Nirvana. and resting. took a seat on one side. and take possession of the — .— 1G2 THE EOMANTIC who." and so the Gatha says "The aspirant after complete merit. offering ripe fruits and cool water as an inducement to remain there for a short time. and having asked various questions. set out after Bodhisatwa. they addressed him and said "Tour Eoyal Father. Being so seated. being anxious to fulfil the commands." Eishi answered the two messengers. without any delay. invited them to sit down by his side." king's The two messengers having heard this. Then these two men. and old age. and having heard on the way that he had tarried in this place. having At spoken to them kindly. here.

"My ! passionate heart for all creatures. Yet for your sake I renounce all claim to mine To see you in possession my greatest joy. may do the same. my son. or shave their crowns . contrary to my wishes. should you consider a religious life as a term to be applied only to those who In former days men lived at They did not then cast away their jewels. etc. Suddhodana Eaja added ments.706 words. having delivered their is difficult instructions. Why.285 taels. yet for my sake. XXI. then. after some further consideration. Once beholding this. then after that you shall be at liberty to undertake the life of a recluse. But now. although you entertain but little love for all your kin." And dwell in the lonely mountains. And therefore you. you shall determine to give up the kingly office. and cost 3." [Kiouen XX contains 5. to . com- MoEEOVEK. return to your home. Dear son the practice of religion involves as a first principle a loving. 163 Empire j and if. and thus my joy shall be complete. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. Eeturn. at least. this to his former arguwise son. — so the Gatha says " It to give up the pleasures and sweets of a kingdom. my son! etc I willingly resign to you the kingdom. There was King Eama. you persist in leading the life of a hermit in the solitude of the mountains.— . and for this reason the very name of a religious Ufe is given to it. such as are contained in the preceding section." The Minister of State and his companion. But let me recount instances of those who have attained emancipation without thus giving up their home and all their possessions. and so on all these numerous kings were able to attain a condition of salvation without leaving their home. I would willingly be a recluse. for nothing is necessary for this but wisdom and perseverance. oh. and do not permit me to end my days in sorrow on your account. There was of old the venerable T'sui sliang. therefore. home. and yet practised religion.J CHAPTER § 1. and yet they were able to attain to complete emancipation. you shall be anointed king.

" I have long known the chaafter some reflection. as also his love to his mother ^ and to his wife. I seek deliverance from all such ties. and old age. renewed birth. hiding a dragon. but is busy gathering his victims at all times. ! . is." That his foster-mother. this consideration has no power to change my conviction j for this is just like a man seeing in a dream his friends all together. soon to be separated as each goes to his own And if you speak to me about a fit time and an unfit time place. and cause them to rejoice again. disease. let my father strive earnestly to put away the thought of my ever becoming his successor for iu truth I desire to escape from." And so the G-dtha says— " Like a house of gold filled with fire. Such are the miseries connected with the joys of sovereignty. " If you tell me that my father's grief arises from his great love to me. and death. beseeching him to return and to assuage To whom Bodhisatwa. and have no leisure to consider whether this be the right time or not. and I am sure of Suddh6dana Eaja's very great love for me. Or a lake covered with flowers. each one going along the same road. Or sweet food concealing poison. Mahaprajdpati. answered thus racter of a father's affection. For to seek such things is like the conduct of the foolish man who eats some delicious food (not thinking of the his duty — . and therefore I have left my friends and my home. . therefore. and forsaken my kin with a view to search after the perfect possession of Supreme Wisdom. their grief. these fetters of kingship and relationship. at once to seek escape from the power of birth and death. I wish. my answer is that the Demon Death knows nothing of one time or the other. .164 THE EOMANTIC BodMsatwa." And then he continued^" As to what my father requests that I should return and be anointed King of his Empire. and when awaking finding them all gone again a wise man regards his friends and relatives just as fellow travellers. rather than to be bound by. which shall soon destroy this body and if possible I desire above all things to find a way of deliverance from these evils. poison it contains). his son but then I tremble to think of the miseries of old age. for becoming a recluse. disease. moreover addressed to him arguments derived from and affection to his Eoyal Father.

having listened to the resolute replies of Bddhisatwa. it is impossible to reconcile the enjoyment of sensual pleasures with the attainment of complete emancipation And it was for this cause that those old kings gave up kingdoms to seek deliverance. and sought happiness in the condition of hermits. return to Gatha says its unsatisfying pleasures. have voluntarily given it up. even whilst holding their sovereignty this cannot be . Goes back from the solitude of the forest to the world. So is he who having left his home and become a recluse. having forsaken . even as fire and water cannot co-exist . after enjoying their position for a few years.f the world. then. the two are incompatible. because the one could not be held and the other obtained. I have given up all the fancied joys of my palace. in consideration of your Eoyal father's grief.— — HISTORY OF BUDDHA. for this is not right . voluntarily go back to the flames ? Neither would any but the most foolish. they are as far apart as Heaven and earth . or even to the position of the king of my Father's Empire. but under the present circumstances. and I am searching for enduring joys in the solitude of the desert j shall I then return Will the man who having eating poison and vomited it up." And so the " As a man who has escaped from a house on fire Afterwards in a moment resolves to go back again. and never more to return to the enjoyment of of soul. their merely worldly pleasures. I am resolved to persevere in my search. So. so is it with me. in contradiction to his express wishes." Then the two messengers. for it is — — impossible to conjoin the cares of Empire and the perfect mental quietude of the man who seeks deliverance ." And then he proceeded to say " As to what you tell me respecting those Kings who my Eoyal Father says arrived at deliverance. . 165 And then he continued—" Just as we read of kings in olden time. return to the tempting dish again? WiU he who has escaped from the burning house. who. stiU urged their request that he would return to " Great and Holy Prince your his home. it is not a proper opportunity — ! to continue the quest. and so the Gatha says " ' There is profit in seeking out at once the claims of reUgion. in the following words resolution to search after Supreme Wisdom (law) is a good and commendable one.

. again. Again. whilst the embryo is in the womb. is When Surely the heart of your Eoyal father filial piety forbids you to persevere in your aim. is the work of no wise man.— — — j. with the hair and nails are all successively formed of themselves under the direction of fixed laws and so. and then to restoration and perfection. S.. " it seems to us. is futile. and so it is one of the old Books says And then they continued— "As is . the different members the feet. there are others who say. not for us to desire perfection. and therefore in the future also the same confusion will exist. bones. ii. hands. there should be no future condition. n. 107. ^ 72. then. it is certain that in the present condition there is both good and evil. or his efforts. 166 But still THE KOMANTIC there are opportunities when even this should be done. vide J. and therefore to endeavour by religious discipline to attain deliverance from any such necessity. For surely if things shape themselves under the influences of an inevitable fate. 67 p. * Vide Hodgson. under the direction of laws equally fixed. again. and so in aU other things. For to give up a certainty for an uncertainty. . is merely foolish. Tor in the Siddha ^ there are various opinions as to the real existence of a future state or not great doubts hang over the subject. to seek the fruit without being sure about the way. And so the Gatha says It is necessity " ' Who is it sharpens the prickly point of the thorn ? Who is it gives variety of colour to birds and beasts ? All these things result from the working of destiny They are independent of man.. B.' — ' Siddanta. also Jut. Holy Prince. a man thus perfected in his body. i. — — " ' Who is Or who it is it gives the sharpness to the thorn.' overpowered with grief. paints the varied plumage of the bird ?' ^ it is :* it is not man's doing . established truth.e. or to eseape from the conditions of it. A. returns to decay and destruction. etc. p. And so. what advantage will it be to give up the certain possession of the present. to attempt to avoid this necessity. § 9. Collected Essays. 1837. it is all pre-arranged and fixed. Swaihdva. there no discordance between searching after religious truth and yet continuing in the world. That is. If.

there are others who say that things are produced by capricious selection so we come into existence. and so be directed. ! ! — " As the kings whom we have named. Ambarisa Eaja. for their authority is sound and indisputable. to wit. for deliverance comes not from ourselves. or as Eishis in consequence of their fathers having paid the debt due to their ancestors and begetting them into the world as men. returned again to their homes. Holy Prince your Eoyal Father. because of his love and affection to you. Again. speak according to their If then. was brought back in the midst of all his attendant ministers and oflcers of state. called Druma. and Dharmayasa Edja aU these illustrious kings. grieves to think you should thus forsake him. who say that things are arranged by the Deva ^ and so follow their appointed order. and so we cease to exist without any choice or effort of our own. Having left their wives. we are created and we perish. — Again. he also left his hermit-cell. and come back to your palace. ' That is. retired into solitude. seek it according to reason and precedent listen to what the old Books say. but from causes independent of us. Let your Eoyal Highness therefore not hesitate to do likewise. In all these cases there is no room for individual effort. a Creative God. what need have we to labour and disturb ourselves. Again. " Again. for . who had been in possession of royal dignity. if so. Again. . provoked by what he saw of men's wickedness. who having left his kingdom and become a resident in the solitudes. and Eigdeva Eaja. For how many of the old Eishis. things will certainly be as they are ruled to be of old. Holy Prince think not on returning to your palace that there will be any cause for regret or sorrow on account of an appearance of inconstancy. left his mountain retreat. there was that old king of the city of VMsali." As the G4tha says it is Thus aU the old various sections (Siddha). Eamaraja. Books and Shasters. There are many such.— — HISTORY OF BUDDHA. there was the Brahman Eishi E4ja Sakriti. and these are some of them. and went back to govern his kingdom with justice. Holy Prince you seek deliverance. after forsaking the world returned again to its enjoyment. ! . and came back to rule his kingdom in righteousness. there are others who say that men are born as Devas. after becoming hermits. . Again. there are people intervention of Isvara 167 But. Suddhodana.

and watch him from place to place. viz. can he go with any So is the man who doubts in the practice of religion. or a fiery lake. But discipline and mortification. they. . (holy man) find in these. the pearl of the True Law. So let the Holy Prince do likewise and return to his palace. certainty. perceiving his fixed purpose. let these snowy oath mountains be removed from their base. Those questionable theories you have named are not worthy the attention of a wise man. I pray you. remind me. But my heart is fixed. At length seeing the uselessness of their entreaties they engaged four men to follow B6dhisatwa wherever he went. I would rather enter a burning furnace. and. " What you why should I doubt about the result.. continually exclaiming " Alas alas !" and vainly beseeching him to alter his mind and return with them. and though I may not yet attain my end till after long and wearisome discipline. they wept and lamented. And then. returned home. after once and others. leaving the B6dhisatwa. forsaking their retreat. you refer me to the case of Ambarisa Eija. to think of their Royal Master's sorrow on hearing the news of the prince's resolution. That he was firmly resolved not to return home. then. For they sought merely after spiritual qualities. having sworn this oath. For what happiness can a pure-minded man what is right or what is wrong . no longer of such cases. 168 THE KOMANTIG Tet afterwards. — tell how. for further parley about returning home. such as the Eishis possess . raised their voices in re! Then peated lamentations. And then. But those who follow them are like a blind man going along the road without a guide he can neither To whom Bodhisatwa for replied. again yielding to their grief. And so the G^tha says— " Those two messengers knowing the resolution of the prince. who returned to their homes beginning a life of solitude. if I do not attain the end There is no room.' therefore. but they knew nothing of the laws of self- And therefore they went back. again. But in truth those kings used no true discernment in their religious life and search after deliverance. than give up my aim and — ' — sitting." say has no reason in it when I have no doubt. of my search. turned his back on the messengers. for I swear a great Let the Sun and Moon fall down to earth. got up from where he was wood. yet wiU I never return to the pleasures of the world or immerse myself in the pollutions of sensual indulgences.

on arriving. bright and glorious as a golden pillar. underneath his feet the symbol of the thousand-spoked wheel. (Arada). Whilst they.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. Deputed four men 169 to accompany him wherever he went. slowly advanced towards the city Just before arriving at that city in the very highway dwelt a certain Eishi. towards it." Then those Manavas sounded forth this strain of praise— " Graceful and perfectly at ease in every step. gradually he is coming this way. give up your present service and worship of the Gods. called Alara. Advancing like the King of the great Oxen. calling them (and so on) let your severally by name " Mitra ma(nava) heart rejoice. clad in a Eashya garment. going back to the king. considered what they should The Discussion with Al^ra § 2. fa- And now B6dhisatwa. his hands reaching below his knees. and show him ungrudging — ! reverence. Let us then strive to pay him due homage. for the son of Suddhodana. his shoulders straight and upright (t'ang-t'ang). Keeping his strength as one aiming to be self-dependent. was filled with awe. Now this Eishi had a brother who observed Bodhisatwa a long way off approaching the spot. who. This can be no other than the Great Lion among men. Ever single hair properly disposed. His body perfectly adorned with every distinctive sign. his body encircled with glory like the shining of the sun. The thousand-spoked discus beneath the soles of his feet. he exclaimed in the presence of them all. the Lord of the Sakyas. never before of Vaisali. Immediately repairing to the place where his Master's disciples were seated. towards us. after seeing him. desiring to escape from sorrow and attain Supreme Wisdom." . engaged in his religious duties. his appearance venerable and reverend beyond measure. is coming here. The curling circle of white hair between his eyebrows. his body fuU of grace and beauty. having seen such a thing as he then witnessed. leaving these two deputies sent by his ther in the midst of their sorrow. his family name being Kalada. his gait slow and graceful as that of the Ox-king.

but with you there seems to be no such desire. or. And yet the estate of Royalty is not a thing to be despised . and having repeated the above stanzas." Then. without any real -substance or solidity. TUl Alara requested him to sit down on the clean grass mat. " Great Eishi all these earthly dignities appear to me unstable as the fruit of the plantain tree. leave your home and become a recluse.— 170 THE ROMANTIC After they had uttered these stanzas. Najasa Eaja and others. it was through the desire after this that in old time the Eaja Teng-siug^ (AgrajS. seeing whom the Eishi exclaimed in a loiid voice "Welcome! holy youth !" and so they stood facing one another with some degree of uncertainty. until Alara invited Bodhisatwa to sit down on a grass mat . though possessed of Royalty itself. are doing so. to cast off the trammels of love and affection even as the elephant breaks away from his bonds. Even so illustrious youth. Gfitama your conduct appears to me somewhat singular. and asserts his freedom. diately addressed ! and conceived great delight in his heart. but only after a long course of enjoyment. as the Gatha says — " The two looking at one another with great joy. suddenly Bodhisatwa reached the spot where Alara was . having obtained universal empire on earth. all of whom appear to have lost their dignity through excessive coveteousness. and there shared with Sakra the government of the Trayastrinshas Heavens but afterwards through coveteousness again fell down to earth . and so with ! ! have you this day done. Alara observed his person from head to foot. was translated to Heaven. the addressed the others thus — " Ye first person spoken of Manavas ! let ug now as a body proceed together to the presence of our Master. but you. and imme" Venerable him in soft and courteous words — G6tama long ago I heard of your intention to resign the kingdom.ti ?). which burns in man's heart like a fire burns in the midst of dry weeds . B6dhisatwa being seated. ! ' Sead-lorn. Other Kings have forsaken their Empires. destined to destruction. for you have given up aU." After arriving there." To which B6dhisatwa replied. . whilst yet of tender age. born from the excrescence at the top of the head. Saluting each other with a sort of reserve. Were unable to speak one to the other. ! But.

have forsaken their homes. therefore. assented. and that your religious life will be no ordinary one I" Then one of the Manava youths." To which Alara replied. his hands clasped together in token of reverence.) [Kiouen XXI contains 6. " I plainly perceive. and destroys every good intention or virtuous effort of the life. therefore. and therefore I am earnestly seeking a way of escape.] .125 taels. but thou so young and in the vigor of your age. to give up the certain enjoyment of Royalty. have you bent your steps hither ?" Then Bodhisatwa replied "I find that all men are fettered with the chains of birth and death. one of the youths who surrounded the Kishi furthur inquired of B6dhisatwa.650 words and cost 3. in olden times indeed many kings. To which B6dhisatwa afterwards Alara enters on the exposition of his showing that men are allured to their own destruction by some outward aim. having commended the intention of Bodhisatwa. broke out into the following eulogy. "Venerable Sir! seeking what way and in pursuit of what object. said. and disease. as he addressed Bodhisatwa. unable to ! — ! — free themselves. what had induced him to give up his home and leave his relations ? " Simply because all these associations of friendship and kinship are destined to be broken and destroyed . and the unfettered birds wonderful indeed is this And now Alara. searches deligently for the road by which he may escape from it. a disciple of Alara. even as a ! have a great destiny awaiting you. like a dragon. Gotama that you happiness. I seek other things. "Oh! rarely seen is such wisdom as thine . which. addressing B6dhisatwa. as the mountain goat is cheated by the false cry of the hunter." Then Alara. and sought for religious perfection in the solitudes ." (Then Alara pointed out to B6dhisatwa that the secret of aU human weakness and folly resides in the presence of concupisence. he said. old age. I search for that which is imperishable and permanent. and the fish by the bait. and look for the true road to man who has lost his way in the midst of a great solitary wUd. And own doctrine.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. lurks in the heart. 171 and. and to prefer the harshness of a life in the desert the companion !" of wild beasts. satiated with worldly pleasures. the moth by the brightness of the flame.

" and so long as .172 THE EOMAiifTIC CHAPTER XXII. sought further from him something yet this deliverance higher — for seems imperfect because it is not final —there sown it is stni a possibility of returning even life from this condition and receiving at again . Thus. corres- ponding to the different conditions of the inhabitants of the superimposed heavens. even as the seed an untimely season. and himself arrived at the condition described. may revive under certain conditions.na is . this is the case. Purther discussion with Alara. testimony of the Shasters. Bodhisatwa. the full joy of complete Dhy4na is at length attained. although in the absence of those conditions appears to have ceased to be. by the use of means. and from that the con- dition of Nirvana. we arrive at complete deliverance. is still So it is in the case of this deliverance. there the idea of / — "I have attained Mrv§. In this chapter Alara proceeds with the explanaEelying on the general tion of his Eeligious system. having accepted the instruction of Alara so far. it not final or lasting just as in the case of burning . § 1. that life be strictly that of an ascetic —without to any the bodily indulgence. he instructs Bodhisatwa that the the first condition of all religious discipline is. strictest and the mind subjected rules of thought and contemplation — thus passing through various grades of abstraction.

it. be no disputes about this very subject. but deprecates further discussion on the ground that unless there be a power beyond ourselves capable of creating and sustaining the world. and there could evil. and possibility of again so there is a becoming subject to birth. cannot be separated there is —the Avood and the fire so when I " deliverance from personal existence. Alara commends the great wisdom of Bod- hisatwa. To which Bodhisatwa you on replied. then existed independently of In either case there must with have been a Creator.-" the and the deliverance cannot be divided. but as a man who participates in the great mass of evil which exists. I seek only a phy- .HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. Bodhisatwa objects to creation by Isvara. a piece of 173 wood for instance. then it ? who made it. " I dispute not this ground. because then there could be events. anything. have been no possibility of On this. or trouble can never be for he said. to a consideration of the self-existence (Isvara). either Karma or the Body existed — if Karma was if not caused by the previous exist- ence of the body. the two ideas . no causes of sorrow. no variety of Gods regard Isvara as their but all men would Father—there could created all things. and the consequent no succession of . if Isvara then all things must have been Good. and whence came it But the body existed before Karma. The discourse then proceeds power called possibility of creation. that the great pro- blem solved first of the source of evil . whether Isvara exists or not —in short.

" On this. "But j'^ou how ?" of enquires Bodhisatwa. without end first . this is and who He when end of the Kalpa.174 sician to give THE EOMANTIC me health. where the object is victory only. whose sub- stantial existence is one of perfect quietude. burnt up and entirely destroyed Alara remained —where then is your Creator?" silent. "for this condition of which I speak that of the Great Brahma. and the next you say admits of no return — this is strange. nevertheless. I throw no further difficulties in the way. whilst one of his disciples greatly commended the . withoixt beginning. "I desire not to wrangle." "And so it is. "But although. even up to the abode of Sakra. without bounds or limits. his form with- out parts or marks " —immutable. " what becomes at the But if this be so. certainly lead to hatred and greater evils than any good they can effect." Bodhisatwa. I seek a condition of escape that and its troubles . no or last. incorruptible." said is of him. with a quiet smile on his lips. " at one moment it speak of your discipline leading to a definite condition Being (bhuva). on the ground that all religious disputes and controversies. one of the ascetics greatly commends Bod- hisatwa." is said Alara. heaven and earth." on which Alara speaks of his system as teaching this." Bodhisatwa admits of no return to life says. his operations inexhaustible.

that this system of Alara could not be a final and complete exhibition of deliverance. "1 seek a system in shall which questions about the elements shall have no —in which there be no discussion about the —no talk of death or ease or old age — no questioning about existence (bhuva) senses or their objects birth. but not talked about. after you look?" To which Bodhisatwa place replied. the system of deli- teyond the one I have illustrated. sad. in which words less shall be useless. Neither earth or water. all of whom ' entered into the brightness of the sun. or space. 175 wisdom of Bodhisatwa. but reminded him that in old time the great Eishis all attained perfect wisdom in the way list described by Alara — for instance (liere follows a of Eishis). and his heart became this. wind.: HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. and self-contained. " In the beginning there was neither birth or death. " What then is this entering into the brightness of if the sun these^ G-od." Then he added this Gatha fire. But a condition of perfect freedom. pure. lasting. ?'" enquired Bodhisatwa. or age or disease. " What then verance. Then there was no need of a Teacher for the three worlds. "and I worship how can I admit the idea of an Isvara or Supreme who alone deserves worship?" Then the con- viction seized B6dhisatwa. Alara perceiving rose from his seat is and adwhich dressed Bodhisatwa. and the idea of the hound- and illimitable (realized). " . dis- or non-existence^ about eternity or non-eternity. and attained the straight path.

determined to seek.^ § 2. At this time there was a distinguished teacher living as a hermit not far from Eajagriha. in a deliberate manner from the presence of Alara. he advanced towards the river Ganges. and inquire into his system of religion." ! 176 THE EOMANTIC this On Alara invited Bodhisatwa to divide with him the duties of Master. and addressed him as follows " Virtuous sir I have sought your company. on which they escorted him a little distance. you are able to receive my instruction." To whom Bodhisatwa answered. and to practise this discipline of the Brahman. and what is your system of deliverance ! system hinges on the absence of all questions of relationship (relative truth) that there must be neither thought (sanjnya-skandha). Discussion with Udra Eamaputra. Proceeding. to hear BQdhisatwa. in a brief time. having crossed which he came to the place where Udra Kama was. was dissatisfied this. BSdhisatwa. " Would that you would explain what I must do. and wished him lasting happiness. and instruct his followers in the doctrines he advocated. whose name was TTdra Rama. realised in himself this ^ mode of In the original. B6dhisatwa. you — ! ! — must first of all lay a right foundation to secure the desired result. that I may receive instruction from you in the discipline of the Brahman " To whom he replied " Most vii-tuous Gotama as I judge. with a system which could reach no further than arose and left the and so company of Alara and his followers. but if you really desire this. or the absence of it . his company. therefore. Yeou-to lo (Udra) Lo-Ma-tsen (Ramaputra). although rejoiced still such an invitation. . having heard of his fame. and in this "Udra explains that his On — this state of absolute indifference lies the highest deliverance.

" was not final. All these afar off beheld Bodhisatwa sitting under the shade of the tree. Having arrived there. notwithstanding TJdra's reference to the final deliverance of Eama. whence has he come. this is no every-day person. and. when that fire is removed So Bodhisatwa was at ! peace. and others travelling along the way. ' But was no means of final and complete deliverance Therefore. his body. with his legs crossed. and then dwelt. At the sight they were filled with a strange feeling of reverence. beneath a tree. The sojourn § 2. Then How beautiful ! His and his mind composed to a state of perfect rest condition was as that of the man above whose head there had been a burning fire. but 177 was dissatisfied with it. as the Gatha says " Bodhisatwa. deliverance. perceived that this system Was one which. Bodhisatwa. leaving the place where Udra Eamaputra went forward with thoughtful mien. others tending their herds. Then he began to reflect " How long before I shall entirely rid myself of this weight of accumulated sorrow when shall I destroy this secret power of delusion.— . At this time there were various people scattered about on the : — — mountain side. considering. and one spake to another thus — "Eespectable sir ! believe me. he turned away and left him (Udra) alone. on the ground that it and admitted the possibility of return. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. his body glorious as a bright golden image. and attain complete emancipation ? and when shall I be able to rescue the world from the bonds of perpetual birth and death ?" Thinking thus. the glory of his person shone forth with double power. in Mount Pandava. and came to the mountain called Pandava [this signifies yellow-white colour^. he sought for a shady spot whereon to rest. Bodhisatwa left his company and went his way. some gathering shrubs and roots.. Eama had practised. others engaged in hunting. sat down. and how did he arrive at this Mount ? N Surely . his Father. others collecting the dry dung of the ox. from old time.

At least. at the his outer robe. and in whose presence the flowers of the Palasa trees opened and displayed their sweets. and said. as the brightness of the sun and moon in the midst of the mountain. seeing which he forthwith man who was passing by. and presented it respectfully to Bodhisatwa. ' others neath . others others said. he said. seeing the incomsir ! " Respectable may I ask 1 Ki-che-kiu. Then he remembered that he had no alms-bowl (Patra) in which to receive his food . and proceeded from Mount Pandava towards Eajagriha to beg his food. an alms-bowL . G-hedja- kato. .178 he he is is THE KOMANTIC the guardian spirit of this Pandava mountain. said. Then the people within and without the city.21 taels. desiring to rid himself of every remnant of earthly pollution. others said. he suddenly saw a place where there was early Now dawn put on a pond covered with great flowers addressed himself to a certain . having passed the night in this place. evidently an abbreviation from the Fali." Others said. wherefore looking around him in every direction for some substitute. XXIII. the Eishi of the place . he is is the guardian god of Mount Vibharo kuta . for never yet did man possess such beauty. and to attain a condition of perfect purity and rest (Anupadhisesa Nirv&na). [Kiouen XSII contains 6420 words and cost 3. this is the great earth the guardian spirit of G-ridhraspirit. This seems to intimate the origin of the word pdtra. the man immediately entered the pond and procured the leaf. come up from be- he is the spirit of the upper regions of space So they were all in doubt who this could be that shone out so gloriously. you the favour of picking me one of those leaves ^ of the lotus flower growing in yonder pond ? " Having heard the request. and shed abroad such glory. ' Patra. having received which he went forward to the city of Eajagriha to beg his food. this is no mortal man. come down to earth.] CHAPTER BSdhisatwa § 1. visits E^jagriha. as this man. B6dhisatwa. said they.

And as he passed through the streets. and the spiritual lustre which shone from him. moreover. they forgot all. and tops of the houses . and whatever their engagements. thai his very appearance was enough to convert and restrain all who beheld him. his body perfectly erect. like the new moon. His hands and feet beautifully proportioned ." Thus.] And so the Gatha says " BSdhisatwa. His eyes. were filled with awe. from the balconies. from which was constantly emitted a flood of light. Whatever men beheld him thus. and the fingers and toes so beautifully connected together. filled with immeasurable joy. his eyes fixed before him. countless women in the city gazed at Bodhisatwa from the comers of the door-posts.t their engagements were. and his garments all strictly arranged. all left their engagements.i come down from heaven to earth.irably proportioned. or others who were drinking in the wine shops. . Not thinking wha.— HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. between his eyes. there had formed on Ms forehead. those who were engaged in buying or selling. blue and soft as those of the King of Oxen. Conceived great joy in their hearts. Bodhisatwa advanced steadily onwards. possessing three eyes. Beholding such rare beauty as this. from the windows." Then — from every part the people came together. and were wrapped in awe as they beheld Bodhisatwa. a circle of hair. All their hearts were filled with joy. moving along the road. as by a network filament. and ^as they watched him go from Between 1 Siva Trinayana. also. his eyes the silky hair-circle. since the time of his leaving his palace to become a recluse. His body always emitting light. Bddhisatwa was in the freshness of his youth . [Now at this time. and assembled around Bodhisatwa to pay him honour. So. surrounded by a vast crowd. and followed him on his course. and. But lost in admiration at what they beheld. 179 parable grace of B6dhisatwa's person as he approaolied. whilst his hands and his feet were so adm. and spake one to another thus " Surely this is the great Isvara. His body perfectly bright and glorious.

and said. May there be born a Buddha during my reign. n. At this time. May I be 2. his heart was filled with doubt . lo afar off he saw B6dhisatwa. Seeing him thus. he went forth from the gate. May I obtain the Eoyal dignity early in life. and declared that this stranger approaching the city could be no other than he. Bimbasara ESja was on the top of the city-gate. others Maheshwara. whilst one of the wise ministers declared it was no other than a Chakravarti Eaja. 3. surrounded by his ministers . others it is a Mah&n^araja. " Never since I was born have I seen such a perfectly beautiful and dignified person as this. bekingdom. my lords. others it is Vemachitra Asura Eaja. others Brahmadeva. whose body was glorious as the stars that shine in space throughout the darkness The King of the night. But at length one of the councillors explained the whole circumstance of BSdhisatwa's birth at Kapilavastu. and approached Bodhisatwa. others it is S4kra. 229. May I arrive at the knowledge of the Law. Vist. and what his name ?" Then some said. and whence he comes. then addressed his ministers. who reigned at E^jagriha was of the family Srenika. " and so forthwith he commanded two of his attendant ministers to go watch where Bodhisatwa finally named Bimbasara. Then Bimbasara thought. had made five earnest vows.180 THE ROMANTIC door to door. as they spake one to another " Who is this that has come hither his person so beautiful and so joy-giving as he moves ? What is his name ? What caste or family does he belong to ? Is he Brahman — — or Shaman ?" At this time. descending from the tower. others it is Suryadeva. "this is nothing more than the accomplishment of my vow . Go forward. others it is Vaisravana E&ja. 4. or as the brightness of the Mani gem. which were these: 1. permitted to see him and give him charity.i Now this monarch. accompanied by the crowd as he went. the King of Magadha. fore obtaining the — ! 1 Lai. as he sat there. the protector of the world. advancing towards the city with dignified pace. and so. May I hear him preach. and the horoscope that had been oast. and inquire who he is. 5. others it is Bala Asura Raja. it is Devaraja. others said it is Chandradeva. . their hearts were filled with unutterable joy.

Accordingly they went and joined themselves to the company of BSdhisatwa's followers." Seated thus beneath the tree. and looking to the south. " Surrounded by the fragrant trees of the mountain. and told seated on the southern slope of him that BSdhisatwa was Pandava. having followed Bodhisatwa to the spot where he was seated. and sat down in the shade beside a running fountain of water. surrounded by the birds who flew from tree to tree. asking alms. whilst his garments gathered over him shone forth like the sun in his glory. Jantu.. old age and disease with no fear or care. that he might himself go and pay reverence to him. After having washed his hands and feet. and he felt himself strengthened in his resolution to provide some sure ground of salvation for the world. he sat down. Shone as the sun in his early strength. the chief learn even sat down. clad in his Kashya garment. Mount . — minister approached to within a little distance of the place. and unable to escape from the net of impermanenoy and change. Manava. And so the G^tha says— before him. he reflected thus " I must now more thoroughly the vanity of such names as Pudgala. 181 took Us abode. . his heart was moved with love. seeing the vast multitude of the people which thronged every part of the city. with a view to obey the king's commands. to eat his meal. with his eyes fixed and his body erect. ever wandering in the dark. the other returned to the king. he begged his food &om house to house. constantly tossed on the sea of life and death. Now. Meantime. with his legs crossed. about their unhappy condition. HISTOET OF BUDDHA. proceeding slowly through the city. Bodhisatwa. the two messengers of King Bimbasara. The birds and beasts disporting themselves in gambols The man. he ascended the mountain. "All these people are without any means of salvation. after which he returned to Mount Pandava. with no one to guide them or instruct them." Thinking thus. where. with his face to the east. that the five Skandha are unreal. Manushya. and Meantime. and the flowers that carpeted the earth . without any hope of deliverance. Thus. that aU phenomena are false and illusory names. he sought out a shady spot. as he passed through E^jagriha. began to reflect within himself.

Then the king's heart was filled with reverence and awe. if it be not troublesome to ask you so to do In the first place." Then Bodhisatwa. Health. proceeded to seat himself on a large stone near to Bodhisatwa and addressed him thus " Eespectable sir I have some doubts in my mind— would that you would solve them for me. as he asked him further the purpose of Then Bimbasara E4ja his visit. but a plain man. Brahma. and indulge in the pleasures of life. — ! ! — ! — "Tour body. returned the salutation of the king. his body bright as the stars that shine through the dark night. bright as sandal. Then Bodhisatwa.wood. or spirit. he heheld Bodhisatwa seated as we have said." Bimbasara then proceeds to urge BSdhisatwa to give up his purpose. answered plainly and truthfully. He saluted him. Tou should not wear this Kashya robe. and wished him all happiness and prosperity. His body bright and shining. freedom from pain and care. or the lightning that gleams from the cloud. mounting his chariot. or a spirit ? " Then Bodhisatwa. happiness. or as the fire that burns on the top of some hill. to share the kingdom of Magadha with him. or SS. and so am practising the rules of an ascetic life.kra. with a voice soft and sweet as that of MahS. and wished him the four compliments. or Brahma. per- . seeing B&dhisatwa glorious as Sakraraja. " Maharaja I am no god. Tour hands fit to control the wills of men. or a N^a. And so the G^tha says " The king. having entirely got rid of all crooked ways. his heart filled with joy." Then the king rejoined "But why are you thus living when your youth and your beauty would entitle you to the enjoyment of all the pleasures which men hold so dear. as he saluted him with much respect. seeking for rest. king. who or what are you ? are you a God. and invited him to be seated. proceeded towards the and soon arriving there. Should not be carrying that alms-dish.— 182 Then the THE EOMANTIO place. or a man. unmoved by anything the king had said.

the follies of one who hates the truth. poisoners of virtue ! ! . whilst the in- evitable evils of death. they are but fancies of an empty mind .— — — . The following are the G^thas used at intervals to illustrate his argument " Wounded by the arrows of sorrow. part of this chapter. [Xiouen XXIII contains 6550 words and cost 3. The argument with Bimbasara In the first (continued). I would not covet it —much less worldly dignities. with his argument with Bimbasara the folly of He urges pursuing earthly happiness.] life of an ascetic. The pleasures of which you speak are perishing and illusory They are as thieves and robbers . But the sage he alone has a firm standing ground. Bodhisatwa proceeds E§.ja.' ! Bodhisatwa then proceeds with various arguments. replied as and pure in thought. the dreams of a madman . taels. his fixed and unchangeable purpose to pursue the and seek for final deliverance. The six objects of sense are illusive and false The inheritance of fools and madmen. 183 act. word. I desire only to find a lasting remedy Supposing the palace of Sdkra were mine to choose. comparisons. and disease. to impress on Bimbasara. are still undestroyed. and old age. and illustrations. and re- newed birth. 01? BUDDHA. Even as the Gatha says " ' The five pleasures are inconstant. " : HISTOEY feotly collected. and follows " Maharaja you should not indulge in such foolish talk ? Such arguments as you have used can have no possible weight with one like myself.275 CHAPTER XXIV." .

says. disease. drink. disease. Bimbasara further asks what hisatwa gives up seeks ? the end for which Bod- all his possessions. .. plainly his history On which and family. either of wild beast or other danger —his only fear and renewed is of the demon Death. The thoughts of these things I dismiss I seek religion. Bodhisatwa him On this Bimbasara with tears beseeches him not to exbut Bodhisatwa declares he has no fear pose his body thus to the hardships and dangers of a hermit's life . Bimbasara then inquires in astonishment who and what he is —of what tells race and caste. the only true source of profit " Where there is neither birth. is the only thing worth seeking. The wise man considers this unbecoming. but begs cine. clothing). or pleasures of the world. old age. is birth. This is the true and only sound philosophy To seek wealth. doubts not of his him to come daily to his palace to receive in charity the four necessary provisions (food." — Neither can final deliverance be found in the worship of gods. seeing his firm resolution. Destroy life to secure present happiness. and wheel of to establish the Kingdom the Law). or in sacrifice " For if . For the purpose of being born hereafter in heaven. etc. Bodhisatwa explains that his end of Eeligion (turn the to attain the condition Anuttara \ Samyak Samb6dhi. and what it is he is On this. mediultimate success. old age. Then Bimbasara. How much more (to destroy life in sacrifice). or death. " 184 THE EOMANTIC lie Eeligion (Dharma). Bodhisatwa excuses himself on the ground that . a man born in the world.

the king. So the Gatha says " B6dhisatwa assured Bimbasara in these words. though a Shaman or a Brahman may not practise lust. Having arranged a seat of leaves he sat down beneath a tree. to the city of Gaya. holding this in his hand. and practise all the fasts and keep the rules of penance. the fire may be easily kindled. wishing to enjoy rest of mind and body. he begs him to receive his confession of sins and his resolution of amendment. in addition to abstention from evil. yet so long as there is the least remnant of covetous desire in the heart. I will instruct and con- vert the king. proceeding from Mount Pandava. having performed three oiroumambulations. Then Bimbasara.— — HISTORY OF BUDDHA. listens to the E^ja's words. that as it is impossible to obtain fire from boring wood that is wet. ' When I have attained enlightenment. he went round from house to house to beg some food. and these three ideas presented themselves. and then gives him consolation and wishes him all success. and it being now time for seeking food. Seated thus. that though a Shaman or a Brahman may use every measure to overcome evil desire. has experienced in his heart a feeling of universal love. Bodhisatwa then descended from the Mount. and prostrated himself at the feet of B6dhisatwa. Finally. Having obtained at a potter's house dish. he came at last to one on the southern side of Gaya called TJravilva. he cannot attain perfection. he thought. He left the mount and returned home. Again. with closed hands. 185 he must shortly remove from his present abode elsewhere. and returned home. . or by using dung that is soddbn . moreover.' Considering with great joy the conduct of the Sage. went onwards and having arrived there he ascended the hiU G^yasirsha. he thought. he began to reflect. Again. then like dry wood and dry dung. entreats that when Bodhisatwa has arrived at complete enlightenment he may become one of his disciples . he cannot obtain Supreme Wis- dom (the dampness of the wood and the dung must be got rid of). and passing through various villages. departed. Bodhisatwa." Then Bodhisatwa. so. yet so long as there is the least love of it in the heart. with a slight smUe. and desires to arrive at perfection that he may profit others. he an earthern entered that village to beg. that when a Shaman or Brahman. rising up.

" Illustrious sister my name is Siddartha." To whom Bodhisatwa replied. in sight of the river which ran by in peaceful flow. and as he did so. old Eishi king called E&ya (the Chinese interprets it by " Form. holding his alms-dish in his hand. and entering the house filled it with every kind of choice delicacy and most luscious fruit . tnown as Anuttara Samyak Sambh6di. having heard these words. and I am now in search of the highest condition of "Wisdom. having obtained which I desire to turn the wheel of the Law which is above every Law. Havingseen this.^ he remained silent. and she proceeded to address Bodhisatwa thus "Most excellent and illustrious Sir what is your name. . and selected a most delightful spot. and I pray that when you have attained the. end of your present search that I may become one of your followers. it happened then that Snjata had seen Bodhisatwa. he sat down and ate his food.] ^ Ekamantam.ya) founded a town and — ! ! dwelt. Now.186 THE EOMANTIC He came at length to the house of one of the village lords. and of what family and tribe are you ? who are your father and mother ? and whither go you now ? For in truth your Divine appearance has so affected me that the ( — ! very milk from my breasts exudes of itself ! !" Bodhisatwa replied. approach the house. he departed. he there sat down and composed himself to severe contemplation. he proceeded onwards. \_Now Odya is so called because this was the spot where am. my father and mother are so-and-so. and spake thus " Most excellent Sir I vow to minister always to your wants . and having selected a clean place. lo! the milk exuded from both her paps from very joy and reverence). according to the religious rules he had adopted. whose name was Nandika. this Nandika had an only daughter whose name was Sujata. ThenSujatS. and standing in front of it.. Having finished his meal. smooth and free from inconveniences. at a moderate distance from the village. so that he might easily resort thither for the purpose of begging. and bringing it out she respectfully offered her gift to B6dhisatwa. a girl of great beauty and grace. and remain in silence. "Illustrious sister be it as you desire !" Having eaid this. took the alms-dish from the hands of Bodhisatwa." and therefore it must be KS. take his stand before the door.

immediately recognised him and said. promised to do so . addressed him and said. Whereupon. prepared himself a seat of leaves. alas that such false views should be entertained. with a narrow and illiberal disposition. Then BSdhisatwa. who is now living the life of a hermit f and his heart was fiilled with joy at seeing him. Bodhisatwa received this modicum of millet sufficient to keep him alive." On which that Brahman. you undertake to provide me with millet. his teeth joined. and all who beheld him were filled with a strange feeling of awe and reverence at the sight of the penance he was thus enduring. wiU. and his tongue pressed upwards against the palate. and had adopted this name as his title after taking possession of Ms dominion . Thus it was his skin became wrinkled. having. our Prince Eoyal. His heart composed as he remained on the shore When he thought over the various systems of false religions. down and began to consider thus with himself " What countless methods there are hy which men hope to obtain final deliversat — by rules as to eating. who had ob- tained from Bimbasara authority to govern a certain town close to TJravilva. sleeping. to transact some business. 187 BodMsatwa. and thus. B8dhiBatwa composed himself to contemplation ance. " Great Brahman. born near to KapUavastu. ! — . seeing Bodhisatwa. who had for a time come to lodge in the house of Senayana. this Deva. sufficient for me to take a daUy meal and so to support me in life. Bodhisatwa was overpowered with grief. having seen the joy of Deva. day by day for six years. his mouth closed. and his body attenuated and his eyes hollow as an old man's j whUst his limbs were unable to support him as he moved. clothing. "This is Siddartha. and so the G4tha says " Bodhisatwa seated beside the Nairanjaua Eiver. and there was another Brahman called Deva.393 taels.] . Whilst there he had occasion to go to the wood where Bodhisatwa was practising austerities. undergoing every kind of penance and self-mortiflcation . His heart was grieved and filled with sorrow." Thinking thus. therefore. Now certain there was living near the place where B6dhisatwa was a Brahman of a high caste. called Senayana." Thus thinking.— HISTORY OF BUDDHA. [Kiouen XXIV contains 6786 words and cost 3. hoping to obtain merit by this act of charity.

" Siddartha is practising austerities in yonder grove. and if so to induce him to return to his home. coming to Kapilavastu. and the tenants of the forest !" Meanwhile. who. he asked of them saying.— ! 188 THE EOMANTIC CHAPTER XXV. where art thou now ? Alone. " Alas my son. wlieii tlie spring came to pass that Whilst thus enjoying the delights of the gardens." Then again Udayi inquired and said. to the banks of the Nairaujana Eiver. and gave way to his sorrow with lamentable cries. and there first of all encountering Kauudinya > and the other hermits. declared to the king that the prince was dead. related the news to them. leaving Kapilavastu. was just in its prime. a melancholy overwhelmed him. in the wild mountains. assembling the Sakya princes. deputed one of their number to go quickly to SuddhSdana . TJdayi undertook to search after the prince any method for and bring him back. [The number of the S&kya princes was ninety-nine thousand/] At last. it SuddhSdana Eaja went forth from his palace to enjoy the beauties of the gardens that were near his Eoyal city the opening flowers. when all of them had failed to suggest effecting this. so that he could not long survive. but told the E&ja that his son could not endure such afBliction beyond seven days more. and besought them to seek some mode of finding out if the prince were still alive. Now at this time. and he exclaimed. surrounded by the recollection of his son roving beasts. But another Devaputra immediately came and contradicted this. § 1. observing that Bodhisatwa was practising such severe penance. Then TJdayi. Tlie Exhortation to Eeturn. On this. the Devas. Whereupon the king was overpowered with grief. it is now six years since you left your home . "iAnd what ! 1 Kauudinya and four other Eishis had associated themselves with Bddhisatwa during his penance. the budding trees and the chattering birds. . proceeded to TJravilva. Suddhfidana. "Illustrious Kaundinya can you teU me where Siddartha abides ?" To whom Kaundinya replied. who had heard the expression of his grief.

.' but. demanded. having heard these words. and they tell me that within seven days I shall indeed attain to the perfection I seek. p. take back my bones to Kapilavastu. is 189 the name " His of that attendant of yours ?" to whom Kaundinya re- plied. as it is." Mara is the same as the Lord World of Pleasure (Kama loka). At length TJdayi complied. "may my body be ground to powder small as the mustard-seed if I ever desire to [return to my home If indeed I die before the completion of my vow. Then Bodhisatwa. on this the king said. and my heart is filled with joy. arose and left the wood and returned to Kapilavastu. Mar^raja Pisuna^ had come once and again to try and ternpt him to the commission of some small sin." 2 These Gathas are almost identical with the Thibetan. § 2. name is Asvajit." and. in my dreams the Devas come to me. and desired Udayi himself to go into the wood." ! ! ! ! The Conclusion of his Severe Fast. "I seek Nirvana." Then Udayi. "the "Wicked Mara. For. and told Suddhddana Eaja that his son was still persevering in his aim.! HISTORY OF BUDDHA. Uddyi return home. with " Death. TJdiyi. for there can be no further communication between us. and found Bodhisatwa asleep on the ground. 251. ' These are the relics of a man who died in the fixed prosecution of his resolve . "Who ai'e you ?" On which Udayi explained why he had come." Then TJdayi requested Asvajit to enter the wood and tell Siddartha that a messenger from his Eoyal Father had come to inquire for him. and was alive. Now during the six years' penance which B6dhisatwa endured. "My son is yet alive. and will have nothing more to do with the troublesome world. He is sometimes identified Lai. then. hearing these cries. And so the 1 Gatha says " — of the That is. in truth.. and say. but Bodhisatwa replied. raising a great cry. TJdayi exclaimed. go tell my Eoyal Father that I am resolved to persevere. but how altered his appearance Then. then. but with no success. he added. But Asvajit declined to accede to such a request. Go. Vist. "Alas alas that one so beautiful and full of grace should ever come to this !" etc.

and oil and milk prepare these things for me. coming to him With blandishing words. I fear not death. Vid. said. oh. Beside the banks of the Nairanjana river. ' . and also by bathing and caring for his Then Bodhisatwa addressed the Brahman. addressed him and Oh that you would lengthen your days And by so doing be able to practise religion. and what — wheat and health. and he thought with himself "Why do I not now experience these joys?" Then he resolved to strengthen his body by partaking of sufficient food. ! It were better far to live than die To become a Eecluse is no easy task To subdue one's heart is difficult. And afterwards you would repent not of it Tour body. and partake of other food wheat and honey. oil and milk. nor the end of the world. It would indeed be for your profit so to do. Listen then to me. and how as he sat beneath the Djambu tree he enjoyed the bliss of Dhyina .. your attempts are vain Tou seek only your own. whose name was I have resolved to break this " Great Brahman long and trying penance. I pray.' Pisuna ! ! ! '" tinually their Then B6dhisatwa reflected thus " It is because men seek conown things and their own profit that sorrows come — am I doing but this ?" And then he thought of the incident of the ploughingmatoh. • ! ! . as you wander to and fro Tou speak of death but what is that ? etc.' and said — ! — ! Deva was the niggard Brahman who had supplied Bodhisatwa with the few grains of millet he ate daily. you are for long. etc. ante. virtuous one as You cannot indeed live is weak and worn. The sounds of which were scarcely heard (owing to ' his weakness). — .. ! . Then Marar^ja Pisuna. and give up the quest !' To whom B6dhisatwa replied in excellent words. 190 THE EOMANTIO " To the east of the village of TJravilva." Deva. Firm in his resolve to obtain deliverance He sat with his legs crossed as a hermit.

said he. both of daughters. oh. indeed I have no such but if Bodhisatwa will follow my advice. And now B6dhisatwa. " To come to the house replied — "Virtuous offer. and carry him warm water for his body. and receive them there?" On this Bodhisatwa consented. the other them very beautiful. and to come to your house to beg for some wheat.HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. oil. and milk and honey. they bowed down their heads at his feet. Then. and his frame resumed its youthful appearance. Accordingly Deva. and MS. "to the place where the great Shaman is. having eaten and drunk. they had besought their father to try to get for them the graceful youth." "And what is your advice ?" he said. virtuous sir ! provide " Now Senayana had two Bala. and their graceful son . one called Nanda. and take it. said "Oh! great sir. spake thus " Illustrious and honourablesir deign to receive this offering of food at our hands. and of Suddhodana. like the thirsty ground drinks up the rain. he washed himself — ! as he purposed. the child of Suddhodana. and become the wives of that beautiful Sakya Prince. and afterwards they carried it to the place where Bodhisatwa was undergoing his penance." The girls having received this intimation. and offering their food to him. whereof the — withal to refresh his body. and honey. forthwith proceeded to prepare the necessary food. ordered his two daughters to prepare at once provision of wheat and oU. and afterwards using the tepid water. who is about to break through his long and rigorous fast. Then Senayana." Then Bodhisatwa. returning to Senayana. absorbing the oil. taking the butter and the oil. ate according to his desire. To whom Deva it 191 things at hand to sir. he rubbed it into his body. and in the prime of their youthful days. Brahman Senayana. having received the gift at the hands of the two maidens. Then his body. not far from this place is an illustrious Shaman. addressed the . These girls had long ago heard about the S^kyas who lived at KapUavastu. will be easy to procure them. and water. as a husband. and having heard all this. having heard from the Brahman Deva that Bodhisatwa was coming to his house to beg for food. from that moment he began to revive. for thus perhaps you may obtain the desire of your hearts. these things ? Can you. Arrived there. beneath the northern mountains.ya.

as a shelter from the wind and the rain. ! pate in the five pleasures of sense for my object is to obtain supreme enlightenment. they gave themselves up to severe contemplation. we pray — we may become followers of yours. and anointed his body therewith j whilst. and also his purpose of attaining supreme wisdom . these branches took root. and bore fiowers and leaves as they sheltered you. seeing Bodhisatwa's grace and health." On which BSdhisatwa said. have you any wish you would have fulfilled?" On which they replied " Of old time we have heard of a certain beautiful S4kya Prince. being filled with reverence and joy. he took of his goat's milk and offered it to BodMsatwa. approached Mm." From that day forth these two maidens continued to bring food and water to Bfidhisatwa. it came to pass that the five life. it is well it is well . when this is so. . Seeing BSdhisatwa partake of various kinds of food. altered mode of and his appearance of revived . Now men. until his body had once more resumed its wonted beauty. thought with themselves that he had lost his power of Dhydna. they were therefore incensed against Mm. that — Mm ! ! Mm. and left him with many reproaches. he wove a covering over the head of Bodhisatwa.— — 192 THE EOMANTIC two maidens thus " My sisters you have wrought a meritorious deed by thus ministering to my wants tell me. whose equal it would be hard to find we would wish to become the wives of that prince. and to preach the insurpassable Law. Meantime. beyond doubt you will obtain your end . I am that S4kya Prince but I have vowed never again to partici! — ." Then Bodhisatwa answered— "My sisters. having observed the invincible purpose of Bodhisatwa in practising his penance. " Oh virtuous and honourable sir may I be permitted to make you some offerings of food. then. and entering the deer-garden. your wish shall be accomplished. After a time they came to Benares. After this Bodhisatwa desired them no longer to bring food." On obtaining the desired permission. come. " My sisters. to our house. in virtue of the spiritual power of BSdhisatwa. and bowed before Mm and said. cutting down some branches of the Nyagrodha tree." — To which the maidens all replied " If this be indeed the ease. Now at this time a certain shepherd boy. And so the Gatha says " Those five Eishis practising severe penance.

and in each case she uttered this vow " May the merit of this charitable act accrue to the benefit of that first Now S3. now is your opportunity B6dhisatwa desires some choice food. went straight to the house of the village Lord.i and his two daughters. should now prepare some exquisite cream for the purpose of ministering to his wants. and at the same time not unfit me for that great end of all ? " Thus reflecting. and with their milk fed two hundred and fifty others. she had ever ministered her Substance in bestowing charity on all the Brahman and Shaman mendicants who came to her door . and may he in the end attain his earnest desire. taking the milk of these cows and mixing it in a dish with some of the purest rice. and (5-element-body)' . these two maidens proceeded to prepare a lordly dish for Bodhisatwa. which we have described. knowing the thoughts of Bodhisatwa. "It is not and not aiming to attain the end of all. and with their milk fed five hundred others. every kind of appearance presented itself on the surface of spring-time. " Te. quickly assembled a thousand milch kine. after partaking of which he desires to devote himself to the attainment of supreme wisdom. on the 1 6th day of the second Bodhisatwa began to reflect thus. having heard the Devaputra's words. "ni-tang. Sujata. Here again the expression denotes two. and spake thus " Sujata. shall I obtain fitting food for the purpose. pline • 193 disci- This is no contemplative He has given up the quest." '' . then." Then the two daughters of Sujata. which may nourish me. — ! 1 But Sujata was given before as the name of one davighter." now nourishes his earthly body from the day when the daughter of the village lord had given Bodhisatwa the food in charity. Then appeared all kinds of wonderful portents . where. then. Spake thus among themselves.kya mendicant who is now undergoing such severe penance. and so on down to fifteen cows . a certain Devaputra. and the village lord was called Nandika. the perfection of complete wisdom . month right that I should continue thus eating." Wow the six years being over.— — HISTORY OF BUDDHA. the village lord. through the whole of the six years that he had practised his severe penance.

seeing the character of the food. I will procure salvation for all men." Sujata. Afterwards. Tree and Serpent Worship. after which he entered the river and bathed. proceeded towards the village of Uravilva. on the 23rd day of the second month. washed it in the stream.. and conduct Then. that he was unable to reach the opposite bank.^ THE EOMANTIC Brahma. Observe that Toucaux gives the name of the tree Kakoubha (Lai. moment to deliver the world from the thraldom of death. thought thus with himself. to beg his food. but his strength had been so reduced by the penance which for six years he had endured. = It seems plain that this incident is the subject of the sculpture on the right hand pillar of Plate Iviii. he at last came to the house of Nandika. B. and filling it up to the brim with the delicious food. she spake thus. " Would that my lord would accept from me this dish fuU of deliciously prepared rice Then wa Then Bodhisatwa. and there stood silently before the principal door of the dwelling. Arrived there.194 of the mixture. where he partook of the food. seeing Bodhisatstanding thus silently before the gate. with her own hands came and presented it to Bodhisatwa. Bodhisatwa. whilst in attendance. Vist. immediately sent for a golden dish. having taken the outstretched hand. stretched forth his j ewelled arm to assist B^dhisatwa. Sujata. 257). BSdhisatwa.^ Then Bodhisatwa. having arranged his garments very early in the morning. whilst all the Devas showered down upon him every kind of flower and perfume. the village lord. Having taken her place before him. and the other Devas appeared At length. having accepted the gift of them to the other shore. the daughter of the village lord. taking his Kashya garment. having received the charity of milk. reached These portents I omit. awaiting charity. vide M. and attempted then to proceed to the other shore of the river. S^kra. 167-8. "This is a token that I should henceforth strive I vow from this after the true nectar (sweet dew) of the right law.^ the Deva's name being Akuba. Thus Bodhisatwa departed from Uravilva. she likewise urged him to keep the golden dish. Compare also Pancu(kulasiva)na with Piniuna Un the Teit). Then the Deva of a certain great tree which was called Pinjuna. 1 2 . and step by step advanced towards the Naii'ailjana river. and of the Wicked one." Sujata.

Meanwhile. XXVI. taking portions of the water of the river in which Bodhisattra had bathed. observing this. confer. assumed the form of a Garuda. Then Bodhisatwa arose. which the Naga. and the water of to the Thus refreshed with the food he Nairafijana river. tree. The food which Sujata had Filled with joy.ga daughter of the same name as the river. onward to the Bodhi Determined to attain to Supreme Wisdom. proceeded piously prepared. Having con- cluded his meal. had taken. 'i.24 taels. and proceeded onward slowly and with dignity. where it is stiU an object of worship. returned therewith to their several palaces. he finished the delicate food of Sujata. And so the Gatha says " Bodhisatwa. but King Si. taking the seat she had provided for Bodhisatwa. who. and transported it to the Trayastriushas heaven. Bodhi Tree. who was lord of the river. he forthwith cast the golden dish on the river stream. Now the lord of that Nairanjana river had a certain N3. Fig.] CHAPTER The advance § 1. 195 the shore in safety.kra. and. Tree xxiv. step by step." [Kiouen XXV has 6.' on which. as the laws of religion direct. — A and Serpent Worship. with her hand advanced from a spring that bubbled up from the earth. advanced towards the B6dhi tree. as an object for future worship.— HISTORY OF BUDDHA.480 words. (Here follows a long description of the method of walking adopted by the Bddhisatwas. and forthwith snatched it from the hands of the Naga. PI. and cost 3.) And as he 1 sort of basket-seat. presented to B6dhisatwa a seat. the village lord's daughter. Bodhisatwa set his face toward the Bodhi tree. having partaken of the choice food. carried it to her own palace. like aU the former Bodhisatwas had done. . at once seized and conveyed to his palace. whilst the Naga Eaja's daughter. taking his place. all the Devas.

etc. — ! ! At this time Sakra Raja. and taking his stand not far from Bodhisatwa. " This On name hearing this. in soft foUtfws a long description of the different qualities of his voice) addressed the grass-cutter and said. suddenly five hundred blue birds. and what is your name ." 1 . came forward and respectfully offered and melodious voice (here he "Can you give me some his grass to Bodhisatwa. the volute of which twists to the right. " I can. under the form of Santi. just as Bddhisatwa took the grass. the swastika. its points all turnWhen B6dhisatwa perceived him thus ening to the right. " My name is Kih-li= (Santi?)" thus with himself. Bodhisatwa thought is an assurance to me that I shall a. of the TrAyastrinshas Heavens. " Excellent sir. is the method of sitting adopted by other Bddhisatwas when engaged in the attainment of the highest wisdom diately he recognised the truth that he ought to ?" Immemake a cushion of grass for a seat. Having he proceeded onwards. and thus have attained complete enlightenment. cutting some beautiful grass." Then Bodhisatwa thought. then. " to which the grass-cutter replied. And now. of a beautiful blue-like colour. of this grass ?" The supposed grass-cutter immediately answered.. the former BSdhisatwas have aU made their seat of grass arranged for the purpose. "And who is there to give me this grass ?" Thinking thus." or "fortunate. he approached to his side and said. amongst numerous other notices of a similar character. by his divine wisdom knowing the thoughts of Bodhisatwa. taken one handful of will This. which turn to the right in the composition of various figures. he looked on every side of him to see if any one were near him who could supply the want.g. constitute the emblem a fortunate one. and said " Even so even so one. At this time certain Devas of the Suddhavasa Heavens addressed Holy and reverend BSdhisatwa. shining as the peacock's feathers. coming from the ten quarters of some of it. e. he remained there on the right hand side of him. the lines. 196 THE EOMANTIC advanced in this way. Then the earth quaked six times." and then.' gaged. attain my aim. explain many Buddhist symbols and emblems. the conch." Then Sakra.— . "good luck. immediately transformed himself into the shape of a grass-cutter. lie began to reflect with himself thus " I am now proceeding to that sacred arena of the Bodhi tree what. ^ That is.

coming from the four quarters. and then followed him as he advanced. every kind of bird and beast) coming up. Again.: ! . and creatures of every grade and kind. 263. and so moving onwards. flew up. . I clearly see that this illustrious youth as he proceeds Will certainly attaki to supreme enlightenment. the Ndga Eaja feeling sure that Bodhisatwa. Thus. .'' Now at this time there was a Mga Eaja belonging to that region whose name was Ka-cha (Kdlika). did the same. Asuras. with great joy began to utter the following stanzas hundred Garuda "How full of grace and dignity this great and virtuous person Just as I have heretofore seen AU the Bodhisatwas coming towards this central point. he looked round on every hand to see the cause of the commotion. 197 and taming to the birds. ' The interpretation is "the black one. space. circumvented B6dliisatwa Again.Begging a handful of grass holding which He now with straight course advances to the Bodhi Tree — He certainly will now attain the state of Samb6dhi And now from all the quarters of heaven blows a cool ! air. I have Vide Lai. to translate the whole. and by hearing the noise of the earthquake. Santi. He had now been asleep for some time. did the same. and there." ^ That is the arena round the Bodhi tree. he saw Bodhisatwa proceeding onward with dignified gait towards the Bfidhlmandala. He surely must attain the perfection of Buddha. HISTOET OF BUDDHA. 1 So this one is now advancing in the same way. Fist. right. ' The description here it is not thought worth my while very fiorid and exaggerated. surrounded by Devasj Nagas. five three times. like the former ones. See him now looking round with an inquiring gaze . not far from his dwelling. p. Proceeding outside his palace. when he was suddenly roused by the shaking of the earth. and in ages and kalpas gone by had seen many Buddhas. five hundred peacocks (and.^ This Waga E^ja was very old.' Observing this. would reach Supreme Wisdom. in short. His walk and bearing indicate him as the Lord of the World First raising his right foot. Bodhisatwa marched onwards. And now see him by the side of the grass-cutter. with some anxiety.

On which Bodhisatwa addressed him thus " Be it so be it so great Naga Eaja as you say I am now bent upon the acquisition of the highest wisdom. These various signs and portents you have named Are all of lucky omen." ! ! etc. The gross darkness and the ignorance that envelope mankind. 198 Sounding THE EOMANTIC like the distant voice of the King of the Oxen And now behold the birds come flying towards him. This holy one. having attained the perfection of wisdom. This virtuous one will accomplish his aim and become the Lord of the World. See them thus together advance and greet the Bodhisatwa. ! now am The state I and soon shall reach perfection which the world has no equivalent. And now again see all the beasts of every sort approach. And ! all the turbanned^ crowd approach his side. Having uttered these stanzas." And then he repeated the following Gathas : ! ! ! : " Great Naga E^ja these words of thine Cause my resolution to increase still more. fixed. And now again the elephants and horses and such domestic creatures. the NSga Eija.! . of this there can be little doubt. And in their infinite varieties surround him as he goes Surely as they turn thus before him in the direction of the right hand." ^ Devas. From out the darkness and the gloomy night of the world. Shall cause to appearthe brightness and the glory of his own light. Lord of the World And now the Devas of the Suddhavasa Heavens. and humbly pay him reverence. to assist me. . filled with the greatest joy. . Of pure and lovely form and person. Ah surely he must soon become a perfect Buddha. proceeded with hands clasped together to meet B6dhisatwa. ! of I now must soon cross over this sea of sorrow To the other shore. On every hand they surround and circumvent him. Bending before the virtuous one as he advances Pay him reverence soon will he become a perfect Buddha.

himself enlightened. § 2. Bodhisatwa. On this. Thou art the And therefore Lord able to heal the world. ?). proceeded onwards towards the Bodhi Tree. and become a recluse He. or coloured garment. Lord of the Kama Lokas. . with which they kept up a perpetual chant of praise from the midst of which some such words as these were heard " Go forward Lord of the World firmly fixed in thy resolve. Desires also to enlighten others. and equal to the task. son rules of piety for ages. or flag. which penetrated to the abode of Mara. emitting a bright ray of glory from between his eyebrows. Then this 199 bhasa Eaja's wife called Kin-Kwong (Suvarna Prataking with her countless dragon girls. Is now proceeding towards the B6dhi Tree." ' etc. we adore thee and we worship thee. Eepair straightway and see him there beneath the tree. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. perfectly established. For now he is about to cross over to the other side And desires above all things to save others with himself. each holding in her hand some choice flower. Then Bodhisatwa having heard these stanzas. this voice was heard where the ray penetrated throughout the vast chUiocosm " There is one born now amongst men Who has practised the The Prince Eoyal. {rigltt- of this description agrees with plate Iviii Jiand pillar. desiring to open the gates of everlasting life.. ! ! Naga Eejoice and be very glad Pree from all thou who hast banished desire doubt or anger (raga and moha) or covetous! — ness (tanha). surrounded Bodhisatwa. etc. the wicked one. The whole — . or unguent. and every kind of tinkling jewelled ornament. of Who has resigned the royal dignity Suddh6dana Eaja. upper group) Tree and Herpent Worship. ought also to be a witness of his victory over the world and attainment of Supreme Wisdom.: : . and then he began to think that Mara Edja. Without anxiety or fear. If you are able to do so."^ The dreams of Mara.

"AJas! alas woe is me! woe is me!" 15. with fevered breath and burning throat. 8. Tree and Serpent Wor- ship. 17. 21. and dreams beheld thirty-two kinds of portents. 20. with clubs and swords. who had hitherto surrounded him to do H. dried up and gone. Kumbhandas. Pisuna. He saw all the lakes which were covered with lovely flowers. 3. . and leave him alone. and rolling on the hither and thither. their feathers scattered here and there. and tumble to the ground. He saw the glory of his body fade. and all its beauty disappear. and towers of his palace all destroyed and falling down. And now. 14. He saw all the heavens darkened with a deep gloom. his palace mutilated and broken to pieces. which were of an unlucky character. and when arrived there stand in front of him. 6. He saw these Devas within the sacred enclosure driving away. was greatly moved. beneath the Bodhi Tree. He saw all his children prostrate at the feet of Bodhisatwa. who was fleeing' with his followers in every direction. left hand pillar. and his heart devoid of strength. Ndgas. 5. flee on the earth. lying He saw his lovely concubines tearing their hair ground. 16. He saw all the Devas of the Kama Loka proceed weeping towards the place where Bodhisatwa was. He saw all the trees and flowers in his palace garden withered and dead. 18.200 THE ROMANTIC At this time Mdra E4ja. He saw all the musical instruments within numbed. He saw his own body begrimed with dust and dirt. He saw the walls.' Lord of the Kama lokas. but his body icy cold and 7. He saw all the favourite birds in his gardens faU to the ground. 4. He saw all his athim service. tendants. 12. grief. He saw four of his favourite women. 19. He saw all the Takshas. Iviii. hearing these stanzas sounding out of the middle of the supernatural light. drop on their hands and raise their heads and weep through. in the midst of his sleep. 10. weeping and lamenting. 13. and saying. what were these portents ? 1. and so on. the Wicked. He saw his royal garments covered with dirt and filth. He saw himself 2. windows. ^ 22. Mara Eaja. He saw his own body trembling with fear. He saw the ! ' 2 That is. He saw his crown fall from his head. This seems to be the subject of PI. He saw himself galloping fast away on horseback towards the four quarters of heaven. in his night He saw his own palace greatly polluted with^ stones and filth. with both arms raised. 9.

I beheld these visions. and the earth covered with their branches.— — ! . Self-enlightened. to enlighten others with the light of wisdom. 201 various vessels of good augury broken and destroyed. raise a doleful cry. and am thereat greatly troubled and distressed. whose name was "fun-hi" (joyous). and as he awoke his whole body trembled with fear. Prom which a voice spake out these words ' The child of the Sikyas has become a recluse. 28. 26. He saw the world come to an end. HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. go strive with him His virtue the growth Of infinite ages. His body adorned with 32 marks of pre-eminence And now he has fulfilled six years of penance. He saw all the rooms in the palace moving and rocking to and fro. Now. And is gradually advancing to the tree of knowledge. He saw the expanse of space filled with clouds of dust and smoke. Now it came to pass that when Mara ESja. but. he called to his side the enassembly of his household. He saw the guardian spirit of Mora's palace. then. for it seems to me they indicate that soon I shall lose my dominion through the power of some great man. of evil omen. whose name was Kung-tih fmerit). if you have strength. 30. on the contrary. He now is about to attain the true and only lasting wisdom. and weep. 29. He saw the palaces of Mara burning with fire. and finally wrapt in darkness. and all his ministers and guards. standing and crying out " call me not joyous. 24. had seen these thirty -two unlucky dreams that he awoke out of his sleep. 32. who is to be born within my domain. He saw that which before had been self-sufficient. that yesternight. 27. in my dreams. that he might teU them the visions he had seen." 25. He saw the trees and forests uprooted. — ! ! . 23. the Wicked. And thus he addressed them " Be it known to you all who are here assembled. 31. for they are not propitious. no longer so. He it is who will destroy thy kingdom for ever If you cannot meet and overpower him . He saw those who had been (his) friends now quarrelling and fighting. and his thoughts in front of the door "tire were exceedingly troubled. He saw the Kishi Narada uttering unpropitious words. Forthwith." And so the Gathas say " Last night there shone around a self-caused light. He saw a certain Divine Spirit.

But as yet we have not heard any reason thereof." this Shreshti. whose name was up and addressed his father in the following words : " Why. But this man aims at Nirvana itself (Divinity). —— : — . If ye will attend to my words of loving counsel. 'twere better not to fight. It were better not to seek to overcome that man." . That if I should narrate them in your midst. and understand Last night I had such ever varying dreams. Would that you would tell your children the reason Why thus you look.— . Despite of And At defies me he me to presumes by himself to be Dharmaraja. in very truth. he doubts. are your cheeks so pale ? ! Tour heart in trepidation. Take now your host of every kind. The Shaman who aims der tree to gain Divine Power at the foot of yon- Go quickly there. go straight to him. ye children and associates of Mara I say." To whom Mara Baja replied " Let him who fights resolve Por if to conquer.'' I see these proofs of Then Mara Efija answered his son Shreshti. my son. The world has many holy men (Pratyeka Buddhas). When Then he will overturn your dominion and authority. rose time the chief son of Mara Eaja Pisuna. and overwhelm him. ! If ye have any power or strength. my father. What can that solitary hermit do ? I myself will go and meet him underneath the tree.'' To whom Shreshti replied " Say not that we should fall upon the ground. For then 'twere useless to engage ourselves to fight If your dreams were of this unlucky sort. 202 THE ROMANTIC once he has attained the eternal and everlasting body. cut off the seed of the Tathagatas. and your body without glory some great cause of anxiety. Te all would fall upon the ground through fear. then. that he succeed not.' Now. then. and said " Listen.

To whom Shreshti rejoined 203 " There may be strength and muoli brute force.ra. seeing Bodhisatwa approaching. Then all wise men. and also on the branches of the trees that led towards it. and tell him that just as in days of yore Krakusanda. But Wisdom is the only assurance of victory. who has undergone a Then he reflected thus with himself — . when a man's virtuous principle is fuUy grown and his merit as great as it can be. and Konagamaua. " My dear friend. when a man gives up every remnant of virtuous principle . and in truth this is none other than Sidddrtha. seeing which and thinking it sit was the Tree of Knowledge. advancing toward the Bodhi tree. whose appearance indicates the greatest religious merit. who was guarding the precinct not far from the tree. there are but two occasions in the world on which the earth shakes in this way. Neither of these cases applies to me." And now B6dhisatwa. on his way observed a certain Amra tree. intending to down. At this time the earth shook as though it would dissolve. viz. Then the Devas of the Eupa loka worlds.— " HISTORY OF BUDDHA. in order to denote the true Bodhi tree. But one sun eclipses all their brOlianoy. he approached to it. Make no inquiry as to what his adversary is. go as quickly as you can to MS. this cannot be the Bodhi tree. and. therefore. and. so now there is advancing towards it a man of invincible determination. the son of Suddhddana Eaja.. and afterwards attained Supreme "Wisdom. called hastily to another Taksha. secondly. a certain Taksha called Hiang-shan. and whose person is marked by the thirty-two significant signs. presaging what will happen. encroaching on the dominion of Mara. The universe may be full of flre-flies. in consequence of the glory of the person of B6dhisatwa. recognising from these signs the true B6dhi tree. and said to him. If a man puffed up with idle thoughts. whose name was " red eye (chih ngan). Then Bodhisatwa. Now when Bfidhisatwa had just arrived there. Eegard such person as one difficult to deal with. began to hang upon it flags and banners. dwelling in the Suddhavasa Heavens. and Kasyapa approached this tree. proceeded slowly forward from the Amra in the direction indicated. the Lord of the Kama lokas.

and every kind of club Then there were some whose bodies. Then M4ra Eaja. oh dreadful sight And then they were all armed with bows and swords. the news of this event. a. morions. and prevent the prosecution of his purpose. some who. " Tush you are but a ohUd." Then Shreshti rejoined. Eed-eye. beware of what is taking place. for you have not seen the religious power Bodhisatwa possesses . and see and examine ! ! ! ! for yourself. as they grasped the plough-like ! ! ! ! club or shook the pestle-shaped mace. spears and lances. forthwith gave orders to assemble his host." Then Mdra Eaja Pisnna. Some had above their heads a flaming fire others emitted forked flames from their paps and breasts others uttered ribald curses and taunts.— . . assembly of warriors all How fearful the sight ! there were caparisoned and belted for the struggle. falchions and axes. and on coming into his presence deUvered the message just as it distinguished place with was given to him. for I fear that after a while you wiU repent of yoar undertaking when you find that naught can be accomplished. addressed his father in these words " My Father this project of thine gives me no satisfaction." To whom Mdra Eaja replied. you had better repair to the spot. having heard this from Hiaug shau. Let your Majesty. eyes. immediately proclaimed to aU the Devas of the different heavens belonging to the Kama loka the tidings of Siddartha's attempt to attain Supreme Knowledge. with but one body. therefore. but I fear you are ignorant of the spiritual resources of Sidd&rtha. Then Shreshti. and feet. went straight to Pisuna. Then indeed might mortal man be terrified to see the vast Shreshti. hands. and now is coming here to this most view to take up his abode here. had a hundred thousand faces (mouths) through each of which came forth every kind of snake-like body. heads. disregarding the words of his sou armed for the strife. and of his own intention to go forthwith to the spot. and you know nothing of my spiritual power and facilities in transforming myself as I please you are completely in the dark and without any knowledge. " Not so my father I am not ignorant of your powers . son of Mara. And then how dreadful . which twined around the arms and legs of the monster-fiend . the Wicked." Eedeye. were all of hideous and misshapen form. 204 long course of THE EOMANTIC self-discipline. Lord of the Kama-lokas. having heard from the Taksha.

fearful to meet as they marched onward to the scene of the coming strife [Kiouen — XXVI has 6. and filled with monstrous teeth their tongues lolling out and of every shape their eyes gleaming with a lurid light as those of the black snake . son of Suddhfidana. and not proceed onward to the Bodhi tree. or the crinkle-skinned. The attack of Mara.] CHAPTEE XXVII. such were the forms of the warriors who followed Mara. Having thought of this. the village maiden. like that of the lion. their the elephant. nor suffer this ! . he called all the host of the Yakshas and said. towards the tree of knowledge. or fox. their heads wreathed with living serpents. and blood-stained. " He is one named Kiddartha. " You see before you this army of mine.. Eed-eye. has not ceased to advance onwards in the presence of many omens. who. slobbering. others goggle eyes. assemble at once beneath the Bodhi tree . § 1. and spread his grass mat beneath some other tree. who is he then that would wish or dare to usurp the authority I possess over this world ?" Then the Yaksha. " Go aU ye Y'akshas. with cups full of blood. flat-nosed. ! 205 were their eyes their eyeballs bursting forth or bent askew. Then Mara Eaja addressed the Taksha. Then Mara entertained the thought that he would tempt B6dhisatwa to rest. looking upwards and downwards their mouths again distorted. from the time that he received the food of Sujata. Eed-eye. and their various limbs. fearful to see. an army dreadful to behold. fed. bandy-legged. Some of them had green eyes. some had ears like those of sheep.32 taels.! HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. &c. whUst ! ! ! — in their hands they held the writhing forms of other snakes on which they sea.604 words and cost 3. in these words and said. Others were holding the entrails and garbage on which they fed. sunken eyes . even as the Garuda bird devours the Nagas of the Others held in their hands the flesh of men" recently dead. answered Mara Eaja and said. pot-bellied.

how he slowly nears the tree '. and take up your abode there. Then it was child of the Sakyas to approach near O mighty King! to execute your ceeded to take their these Takshas beheld Bfidhisatwa gradually approaching the sacred precinct. See like a Lion." and so they prostand around the B6dhi tree." To which Bfidhisatwa replied. nor is it you for in the middle of the night there are countless Pisatoha fiends and Putanas and Yakshas and Eakshas who come safe for here to devour the flesh of men and quaff their blood. a very delightful spot indeed go. seeing him thus advancing. under this tree." ! ! Then the to the G-uardian Spirit of the Wood replied as follows (verses same effect) to the Yakshas. who stood on Mara's right hand said." Then a certain Yaksha. 206 THE EOMANTIO it. and now I have come here not without purpose and design. his body shining like a mountain of pure gold. and as he took his seat he vowed that he would never rise again till he had attained enlightenment. " They replied. to the condition of this . for I know full well that beneath this tree all the Buddhas have attained ! Supreme Wisdom. I have come here and taken up my abode. Then the earth quaked seated and said. and yet have never feared such midnight visitors . holding the grass in his left hand. Upon of the E"ama-lokas. and for this reason and with end in view.— . Shining as a golden mountain shines In deep commiseration both for Devas and for men. but to the north of this tree there is a grove where all the great Eishis dwell. "And dost thou not know. it is close to the village of Uravilva. " We go. Then as Bddhisatwa approached the sacred spot. and in the hollows and dells of the lonely wastes. M&a Pisuna that I have for years dwelt as a hermit in the midst of the solitary mountains and woods. and so sat down. uttered the following verses " Surely this is the glory of the newly-risen sun. "And why. Lord where Bddhisatwa was ! me that you should . he arranged it with his right hand on the eastern side of the tree. thou son of the Sakya race. therefore. Thou son of a Kshattriya it is not agreeble to make your seat here. repaired to the place this M4ra Pisuna. commands. incomparable for beauty. " six times. Then the Yakshas.

taken his goods." To whom B6dhisatwa replied. panting as if with haste and anxiety. as Bodhisatwa sat thus beneath the tree. child of the . and with encouraging was. with disordered garments and dishevelled hair. this from Aniruddha. and natural malice had made him imprison Suddhodana. Strong in his resolve. therefore. but only beneath this one I am resolved therefore to remain here !" And so the G^tha says ! S^yas should you on select this tree for sufferings. Then B6dhisatwa reflected. cast all her ornaments before B6dhisatwa." Now. oh Manava is from Nandika. there are others ! eirery side better — " B6dhisatwa.' " Then MSra Edja. They urged B6dhisatwa. on all these letters was written the false report that Devadatta had usurped the government of Kapilavastu. Then all the Devas of the surrounding trees coming to that Tree-Deva inquired who the glorious being was that sat there beneath the shade of the branches. 207 your further than this one. his own resolution to attain something higher and better was confirmed and strengthened within him. ! ! are from Sakya princes to you. and placed Suddhodana fast bound in prison. transformed himself into the figure of a messenger. to return. With these he approached to where Bodhisatwa " These notices.—— HISTORY OF BUDDHA. and holding in his hands a bundle of official notices as if from all the Sdkya princes. oh. and on hearing the circumstances they scattered all voice entreated . seated with his legs crossed beneath the tree. having disappeared for a moment. Get thee hence to some other place. to restore peace and order to the government. made this vow ' Until my aim be accomplished I wUl rise no more. this from Nandi. this from Ananda. Even as the mighty snake coils himself up and rests. whilst the Sakyas in not defending their king had shown a cowardly and hateful disposition. this from Devaka. ravished his wives. " I am persuaded that beneath no other tree but this can I fulfil my vow. and opening his mouth he said. Thinking thus on the follies and weakness of the natural heart. that lust had caused Devadatta to act thus to the women. and entered the palace of B&dhisatwa. filled with unutterable joy. this one him to persevere in his purpose. Then. the Deva who resided there to protect the precinct.

and on his left hundred. and soon to accomplish his aim. to overthrow various methods how to attain it. and drive him away from this spot. Mara Eaja then addresses his great minister Bhadrawho also dissuades him from attempting to pre- vent Bodhisatwa attaining his object. the latter encouraging it.— ! — 208 THE EOMANTIC sorts of flowers and perfumes above Bodhiaatwa. on his whom Shreshti was chief. and my kingdom will be at an end. thought thus with him- " This child of the Sakyas. Then Mara Edja. then." And so the Gatha says [as before]. seeing me. of five his thousand sons. of the Kshattriya race. and with their hands clasped above their heads.mouth" was chief. Then Mara addressed them all in these words — " My sons I have summoned you to this spot that I may know your opinion respecting the best method of overthrowing and destroying this Bfidhisatwa who sits there beneath the tree !" At this time Shresti ! began. if he prevail he will teach all men the way to Nirvana. and addressed his father in the following Gathas " Would you dare to touch the great dozing snake ? Would your strength be enough to meet the mad elephant ? Would you fight with the king of the beasts ? Then you may also destroy this Shaman. I will. shall this Shaman." ! (And so the discussion continues from right to left. of whom "Wicked. by every possible expedient and stratagem prevent him from doing so. but he has not yet accomplished his aim.) pati. filled with rage." To whom "Wicked-mouth" replied " If a man but see me his heart sinks within him All the trees at my touch fall to the earth How much more. desires now my power and the dominion I hold over the world. Flee away at the sight and hide himself. on the ground . he aims to drive me back and trample me underfoot . the former deprecating any attempt to conquer Bodhisatwa. therefore. they encouraged him by their words and laudatory verses to persevere. he will show them by self. Then Mara assembled around him right were five hundred.

and that every good omen in his He also reminds Mara Raja of the misfortunes that have ever attended those injure the great Eishis fire who molest . with sorrow and regret though At length.— . so that nothing would grow on the two FinaUy. he bade them use all their wiles to induce B6dhisatwa to relent. and give way to his passions. would. or the whole family of created beings possess one heart and mind yet it would not be possible to overcome the fixed — resolve of B6dhigatwa. whosoever possessed the thirtycharacteristic signs which appeared on the person of BSdhisatwa. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. . or to chain the wind— or. Shreshti. favour. or attempt to and Saints as. on account of his opposition to Vyasa Eishi. they proceeded to put into practice every ogling way and lascivious art they could. if he became an Ascetic. for example. his great minister. turning to his female attendants. they went with mincing gait towards the spot where B&dhisatwa sat beneath the tree.'' Then. cer- tainly attain to Supreme Wisdom. Mara Eaja Pisuna. though the sun and moon and stars might fall to earth. On this. Look no more upon my Thine heart is altogether with this Shaman Go. p . then. Then Mara Eaja addressed ! Shreshti as fol- lows " Begone ! thou child of contradiction face. he pointed out that. in obedience to their Lord's command. it Bhadrapati. according to the Veda. his eldest and besought him to give up his were possible for a man to paint the empty void of space with richest colours. these words of filled At this time. the that burnt up the lovely garden spot. having heard him were equally afraid. that he is 209 protected and worshipped by the occupants is of all the Heavens. or to move Mount Sumeru with a finger. and join thyself with the son of Sakya. was whilst those around object . addressed his father. or to pass over the vast ocean without sinking. for son. and standing at a short distance from him. of Brahmadatta.

with their hands toying with their breasts . singing. others their entire face . or as the lUy that reposes on the placid waters or as the brightness of the flame .210 THE EOMANTIC Some of them with their heads covered. the Asura Eija. so Bodhisatwa was unmoved. Bodhisatwa remained unchanged in face and appearance tranquil and at perfect rest he sat . even as the fullmoon when it emerges from the hands of Eahu. . pure and spotless or the sun when first he scatters his dazzling rays to the morning. others walking to and fro. others again toying with their jewels and earrings. again there were some who disported themselves as virgins. . and entirely self-posother indulging — . some again playing with their suckling children . others raising their arms so as to show their person others . others spreading out their arms. others lying down. notwithstanding all these temptations. [Kiouen XXVII contains 6. with their heads turning this way and that. lascivious thoughts. others again just dressing. others sighing. others drooping their heads so as to conceal their faces. But. — sessed. and thinking over their past experiences in love .126 words.063 taels. drawing figures on the ground some again . . others opening and shutting their eyesj others combing out their dishevelled hair. some showing half their faces. some dancing. some with eyes askance looting at BSdhisatwa others kneeling down before him . others again entirely nude . and their eyes . with their breasts and hips bare others with their hands clapping their stomachs. his heart and his mind at perfect rest without fear or anxiety. others with their garments so arranged as to show their buttocks. darting side glances . others amusing themselves with various kinds of birds . and looking upwards into his face. fii'm as Mount Sumeru.] . some moving their bodies amorously. and pining for love others with their knees bent. . others with their heads bare . some with dainty smiles to display their white teeth . and cost 6. others as newly-married women (the rest is of the same tenor). and looking at one another some raising their eyebrows. even as the iron walls that surround the Universe without the least agitation. others half uncovered.

Like the choicest coral in tint. Whilst you are in the prime of your beauty and youth Tour appearance so graceful. and flowers to bloom Surely this is the time for pleasure and love. so lithe and slender. Our looks so brightly shining. Our eyes so beautifully even and full. so soft and white. having practised these beguiling arts. Our tongues so fresh. Just as the rounded forehead of the elephant king Our flanks. then. Our teeth so white. Even like the sound of the Gandharvas for melody See our bosoms. began to address B6dhisatwa in the following words " This early spring-tide. — — — . 211 CHAPTEE At this XXVIII. your thoughts from it. all time those attendants of M4ra. so perfect in shape. and see oiir graceful necks. and lovely Kound as the fruit of the pomegranate tree See our waists. and take your pleasure Look at us. Turn. of graceful shape.. and behold our beauties and charms See our bodies. Our foreheads broad. Our lips red and shining as the ruby for colour. This is the time for you to indulge your desires. ! ! Our buttocks. your years so few. so round and straight and tapering. Like the blue lotus flower for depth of colour. and our rounded heads. white. like the handle of the bow. Smooth as the trunk of the elephant Behold our legs. ! . and free from aU disfigurement. and so fit for love. broad and glossy (fat). of a rich auburn tint. placed evenly. like the leaf of the lotus flower Listen to the soft and charming voices we possess. so enticing. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. Our noses curved like the beak of the parrot. Beautiful as those of the King of the Deer And see how full and plump our feet beneath. Tour present search after supreme wisdom is hard to accom! ! plish .— . . how fair the season All the trees beginning to bud.

But I long ago have utterly discarded them. Youth. your heart seems utterly estranged ! You know But sit. self-wrapped. I have tasted of the water of eternal wisdom My heart And enlightened. Men are never satisfied with the enjoyment of these things. . his voice soft as that of the Kalabinka Bird.— ! ! . Our voices able to produce the softest sounds. to declare the doctrine of the most excellent law. or a poisonous drug I have long since given up these sources of sorrow. . — !! . Our feet to dance and give delight to every heart What joy the Devas feel to see us thus ! ! How ravished with the thoughts of love they are Why feel you not. and without any appearance of disturbance." folly ! ! How can such At this time. unmoved and heed us not — and such ignorance be thine Why not partake of the world's joys and bliss And let Nirvana and the path of wisdom be delayed. and escaped from all spiritual By reason of this. Bfidhisatwa. Then I should in the end fail to attain wisdom. but firm as Mount Sumeru. A reddisli white in colour. " All those pleasures in which the world indulges Are sources of sorrow. So. For it is by continuing in these deceitful pleasures. and goes away far off. he lives in darkness and gloom. unmoved from his fixed purpose. like the shining petal of the How beautiful and joy affording. as the voice of Brahma sin. then. But if I were to partake of these polluting pleasures. or. Wot knowing the happiness which such wealth can give man who finds Leaves all. the worldling loses their slavery. As a man flees from a burning furnace. O youth. not what the joys of love and pleasure are. our forms Adorned with all these marks of excellence Oar fingers deft in every kind of music. . the same delight Why covet not the same enjoyment But like a ! a treasury of gold and gems. I desire to enlighten others. replied thus to the women. 212 THE EOMANTIC lily. and distress ! discernment Clouded with ignorance.

So it is I see you. a dream. Neither profitable to himself or able to profit others I. . The man who delights in these is foolish As one who makes a miUstone to grind his own body. desire not these things —I oast them away. men are drawn away from the path of happiness. . . bum up all living things. proceeding from the blood And what impurities. sores. They are but as the bubble for permanence. the eifect of indulgence. and find no joy in beholding it. . Hollow and false. What pollution is here. And led captive along the ways of misery They are as a fiery furnace. Your waist and loins. So is the ignorant and besotted man polluted by these It is these pleasures that Even They as the fire at the He sees the dazzling sheen of the jewelled trinket. deceiving the worldly-wise But the man of true wisdom finds no delight therein. . are perishable as the bubble that rises on the water. end of time burns the world. Light as a dream. HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. That hair of yours which grows from the brain. He wUl behold his body. that are secretly shed one by one Your lips and nose and mouth and eyes. an unreal appearance For all things spring from connection of cause and effect. 213 therefore. Will reject and forsake all such false delights. and ulcers it generates Tour teeth. That a man acquires tlie infection of folly and sin. Just as you see the ohUd with his fellows Playing and polluting himself with filth. And therefore every one who is wise. As the receptacle of that which is unclean. your buttocks and hams. as I have shown. These pleasures are in themselves false and delusive By these.— — — . unreal as a phantom. day and night circulating its blood. And forthwith there arises in him a covetous desire. standing before my eyes As a phantom.. As vessels full of poison As the head of an angry snake not to be touched. What pollution. Distinguishing these matters. .

This causes endless quai-rellings and disputations. forsakes his home and lives apart. then. The time is fit. I am now free as the air or as space. sat firm as Sumeru. sit you thus beneath this spreading tree For like the spring-tide buds and flowers appear. His mien like the lion for quiet dignity. with these. do you behold us not We three have come. His speech so full of profit. with guarded heart. without doubt. the kingly office is yours. that now and henceforth. There should be one accordant purpose between us and you. 214 The causes THE ROMANTIC of ignorance and delusion and death j "Whoever tampers. like the sun first rising. So now should man and woman join in love. . which cannot be bound with a chain. thought (or spake) thus ' Because the world is full of covetous desire. Shall in the end. etc.: . And this again leads on to litigation And thus the ignorant and the besotted Are immersed in countless troubles and vexations The wise man follows none of these things. . Why. and forsaken them. then." : Then. having let go these things. But rejecting all. See how the birds delight in mutual fellowship It cannot be that Love's true course should cease. Unmoved in heart. the illustrious saint. — — ! . By the accumulated merit of ages past. perish in Hell. then. then. you also may indulge in love Why." The three daughters of Mara then suddenly appear and enter into a similar controversy with him. Deserting the path of purity and wisdom. of which the following is a summary "Illustrious son of SAkya. And finds his pleasure 'mjd the lonely hills and glens . So. His words reverberating like the thunder-roU.

as On Tea ! Sakra does in heaven. To gain the ten superior qualities (dasa balas). then give it up ! At ' this time B6dhisatwa once again replied— gain I am resolved to my end. And whether sleeping. Desiring to abide for ever in the True Eternal Law.' Then spake the daughters ' three of Mara once again We promise you shall reign. To be surrounded ever by innumerable disciples. Unequalled. sitting. gods. I never will partake of its indulgences. to the words we speak. like the gods in all the heavens. First among men and To turn the most excellent wheel of the Law. Whose mouth shall ever praise me thus " The great and holy one has come into the world. with no competitor or any If only you will not refuse our love. whilst in the world. So I continue to restrain myself. youth Listen. ! take the office of a king of men." — — —— ! .' 215 Then spake again those daughters ' three of M4ra flower. bright as the opening we entreat you. To find deliverance. or Surrounded ever by the sounds of melody To attain the wisdom you desire is difficult." I will on their account declare the Law Going from place to place as my heart prompts For this reason. the most exalted monarch. If. and become a king of religion. How much more so that of all the Buddhas. and walk along the path of rectitude cult. arising. then. to deliver men from doubt and Then fear .' . fair is diiS- youth ! you see all this. To dwell the only truly great one in the three worlds. Without a peer. . G-o ! your face and eyes. ' HISTORY OF BUDDHA. every hand surrounded by lovely damsels rival.

Tour bodies destined to unnumbered iUs. but I fear I fear you women as — To whom they " ! rejoined Youth see you not these trees and flowers. The butterflies and birds sip neetar and enjoy the sweets j The sun progresses to its height.— : : — . like angel -trills. These butterflies. ! ." . bright as — ! To whom Bodhisatwa replied " I see your bodies full of all impurity. Much less on earth come then. And shun us not. Birth. then." Look then on us. Disgusting worms in every pore I see." Again the women spake " Oh youth." Or like the autumn shower. these birds with mellow notes The earth is carpeted with glossy green. " Pleasure is THE EOMANTIC replied in these Gathas hriet as the lightning flash. 216 Then Bodhisatwa. oh youth let us be one. Oh. of the wise. disease. the pleasures you describe. I seek The true and constant wisdom the highest prize. what a pleasant time is this for joy and love '. Few in the heavens to be compared with us . The joys of heavenly wisdom stUl abide the same. through all the heavens They all are prone to change no constancy Why should I covet. . our face is shining as the silvery moon ! the lotus flower Behold our teeth so white. possess the prize. for a moment an angry snake And as for all the gods ye name." To whom Bodhisatwa replied^ " The trees in season bear their fruits and flowers. . the earth is parched. hard to attain with men. old age. death. are yoiu:s. The trees and all the woods produce their varied tints ! Hark to the pleasing sounds. without a fault.

am ." To which "I Mslra rejoined the Supreme Euler of this world of desire. despite the counsel of his son Shreshti and his daughters. And now if I do not attain my end. derives his power from me. beasts of terrible appearance . endure long penance. may you attain ! And finding for yourself deliverance. he immediately addressed him and said " Thou son of the S4kyas solitary Shaman what seekest thou here ? This place abounds with noxious insects. who protects the world. Mara forthwith himself repaired to the Tree beneath which BodMsatwa was seated. and in the freshness of life. O Pisuna. the women him and wished him success in these words " That -whicli your heart desires. Because of their want of resolute perseverance.: : " . Their spiritual power was not great or lasting But I. How much more you. and when he had arrived there. deliver all. from the first have resolutely carried out the precepts." Then Mara spake thus " Oh ! Shaman dwelling here work of extreme It is a difficulty to alone as an Aranyaka hermit. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. Eishis. oh Bhikshu there are fearful robbers here. I have no fear whatever and I therefore sit here in solitude beneath this tree. How " can you expect to find this most excellent gift replied " ? To whom Bodhisatwa From old times the Eishis practising penance.ra Pisuna seeking to attain the repose of Nirvana. Never more will I rise from underneath this tree. in the I am now way and place in ! ! former Buddhas have done so places are alike to me in my : search. a mere stripUng." Then. 217 finally left : And so unmoved as Sumeru. who will murder and plunder you ! ! To whom B6dhisatwa which all all replied : " Oh ! M5. evil dragons. The ancient pedients. when : ! ! the dark night comes on. Sakra. thoroughly versed in all manner of ex- Frequently lost their power of abstraction and failed of their end.

receive the homage and reverence of those over whom you shall reign with righteousness." their prey. oh Sakyaputra. Is it possible. It is I who hereafter wiU destroy thine abode. governing the four quarters of the world. Tea." ! — : 218 Asuras. . Of a very truth you shall become a supreme Chakravarti monarch. the THE EOMAi^TIC Naga Eajas. this moment begone. ruling over aU hiUs and vales. M4ra : " Thou. murders. Hast no authority or power in the Spiritual world. a bubble. Thou art acquainted only with the wretched beings in HeU . enjoy the sweets of your palace. and depart from this tree. — . or as a dream. M^ra for well do I know the miseries attending the indulgence of pleasure and the gratifications of sense. Oh Sakyaputra. Oh son of Sakya! return to thy palace. lord of the great earth. that you do not and notable predictions of all the Eishis redeclared that you must become a King. Kinnaraa. O M4ra dominion. From the time of their origin have been my people. But I belong not to either of the three material worlds. leave this place— search no longer after that wisdom which is so hard to find . How inconstant and perishable are such things. rise up and begone quickly from this place. empty and unreal as the dew on the leaf— to be avoided as the touch of an angry snake Having so spoken. awaiting his reply. " Waste no further words. ! filthy as the secretions of the body. just as the ripe fcuit ready to fall to the earth (and there to rot). and forget thy present quest. There are but few people in this wild desert the beasts prowl about for recollect the true specting you ! how they j ! — . possessed of the seven imperial insignia. leading to strifes." Then Bodhisatwa replied again to . arise then. Else then quickly take the power given you over the world. and bloodshed. although supreme in the world of Desire. a phantom. a lightning flash they are without any true being or endurance. And wrest from you your power and your Then M^ra Pisuna continued his address to Bodhisatwa thus " Oh thou son of Sakya. thou art yet young and of vigorous body go. I fear much for your safety Mfca stood silently before B6dhisatwa Then Bodhisatwa rejoined. And so thou (art mine) dwelling in the midst of my dominion Begone then. but indulge in the pleasures of life.

disease. and death. my legs crossed. old age. long ago. they are fit only for the foolish and the besotted not for ! ! — — me 1" tempt this man by offering must try other expedients. immovable and firm. Having thought thus. Pisuna. as should not be seen. and prevent these things by your righteous government " And so the Gatha says [to the same effect]. he addressed Bodhisatwa again " Oh youth descendant of the Ikswaku family. to move me my aim is to obtain the Nectar of true Eeligion (immortality). I gave up all the pleasures like the fire placed speedily burn up the men who partake of them. "Ah thou Pisuna this advice is for thine own profit. your words are without profit. Then Bfidhisatwa thought thus with himself. return again to that which caused him such distress of body ? Shall I go back then to the pleasures of which I have seen the evil and felt the burden ? Mara not long hence I shall attain the Highest Wisdom. how. he continued. " Thou mendicant son of Sakya why sittest thou here as a solitary recluse beneath this tree?" Having uttered this angry question." Then Mara. I : ! ! — ! ! ! ! ! ! ! — ! — ! ." having thought thus. I shall soon become Buddha. O son of Sakya to your palace. 219 around the dung-fuel. horses to Then Mira thought. and by gentle and persuasive words move him to depart.! HISTORY OF BUDDHA. rejoined. these shall Pisuna I have done with such things . oh Shaman my army of warriors approaching see yonder Takshas that feed on the reeking flesh of men each holding his terrible bow and his arrows see those clubs and knives and swords see yonder host of elephants. oh Pisuna from whence you came it is useless to remain here . thou son of Sakya rise quickly and leave this spot. Pisuna having taken my seat here. and so. Eeturn then. I shall have done for ever with birth. by any prospect of pleasure. " See you not. for it would be difficult. even to sickness. he added. return then. " Mara rija. Thou knowest. Mara r&ja Pisuna do what you list . in a little while such sights will meet your Armies fighting one with the other eyes. I search after a higher state than this. terrible to behold . and shall I return to these ? Would a man surfeited with unwholesome food. seated as I am. pursue your own design (but it win be in vain). it is useless him pleasures or sensual delights. and receiving no reply. and not for mine. enraged. ! of life.

grasping their clubs. and death. But I am bent on the acquisition of Supreme Wisdom. heavy and large as Sumeru. AU equipped with spiritual arms. Oh Shaman." fiery lightnings Then M4ra snatching a sword from his side. clutched it in his hand. Never wiU I leave this Bodhi Tree. he exclaimed. . cap-&. chariots. I would . Listen to the sound of their approach see those Nagas.-pied. following Gathas " Though all the void of space rained swords upon Though limb by limb and joint by joint If I attain not to the other shore of life my head." To whom. elephants. Are coming on to take thy It will be hard for life. may be great and strong. and launching forth the see how the world shakes at their approach. However much henceforth to rescue thee." summed up in the Then follows a further altercation. each riding on a pitch-blaek cloud. with my precious diamond sword. If you can prevent it. Grasped in my hand before your very eyes. and do your worst. Hesitate not —but follow out your plan." rejoined : me To which BSdhisatwa "My helpers are the Devas of the pure abodes. Accoutred. oh Mara. if thou dost not quickly depart " ! ! And to this B6dhisatwa replied in the following G4thas : " Though aU this world were filled with Devils. with the roar of a Hon. to help thee now is far too late. Each grasping his sword. Will smite thee in twain as a plantain branch.: : " 220 THE KOMANTIC and chariots. and rushing onward toward Bodhisatwa. oh Mara! do so. horses. Not one hair of my head should they injure. M4ra rejoined : "My soldiers. Much less be able to divide my body in twain. Tour sword. as the warrior youth divides the plantain tree at a stroke And so the G^tha says " I. ! — " Thou Sdkya mendicant ! I will smite thee in twain with my ! sword. my body were divided.

monkeys. of every colour and appearance. Some with a face without eyes. others with one eye. others of reptile shape. others with one. some with one. half ele- phant ! [and endless other monstrous combinations. others with two and three eyes. others with none. others without arms . others with teeth like swords and tongues like spears . Some with no feet. and halberds every kind of implement. three. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. — . and many hands and arms. of changing hue terrible to What cries and shrieks were heard some headed like the see elephant. This is the scene represented on the North Gate at Sanchi.] Some with three heads on one body. and trees bring bows and arrows. Pisatchas. Kumbhandas. some like the ass. [Kiouen 1 XXVIII contains 6365 words and cost 3. but neither with face.. . Crush him to powder rain your arrows down as hail from heaven!" Then these Takshas. some like wolves and foxes. " Now then ye braves go quickly. some with many heads. others half horse.000 myriad Takshas and Eakshas." Then Mara summoned ! ! all his host. Takshas and Eakshas and addressed them thus. Some with their hands and legs dangUng by the skin. some with half a head Some with two and no face. bring hither mountains. Some with their heads below and their feet upwards. enraged with greatest fury. and many ears. three. They hurried to the front 10. two. . . and desert stags some like birds. others like camels. some like rams and lions. etc. Some with- out ears. having heard Mara's commands. clutch your diamond maces. Others all face^ and no head. others with bellies vast. Mara drunken elephant to trample down the plan- tain bough. others like the vast Maka turtle. others with ears as large as the mountain sheep or ass others with monkey-ears. swords and clubs. strategy. is my bow and arrow ! these to conquer thee easy. others with horns and head of ox. forthwith hastened to obey.181 taels]. and hurl them down on yonder S^kya youth of the Kshatriya caste. Thus this vile army gathered around Bodhisatwa. etc. etc. etc. spears. rocks. Some without hands. some with heads ! but no face. others with eyes protruding from their heads . 221 My sword is wisdom With Easy as for the . two. others of horse-shaped front. others with half a face and no head heads. some with — — ! ! snake's head. of every shape and form.

and afflicted his body so that he could not rest. Of every shape. chariots. kind and colour. " Haste ye use your fight!" ! ! ! utmost strength —show no pity for this child of the Sikya race ' That is. whUe all the Devas of space. The moon and And stars in the void of space withdrew their light. the earth shook. or in came from the four quarters. : "All the Devas assembling beneath the B6dhi Seeing M4ra and his army desiring to destroy Bddhisatwa.— " 222 THE KOMANTIO CHAPTER Advancing thus. worst without delay " Then Mara said. supreme enlightenment Then Mira hurried on his followers and said. prepare thyself for the therefore I scorn to lie. Uttered derisive shouts and jeers. uttering every kind of unearthly sound. " Oh. ere I attain the aim of my life. It has been well observed that this is the origin of the "word of honour" in chivalry. camels. vomited forth a pestilential vapour. Then darkness filled the air. buffaloes. "I have neither bow nor sword wherewith to smite thee . mounted on horses. in strong faith and reverence for Bodhisatwa. And so the Gatha says tree. hoc ! hoo ! ha ! ha !" Then Bodhisatwa. oh M4ra I wDl conquer thee. . they came. on account of the oath taken by the Kshatriya. addressed M^ra thus.^ I tell ! you then Do thy ! Bodhisatwa replied. Exercising faith in the power of the law to save men. armed with every sort of weapon. nevertheless. shouted in derision at Mira and his army. whilst the seas on every side hubbled up with affright. and ! my determination is fixed. The Devas of the pure abodes also exercised their influence of love and beneficence in favour of Bodhisatwa. Mara Pisuna I am born a Kshatriya. and the earth quaked." Then a certain N^ga Eaja. named Chi-ti (holding-earth) secretly wishing that Bodhisatwa might overcome Mdra. they XXIX. and strange sounds were heard. and with perfect composure. dark as midnight nature hid her face. unmoved. On all sides the lightnings gleamed. And so the G-4tha says : "•The four great seas swelled their waves. " Even so now then I will grind thy body into fragments.

! so that they could not see. these also would not leave their hands. that they could not approach to Bodhisatwa. confused and dazed. and hope to . hibited. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. but Bodhisatwa stUl remained unso the Gratha says moved. which they hurled thick as the rays of the sun when it shines forth from a dark cloud. Mdra. these changed themselves to flowers. O Mdra! to disturb Give up your phantom show return to your own this holy one abode for never can you move this holy saint as well might the wind lash against the sides of Sameru. . invisible to the eye. Even as a wise and prudent elder when a child Disports before him . Used every stratagem to slay the saint But they could not shake the seat he occupied. embraced his father's — him to desist in the attempt to injure Bodhifor M4ra now advanced toward the seat beneath the Bodhi tree. Shreshti by name. the weapons. and begged satwa. 223 with affright." Then such awful sounds and screams and beasts and birds and demons all At length the son of yells were heard like combined —^but yet 'twas vain. And so the Gatha says knees. some were rendered blind fell at the feet of Bodhisatwa. uttered the following words with pleasant voice "Attempt not. wishing to grind Bodhisatwa Mm — to bits. seeing Mara advancing. By reason of his vow. fit Such fearful sights they ex- to alarm the soul. and Moreover. And " The armies of Mdra came in terrible array. when lo the sword stuck to the demon's hand and would not movej and so. but uselessly ! — ! ! ! .'' Then an angry demon advanced towards Bodhisatwa with a long sword (spear ?) to cleave him down." Then use every means in your power to fill they advanced belching forth fire and flame with barbed and fiery tongues and sharpened teeth.— : . Then an angel of the Pure Abodes. whilst others broke in fragments and dispersed themselves through space . with rocks and mountains. even as a lion tears his prey. so And so the Gdtha " The army of Mdra.overturn it. But the Holy One remained unmoved and calm. meantime. so Bodhisatwa looked on Mara. and others were unable to move. which they tried to hurl upon him. in virtue of his firm resolve.

And SO numerous other Devas came to strengthen him. whilst flowers and every kind of precious perfume fell down .— . Bodhi attained This this is what men call " perfect Enlightenment. G4tha says " Three parts of that eventful night were gone. whose names were these [eight names given] encouraged and comforted Bodhisatwa in various But ways. 224 " The fire will THE EOMANTIC as soon lose its power to burn. from your efforts. As the power of this one's virtuous life and conduct Pail in the end to lead him to attain his vow.] CHAPTER XXX. ^ # # # * * Desist. and so having put away for ever all remnants of selfishness and evil desire. the Sowings of the water oeaee and stand still As soon will the earth lose its power to hold and sustain. the earth. advanced. Bodhisatwa. And Or the wind forget its power to blow and rest. proceeded to pass through the various grades of perfect self-abstraction (dhy&na). At this time." Then the eight stOl M4ra. guardian angels of the place.57 words.) [Kiouen SXIX contains 61. maddened with rage." time the heavens. for this holy one Shall certainly accomplish all he seeks to do. then. (The rest of this book is occupied in detailing the temptations of Mfira.078 taels. on the dawn of the fourth watch he attained to the perfect state of And so the Enlightenment known as Anuttara Samyak Sambhodi. were lit up with a supernatural splendour . having defeated and overpowered all the evil influences and devices of Mara and his companions. The stars that indicated the fourth part just appeared. the first three watches of the night being passed. All source of sorrow now destroyed. and all the spaces between At the encircling zones of rock. and the supporting influences of the Devas. and cost 3.

And all who were in fear. but whatever want there was. a joyous song. By the power of religious merit and of wisdom are they cast away. they are wholly destroyed . and the dumb spake. and so on .] . precious stones. found peace and rest. How quickly have I arrived at the ever-constant condition. uttered the following Gathas ".— — . in thick profusion around Bhagavata.540 words and cost 3. or drink. And landed on the very shore of Nirvana. Let a man but persevere with unflinching resolution. was at once supplied. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. and rained down upon earth every kind of sweet flower the Mandara. and all created things. the blind received their sight. There was no 01-feeling or hatred in the hearts of men . "At was no angry thought on earth and there was great joy The mad and drunken came to their right mind. These are unable now to affect me. And seek Supreme Wisdom. or raiment. whether of food.27 taels. That which my heart desired have I now attained. silver. — . The Lord of the Kama lokas. wlio liad fect 225 now attained per- enlightenment . The sorrows and opposition of the world. all kinds of garments. Then the world-honoured on^ having arrived at perfect enlightenment. first it utterance of Tathagata after attaining [Kiouen XX5 contains 6. and whilst the earth shook six times." This was the very Supreme Wisdom. were comforted. also fell at the feet of Buddha. Mara Pisuna." this time there All sorrows disappeared. gold.Through ages past have I acquired continual merit. then farewell to all sorrows. the Mahamandara. so the Gjltha says . the deaf heard. Those who were bound in hell were released . —beasts. the Devas sang together in the midst of space. All sin and guilt are for ever done away. And demons. and so on. and — every kind of being. it will not be hard to acquire When once obtained.

226 THE ROMANTIC CHAPTER . unable to sleep through and fear. At this time. the mother of Eahula. and all sources of sorrow . and one who seeks to be king of the world of sin and the former has just prevailed. and on this account the earth shook. no more to be — tossed upon the waves of misery." Then all those Devas. has attained supreme wisdom. observing these strange phenomena. reflected that Tathagata had obtained complete deliverance. . and up to the very highest point of space was the reverberation heard. I have crossed over and for ever escaped. there has been a deadly contest betwixt one his who has left home to become a king of the highest law. near the village of Gaya. Suddh6dana E^ja. they would explain the cause. inquired anxiously one of another as to their meaning. be it known to you that on this night. At length these various Eishis and soothsayers replied. was informed by his Brahman soothsayers that if he would wait awhile with patience. no further form of life shall I receive. pointing to the earth at early § 1 dawn. the waters shall no longer flow. The lustful heart is entirely destroyed. and Tasodhari. your son." Again the Devas of the Eupa worlds. and beaten down the latter . the earth shook siz times. Siddartha. were. and spake thus. when Bodhisatwa. Maya. restlessness also. and then their . who had At this time acquired a heavenly body. having heard these words. Meanwhile. Then aU the people of the world. and further. they consulted the Eishis and soothsayers as to the meaning of these strange portents. were also filled with doubt as to their meaning. on which the world-honoured one uttered the following words with his own lion voice " Now have I entirely cut myself away from the bondage of all impure desires. And so the Gratha says [to the same effect]. XXXI. " Maharaja. perceiving all the phenomena we have before named. and soon he will begin to preach and establish his kingdom amongst men. the mother of Buddha. by declaring the tidings of his most excellent doctrine. overcame and destroyed the devil and his followers. de- scended from heaven to the spot where Suddhfidana. taking the form of a hand-maiden. "In the country of Magadha.

. Then. having taken a ladle. then. observing what was done. "Know ye. 227 heaits rejoiced.— ." Then all the Bhikshus requested Buddha on their account to explain the particulars of this event. I began with fixed determination to empty out the water of the great sea. wishing to dry it up with a view to recover the gem. forthwith reflected thus with himself ' This man is foolish and ignorant he has no wisdom or judgment for how can he hope with a ladle to empty out the water of the and so lost it. he thought with himself thus^-" How is it that I. I remember in years gone by that I was a merchant prince who entered the sea in order to gather precious gems. and whilst so engaged I obtained one Mani gem of inestimable value. but Bhikshus it — suddenly. . sub-voce. sat filled and perfumes. O ye Bhikshus. witdown at some distance from Tathagata. they exulted and were unable to repress their feelings of triumph. have been defeated. and whilst he pretended to draw some- thing on the ground. HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. after getting possession of it. Meanwhile. when all the Bhikshus were gathered round him and inquired thus " Oh seldom-seen Tathagata we fain — ! ! would know by what power of resolution and of perfection. In explanation of this we must have recourse to some subsequent teaching of Buddha. and consider weU what I say. § 2. I let it fall into the sea. O was not on this occasion only that I have exercised this resolution and power of fixed determination (virya). with all my host of followers. Mara Pisuna. his with grief. Then the Sea-spirit. by this Shaman of the Sakya race ?" The Story of the Eesolute Merchant. so as to arrive at the condition of Sambodhi and the seven^ Bodhyangas but I remember. in years gone by. they scattered flowers and poured down the choicest unguents nessing heart all this. who am able to hold in my power both Sakra and all the other Devas. At this time Buddha addressed them as follows " Attend. how by the same power of perseverance I recovered a very precious Mani gem." ! fixed determination the world-honoured one has attained to this glorious condition On which Tathagata rejoined. 1 Vide Bitel.

' " . I will return home again.' On its account I desire to dry up these waters. Would weary And. And vow that what they undertake they will never give up. iu so doing. Then shall I recover my priceless gem. Tou may now watch me with fized mind. The precious gem which I have lost in its depths. go to your home. 228 THE EOMANTIC wide and boundless ocean. The water you emptied away would be but a drop Compared with this wide and profound ocean.— — — — ! . and void of reflection. empty out the sea and make . therefore. But I swear that my resolution shall never flag. Who will do all sorts of things to get wealth thereby But now I see you are a man wholly bereft of sense. the Sea-spirit. Tou are ignorant. therefore you grieve and fi-et. up and empty it with a ladle ?j work from the day of your birth Till death in emptying out your ladlefuls.' to dry it If you were to And do you hope " At this time I (the merchant prince) answered the Sea-Spirit thus " 'Divine Being this is not well said on your part. I will render it dry. and then the Sea-spirit began to recite the following Gathas " ' There are many sorts of men and other creatures in the world. forthwith he gave back to me (the merchant prince) my priceless jewel and. I see now the power of this principle Having recovered your lost gem.' At filled having heard these words. — resolution. Beyond all I have ever seen amongst mortals This great ocean I is eighty-four thousand yojanas in width. I wUl empty this ocean. it dry. . Desiring as you do to prevent me from emptying the sea. having obtained " it. was with anxiety. repeated the following Gdthas "'AH men should encourage a resolute and firm determination. and see How soon I will empty the ocean and make it dry But you.' —and having reflected thus. and reflected thus ' This man. because the long delay you expect in waiting ! you. Like one who would take Mount Sumeru for an earring. will really so. so firm in Ms this time.

Then the world-honoured replied " It was not on this occasion only. O Tathslgata. But only persevere. " It is wonderful indeed and incomprehensible. Then the one brother said to the other tions of — — " ' One man alone may cause much grief. Irresolution and vacillation bring with them sorrow j But when once the mind has been made up for good. that one man should be able by himself to overcome the combined tempta- Mara and all his associates (as you have done) . having heard these words of his brother. As soon as he perceives the pain he wUl release his hold. did I overcome by myself the efforts of Mara to destroy me. resolute heart. — HISTORY OF BUDDHA. the other called Sutagiri Suddenly. § 3. Your body indeed is little. Put forth his utmost strength and force. I remember in years gone by. At 229 this time the world-honoured one also uttered this G^tha " In every way and on every occasion encourage a. Wishing to make his efforts felt as much as possible. Then Buddha said. there swooped down a great falcon. together on the top of a tree. but in days gone by on many occasions. whilst these two parrots were seated (or Sudagiri). they remained silent. nor give up what you undertake. " That merchant prince was myself in a former and by the same resolution which I then displayed." and. Then the Bhikshus again addressed Buddha and said. brothers one to the other. sooner did the falcon feel the pain and anguish. . there were two macaws. The story of the Two Parrots. The wise man hereby soon acquires perfect knowledge. and my strength is light. the name of one was MaHigiri (hair-wreath-mountain). and caught up the little one and flew away with it into the air.' The little parrot. have I acquired the Highest Intelligence and the seven species of now Supreme Wisdom " (Bodyangas)." birth.— . ages ago. One man alone may cause great joy Then bite and tear as best you can the falcon's flesh. He bit the falcon's body in the No most tender part. having thus spoken.

perceiving how his flowers were destroyed. Now. he immediately addressed his captor in these verses — " ' I have but just come from the river. Tou should put aside your flowers and proceed to wash me. covered with impure mire. And on account of what his body felt. How much more now by my accumulated merit Should I not conquer and defeat the power of Mara ? So learn this lesson weU ! ye Bhikshus here assembled \" The Story § 4. and. and by so doing he trampled down and destroyed the flowers . It was myself who by myself alone Thus conquered and escaped that enemy. Who fled away thro' Then space off.— . he used to eat what he could find here and there. on the banks of this river there lived a man who over. at this time there was a certain tortoise which was in the habit of coming up out of the water. the tortoise thought thus Accordingly.wreaths. made a wicker cage. He flew around and round. and then he departed. escape. and soon entrapped him. 230 Than lie THE EOMANTIC quietly let the parrot slip from him. The gardener seeing this. morehad a garden bordering along the side of the river. as to this parrot that attacked the falcon. Now. Should perhaps pollute your basket and its flowers. seeking to Prom the cunning parrot. ing Jataka Again the world-honoured one proceeded to narrate the follow" I remember in years and ages past there was a cer: tain river called Paryata . and am covered with mud.' . of the Cunning Tortoise. immediately formed a device to catch the tortoise. and observing the tracks of the tortoise in every direction. seeking some other means of getting nourishment. the falcon. going to the middle of this man's flower garden. Then when he was about to kill and eat him. seeing the parrot thus fly Departed. he gained his livelihood by making flower. Lest my body. he with himself ' What can I do to escape from this danger ? What device or cunning plan can I adopt ? How can I take this gardener in ?' Having thought thus.

231 " Then the gardener thought thus ' This is good advice. no doubt Go home. whose wife being pregnant.' on this the flower-seller spake this Gdtha to the ! ! — away into deep water. I wUl make you a beautiful wreath and hang it round your neck. there was a certain dragon (kau a dragon with horns). is telling is ill me abed. but was not able. of the Foolish Dragon. he only wants to catch me and eat me. Tou no doubt have plenty of relations and dear friends. It is all false. " I was the tortoise at that time. ages ago. with forced-meat balls in plenty. my friend " Let the tortoise be boiled. and get rid of the dirt. . thinking to wash him. then.' Then Buddha added. Then the gar- dener. Uving in the great sea. and escaped into the river. thought tortoise " ' My dear tortoise ! listen whilst I tell you my idea.— . is busy making garlands to get money enough to support them all and yet he tells me that he wiU make a garland and give it me for nothing. exerting his whole strength. when suddenly the tortoise.' So the tortoise replied to the flower-seller in these words— " ' Tour family are busy in brewing wine to have a feast. His mother .' " Then the tortoise thought thus a great falsehood — 'This flower-seUer —be wants to delude me. and deceive him also. and give your orders. seeing the tortoise paddling thus with himself ' Wonderful indeed that this tortoise should have been able thus to impose upon me but now I wiU repay him in his own coin. he wished to entrap me with delusive speech. — jumped off the stone. he flung water over him. with a view to get him on land again. and putting him on the top of a stone for this purpose. They are getting all sorts of tasty food to eat. suddenly Again Buddha related this Jataka — — . the flowerMara Pisuna.' Immediately then he went and dipped the body of the tortoise in the river. I never thought of that.. I will go and wash his body in the stream. so-and-so. and his sister." seUer was The Story § 5. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. "I remember in years gone by. That when you return home there may be much joy at the sight of you.

not very far off. Then the dragon. lest in seeking thy food thou shouldst tumble down and come to an untimely end ?' To whom the monkey replied. and because of this longing her body became sorely afflicted so that she rest or ease for a moment. and answered not a word.! 232 THE EOJIANTIC took an extraordinary desire to have a monkey's heart to eat. What.' Then the Dragon and I said. it so happened that at that time there was a great monkey living on the tree top and partaking of the fruit and eating it. he spoke in gentle words and said.fruit (seeds). seeing his wife thus afflicted and her natural beautiful colour fading away. why should I trouble you about it?* To this he replied. looking up. ' No. Now. a large tree called the TJdambara. and going up on the bank he saw.' Then the dragon went on to say. ' This only I know. what food is it you desire. or not ?' Then the husband answered. in fact. can you get me this. What you want is a thing very difficult to get for. my time will come prematurely. can I get at them ?' To forests.' and try to accomplish it. Again her husband asked the same question. do you find to eat up there?' to which the monkey ! ! ' — answered. then I would teU you at once. what art thou doing up there P art thou not afraid to move. that if I cannot procure what I long for. on the tops of the trees which the wife replied. and pressed her for a reply on which she said. ' I am living here in this "Udambara tree. said. inexpressible joy in seeing you thus. 'Only tell me what you want. having espied the monkey thus feasting on the top of the tree. then. filled with beg your leave to form a 'I am . then. but if you are unable to do so. had no and all her appearance changed. ' ! shall be if I succeed !' " Forthwith the dragon went to the shore. I will go die.* To this she answered. If you could give me what I want. . My dear what is it troubling you so. • All hail aU hail. and then. trust me. My dear be patient. you shall have your desire. do you think. and I fear I shaU Then the husband. ' ' . seeing Then that you eat nothing that I provide. Then the male fish. as he saluted the monkey. dear sir I have no such fear as that. I live here in the great sea and monkeys live in the mountain how. 'I am longing for a monkey's heart to eat. why is this?' the female dragon was sUent. and feeding on its. thou shining one (basad ?). asked her and said. and I cannot tell you how delighted I ' . and if it is possible by the use of any device or craft to get it. gradually approached till he came under it.

a breadfruit tree). where you flrst saw me. Why did you not teU me the truth at the time that I might have brought it with me ? But this ruin ! tow. and very why. 1 wUl go and fetch my heart. I pray you. where are you going. because he had no flxed mind. I have tell me what you are going to do ?' a wife very sad and iU. if you wiU just return for a moment. pray. Tou have only to come down from the tree. ' Oh. close friendsHp witli . There is the Amra tree. 'I will take you on my back and carry you over. diving down in this way all of a sudden ?' On which the dragon replied. and had little knowledge or experience of the world. the water is deep and wide. and the Djambu tree.' " Thinking thus with himself. you live in tMs place. pray Then the dragon said. and the Tinduka tree. having heard the monkey's speech. Then he plunged iuto the water. but as a matter of fact my heart at this moment is on the top of the TJdambara tree. I will carry you over the great sea to yonder shore. and I didn't think of bringing it with me when I left. and get on the top of my back and all is done!' " Then the monkey. alas I must think of some crafty expedient to get myself out of this difficulty. and she has taken a strong fancy to have your heart to eat. and got on the back of the dragon.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. or. But tell me.' Then the monkey thought thus with himself I have brought 'Alas alas this is a very unlucky job for me dangerous. on which the monkey cried out.' Then the monkey said. and the Lakaja {likusa.' The dragon. ' Never you mind !' On which the monkey said again. and then go back with you to your wife. came down from the top of the tree. and the Banava {jphanava 1). he addressed the dragon and said. and many others besides. and began to dive downwards towards his dwelling-place . What pleasure can you find here ? Come down. lakasa. if I can. 'Illustrious and dear friend! I am extremely sorry. how am I to reach that place. do ' how can I possibly float myself across it ?' Then the dragon said to the monkey. my dear friend. and that's the reason I am taking you to her in such a hurry. — ' ! !' ' ' — ! ! ! on myself. and let me conduct you. 233 you j let us from tHs time be allies but. immediately com- . where there are vast forests of every kind of tree with flowers and fruit. let me ask. My dear friend. feeding on the scanty fruit of this solitary tree. Then the dragon Well done I have managed this thought thus with himself and immediately he proceeded to make business exceedingly well his journey homewards.

began this G4tha and said ' ! " ' My excellent monkey-friend. On which Buddha " it was not on this occasion only that I was enabled to defeat Mara . and that the dragon was Mara Pisuna. the Bhikshus said again (as before). ' what a fool this dragon is ' and immediately answered in a G4tha " ' Tour plan. " Tou should know that at time I was the monkey. after a long time. perceiving the monkey made no move as if to come down. of the Prudent Quail. — 234 plied with his request. the dragon addressed him and said. there was a certain hunter. The Amra fruit. THE ROMANTIC and the two went baoi together. and all the rest you talked about. and gave no sign of an intention to come down. Come. old fellow is a very excellent one ! : ! But your wisdom is very little indeed. whilst the dragon took up his position below. secluded spot where the replied.'" — said to his followers. and as he could not catch me then by his stratagem. No sooner had they got within a short distance of the shore than the monkey with all his strength gave a leap off the dragon's back. But do you know I prefer just now not to visit them. and scampered with all his might up to the top of the tJdambara tree. of every kind. who having found out a. seeing no prospect of his coming down." The Story § 6. and so the dragon. my dear friend be quick and come down. so neither has he now been able to entice me by his promise of bodily Then Buddha this pleasures. but I remember in years gone by. ages ago. Then .' But the monkey remained quite silent. that I may carry you to my house as we agreed.: . I would rather stop here and eat the TJdambara fruit.' want to take you over to yonder forest. To the place where there are trees and fruit " Then the monkey thought with himself. Come down I having taken your heart. After a while. Just think now for a moment and reflect Did you ever know a single creature without a heart ? As for those forests no doubt the fruits are beautiful. quickly from the top of the tree.

Then one bird having observed seated on the ground. Then the birds seeing this green looking when they came. Or the Motohara. whilst the hunter seeing them on the top. whereas all the trees are fixed and immovable. I will be off. " at that time I was the wise bird. so also was I able to perceive all the varied and hideous forms of the army of Mdra. because of rest (wou-wei). Even as I remember in days gone by. Or the Aralu. Are ever fixed and remain in one place. . 235 birds were in the habit of alighting to feed. what happened. and put it over himself as he lay in wait." And so he ended with this Gsitha : " If there be no deep reflection with men. it is certain that there must be somebody beneath the covering. alighted on the top of it. he made a certain covering and branches.. Even from the time they first began to grow.' And so this bird kept at a distance from it. and Mara Pisuna was the hunter. he himself proceeded to the place. And if that some one have an evil intention. It is better that I should keep as far away as possible. and as I then discerned the stratagem of the fowler. or the Djambu tree. "Whether it be that which is called the Vlra. this experience. or the Tchanda tree. HISTOET OF BUDDHA. wisdom ? and long consideration Have I escaped the toils (of Mdra) and obtained a condition it How is possible to obtain superior of deep Now. How I escaped from the net of the fowler." . slUy put his hand through. and dragging them in killed them at his leisure. And : so the Gatha says : '"1 observe that aU the trees of the forest. But this tree-Eke structure ever moves from place to place There must be some one aUve beneath it.' Having gained wisdom by Then Buddha added. of twigs fabric and having arrived there. thought thus with himself ' This hut-lite covering seems to be able to move about from place to place. " . and the hunter was not able to catch him. My heart is full of doubt and fear This wicked plan augurs no good to any of us For if he catches me he wlU certainly kill me.

having aroused himself from his rapture. and observes the world around him. fully : : Then the world-honoured one.236 THE ROMANTIC The Offering of Food by the Two Merchants. reverse order. practising the rules of a Brahmana. and you destroy the cause of merit and demerit . from this reproduction . and so on. § 7. and he ate nothing. ye damma). ravished with the happiness of his condition. and he concluded thus destroy ignorance. From ignoranc^ he ascertained came merit and demerit (sanscara) . and death . having gone through these successive links of the chain. " prabhasa. from this came names and things (nama. from these touch (sparsa). Then the worldhonoured one again uttered these G4thas " Whoever practises the rules of a Brahmana. and then in a. he remained seated there during seven complete days and nights. and disease. from this cleaving to existence (upadana) . He recognises then that ^ aU phenomena are but the result of cause and effect. and you destroy consciousness. he traced them from the first cause and followed them through every concurrent circumstance. Perceiving that the world around him is produced by this mutual dependence. from this came love (trishna). on the alised) in their right order : " Whoever. Then the world-honoured one having recognised these laws of connection. he identified these as one and the same . After this interval. from these came consciousness (vijny^na). from this the six ayatanas. after Buddha had arrived at Perfect Enlightenment beneath the Bodhi tree. Now at this time. destroy this. 1 This seems to be the well-known stanza. from this old age. began to return in a reverse order. uttered the following G4thas seated on his lion throne. and from these the whole category of sorrows. Te damma hetu . first night he considered (or rethe twelve Nidanas. observes the world around him (tohu-fa." etc. from this sensation (vedana). Sees at once that these things are produced by mutual relationship . rupa) ." in the middle of the night.

Stands like yonder Sun Deva. He concludes also that by destroying this relationship things will come to an end. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. remained immovable during other seven days. after the night had passed. having come to the place where he was. and called "not lifting the eyes. and then sat down and again for seven days sat still with his legs crossed." Then the world-honoured one. illustrious in the midst of the vault of space. the world-honoured : one. then Kala Naga Sdja black color). seated here beholding that sacred throne on which I sat. and observing the way of the world." [In after time a tower was erected ore this spot." Then the world-honoured one." one. where he walked up and down. enjoying the delights of emancipation. arising from his ecstasy. uttered the following Gathas " In I this sacred arena I And have got rid of every source of sorrow. Who This forthwith perceives the rules of production and the conse- quent method of destruction. Then the world-honoured throne. man firmly fixed. I arrived at the other shore. beholding the Bodhi Tree without removing his eyes and as he sat he thought thus. and by the power of ignorance all is produced. having overcome the fascinations of Mara. proceeding from the tower called " the eye unmoved. sitting down with his legs crossed. 237 Immediately perceiving that things are produced by the laws of mutual relationship Seeing that things are thus the result of dependence on one or the other."] Then after seven days. .. and perceived clearly that by destroying ignorance all is destroyed. repeated the following GAthas : "If there be a man practising the rules of a Brahmana." proceeded slowly and with dignity to the place called Marlchi (ray of Hght). and have cast away the burden of them. In that place it I reached the full enjoyment of B8dhi. paid hom( . " Here have I loosed myself from all the concourse of son-ows. it remember was there was I fulfilled my vows. having arisen from his lion and going a short distance fi-om the B6dhi Tree. having thoroughly investigated these laws. having come from his condition of ecstasy. After seven days.

and presents him with a similar abode and spread his seven-fold and when a folds. I have : ! ever presented a place of abode (hall or palace) to the Euddhas on this very spot. This the world-honoured one consented to and remained in rapt contemplation beneath that Nyagrodha tree for seven days. the first of aU the Devas. and became a After this the shepherd boy. . and when Buddha arose from his ecstasy. this a ISTaga Eaja. and cost 3. comes to the spot. deign then. After this he delivered to the Deva the triple form of refuge and the five comalso mandments." Buddha accepts the gift. and the five He also received the three refuges.360 words. now came and worshipped to sit the world-honoured and besought him beneath that tree in con- templation. one. called Muchalinda. five laws.238 THE EOMANTIC addressed him thus age to the world-honoured one. storm occurred. on and the After which Kala becomes a disciple. he ap- peared before him as a Brahman youth. the triple refuge. who had protected Bodhi- satwa. and told him what he had done. oh Lord ! to receive froyi me on this occa- sion also. wound round the hall with seven hood over Buddha to shelter him . do. commandments. and after seven days he de- livers for the benefit of Kala. and took his place on one side and "World-honoured from remote ages. . by planting some hiin.18 taels]. this glorious palace in which you may abide. and they have all deigned to accept the offering at my hands . disciple. and he became a disciple. during his six years' penance. boughs of the Nyagrodha tree over and had in consequence been born in the Trayastrinshas heaven as a Deva. [Kiouen XXXI contains 6.

^ where he remained for another seven days enjoying the fruition of deliverance. each of these merchants had aij ox that went before the caravan. it so happened that at this time there were two merchant princes of North India. Now. arose and proceeded slowly towards a grove called Ktohirnika. p. but they still refused. would have them advance. had given him the milk and rice. Now it came to pass that the Guardian Spirit of that Tohirnika grove just at assuming a bodily form and standing in front of the oxen. the vUlage girl. and as they adored they said. 356.— HISTORY OF BXJDDHA. and the whole caravan was obliged to halt. At this time time the world-honoured one. 239 CHAPTEE XXXII. 1 Fouceaux gives Tien. and so warned the merchants beforehand. Now. and since then he had eaten nothing. " Oh that we who are involved in this calamity and in fear of death. whose Bhallika. gently striking the oxen with a. when they were not far from this Ktchirnika grove. addressed them thus " Be not afraid. might find a swift deliverance !" Then the Guardian Deva of the grove. it Tchtrikas!. and the very hairs of their bodies stood erect as they spake thus one to the other " What unlucky circumstance is this which has befallen us !" Then each of them going two or three paces from where they stood. oh merchantmen there is no cause for apprehension in this place but the world! this time — ! . and were now removing to North India with a corresponding amount of valuable property. twig of the Utpala flower. and whenever there was a place of danger they showed symptoms These men were of fear. and so all the other oxen were brought to a standstill. and had taken five hundred wagon loads of valuable goods to Middle India. = . It was now forty-nine days since Sujata. moreover the wheels of the various wagons remained fixed. with clasped hands and prostrate forms paid reverence to all the Gods^ and aU the spirits with their utmost strength. Then the two merchants. names were Tripusha and the other very prudent. Then the two merchantmen were filled with fear. they were afraid to go on. assuming a body and appearing to the merchants. having sat for seven days beneath the Nyagrodha tree.

delivered to them the triple Eefuge. and brought it to the place where Buddha was. stone should fall from heaven near the place where they lived. each bringing a golden alms-dish. having arrived at Supreme Wisdom. accepted the one from. Buddha was visited with a sickness and colic. the following Gathas Then Buddha. having partaken of the food of the two merchants. were filled with faith. But he refused. pense of peace and rest. and how the Devas had taken his hair after he had become a recluse. causing them to unite in one (lest there should be jealousy). reflecting that all former Buddhas had first received the offering of an alms-dish. and emerald and ruby recluse. and erected a pagoda over it in the Heavens after this they took the relics with joyful heart and departed. on which Buddha. After this. the world-honoured one repeated [a Gatha to each of the four kings].— 240 THE EOMANTIC dwelling in this wood honoured Tathagata. This. on which a medieine-Deva brought him an Amra fruit. considered thus with himself " But — Then the four Heavenly Kings. on our account. am four earthen dishes and offered them. They then addressed him thus " Would that the world-honoured one. presented them (in consequence of their request for some memorial of him) with a hair and fragments of his nails. and besought him to accept them. then. he related to them what had happened when Dipankara was the Supreme Buddha (the story of the five-stalked flower). is your opportunity for making some offering of food to him that you may obtain an enduring recom. came to the place to present them to Buddha. prepared an offering of honey and wheat. them all. obedient to the words of the Deva. which healed him. having accepted the offering of the two merchants. and in consequence of this : — : . as such costly dishes were unbecoming a Then they brought silver dishes. telling them that hereafter a. At this time." Then the worldhonoured one. and that there they should erect a pagoda and worship the relics as though they were Buddha himself. and they became his disFinally. Then the merchants. he delivered their caravan from its dificulties and ciples. beholding the glory and grace of the body of Tath^gata. would accept this pure offering of honey and wheat. and adored at his feet. dishes but yet he would not accept them. At length they brought in what vessel I to receive this oflFering?" . is now and it is now forty-nine days since he has eaten anything." Then those merchants. On their feeling some doubts.

" Thinking thus. as the G-athas say " Through much sorrow and condition. anger. which led her to become a female disciple the first who became so among women. the triple formula of Eefuge. Then Buddha. desired to remain where he was in the place 1 The twelve Nidslnas are the well-known links in the chain of existence. etc. immediately there sprung up a tree covered with fruit and flowers. suffering have I attained to this a How then can I make it known to others in preparation. bound as they are and hate. Buddha delivered to him and Ms wife. moment or without How difiBcult for men to receive such a by the chain of evU desire. the world -honoured one remained in that place lost in thought . . difficult to perceive.284 taels." So TathSgata. No teacher or cunning man of wisdom has brought me to this condition.568 words. 241 good act. of Brahma Deva. and cost 3. doubt. that he had acquired this knowledge from no human source at any time. although I could desire to proclaim this Law to men. the Devi. having buried the Amra stone. and its mode and place of existence hard to determine. the world-honoured one reflected thus with himself—" The condition (Law) to which I have arrived is certainly a deep and mysterious cue. At this time. taught by Buddha. even as the finest dust is hard to see. but for Buddha alone .] CHAPTER The Exhortation XXXIII.— — HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. yet bow can they receive it ? it would be useless for me to make the attempt. But this system of the twelve Nidanas ' is not for man to comprehend.] [Kiouen XXII contains 6. perceiving the gravity of the circumstances in which he was placed. Law. Then the world-honoured one felt his disease perfectly removed. § 1.

be not thus silent. he stood on one side and addressed him thus "All haU (Sadhu) honoured by the world See now the world without — ! ! a refuge— the seeds of virtue utterly gone whilst the worldhonoured one has arrived at perfect wisdom. therefore. TarSyana of Foucaux. with outstretched arms. he has acquired that unequalled Law. resolve to preach his Law for the good of these !" And to the same tenor are : ! ! ! the GSthas. as the Gatha says " Seeing all flesh weighed down by sorrow. let me exhort the excellent Tathagata not to act thus . Oppressed by the weight of false teaching and heretical beliefs'. and to be converted. oh worldhonoured but. He thought. whilst dwelling in his palace. - That 364 ? a hermit's cell — apart from men. [These are omitted. the Lord of the Sahalotadhatu. was moved by love aU flesh to exercise ' O'-lan-jo {Mithode. let the compassionate heart of Sugata move him to declare his Law for though the world be naughty. the world-honoured one. THE EOMANTIC and not declare his Law to others. Thinking thus." At this time. Having saluted him by kneeling at his feet. martial youth. having heard the exhortafor tion of Brahma Devaraja.— — ! ' 242 of solitude (aranya^). declare Thy Law Let the love of Tathagata constrain him so to do . and yet he has suddenly resolved to enter an Aranya^ place of abode. p. he desired to remain as a soUtary hermit — (aranya). perceived this condition of things. the King of Heaven (Devaraja). 477). yet there are many prepared to receive this message of love. Mah4 Brahma. does this explain the p. is. and not declare his Law for the good of men Oh. for the sake of men sunk in sin. he has become perfectly enlightened. and appeared thus before Tathagata. let the world-honoured one. how difiicult to release them by declaring this inscrutable Law of mine. he assumed the appearance of a.'] form of the same exhorta- At this time. and having perfect cognizance of the intention of Buddha not to declare the Law. being only another tion. many who otherwise win perish . .

waiting for the power of external influences (the four flowers. Buddha perceived that he was now an inhabitant of one of the Arupa worlds. his Divine 243 power of sight. considering in what place he was now born. and their several capabilities for further instruction and enlightenment. let them come gladly . having thus acquainted himself with these circumstances. Aug. elements) to complete their development . suddenly he disappeared Then the world-honoured one began to consider with himself who was worthy first of all to hear the words of his teaching. prepared for instruction. Let them hearken to me as I declare the tidings of this If Law (Eeligious System). he rejoiced exceedingly and exulted at the news and then. and wished to preach to them first. just as in a tank of different Lotus some are just emerging from the mud. having heard these words and understanding was filled with joy beyond expression. in Ceylon. Then Maha Brahma. then. he addressed Brahma Devaraja thus "Oh Brahma Devaraja. in his " Controversy " with the Christian advocates held at Pantura. others above the water. Then." their purport. 2 Amrita. and in a Considering thus. but not yet above the water . thus beholding by Ms wisdom the various conditions of men. Thus by the power of his Divine Wisdom. and after that he would be born 1 This exercise of the Divine power of sight is alluded to by the Priest Migettuwatte. but not yet opened . Earaaputra and his companions.^ and so to ascertain the condition of the world around him. he remembered Udraka fit state to accept them. 1873. vide p. having respect. attend carefully I am willing now to open the gate of immortality ^ ! I any will listen. others just opening. . 70 {op. or advanced in knowledge. the life of the inhabitants of which extends over eighty -four thousand great Kalpas. but then a voice of an invisible Deva proclaimed to him from space that Eamaputra had already been dead six days . by the exercise of his wisdom. he beheld men in the various conditions of ignorance. cit.! — HISTOET OF BUDDHA.]. fully walked round Tathagata three times. Buddha saw that at the expiration of this period of time Udraka Eamaputra would return to this world and be born as a flying fox.

and then gradually advanced towards the country of Law first for their benefit.. by his eyes of Wisdom. Vide Childer's 1 kam Pali Diet." This expression " turn the wheel of the Law" (dhammacakpavatteti) is better rendered " establish the dominion of the Law. invisible in the also air. and after that in heU. wishing to preach to Eamaputra. observed throughout this work. on which again Buddha exclaimed. ! 244 in hell. "Alas! alas! for TJdraka Oh. the Wheel of the Excellent Law. what the condition of Alara was exclaimed that Alara Kalama had died but yesterday. sub voce Dhamma. and he resolved to turn the wheel of the then considered where they dwelt. and he desired to go to them. where he would live for sixty-three thousand great Kalpas. on THE EOSIANTIG wHoh Buddha ! ! Eamaputra exclaimed. "Alas alas would that Alara had survived that he might have heard the saving words of my Law alas ! ! ! On Turning § 2. having stood for a. Then his mind turned to the five Eishis. after which he would be born on earth as a Raja." The evident contrast between Buddha. as the Gatha says "The world-honoured one. Bending his mind to discover where he was living. instead of Eegal or Secular authority. . on which Buddha. severe penance. He Benares . he was now in Heaven. occupying one part of Then the worldit and another according to circumstances.— . that he had survived to hear the saving words of alas !" my Law ! alas Then Buddha considered and a Deva. and using the power of his Divine sight he perceived that they were living in the Deer park near Benares. as a Chakravarti K&ja.^ Buddha. and a Spiritual Teacher or Euler. remembered the who had dwelt with him during the time of his perceiving their fitness for it. turned away. honoured one. Found that his present life ended. having thus considered who of all living creatures five Rishis was in a condition first to hear his Law. will help to show that " dhammacakkam " is only an expression used for religious dominion. little time near the Bodhi tree." in other words " the dominion of Keligion. found that he also had been born in one of the Arupa Heavens.

further inquired of Buddha whither he was going. 245 Then Mara Eaja. I have pei-fected in myself every kind of wisdom. possessed as I useless. seeing Buddha's intention to leave the neighbourhood of the Bodhi tree." To whom the worldhonoured one replied. thy appearance so peaceful ? What system of religion is it that imparts to thee such joy and such peace ?" To whom the worldhonoured replied. the Brahman. p. in these Gathas ! ! " I have conquered and overcome all worldly influences. was filled with sorrow and consternation. ed. Etudes Bouddhiques. proceeding by easy stages. Then tTpakama. And to open the gate of Immortality to men. having advanced from the Tree of Knowledge. he addressed him thus "Hail! world- — honoured I pray thee leave not this spot but let the worldhonoured remain here in rest as he desires. your efforts wHL be worse than Then the world-honoured.)].)']. you desired to perplex and ! ! ! ! bafle me in vain . addressed him thus.)]. to whom the world-honoured replied in the following Gathas : " I now desire to turn the wheel of the excellent law For this purpose am I going to that city of Benares. leading to this place. bright {Ch." etc. business (Ch. ed. — HISTORY OF BUDDHA. the Wicked one. ed. future) This Brahman. spotless and without taint. at the present time.. thy countenance so lovely. and forthwith hastened to the spot to meet him. came first of all to the From this village called Chandra [beautiful and. he inquired for what purpose he was going there. p. he advanced to the village of Tchundajira [without-horn." am of Supreme Wisdom. "TJpaka" by Speuce Hardy (Manual of Buddhism. " MSra Eaja Pisuna trouble not yourself further about me In days gone by. For ever have I cast off the trammels of desire." 1 Named "Upagana" by Burnouf (Introduction. 15.strike {Ch. by M. having arrived. 389) and p. 18i). In the middle of the road. I Uve now in the world. he met a mendicant Brahman called Upakama^ [come (or. as he proceeded on his way. having looked at Buddha. and on hearing he was going to Benares. " Venerable one offspring of GStama whence comes it that thy form is so perfect. vide . To give light to those enshrouded in darkness. Leon Feer.

and to point him to the way of deliverance and of rest and peace (without fear) came near and uttered the following Gathas " Tou have now met with the Supreme Teacher of gods and men. From this city he advanced straight to the banks of the Ganges. . Then a certain I>eva. I wiU willingly take your honour across the river.. and there encountering the owner of a ferry boat. . on this account wishing to do him some benefit. "Archseolog. who. Survey. "If you can pay me the fare. and had overcome to which the world-honoured one replied in these Gdthas then that I have completely conquered all evil passion. 7. In him alone can be found the source of the true faith. to dispense light to all. — — : You know not that this world-honoured one has attained the true condition of Bodhi Whither goest thou then immersed in heresy Wheresoever thou goest." [There are other GMhas also which speak of the folly of one. " Venerable Gotama. ed. What service can thine hand or foot render thee.y]. yonder is your way. called the True and Perfect Teacher (Lord). that he had become a Eahat. Enow I have for ever got rid of the remnants of all personal being Every evil law throughout the world destroyed. he addressed him thus. who in days of yore had been a relative of Upakama's. thence he proceeded to Eohita vastu [obstruction-city'^ (Gh." and himself turned to the eastward. Eejeoting thus the advances of the one true teacher.)} came to the village of Karnapura [the city of the ear {Gh. seeks not to enlighten others even as a lamp enlightens aU in the house so Buddha." ! ! ^ Compare Attak." — Then the world-honoured one gradually advancing from Tchirnasatra [the same as Tchundajira (Gh.)}. I am. by the light of his religious system desires. sorrow and disappointment will be thine. ed. : 246 THE EOMANTIC this. . ed. On Buddha had sorrow . " Hail respectable sir I pray you take me across the river in your boat!" To whom the boatman replied.] Then XJpakama cried out.)]. though himself enlightened. Deserting him and offering no religious alms. from thence he advanced to Sarathi [harmonious-royal-city (Ch. ed.. therefore." ii. " TJpakama again inquired as to the meaning of what said.

by my power of spiritual energy. Wherefore. hearing which the king made the following decree " It is impossible to know in every case whether this spiritual ability of locomotion exists or not. 247 To whom Buddha said. " If you can give me the money I wOl ferry you across . saying." Then the world-honoured one. he arose from the earth and went straight to Bimbasara. having transported himself thus ! ! ! : over the river. and told him all that had happened. and who am now of no more worth than a broken pot or a cracked earthen jar. or would bestow upon me all honour. WiU I transport myself across the river. that he be ferried over free of charge. I command that in every case when a religious mendicant desires to cross the river. " alas alas that I should have seen the great religious merit of this holy one. immediately addressed the boatman in the following Gathas : " See yonder geese in fellowship pass o'er the Ganges. the dragon's name being "Sankha" \this means "serpent" {Ch. both are aUke to me —where then shall I get the money you ask of me as a fare ? " To whom the boatman answered. So. King of Magadha." Then the world-honoured one. At length coming to himself. ed. for the support of my wife and children. I. But each by his inherent strength of body. kept up his flight towards the city of Benares. the man who would kQl me. my heart now is beyond the influence of favour or dislike. for this indeed is my only means of livelihood. Even though the waters on this southern bank Stood up as high and firm as Sumeru. They ask not as to fare of any boatman.)]. began to upbraid himself. Now in that neighbourhood there was a certain dragon-tank. The world-honoured one having come to this spot and there alighted. perceiving a flock of geese flying your from the south to the north bank of the Ganges. who have given up all worldly wealth and riches. Mies through the air as pleases him. having witnessed this miracle. "Whence shall I procure money to pay you fare.HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. the Naga Eaja raised on the site a tower which was . and not have given him a ! ! free passage across the river.) Then the boatman." {And so he flies across. Alas alas what an opportunity have I lost " and reproaching himself thus he feU to the ground in a swoon.

We wiU pay him no reverence or worship. The shining body of the world-honoured one also Slowly advanced towards that sacred spot. they were distressed beyond measure in their hearts. awaiting the time for asking alms. ed. — 248 called THE EOMANTIC Medika [this means earth-tower (Ch. proafterwards ceeded in order through the streets asking alms leaving the city and taking his place beside some water (the river). caught in an iron net surrounded by fire. The place where the holy ones of old have ever dwelt. and then washing his (hands and feet) he — proceeded northward by easy steps to the grove of Deer. but. At length. at the same time. Let us Eishis not disagree. let us disregard him let us offer him no reverence. to abide the time. For he is a man who has broken his vow. As the Gatha says : " In the Deer park." Then Buddha entering in at the western gate of the city. and desired above all things Even as the Sakuna bird (the eagle). they said one to another.)]. They await awhile till the time of fasting be over. to rise to salute him. unable . another tower was erected. and is now approaching with his body full of strength and grace ." even as the Gatha says " AU the Baddhas at night time go not among men. " This is none other than that Shaman of the Gautama clan . And as Tatha- gata remained there. he sat down and ate .: . as the sun for glory." So it happened that in this mood the five Bishis awaited the approach of the world-honoured one as he slowly advanced . And so the G4tha says : " See this Gotama now approaching. he has lost all his spiritual power." Now when the fire Kishis saw him approaching. let us not offer him an abode in our company. Those who beg at improper times have great sorrow Therefore it is an ordinance for ever. as they sat one beside the other. so did those five men vex their hearts to rise and pay the world-honoured one due reverence. the carols of the various birds resounding." [Now Adjnata alone did not feel these sentiments in his heart. nevertheless he said nothing]. called " awaiting-time-tower. frets and tears his prison chains to get away.

— . and am now abiding in it. ' Let not your thoughts be so proud and high Let go that pride of self. but I have found the way of ImmorI am able also to instruct you tality. 249 longer to restrain themselves." Then the world-honoured one replied. and obey and reverence me. in pity taught them. took his seat. but perfect self-composure I desire to change in you the ground of your destiny. and halt awhile in our company!" And so the Gatha says ! ! — " They presented to him an alms-dish and the three garments. — . and arrive at the desired goal j his faculties perfected." Then Buddha. And they bowed themselves down at Buddha's feet Moreover. slowly approaching the place appointed for him. This is what ye should meditate on. . and shall reap sorrow and disappointment by continuing therein ." And so the Gatha says ! " Those mockingly spoke of Buddha as Gotama. therein. then such an one shall surely find it. and the way of — ! Ufe. if you will but attend and consider my words. . five Eishis The world-honoured one There is no pride of self in me. they arranged a place for him to sit.' Te are indeed in the way of death. your face and your eyes round and fresh. you must indeed have found the elixir of immortality. ! HISTORY OF BUDDHA. he shall cut himself off from further birth and death . and foUow me. and then they exclaimed " Welcome welcome our old friend Gotama sit down and rest. and being seated he reflected thus — "What sad weakness is this of these five Eishis unable to keep the vow they had just made together !" Then they addressed Buddha as follows "Venerable G6tama your body is of a beautiful appearance. saying. to reach the fountain head of such a condition. desiring to find that highest condition of a true Brahmana. and all your senses in perfect accord. if a man or woman will leave the world. and well-founded in his religious life he shall hereafter receive no other form of temporary existence (bhava). And offered him a water vessel and a pitcher. they rose and offered him water for his feet and all other necessary provision after his journey. " Te Eishis mock not Tathigata by calling him ' the venerable Gotama. if you will but walk according to my directions .

" No !" At ! falsely in my instructions ?" this time.i and said. how much less now. ye Eishis should attend to my instruction. Sometimes (as in the Lotus and elsewhere) it is exaggerated grotesquely into a power to cover the worlds of the universe with the same member. " Can a man. he has attained a condition of Supreme Enlightenment. in fact.] 1 This extraordinary power of lengthening the tongue is constantly attributed to Buddha.074 taels. and not oppose your minds to my instruction. "Venerable Grotama! surely in you sought this Law and this condition of Supreme Wisdom." ! 250 THE ROMANTIC I." robes and [In the end the BisJiis submit to be taught. or that he has lost his power of meditation . weary as you are of the practice of abstract meditation.' Then those five Eishis answered thus " Venerable G6tama In days gone by you vainly sought (by austerities) this condition of Supreme Wisdom. I would bring this good. the condition of ' Araha-Samma-sambudda. perform such an act as this ?" To which they re" Mock not. ." five Eishis rejoined. " Did ye. " Speak Tathagata wearies not in the practice of religion. your body in the fuU possession of its faculties and enjoying the complete tide ! — of its life !" one." To whom the world-honoured one replied. oh Then the old days Eishis know me ever lie or speak To which they answered. after which he withdrew it again. by saying that plied. honoured by the world. you obtained it not then. as one of the peculiar marks of his person. who have heoome Buddha. said.'] [Kiouon XXXIII contains 6148 words and cost 3. whereas.' And because I have thus attained the way of life. and assume the the personal preparation fit for a follower of Buddha. till your body relaxed from very weakness its efforts. projecting Ms tongue from his mouth caused it to reach to both his ears. therefore. and is ready to instruct you in the way of life. oh Eishis guUty of lying. " No !" he became weary of his bodily discipline. and to the nostrils. nor loses his power of meditation nor relaxes his bodily discipline but ye Eishis I have now attained the end of all. Tathagata. For the sake of all living things. then. chiding these Eishis. the world-honoured one. for I am able to teach you the one way by which alone ye may hereafter escape all (personal) Then the world-honoured ! not thus ! ! existence. and then to cover his whole face.

and am in possession of complete spiritual Ufe. On which occasion he addressed the five Eishis aa follows [here follows a description of the peculiar characteristics of Buddha's voice] " Ye Bhikshus who have left your homes". there are two things ye should finally and for ever renounce all worldly sources of pleasure and bodily gratification.— . ! — And so the G-atha says " Eeject and forsake places and modes of excessive penance. Check and entirely control sensuous gratifications If a man is able to follow these two lines of conduct Immediately he will attain the true way of eternal Ufe. the world-honoured one began to preach the most excellent Law of the four truths. Leon Peer. and have accomplished the acquirement of perfect intelligence. at mid-afternoon. in perfect composure. and also excessive mortification of body. : HISTOKY OF BUDDHA. and in what manner. and this is the middle path to which I have attained. he found they were the four truths triply explained. being the fifteenth day of the month Vaishya." be assured that I have given up each of these erroneous methods. . The world-honoured one. without fear. If then. Bhikshus. and have reached Nirvana and am perfected. ! Then the Buddha continued his address — " Bhikshus thus my eyes are able to see and my mind to know. which neither Brahman or Shaman had been able to preach before.' At this time. Then the world-lionoured one began to reflect as to where the previous Buddhas had first turned the Wheel of the most excellent Law. took his seat on the fourth. with And then considering what truths the former Buddhas had first taught. and what the truths first declared were. Etudes Bouddhiques. § 1. which neither tend to self-profit nor the profit of others !" his legs crossed. having respectfully circumambulated three of these. viritis referred to by M. 251 CHAPTEK XXXIV. ye wish to reach 1 This is the Evolution duodicimale des p. and am now a true Shaman. Then the spot where he was seated began to heave and quake. 213. thus am I enlightened. and at the same time five hundred lion-thrones appeared in the garden. and therefore I have gained a condition of rest (santi).

To this. Samyak-smriti. and fear. that there is in the world the sorrow of birth. And what is it to attain the path (of deliverance) ? This is the fourth sacred truth. Samyak-karmanta. The Sacred Truth that sorrow exists. and you shall enjoy rest and reach Nirvana. then. etc.— ! 252 this condition. Bhikshus and it is this. The Sacred Truth of the accumulation of sorrow. of disease and of old age the sorrow of loving that which cannot be had or of hating that which cannot be avoided. and your eyes shall be opened. What. Bhikshus ! listen respecting the four great truths. The sacred truth of the destruction (of sorrow). Through eternity he shall no more receive migratory esistence. ye ought to tend. A man casts off the trammels of life.— Samyak-drishti. and I have found rest. Sam- yagvyAyJma. This. 2. and the eight paths of holiness (As'htanga Marga). The sacred truth of obtaining or finding the path (of complete deliverance). Having entii-ely got rid of all the effects of Karma. death. so that it is destroyed and put away for ever. therefore. the removal of and utter rejection of desire. This is the third sacred truth.nxious reflection and constant thought. which having attained to. These are called the four Holy truths. And what is the meaning of the accumulation of sorrow? This is the second sacred truth. oh Bhikshus are the reasons they are so called ? The sacred truth that sorrow exists is this. And what is the destruction of sorrow mentioned before ? This is the third sacred truth. to be able to acquire and walk in the practice of the .' and consider well what I have to say And what are these four ? 1. Bhikshus is the middle path. and it is this . this is the sacred truth of sorrow. and so results the accumulation spoken of. the sorrow of death. and it is this. that this leads to every sort of a. that the force of And now. Samyaksamkalpa. ! . Samyak-samadhi. SamyagvElk. and in consequence attains the fixity of rest. 4. ! desire (trishna) compelling the mind to seek fresh sources of en- joyment in every place and on every occasion. my eyes are opened. and wisdom shall spring up within. Samyagadjlva. ye THE KOMANTIO must also use this middle path which I have used. 3. the heart then has no anxious thoughts or reflections. viz. as the Gatha says ' Because of these eight paths leading aright.

in the original Sanscrit (Ch. now myself. he beheld the Truth. and let go the hold of sorrow. " Then it was.only from within myself. with his lion voice. arrived at a condition of supreme knowledge he was able to cast away and reject the influences of sense (dust) and defilement. Neither nor the second or either of the others have I learned from other sources. Bhikshus ! ! no more individual existence for me (bhava). so it is it is enjoy . This is called the These truths. known by intuition. spake thus .— HISTORY OF BUDDHA. ed. [^These assertions are again and again repeated Samyat-drishti. and having done so. hereafter ance." ! in the Sanscrit original . so with him he cast away the defilements of sense. just as a garment freed from defilement is easily dyed and retains its colour. so it is my I have acquired complete wisdom . not acquired from any human source. they are self-revealed. he stepped forth a free man. the aged Kaundinya. they spring.)]. sixty thousand Devaputras also attained the same condition of purified sight and perfect knowledge.)'] It was thus. I obtained deliverI have now reached my last birth . I was able to see. as he sat attentively listening. I arrived at the condition of Samyaksambodhi and at perfect enlightenment. his eye purified. oh Bhikshus wisdom was bom in me. here only a digest is given (Ch. oh Bhikshus have been on no occasion taught to me from without. by simply perceiving the sacred truths aforesaid. and so I have accomplished my aim and become Buddha. oh Bhikshus by thrice turning these four sacred truths and arriving at the very bottom of the matter (which 1 had not done when ye first sought my company)." When Buddha was thus declaring the marks (or. sacred truth of the " way... At the same time. to free himself from all trammels and bonds and obtain pure sight. by intuition from within. I have heard them from no one. Bhikshus by thus com! ! alone by my own power. the twelve Nid^nas) resulting from the complete consideration of these four sacred truths I arrived at Anuttara Samyak Sambodhi. So it is I have attained the condition of enlightenment I eyes behold the truth. there is . [These assertions are repeated in many ways. they are all self- the first revealed. but of my own inborn power. and from no human source of instruction. relationships) of the Law. eight rules aforesaidj viz.e. 253 etc. by prehending the twelve relationships (i. Then the world-honoured one. my mind no longer confused or fickle. ed.

" insufficient to convert others." And so the Gatha says " Verily the world-honoured. And so the G-ltha says " Thus. " fruitless. i. He declares the one true and most profound system. delicious flowers. dwelling in the park of Deer. at the time of the preaching of the profound law. In the midst of the Garden of Deer he preaches thus. the sighing of gentle breeees. and from them they ascended to the thirty-three Heavens. gifted with Divine sight. hath no name or The most excellent Kaundinya hath first attained to it. Bhagavata Tathagata Arahato Samma Sambuddha. He establishes this wheel. "Brother be it known that to-day. where.e." all the Devas dwelling in that neighbourhood. for men ! ! ." or. Kaundinya arrived at the possession of the pure eyes of the law.. And At Devas ! afterwards innumerable Devas were equally blessed." this time all the Devas sang together and said. As the first and most excellent result of the love of the worldhonoured.'] [Sere follows an account of prodigies which ensued.' the ever-peaceful Nirvana. the sounds thereof ascended to the abode of the four great Kings. to the highest Then point of space]. ^ That is. the falling of and the quaking of the 1 In the original the phrase is " chin ju. The way I have sought and found is not an empty^ one. honour'd by the three worlds. Turns the wheel of the Law of Immortality." which is an expression denoting the nature of Tathigata. earth. The absolute. the Universal and the Absolute.— — 254 THE EOMANTIC " No words can reaoh the depth of the law which I preach ." . He dwells near the city of Benares. who took up the strain. the Devas of which on their part took up the words. having chanted this song. the Eishis have resided. the sound ascending upwards to the Tama Heavens [and so throughout the successive Heavens." title. from remote time. has began to preach the most excellent and sublime law. which neither Shaman or Brahman has hitherto been able to declare.

disconcerted^ vanishes out of sight. and ye also shall attain the perfect condition of supreme intelligence !" smriti). take me as a disciple. . having assumed the character of a disciple. three of returned. and by have been able to walk in the right this means have attained complete deliverance and perfect inspiration. when they . And said. Basava. and in four forms maintain that the soul and the world are of eternal duration. constantly practised the rules of right-recollection (Samyak Then the world-honoured one addressed these Bhikshus ! it is way (samyak karmanta). rising from his seat and falling prosBuddha. act the part of a true Brahmana. and addresses Buddha in taunting language^. and so the Gatha says " Bhadraka.— : HISTORY OF BUDDHA. and the six (including Buddha) were together. in the BrahmajUa Sutta. Kaundinya. and exhibit the nature of the Law to them them having gone a-begging." Thus. and shows them the '\ non-reality [individuality] of all the constituents of finite existence (the five Skandha) : "It is impossible to say that either of these is ' 1. in this way. and Asvajita These five first arrived at enlightenment. trate at the feet of — ! ! ! the causes of sorrow. and because of this ! [Then Mdra Pisuna again appears. began to address the other Bhikshus. to which Buddha replies in terms of quiet defiance. on which M&ra. p.''^ The verses used by Mara are precisely those found in Bigandet (Burmese Buddha). then in regular order Bhadraka." five Bhikshus and because I have through every successive birth. addressed him thus "World-honoured one I accept thy Law World-honoured.Asvajit. " Priests some Samanas and Brahmins hold the eternity of existences. became disciples andassumed the robes of ascetics . So do ye also walk in the same way. [Buddha then proceeds to address the Bhikshus.Mahanama. and extinguish all this time. Basava." Where Gogerley observes ' ! ." Then Buddha answered and said. Buddha says." Kaundinya. At ! 255 Kaundinya. according to their several capacities. 124. " Te tasted the sweet-dew of TathSgata. "Welcome oh Bhikshu enter into my Law. 2 That is "atta" or "atma. Mahanama. I vow to obey and follow thee perfectly.

and his body shining like the briDiancy of fire. rejecting this thought. 1 That is. not far from his own abode. At tliia time. and yet not disappearing." or a " sheltered abode. therefore. am. so that now. being a. a certain potter who offered to receive into his house. therefore." 2 Agnidhatu Sam^dhi. clothing. during the interval of the summer rest. (i. thought thus with himself ' What can be the meaning of this fire burning in the Pansal so brightly. medicine).d hence comes complete deliverance." and is either the soul. as the ' ecstasy of it the flame as — that "Atta" properly signifies the "self. hastening to the place.'] The previous History of Kaundinya. thecauses of sorrow and impermanency are perceived. or the soul. bedding. If this Buddhist definition of the "soul" [the self (atta) which is named the eye. e. oh Bhikshus." Having uttered this discourse.' ^ and the potter. the world -honoured one addressed the Bhikshus and said. being the aggregate of the Skandhas). &c. the ear. seeing the brilliancy of shone forth from the Pansal. in days gone by. The potter. there were six persons m the world enjoying this condition.] were kept in sight much vain controversy would be avoided. I remember. that there was dwelling in this place. § 2. being sensation. where the city of Benares now stands. and there lodged him. including Buddha himself. and destroyed. perception. and yet not consumed. a Pratyeka Buddha.256 THE ROMANTIC or that 'I' am either of these. Now. a con- venient pansal ^ for the Pratyeka Buddha. the five Bhikshus obtained salvation and became Eahats. and there he saw the Pratyeka Buddha sitting cross-legged on the seat. reason and consciousness. material form. is it possible that the Pansal itself is on fire ?' So then the potter. a " leafy hut. and supplied all his wants. and supply him with the four necessary articles re- quired by the religious (food. looked inside through a crevice in the walls. and weigh my words well. " Listen." . it came to pass that the Pratyeka Buddha on that very night entered into the ecstasy known fire .. constructed. who was suffering from some grievous bodily ailment.

because of your pious attention to this Eishi. and where is your abode?' To which they replied. as the Pratyeka worn out with age. and on the following day. ' r see them. who came flying through the air with sandal-wood offerings to attend the funeral obsequies of the one thus. flying through space as they came at first.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. he arrived at a firm condition of faith. 'Not far from a city called Eajagriha there is a Mountain called "the mountain where Eishis dwell" (Eishigiri). Wow at this time there were other Pratyeka Buddhas.' Then the potter said. oh Eishis receive the best my house can aflFord. 257 Seeing this. was claimed. and you shaU be privileged to enjoy his company and To whom the potter said. and the first to receive the deThen the Eishis. during the whole season.' The potter then said. lie returned to his house.' — sirs .' Then they said. whom ye name oh that I one of his followers. Then. ' As we are. so was he he was one of us. on which he told them all about it. and said. five hundred in number. it is there we dwell and have our abode. hut all in vain ! and so at last the Pratyeka Buddha him thus enter Parinirvtoa. and expotter. you shall in ages to come enjoy a complete reward. 'But whence come ye. take your depar! ! ture !' "After having thus been entertained. and that I may when old at least obtain the ! ! ! blessedness of receiving the instruction and profiting by the teaching of that Buddha. and when you list. Thus. he procured the advice and medicines of a learned physician. they spake to the potter as follows ' In future times long hence there shall be born a Buddha in the world. and inquire the reason of his sad ' grief. Perceive you our spiritual capabilities or not?' The potter replied. began to assemble together. 'Welcome then. Alas alas as the tears coursed down his cheeks. and provided all things necessary for the restoration of his guest. the people around hearing the potter's lamentations. thinking over the wonderful sight he had seen. for. who had died. ' ! ! died. filled The having seen with sorrow. they addressed the potter joice. forthwith departed. less one. the potter attended to the wants of the Pratyeka Buddha . having liverance he wiU confer on his disciples given the potter a distinct assurance that all this would be the case. oh Buddha who came to my door was old. Coming Tou should rather re' and be filled with joy . !' may become . 'Venerable receive his instruction. Sdkya Buddha.

surrounded by successive wheels of railings. And it came to pass that whatever prayer or vow a man made whilst in the act of worship. s Here we have an instance of the old faith (tree worship) of India. and capped with miracle. and to present their offerings. . every kind of ' The same as the Burmese Eatha (Bigandefs Legend. this bom as Kaundinya and became the first of my disciples. flags. there prayer . and received the deliverance he now enjoys as the first potter was afterwards of the Eahats. not far from the city of Benares. all of whom.258 The potter. amongst other was a certain Wyagrodha tree. taking the relics which remained after the cremation of the Pratyeka Buddha. owing to this root of merit. at certain seasons of the year. 187. that the previous Earma of the worshipper was the sole cause of the fulfilment of his vow or 3. not regarding or considering this. bowed down on his knees banners. elephants. trees. brought into contact with Buddhist principles. At this time. 112) and the Singhalese Tasa. rich and poor. this man was possessed of every kind of wealth. yet men. cattle. and he offered sandalwood offerings and scented unguents of the orthodox description as he worshipped before it. p. the same was certain to be granted." Now at this time there was dwelling in the city a certain wealthy nobleman whose name was Supra Buddha (shen-hioh) . But the fact was. M. Thus. came to offer gifts and religious worship to it." The History § of Yasada^ (Ye-shu-to). B. together. sheep. which are entirely opposed to the worship (properly so called) of any mate- rial object. horses. the tree was commonly known as the " Divine tree all that was asked of it." Prom this cirthat granted cumstance. he raised over them a stupa of magnificent proportions. This tree was an object of veneration to all the people. and so continued to frequent the spot to offer up their prayers. and streamers of every kind. attributed it entirely to the tree. remarkable for its luxuriant growth. who dwelt in the neighbourhood. THE EOMANTIO beholding this with his hands clasped Then and worshipped.

he spake thus " You tree I have heard from certain persons that you have the power of granting the request of those who pay you religious worship I would have you know. and pay you becoming veneration. who northern region. the nobleman. and you may be sure that a child will be born. His friends. silver. 259 and jewels. But he replied. and cost 3. "how can that senseless tree. and root you up. and proceeded with them to the spot where the Nyagrodha tree was standing. grain and otlier produce of tlie . CHAPTEE XXXV. make your request known with strong vows.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. but we know that the accomplishment of every prayer depends only on the character of the previous karma of the person offering it up. which is nothing more than a. piece of wood. His palace was of exquisite beauty. that he might haTe a child born to his house. and said. but if you cannot procure this boon for me. even like that of Taisravana. treaties of his kinsfolk. besought him to pay religious worship to offer the aforesaid tree. therevisited him. Arrived there. § 1. this also depends on the karma of both father and mother. and if one desires to have offspring. hear my prayer or answer it ." But the nobleman's relations urged their request. that if you will procure for me the birth of a weU-favoured man-child. therefore. and utterly destroy you." — — [Kiouen XXXIV contains 6320 words. Then Supra Buddha. I wiU offer you every kind of offering. : ! ! . do you therefore go. and cited instances to prove the truth of their aUegatious. "You cannot doubt the truth of what we say it is impossible not to believe these things we know many undoubted instances in which the prayer for offspring made to that tree has been granted . he put into their hands hatchets and other instruments for cutting and digging. But he had no child.16 taels]. king fore. branch by branch. overpowered by the enhaving collected certain of his household together. and to up his prayer in its presence. besides gold. I decline therefore to betake myself to any such refuge as this. then I wiU out you down.

oh Deva as though I had power to procure such a boon for this nobleman . in Sakra. and see what the character of his destiny is. and in much perplexity. Deva ! for I wiU forthwith examine into this matter. nor tremble thus. and falling down at Sakra's feet in humble adoration. nor permit that tree to be thus destroyed and burnt for want of some expedient by which the desire of this : ! ! ! ! ! nobleman may be Chu). unless I grant him his Give Pity me. King of the Gods. 1 Tien-chu. and lay his case before him. illustrious king request that he may have a son me some mode of escape. Alas! alas!" The tree Deva. .^ S^kra gratified!" Then the Lord of Heaven (Tien Maha Eaja. till there is nothing left of you. destroy and burn it. And yet men persist in saying that : which from old times I have taken my residence. Then forthwith he ascended up to the Trayastriiishas Heaven. the garments begin to grow old and soiled." Now. and if I do not give him a child he threatens to out down my abode. at this time there was a certain Deva Putra dwelling in the Trayastriashas Heaven. till you are utterly annihilated. and put clean out of remembrance. spake thus to the tree Deva: "Utter no ! such words as these. and the very ashea reraaining after you are burnt I will scatter to the winds and on the waters. C. when the Deva of the tree heard these words. but he wanders restlessly this way and that. thus weeping and lamenting. and the to expire. he was greatly distressed. as : Palace couch of that Deva no longer has charms for him. oh his own individual merit. whose sojourn there was just about these was known by the five signs of decadence." Now. for all this depends entirely on But fear not. resolved to go straightway to this tree. by the E. and thought thus with himself " What power have I to give this man a child ? all that depends on his previous conduct and the destiny attaching to him from his former works. has the power to do this or do that. the brightness of the body pales. is the expression used Missionaries in China for " God". as is well known. he spake thus "All Oh that you would help me hail illustrious King of Heaven A certain nobleman threatens to cut down the tree in which I dwell. and root it up. there exudes a perspiration from beneath the arms.! 260 and bit THE KOMANTIC by bit. which are the flowers in the head-chaplet begin to fade.

on which she acquainted her Lord with the fact. And then. now abides ." To him Sakra ESja replied: "But it so happens that in the neighbourhood of that very place. charge of him." Then Sakra Eaja answered: " In Jambudwipa there is a certain city caUed Benares. and is now able to deliver all who come to him from the misery incident on continual transmigrations. and said: "Go and teU that nobleman that his prayer is answered he shall have a son. make up your mind to be born in that city and in his house " Then that Deva Putra. ! on the acquisition of final deliverance. they called him "Yasada". who shall in his turn leave his home and become a Shaman. when the time came to fix his name. for he has arrived at perfect enlightenment. seeing this 261 was the case with the Deva Putra in him thus: "My son! your destiny here is fulfilled. therefore. then. Then the Lord nourished and cherished his wife. Then Sakra. of He had four nurses appointed to take special perfect beauty. he despises all because he has no child! Pray. and." Then the Deva Putra consented to be born there. I prefer. answered Sakra Eaja thus " Great and illustrious King of Heaven. derived from former births. in order to procure a propitious birth . HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. according to your Karma." And so the Deva Putra descended from Heaven and was incarnated in the womb of the nobleman's wife. not to be born in the house of that rich man of Benares. you are now about to descend to earth and to be born amongst men but you shall be born in a. and invited him to rejoice in prospect of the birth of a child. he also distributed alms at the four ! gates of the city to at the all the poor. his nose like that of the parrot. On this. etc. the child was born his skin bright as gold. in which dwells a nobleman very rich and prosperous his name is Supra Buddha J but though so rich. with every other necessary. the mighty Sakra addressed the tree Deva. giving her every sort of food and nutritious support. because of the glory that appeared — — . end of the ninth month. I desire to be born in a house not far from where Prabhapala Deva. addressed ! ! : .. Ms head round. so that here is your opportunity at once to become Ms disciple and arrive at the Deliverance you seek. who lately inhabited this Heaven. So. the enlightened-one is about to preach the excellent Law. who had long set his mind question. distinguished family " Then the Deva Putra replied " Would that I knew in what place and position I am about to be born.

from whose body the worms came out. and ready to be buried. was filled with inexpressible joy . addressed Asvajit. Then Buddha. and entering into the inner apartments stood there. he again mounted his chariot and proceeded on his way. with a gentle smile on his face. and he thought thus " What pleasure can there be in any such summons in silence. . one for the winter." Now. proceeded to the city of Benares in company with Asvajit. his heart was filled with sorrow. And thus he gradually increased in stature and also in all useful knowledge. The latter. Tasada having gone round the gardens.carcass. having robed himself in the orthodox way. and surrounded by an ever watchful retinue. to beg his meal for the day. he descended from his chariot and bowed down in reverence at his feet. and soon will become a Eahat. on which the world-honoured one continued " On this very evening this youth. came to the palace of Tasada. Meantime. He was supplied with every sort of pleasurable indulgence. And so he remained the onlychild of his parents. just dead. immediately at ! : : condition as this. Tasada. Walking along with a dignified gait he entered the city. and one for the spring and autumn. beholding the beautiful appearance of Buddha's person. Tasada. feeding on the. and addressed the youth as follows " Dear Tasada it is full time for you now to leave your house and become a religious mendicant " Tasada having heard the : ! ! dawn ordered his chariot to be prepared for him to go forth in it to view the beauties of the adjoining gardens Now it so happened that on this very morning. beholding this disgusting sight. his father built for him three magnificent palaces." He returned to his palace full of the'se thoughts. carrying his alms-dish in his hands. and entered in everywhere. and as it so happened. and said: "Did you see this youth. and the way in which he behaved?" Asvajit replied in the affirmative.262 THE EOMAKTIC above his head when he was born. will become a recluse. the worldhonoured one. one for the summer. Tasada. he encountered Tasada as he was proceeding towards the gardens. descending from heaven. Now it so happened that the world-honoured one had just begun to preach the law at Benares. it happened that Sakra transformed himself into an old and decrepit woman. and having three times circumambulated him in token of respect. when Sakra Eaja.

sort of supernatural light. which was called Bhadra-pati. Meantime. He can. caused to be overpowered with sleep. And having heard his lamentation. which opened of themselves without noise. caused his body to emit a dazzling brightness. he made for himself a small Pansal (leaf-hut). from the other bank of the river. on which Tasada advanced slowly to the bank of the river Varana. then . accosted him thus ' Come. my Tasada Take this way towards the fearless Nirvana The world-honour'd one perceives all things. read the thoughts of every heart And so his words are fuU of hidden meaning.] Crossing over this river. passed out. Now. by his Divine power. and experienced a feeling of perfect rest. [This signifies "to separate and exclude".— HISTORY OF BUDDHA. — ! ! 263 to sleep. the women Buddha. just as the thirsty and way-worn traveller. without any noise . Tasada having awoke. bathing . therefore. hearing these words. and there sat down cross-legged. and all along the banks the birds were feeding in great numbers . and seeing all the women lying about in disorder. He then began to bewail his unhappy condition. Sakra caused a bright light to go before him as he pursued his way to his Father's palace. on which Buddha. There is nothing to fear here there is no -danger here nought but rest and peace and perfect independence !" and so the Gatha says ! ! ! ! ! : " Tathagata. and the lamps of the palace to burn with a. who lights upon a lake of pure water. as in on and came to the gates of the palace. Then Sakra. his own. proceeding to the gate of the city. arising from his couch. lost all fear. oh. Meantime. The world-honour'd one knows aU things. this too opened of itself.' " ! ! Then Tasada. he exclaimed " Welcome welcome oh Tasada. then. when lo the light which had gone before him suddenly disappeared. perceiving by his innate power that Tasada on this night would become a recluse. and Tasada was left alone in the gloom. and lay down all ! . cool and refreshing. he proceeded and there seeing the women lying about in disorder. having perceived his state of mind. at this time the river had suddenly become very shallow. and with his arms stretched out towards Tasada. then come. proceeded towards a certain river called Varna (or Varana).

laid them on the bank. he sent for the wise men and soothsayers. and told them the circumstances. having passed through the Bhadrapati gate. Yasada soon passed over. or not ?" ! ! ! ! — ! . " Have you. determined to exercise his miraculous spiritual power. venerable sir seen my son Yasada pass by this way. approaching. and experienced a sense of complete repose. saying " Whoever will bring me news of my son. and entered the river Varan^ to cross over it . for if he were dead these slippers would not be here !" Leaving them where they lay. addressed Buddha with great respect and said. then aroused her husband and said. he stood on one side. on account of the shallowness of it. took off his jewelled slippers. began to raise a great outcry with much lamentation. " Then. he fell down before him in humble adoration and worshipped him. was wandering forth in his perplexity towards the Tarana Eiver. the. distressed with fear and grief. and having approached to! wards the spot where Buddha was.. . he left them there just as a man who rejects some spittle from his mouth leaves Then. On this the father. arising. my dear son is not dead . he said. but now we cannot find him in the palace!" His mother. and beholding all the excellencies of his person. on which proclamation was made from the four gates of the city. Buddha. that man shall receive one hundred thousand lakhs of money as a reward. Yasada's father. like pure water. when he came to the very spot where the priceless jewelled slippers which Yasada had left there. so Yasada. Meantime. hearing the words of Buddha. his wives. " My Lord your son Yasada is nowhere to be found in the palace !" On this. his heart was cleansed from every remnant of care. filled with fear. " Dear Mother your son is gone he was here yesternight. filled with joy. Then. and. were lying on seeing these. father forthwith crossed the river in search of his son. where he is. Hereupon Buddha. and hastened to his mother and said. perceiving the approach of the nobleman. Yasada. Then Yasada." On that very night the nobleman. and declared to him the character of the four sacred truths. nor thinks of it again the water. having preached to Yasada. forgets all his former griefs. behold he received enlightenment. or in what direction he has gone. having woke up and perceiving that their Lord was absent. 264 in THE EOMANTIO which and drinting thereof. lost every remnant of fear and anxiety. and so he caused Yasada to become invisible.

and filled with grief on your account. Arrived there. or not ?" To which he replied. having obtained emancipation from the more return to its pleasures. bowed down and saluted Buddha's condition of a Bahat. like . and taken on him the vows of a religious mendicant. bowing down at Buddha's feet. And so it came ." world. caused Yasada to appear on seeing him. he entered into the house and sat down. and accepted the three refuges and the five commandments of the lay disciple. he is free from aU family ties. 265 To which the world-honoured one replied. and thus become a perfect Brahmana.'' Then Buddha said. can no Then the nobleman. on which. Then. Then Buddha began to preach to him. On which Buddha oh Bhikshu walk perfectly in the Law which I said." and to explain in order the various truths of his system . feet. charity as on purity and rest. his father exclaimed." ! " Even so this Tasada. "Dear son your mother is weeping. having desired Tasada to wait upon him. having put on his robe. having entreated Buddha to partake of his little way homewards on which Tasada also arose from his seat and. " Welcome declare. having come into his presence. besought him to receive him fully as a disciple. and preached to them as well on After this be expounded the four to pass that they were able to cast great truths. ! ! '. can such an one return to his house and family again. having alms. and can no longer be subject to them. he bowed his head at Buddha's feet and sat down. early in the morning. he attained joy and release. " Illustrious sir how think you ? can a man who has accepted the three modes of refuge. ! ! said this. Then the mother of Tasada and his wife. and arrived at the There were now seven Bahats in the world. respected ! ! '. Tasada's father. a clean garment that easily receives the dye. and holding his alms-bowl in his hand. " If you have leisure.'' Buddha. On this the world-honoured one proceeded to explain in detail the rules of the system. Then Buddha. Dear son pity her condition and return to her lest she die of a broken heart Then Buddha addressed the nobleman and said. Tasada received perfect deliverance. sir sit you down here awhile and rest and soon you shall see your son Then the nobleman reflected thus — " It is impossible for this Shaman to speak falsely — what he says must be true !" and so he was filled with joy.HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. proceeded to the city and to the house of the nobleman. the world-honoured one. by his miraculous power. " He cannot. arose and proceeded a .

Then the nobleman and his wife. having heard of Tasada's conversion.. . Tasada's mother and his wife.i having heard this. of the second Subhada [illustrious. Then Buddha.266 off THE ROMANTIC power the defilement of sense. carrying with them smaller cushions. shoulder {Ch. whilst Buddha himself remained resting. viz.] CHAPTER XXXVI. freely preached to them.310 words. § 1. [Kiouen XXXV contains 6. so These two. prepared to depart from the city. were the first female disciples of Buddha who took refuge in the threefold gem. Then the worldhonoured one. presented with their own hands to Buddha the choicest food and drink. followed by Tasada. with their household.155 taels. he left the abode of his entertainer. four. and themselves sat down to listen to his further exhortations. These become a Shaman devoted to the practice of a Brahmana. The subsequent conversion of Yasada's friends. good. cd. having taken the alms-bowl of Buddha. and that he had (Gh. and. and to realise the inward cleansing of these truths. Then Subrabuddha and his wife. ed. They on their part were filled with joy.)] of the third Purnata \_full and enough . they arranged them in front of Buddha. or. carefully washed it.y] . Now at this time there were in the city of Benares four exceedingly rich and prosperous householders— the name of the first Vimala [no pollution (Oh. and accepted all they heard with sincere hearts. ed. we will go for ourselves and see 1 what That it is is. and caused them to understand his doctrine fully. of which he freely partook." devoted to a pure life. rising from his seat. they also attained enlightenment. began torefiect with themselves thus— "This is very singular. and cost 3. and as a pure garment which is dyed easily. there must be something very superior in the system of that great Shaman to induce Tasada to behave in this way . ed. and took upon them the five commandments of the lay-disciple fUpasika). of the fourth Gavpati [Lord of Oxen (Oh.)}. that great Shaman teaches. wheat and honey and rice. seeing their conduct in exact conformity with his Law. After which.)].

in order to attach themselves to your person as lay disciples would that my Lord would teach them and expound the truth in their hearing !" Then the world-honoured one. and then took a place on one side. and enter on the life of a Brahmana . " Welcome. what his system is. to become your disciples also. explain in consecutive order the great principles of his system. began to self was. we pray you. that these four also received enlightenment. and accepted the alms-bowl of mendiThen. 267 Having thought thus. and. There sense." Then Buddha replied. and respectfully addressed him thus— " Oh Maha Buddha. and Gavpati are very old friends of mine. Subhada. to the place where Buddha himArrived there they respectfully bowed down at his feet. they also arrived at the condition of Eahats. they also were changed in heart. world-honoured one. to wit. they respectfully saluted him and spake thus " Noble Tasada there must be something very superior in the ! system of this great Shaman. — ! ! — ." Then they received the accustomed tonsure. he went through the whole. In the same Yasada. all friends of the habit of coming to him from . (aranyaka). way who were in fifty other persons. Then Tasada addressed his master as follows " Maha Buddha honoured by the world these four eminent persons — Vimala. Arrived there. we pray you. they set out together and proceeded to the place where Tasada was dwelling. oh Bhikshus enter on the course of true Brahmanas and follow me. So it came to pass. tell us. and they have come here desiring to learn what your system of doctrine is. the householders of Benares aforesaid. Purnaka. permit us. and after seven days put on the three garments. pa- tience (kshanti). they cast off the defDement of as a pure garment is readily dyed. the character of true charity (Dana). step. ! ! were novp^ eleven Eahats in the world. and so on . morality (sila). to leave our homes and take upon us the rules of a Shaman. to induce you to join yourself to his company. step by and explained his entire Law. of his great love and compassion. having passed some time in the woods as hermits cants. Then they arose and prostrated themselves at the feet of Buddha." Then Tasada brought these four.— ! HISTORY OF BUDDHA.

" Having said this. to converse importance. in this place. I pray you. desired to visit other countries also. were so that the sixty-one. but. that you have become a recluse. or become Eahats). § 2. these. the first thing we hear is. then. . to induce Tasada to leave his home and become a disciple . But now. who will care for you that you want nothing.received the five precepts of the lay disciple for many (i. Now at this time there happened to be five hundred merchant men at Benares who were formerly well acquainted with Tasada's family. 268 THE EOMANTIC and discuss questions of different countries. Tasada. Then Tasada entered on an explanation of Buddha's teaching. and receive the nourishment and other necessaries you require at the hands of your father and mother." So. we will go and inquire at his hands.e. and what the doctrines of your master are." On this. they stood on one side. for disobey your wishes. from you what it is that induced you to take this step. but we have not met for a long time. for in truth we merchants have only just returned from a. and learn what this doctrine is. and began to reflect thus " There must be something very superior in the teaching of this great Shaman. therefore. heard the news about Tasada's conversion. nevertheless. they addressed him thus " Dear Tasada we were formerly well acquainted one with the other. years they tried in vain to obtain perfect enlightenment acquire B6dhi. they left their homes. having returned home from a distant expedition.. all converted and became Eahats number of Eahats altogether amounted to And now sixty persons in the the world-honoured one. having come home. whereupon he spake to Tasada as follows " Dear Tasada I wish you now to remain here and not to follow ! you are but young and ill-prepared to bear the toil and privations which the life of a travelling mendicant wiU require of you. having repaired to Tasada's abode.— . we have come to inquire. " I dare not me. . long voyage. having converted these Deer park near to Benares. and in consequence these five hundred merchants also became his followers. with reverence. replied. remain. — — ! . honoured by the world !" And so he remained there at Benares.

they worshipped him. On this Bhagavat commanded Ananda to go to them and reprove them for their conduct. lately brought to light by the Archaeological Surveyor of India. Such conduct does not bewhen they are hauling in their nets come this place. hearing that Buddha was located at the Jetavana. and having circumambulated him three times.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. and there sitting down. in silence. set out. departed from the Vihara. Then Yasada. the noise and dis- perfectly acquainted with the reason of orderly shouting I heard just disputatious ways of men. at last to pass that Bhagavat. and caused considerable confusion in the establishment by their disorderly conduct. visits Sravasti. 269 Buddha § 3. It is curiously illustrated in a sculpture at Bharahut. however. having passed many seasons at Benares. I desire you therefore to depart hence at once!— it is impossible for you to dwell with me I" Then these Bhikshus. and bending at his feet. having gone through came to Sravasti (Savatti). and had claimed hospitality and shelter. And so these wandering Bhikshus at length arrived there. some saying now reminded me of the clamorous Hoo hoo others 'ha • ! !' ! one against the other. . Now it came various countries. At this time Bhagavat. "Whilst thus entertained. and were entertained in the Vihara (or monastei'y) attached to the garden. On this Ananda related how that these 500 merchants had arrived at the monastery in company with Tasada. and had taken up his abode in the garden of Jeta^ (Jetavana). accompanied by the 50(1 merchant men. Then they were received according to custom. yet asked Ananda whence proceeded these shouts and disorderly noises. and then. Then Bhagavat addressed them — "Te Bhikshus. with submission. they reha!' just like the shouting of fishermen ! 1 The gift of this garden by Anathapindana is a weU-knowu event in Buddhist history. rising up. it so happened that they made much noise with their chattering and shouting. stood on one side. within the Vihara erected there for his accommodation. bowed down again at Buddha's feet. And so it was that they came to the banks of the river Paragomati. After this they all came into the presence of Bhagavat. to join him there. although it.

those five hundred Bhikshus. in days gone by. when they had heard the message. went forth from his pansal into the open ground. The previous History of Yasada. he dwelt. and became Eahats. his efforts having been crowned well. Then Buddha declared how he had seen in his hundred Bhikshus by the side of the Paragomati and a great light shining round them and he bade Ananda to signify to them that they should come into the presence of Buddha. and that other matter turn out § 4. until at length they all were able to shake off mundane influences. being arranged in order around him. resolved at length to go through the country and visit other towns and villages .' ' And so it came to pass that. having heard the commands of Ananda. prepared to obey and thus they all came to the place where Bhagavat dwelt in the pansal beside the Monkey Tank at Vaisali. having remained for some time longer in the Jetavana of Savatti. Bhagavat. as a token of my gratitude. the priests. . immediately prepared himself to obey. Then. practising themselves in the pure rules of the life of a Brahmana. and giving themselves up to constant reflection and self-examination. travelling on. taking up his abode in a leafy hut by the side of the Monkey Tank. Then Bhagavat. reverie those five Eiver. arousing himself from the religious reverie in which he had been lost. and so. there was a certain man Uving in Benares who thought thus with himself— 'If this business in which I am engaged succeeds. Then the world-honoured began to relate the previous history Tasada and these five hundred merchants in the following words—" I remember. his followers. and making a grass seat for himself. in readiness for the expected strife. as much as ever he wants. Then Ananda dispatched a young Bhikshu with this message. of then I vow to give away in charity to Shaman or Brahman every variety of choice food. even as the warrior braces on his armour and clasps his helmet. . He. he sat down. in like manner. .270 THE EOMANTIC mained together. he came at length to the town of VMsali . and there. And BO. as the sun was going down.

ed.' And for this purpose he went down to the river's bank. he offered it forthwith to this Pratyaka Buddha. and so. thought thus with himself ' It is still early. was no longer in the shade. beyond the precincts of the city on a certain business. byepath. he went on towards the city. in order. lost in reverie. or chaplet [Gh. under the tree. Wow it so happened that the King of Benares at this time was called Brahmadatta [Virtue of Brahma (Oh. suddenly he came to the very spot where the Pratyeka Buddha was sitting. as he approached the gate. following the river's course. .)]. etc. very early.. stepping down into a. and went forth to the city gate. surrounded by the four kinds of military cortege. who.)]. and on this very day he was proceeding in his chariot. ed.' Then. he sat down with his legs crossed. looking neither to the right nor left and as he beheld him thus. and there sat down with this intention ' Whoever shall come first to this spot. he went onwards through the wood tUl he came to the riverside . And so the perspiration was bursting from every pore. was advancing along the same road. motionless and lost in contemplation. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. And now it so happened that the sun had risen so high that the spot where he was sitting. a very celebrated monarch . one morning. he took every variety of choice food with him. whose name was Nagarasikhi [perfect hair. having received the food. — ! saw the King Brahmadatta coming onwards towards the very spot where he was. and selecting there a shady spot beneath a spreading tree. and gave himself up to inward contemplation. and his food by his side. As he was thus going. and I have met with this supply unexpectedly. he thought with himself. Seeing this. but exposed to the full glare and heat of the day. on this very morning. 271 with success. whether Shaman or Brahman. when lo he to go a-begging within the city of Benares. and arranged his dress. the citizen beheld him coming on with dignified mien and measured pace. his heart was filled with joy and satisfaction. and then. had arisen early. 'I will get out of the way of the King '. I will. Then the venerable personage. Just then a villager. to him will I offer this food in — Now it so happened that outside the city gate there was a Pratyaka (Pase) Buddha dwelling. and taking his food. with a view charity. therefore. travelling towards Benares with an umbrella in his hand to shelter himself withal. give myself up to thought and self-examination for a time before eating. and triokUng down his face.

when a future Buddha called SSkya comes into the world. and shelter him with my umbrella. and medicine. in future states of existence. and 1 That is. to join fully come. — food (12 o'clock) ! ! — ! ! yourself to his company and become a Eahat. perceiving that the time for taking food had thought thus with himself ' It is now time to take I will shake off this ecstasy and arise. may fall into no evil kind of birth ^ but may be able to offer food. and many other astonishing changes.' he said. on which they burnt his body. and having cleansed it from all pollutions. or in Hell.' " Then the villager at once proceeded to the place where his pansal was . is evidently some religious purpose and the sun's rays.' "After this. on which he replied. as they light on his body. whereupon Nagarasikhi instructed the villager to go and join himself to the company of some Parivrajakas (wandering hermits) who were located near that spot. clothing. 'I live in such and such a place. I win stop here.' " Then he asked the saint where he lived. fulfilling — • This Eishi . 'how to subdue your appetites and to practise complete self-control. drink. and provide other necessaries for this Pratyeka Buddha. lo he beheld the man by his side holding an umbrella over his head to shade him from the sun. overcome by what he saw. and finally requested permission to leave their homes and become disciples. and entered Nirvana. and told his father. be born either as a beast. mother. so that the villager. he requested permission to offer to the Pratyeka Buddha the four necessary articles. they also beheld. . then you may be in a condition. and bowed down at the feet of the saint. or an Asura. must be a source of inconvenience. the Pratyeka Buddha died. and exhibited before the eyes of the villager some wonderful transformations . food. viz. uttering these words ' Oh that I. he caused fire and water to proceed from his mouth. gathered together his relics.' Having done so..272 THE EOMANTIC Seeing whicli the villager thought thus lost in abstraction. and ' after learning from them. was filled with faith. and wife what he had witnessed. the Pratyeka Buddha immediately ascended into the air. In return for this act of consideration.' At length the Pratyeka Buddha. After this he returned to his home. he swept it and watered it with great care. and taking them to the pansal of the Pratyeka Buddha.

and on one occasion. ed.' And so. rich and prosperous in this very city of Benares. till at last he was born a great minister. there is now over his head ' a precious chatta ever appearing of itself.). that he uttered this vow ' Oh would that when Sdkya Buddha appears in the world. however. I may become Lis disciple and undertake aU the : ! rules of a religious his death. he was devoted to Kisyapa Buddha. and so successively through many births. But hereafter it shall secure complete Nirvtoa. offering flowers and burning incense. having for a long time practised the discipline of these Paribrajakas. known by the name of Narakhi. as he went to the city of Benares to beg." [Kiouen ^ XXXVI contains 6270 words and cost 3. after was born in the heaven of Brahma . . and so obtain deliverance. and awaiting to be worms and disgusting insects covered it it was alto- — gether a loathsome sight. he life. This Stupa was called Dasavrika {ten marks. and erected over his ashes a Stupa. 273 erected a tower over them. but stiQ his vow was not perfectly accomplished. and having decorated the tower with flags and surmounting canopies they worshipped before it. On this account that king is now born as Tasada and because formerly he held that umbrella over the head of the Pratyeka Buddha.135 taels. having been born as the king of the country of Kasi. he accidentally saw the corpse of a woman burned . This spectacle so affected him. Afterwards. " Thus by nourishing and tending holy men.] This seems to relate to the origin of Tasada's name." At this time the world-honoured one pronounced these Gathas . became a recluse. and was surmounted by seven encircling discs placed there by the king and his different relatives. after that he was again born in the world. adorned with the seven precious substances. covered with a loathsome disease. At present this reward may be as a man or Deva. Ch. Great merit and corresponding recompense is acquired.: HISTOEY OF BUDDHA.'^ and his father and mother and wife have become my first lay disciples. and impressed his mind with the vanity and misery of life. So it came to pass that this vil- lager.

to enter life of the Paribra- After a time. Then Purna going to the side of Bhagavat. having acquired spiritual faculties. and having reached the slopes position. the God of wealth. and placed his foot upon his head . they practised the jakas [i. On this. of the Snowy Mountains.. He was born on the same day as Siddartha. On this he was filled with joy. as he prostrated himself before him. as yet. Being so gifted. and whether.^ the king of the Northern Eegion. he left his home with thirty companions. resolved Accordingly. and was preaching the law for the good of Devas and men in the Deer park near Benares. unequalled fot grace. and his palace was beautiful as that of Vaisravana. on a favourable occasion. he was able dhySna and perceive hidden truths. they all flew through the air. and Kapilafirst The History of Purna. in a certain village between Kosala whom Suddh6dana had made minis- exceedingly rich and prosperous. and thus arrived together at the Deer Park. Afterwards. and then raising his face. becoming dissatisfied with worldly occupation and pleasure. even as the Koyal Hansa king pursues his flight. and afterwards uttered these laudatory stanzas : " Oh thou ! who in former days dwelt in the Tusita Heavens. He had one only son whose name was Purua- He was maitrayani putra. setting out from the Snowy Mountains. The same as Kuvera. he said that he would use his spiritual power to find out what had become of Prince Sidd&rtha. ter of the country. without naming his intention either to father or mother. XXXVII.274 THE EOMANTIC CHAPTER Now there was vastu a great Brahman. bowed down before him. he perceived that the prince had now become completely enlightened. e. hermits). he kissed the foot of Tathagata. to become an ascetic. he had gained the dominion of a sacred Chakravarti monarch. exercising his faculty of divine sight. and communicated the intelligence to his thirty companions. in the shape of And thence came down 1 a white elephant. . and was of a most gentle dis- Now it came to pass when he grew up that Pfirna. and perfectly acquainted with the Tedas and Shasters. of great personal beauty.

may now proceed on your self in travels and. and himself perfectly versed in all the literature of the Vedas and Shasters. Pftrna and his thirty friends aU became was this Purna of whom the world-honoured spake as " Bhikshus know ye that of all my disciples. To be incarnated in the womb of the Divine Maya. and in the middle of that country " Monkey-food "j and in this village a . Then the father said to his second son. so that the King made him chief minister of the realm. having gone forth on his travels to complete his education. like your brother. To be born in the royal house of the Sikyas As the lotus springs unoontaminated from the water. able to repeat the Vedas and Shasters." Then Narada. this Puma follows win be the first for preaching the law amongst men . his palace like that of Vaisravana. 275 What joy and delight was it to thy mother." Story of Narada. as in a. So was thy body pure and spotless in the womb. replied. § 2. after a time. some time. the eldest son of this noble- man. Now there was in South India. " Noble father I am already perfectly ac! . and prosperous Brahman of the family of Katyayana. who was called Narada. but rejoicing only in the Law.perfectly versed in all the polite learning of the day . This Bhikshu Pftrna. with no stain of wickedness. Spake in gentlest words to the great congregation.." and so the Gatha says after Then Eahats. Beholding her sou dwelling in her womb. having heard these words." etc. returned. my son. perfect yourthe literature of the day. Walking in perfect purity. in this continent of Jambudivillage called vipa. " Tou too. etc. Now. a true disciple. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. golden casket.. Desiring no carnal joys. and acquainted with all the learned works of the time. a country called Avanti there was rich a. It : ! : " The world-honoured dwelling at Benares.. Shall be the most distinguished of those who preach my law.

he dwelt there. This Eishi had so thoroughly mastered the Vedas and the Shasters that he was able to exercise every supernatural power." Shortly after this the Eishi died. Elapatra. Pandagiri). meeting a certain Yaksha Eija at the palace of S^gara. ! ! At this time. On one occasion. and become a follower of the sage. accompanied by Warada.were frequent assemblies of the NSgas. whose palace . ever since the time of K4syapa called Sdgara. was unable to seek the refuge afforded by Buddha. Then all the assembly exclaimed. Narada. blinded by the adulations of men. but as yet he knew not whether this had come to pass or not. fiUed with joy. I will repeat the Vedas from beginning to end. leave your home. the Law and the Church. go. Then the rich Brahman and his wife brought Narada to this old man and entreated him to take him as a disciple. as he had promised to do. went to the neighbourhood of Benares. being vexed at the celebrity which Narada thus acquired. " Narada Narada a Buddha has now been born ." On hearing this. shave your head. conceived a strong desire to forsake sin him This desire had haunted Buddha Tath4gata. his father was greatly rejoiced. Then the Eishi. practise the conduct of a Brahmana. in a cave of which an old Eishi called Asita was living. on which his father made the following plan for his younger son to escape the malice of his brother. then. began to plot against his life . and perfect him in aU the knowledge necessary for the acquirement of ! ! supernatural power. and having convoked a large assembly. and to practise the four sorts of ecstatic reverie. he . and to these assemblies Elapatra repaired." and not far from the city was a mount called Pandu (or. who had told him that after a certain number of years S^kya Muni Tathagata would be born. and having made a leafy Pansal outside the city. his son Narada now assemble repeated before them aU the Vedas and the various Shasters. and during six hours of every day continually repeated this exhortation. nevertheless. " Well done well done clever youth !" and Ma father. bestowed on him great stores of wealth and jewels.276 THE EOMANTIC . But his elder brother. a NagarSja. There was a certain city in that southern region called "Oudyani. (juainted with all these works so that if my honourable father will together the people. for your own and others good. Now there was also another Naga E&ja. at and become a religious person.

At length Narada." Then Elapatra addressed that Taksha Eaja and said. inter- . having gone to this city of Arkabandu. who was now dwelling in Magadha. and see if you can read these verses. knowing that the people would despise him if he did not undertake to answer these Gathas. I pray you. all I know is this. then no man can read these verses . the two dragon Eijas." Then the Taksha Eaja. " Dear Taksha go. Meanwhile. which are to this effect " If no Buddha is born in the world. and therefore And if any one can be sure that Sakya Tathagata has been born be found able to explain their meaning. he promised after seven days to return with the true pretation of them. oh Elapatra for I can read the verses. soon returned to the palace of Sagara ESja and said. Before he can be said to be free indeed?" Then these Dragon Eajas offered the gifts of rice and money." and. having heard . to whom the Taksha replied.— HISTORY OF BUDDHA. " I know not indeed. " Eejoice. stOl no one can explain them except Buddha alone. went to the banks of the Ganges and standing in the open space adjoining the river. and the Naga girl as a wife. " if they can be read. went boldly to the Naga Eajas and asked them to repeat the verses in his hearing then. them. 277 asked him if SAkya Buddha was already born in the world . that in a certain desolate region there is a Taksha city called Arkabandu. with great joy. to any one who could answer these questions. bring me an account of them. taking with them a Naga maiden of exceeding beauty. and in this city there is » couplet of verses inscribed. if so. received these Gathas from the Taksha. and vessels full of the choicest food and other rare offerings. be sure that he is Buddha — ! ! ! himself. repeated these Oathas in the hearing of all passers by " In what does true independence consist ? What How that causes pollution ? can one attain perfect purity ? is it is it What that deludes Why is the deluded men most ? man so utterly deceived ? And who is the really wise ? From what associations must one be freed." Then Elapatra. and.

' The pollution of Kingship is the great pollution To be thus polluted and yet to know it not. and respectfnUy requested him to explain the Gathas as he recited them. meaning till Buddha was residing in the Deer park near the city. said he." Then Narada answered. 278 And so it THE EOMANTIC came to pass that the six heretical teachers at last Narada. a distance of three hundred 1 The word "independent" means here "self-dependent. . . went to him. . oh Naga Eaja. Whose body is marked by all the distinguishing signs He Then alone was able to unravel its meaning. the explanation is not mine. " Namo Bhagavata Tathdgataya Arya Sambuddha " (three times).'' Then Narada. the Holy Buddha. Then Narada. all the end of is expedients And he who Is the only able to do this Wise man. It is the great Sage. the Niga E^ja. having inquired where in verse Buddha was dwelling. having Then Elapatra resolved not to use any spiritual transformation but in his own natural body to behold Buddha . . extending his body from Taxasila to Benares. " As you say. having brought this explanation." Elapatra. Is the great delusion of the world To empty the This is great River (of transmigration). Then Buddha said " Because of the ' six (Abhidjnas) a man becomes independent.— — . he is the true Buddha come into the world. for. " Whoever communicated it to you. on which. Narada again replied "The great independent one (Isvara)' among gods and men Is now dwelling within the Deer garden of Benares There he is declaring the doctrines of his system With a his right voice like that of the lion in the forest." or "self-sufficient" {swayambhu]. who has revealed it." further bared his right shoulder and bent knee in adoration towards the spot where Buddha was residing. Elapatra also in the orthodox manner made obeisance towards the same quarter. in vain . hearing that who resided at Benares endeavoured to find out the hidden of these lines. Elapatra. besought him to say where and from whom he had received it . . and repeated the formula.

only said. the Qitha.— — HISTORY OF BUDDHA. Elapatra NAga Eaja I" ! ! [Kiouen XXXVII contains 6. Loving righteousness and righteous conversation. and sixty yojanas. oh come. bowed down before him.. transformed himself into the shape of a Manava youth. following— " By doing what. on his part. and uttering every sort of terrible sound. " WelIt is long since I have seen you. like the of a ship. and then. and cost 3.167 words.] CHAPTEE . Then his head. Eejoioing to meditate on the true Law. May one attain an excellent condition as Deva And so lay up in store future blessedness ?" ! or man. bent before the world-honoured one. who. Alwavs doing good to those around you. etc. Practising every kind of self-discipline and pure life. To which Bhagavat immediately said. Ever willing to listen to that which may profit another. and approaching Buddha. And acquiring what ground of merit. prow Ms head reached to the still spot where while his was in his palace. or the trunk of an elephant. And to reflect on the words of Divine Wisdom.) Then Elapatra added. perceiving that he was known. XXXVllJ. emitting aU sort of flame and lightning flash. in reply " Ministering to the worthy doing harm to none ! Always ready to render reverence to whom it is due. repeated these verses " In what does true independence consist ? What is it that really pollutes and deceives a man ? And who is the pure and unspotted man ? And what is it that brings delusion ?" etc. tail 279 Buddha was. by way of inquiry. Welcome." * .083 taels. and observing what rules. (Then Buddha replies as before. § 1 Then Elapatra. This *** ia * * indeed the wisdom of a true disciple. standing apart.

the Nfi. 152. ' Erapatra.. in the middle of this Bhadra Kalpa. that I was a follower of Kisyapa Buddha. (This Buddha also preached the Law in this Deer park.' This disciple. Report of Archwol. began to weep on which Buddha inquired why he did so. in North India. Surveyor of India. both of which he refused. lately discovered by the Archseological Surveyor of India. ' Erapato Nagaraja Bhagavata vaudate. and was called Elapatra. number of Nslga followers. " I remember in days gone by. e. made the following vow —'May I also in future years become like one of these disciples. near Benares. " And then Buddha narrated_the following history respecting Katyayana in his former births— "I remember in years gone by.^ § 2.' Then this same K^syapa told me that after an indefinite period. and fixing their true meaning. when Sakya Buddha came into the world." and of him it was Buddha said— "He of all my disciples shall be most distinguished in the definition of words. and thus described by him " A bas-relief representing a Naga chief kneeling before the B&dhi tree. 280 THE KOMANTIC Then Elapatra. . At this time. and the Naga girl.ga Raja. attended by a. having first offered to Narada the money. 254. and be privileged to attend on the person of a true Buddha. having come near to hear this Buddha ' ' born in ' preach.' " F. and because he was of the family of Katyayana. when men's lives were twenty thousand years in duration. that I should again receive a human shape. worships Buddha. p. and because I destroyed a tree called Ha I was my present shape.' i. with this inscription. regarding Buddha with attention. departed. 1874. Narada and his companions became disciples. who is none other than the great Katyayana. and so by becoming a disciple attain final deliverance. also Jul. oh Bhikshus was the present Narada. ' — 2 ride"Manualof Buddhism. he was called " the great Katyayana. A certain religious person. there was a city called Taxasila This story seems to be the subject of one of the groupa>at Bharahut. the Law and the Church." p. whose name was Kasyapa.' After this. V. that there was a certain Buddha born.. having taken refuge it is for this reason I weep !" in Buddha. and Then Elapatra. On this Elapatra rejoined. ii." ! Story of Sobhiya.

) ]. having met. ed. and taking his slippers and water-vessel. "It is because I have lost my beauty that you are about to leave me. The Chinese tika defines the word as a "wan- . travelling about. [severed rock (Ch. began to think with herself— "This child will be the cause of much anxiety to us. and bid him set out and search till he find me. had the horoscope of these children cast at once. and I shall die alone and neg. Then the parents. So. Then 8 Vide M. in the district-hall. a change took place in the woman's appearance. and if .)]. and there. taking his father." lected.^ and begged her to take care of the child. The mother. After having come together. B. Paribrajaka said to the woman. ed. 254. and the female being defeated. and whoever prevailed that the other should be slave and servant. he turned. but. they agreed that there should be a disputation between them. derer" [hing-hing). she will never find an honourable condition of married life. and." Having thought thus. having sent for a renowned soothsayer. she joined herself to the company of the other. The wise man pronounced the tokens of the female child unlucky. his And so. went on his way. and by this ring I shall know him. — fell in love with her . and was duly instructed in all the wisdom of the day. and so she called the child Sobhiya [district court {Ch.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. use it for your mutual support but if you give birth to a boy. to avoid a public scandal. Accordingly. which caused the man to forsake her but before doing so she said. "Take you give birth to a girl. in token of her servitude. having met this woman." On this the this golden ring. she went her way. called the White Cloud Valley. in 281 There was a certain family living in tliat which were born unexpectedly two children— twins the one a boy. having heard this. city. she brought forth a son. she inquired after a woman belonging to the Paribrajakas. Then the woman. and grew more and more comely as she increased in years. in a secluded spot. and being much struck with her beauty. the other a girl. the disputation began. and that she would pay all expenses. then commit the ring to his care. came at length to the village of Ma-tou (MathuraP). leave of the woman. then. At this time a certain Paribrajaka from North India. it happened that this child grew up under the care of the Paribrajaka woman.

— 282 all THE KOMANTIC the people round about. So. dear child. was preaching in the Deer park near Benares. go. by means of the ring. Sobhiya's mother. not knowing it was his father. Now. asked him " Who are you. and seek for him". travelling from town to town. to find out where her son was . was born in the Trslyastrinshas heavens at which time the world-honoured one. and where he was to be found. Sobhiya. and other acquirements connected with the profession of a hermit — and after that he died. And so the boy grew up. brought every necessary article of food and clothing for her use and the use of the child. And he remained supreme wisdom. then." Forthwith the Paribrajaka came forward. a time practising the power of abstract meditation (dhyana) and the five spiritual faculties . the father was convinced that . On this she exercised her spiritual power of sight.^ At length Sobhiya one day asked his mother who his father was. man. and said "I am ready to meet in disputation any Paribrajata. Sobhiya. who dares to encounter me in discussion. The news of this having reached the thirty-three heavens. he arrived at length in South India and there. his father being dead. and forthwith the young man set out. dying. and village to village. hearing of a celebrated champion of logic. 32 n. moved with pity and commiseration. and so he boasted that he had acquired the dignity and privileges of a Rabat. instructed by his mother in the three Vedas. he instructed him in every religious practice. lives somewhere in South India. "Tour sire. . including the power of dhyana (ecstasy). and seeing that he was occupying a Pau^ Tayo vede Sabtasippdni ca. and being immediately moved with feelings of love at the sight of the youth. on which his mother said. and took up his abode there. Fausboll. and all the liberal arts. and whence come you ?" On this an explanation took place. who challenged all comers to dispute with him. or woman. 5 Jatakas. So. — the youth was no other than his son. Then till at last. p. gradually journeyed on. forthwith sounded the drum of the law. at the same time she gave him the ring as a means of recognition. and. it came also to the ears of the Devi. taking him. having obtained for . coming to the sea-coast. seeing her destitute condition. he there made him a Pansal so to dwell in. the mother of the young man Sobhiya.

and bade him go seek the instruction of Bhagavat in the Deer park. and cost 3. And so.234 words. Then Sobhiya. have travelled far and come here. glorious among the . he immediately sought their company. Then. not being disobedient to the heavenly visitor. and having saluted them. Purna. hearing of the celebrated six teachers. Then Sobhiya inquired of Purna. § 1. and the other Nirgranthas. Kasyapa. the questions I put. And on this account I Gradually open out to me the clear light of truth. and there. and sought the company of Masakali Gosala.] CHAPTER XXXIX. would that you would solve my doubts. set out on his jour- by tlie sea-sliore.117 taels. and so on. with the same success. and I desire to ask a learned man On my account to explain them. and request a right solution of them. At length he determined to seek the company of the Great Shaman (Gotama). one by one. and took his place on one side. what their system of religion was. sal 283 discouraged she appeared to him in a vision by nigbt.'' replied To whom the world-honoured one . and found the world-honoured one bright (as the moon) in the midst of the stars of heaven. and satisfy me Oh. [Kiouen XXXVIII contains 6. and wherever he came he challenged all disputants to meet him in discussion. He turned away.— — . Mm from ney . and thinking he was a Eahat. HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. explaining these things as I name them. he rose up. and proposed various questions to them respecting subjects which caused him doubt but their answers were only confusing and unsatisfactory. Because I have doubts. and lay bare his doubts before him. So he drew near to Benares. after which he addressed the world-honoured thus "I am Sobhiya. himself at his assembly of Bhikshus who surrounded him. a man of religion (Bodhi). Kasyapa. So he came. And answer me. he arose and stood on one side. prostrating feet. and the others. therefore.

to 'overcome and subdue'? Seeing and knowing what things is it. he is called calm. Toiling through ages of suffering. now and I will explain. addressed him thus with all reverence " Holy one tell me what means the word Bhikshu ? "What means the expression. . Yet not soiled by the pollution of the world This man is rightly called Buddha ". to subdue all obstacles in the way. and aU other worlds. and what does not exist.] to the same effect . — 284 " Sobhiya ! THE EOMANTIC thou hast come from afar. According as your queries are put. and crossing over to the shore of Nir- Letting go all thoughts of what exists. the world-honoured answered Sobhiya in the follow- ing stanzas man who Overcoming vana endures constant penance in search of wisdom. and doing no harm to aught that Able to acquire a body spotless and pure. Receiving births and deaths in succession. ' ' And [And much more comes a disciple. Living in the world. And escape all the toils of sorrow . Awaiting the time of Nirvana . Whoever is able to forsake all systems. lives. that a man is called ' Buddha' Oh that the world-honoured one would explain these things ! ! to me I" At "A this time. Living above this world. and practise right! recollection." Then Sobhiya. then. Thoroughly practising the rules of aJJrahmana he is a Bhikshu. he is called True. he is called Virtuous. after which Sobhiya be- . Able to control all the senses and objects of sense. struck with the calm and self-possessed appearance of Gotama.—— . Desiring to ask ! me respecting your doubts Ask. in order. all doubts. .

and so prepare the way for their becoming disciples. — be instructed in the other rules of right behaviour. and prepare the way for my coming. how they ought to take refuge in the threefold formula (Buddha. and wear the robes of a mendicant. to preach the law for his sake and others. and there rested for a time. the Law. 285 The Story of the Chief Soldier (Senapati). finally. and join his community on which Buddha. early in the morning. having sent them forth. on a certain day." addressed Then again Mara came him thus ! to the spot where Buddha dwelt. having already signified his intention to proceed gradually towards Uravilva. § 2. resolved to send his followers through the different districts. and the village of the soldier -lord (Senapati). and " Tou. There are yet a vast number of men enthralled by grief For these we ought to have some care and compassion. " . So. to teach the world ! I. he assembled the Bhikshus together. the Church). to hear him preach. by myself. And from these thou canst never escape ! . retired to the Deer park.— — . to teach and explain his system of doctrine. towns and villages. go from this place Towards the village of Uravilva. I desire my own profit to redound to the good of others. oh Shaman are bound by the same cords As those which bind both gods and men Tou are entwined in the same meshes as they. Do Each one go Whilst you. And so the Gatha says ! " Bhikshus having myself escaped from all sorrows. and addressed them thus " Bhikshus I desire to go into retirement for a time go ye and visit the different cities and towns of the land. therefore. oh Bhikshus forth by himself. to preach there. Now at tMs time people from all quarters were flocking to Buddba. and . ! ." Moreover. such as bending the knee and clasping the hands . and. after due consideration. he gave them directions as to the mode of receiving all who sought to become disciples that they should receive the tonsure. Then Buddha. — — HISTOET OF BUDDHA.

Then the Bhikshus addressed Buddha. !" Then the devil took to flight." Who is calm and at — The Bhikshus then inquired what words they were to use when begging their food from door to door. odour. etc. on our entering a town or village. Cleansed thus from all personal defilement. oh Mara The power of beauty. He is truly a homeless one a disciple indeed. and said " Suppose. ! then. And I have conquered thee. May be sure that he is worthy of his charity. and a real disciple. oh wicked one What more.'' [After salute their master some further conversation. and coming out of the world. uses no words. — 286 THE KOMANTIO once. He who thus begs is indeed a true Shaman. as follows replied to him in a G4tha " Long ago have I escaped from all the meshes of the net j No more am I hound with the cords which bind gods and men. Whoever sees a religious person thus begging his food. to whom Buddha replied— "The. he added the following Gr4tha " The five pollutions that affect the human race and touch These I have long since cast away and rejected. that they came from Then the world-honoured one recognising at M^ra the wiciied one. from the words. etc. in begging. and left the enlightened one. sound. dost thou seek p" Moreover. And in so doing I have conquered all thy power. rest.— — — —— . wise man. lost in thought and self-recollection. taste. we are asked what is the meaning of the word Shaman or Brahman. both in body and soul This man is rightly called a Shaman and a Bhikshu. — And left no longer in himself a seed of covetousness.] respectfully . My body has been released from all these trammels. what answer shall we give ?" To whom Buddha replied in a verse " A man who has for ever destroyed the source of evil desire. the Bhikshus and depart. Nor does he point to this or that in accepting food But silently he stands..

and inquired of him the reason why the disciples had gone. Just at this time there was a party of thirty young men enjoying themselves in this same wood. So they passed their time in singing and — — 1 Literally. the region of the diamond-fields. began to contrive how to find one for him." . Now. feeling fatigued.^ of men. on which Buddha replied^ " These disciples of mine. all of whom. till at last they got a common dancing girl to join herself to their company. who kept watch in the grove where the Bhikshus had been. And to And to And to Vaisali. the land of AyudhyS. came to Buddha. as is well-known. and whither they were going. that he saw a copse of beautiful trees by the wayside. when the time of the Summer's Best ' at Benares was past the world-honoured one having sent his disciples forth to preach and teach himself set out for TJravilva.. and sat down beneath a tree of remarkable beauty. perceiving that the place was now empty and without occupants. So it came to pass that. who had resided there from very remote time. he retired to this shady retreat for a time. Have gone forth to convert the world They have gone to Kosala. in that village of TJravilva there was a great Brahman called Senapati. during which Buddhists met together under the cover of some frienfiy roof or monastery." So it came to pass. had a pleasant female companion as an associate. To subdue and remove the doubts Eespecting the truths of the law which I declare. the region of the district of the Great Diamond country (Vajra). Then the others. but without any success. This season is sometimes called their "Lent. save one. 287 Now the guardian spirit. is the season of the rains. and associate with the young man who was alone without a female friend. and. where he had practised the austerities he endured for six years. seeing that one of their number was not accompanied by a companion. perfect in self-restraint.HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. as Buddha was journeying along the usual road near to this village. ' The Summer Eest. for the purpose of instructing and benefiting the people.

so beautiful in form and figure. Then Buddha. and finding his fair companion gone. go by that way ? To whom Buddha replied " Tell me. they gradually sank to rest. all about this woman of whom you speak. their former companion. On this Buddha replied to the young men thus " Listen to me. and from whence ?" Then they related to him : the story of their adventure.834 words. arose. waking out of his sleep in the morning. till.288 THE ROMANTIC dancing. night coming on. and conspicuous for his superhuman beauty and dignified mien. they lighted on Buddha. and were soon asleep. she departed out of the wood. sitting in a perfectly composed manner. seeing the venerable one approaching.917 taels.] CHAPTEE § 1. Suddenly. and having taken such jewels and property belonging to the men as struck her fancy. came to another beautiful tree." invited Then Buddha them his law [omd in and became Eahats]. the river Ganges stages. and they all set ofi in pursuit of her. seeing they were all asleep. hurried . I pray. thus resting. it so happened that sixty travellers drew nigh. : ! — or to find this woman whom ye down seek?" They replied — "It would certainly be better to find ourselves. and cost 2. by easy . Whilst seated thus. and having heard his exposition of the law. [Kiouen XXXIX contains 5. XL. they drew nigh to him. and seeing Buddha. at length arrived at the bank of then a certain ferryman. Then the dancing woman. to find yourselves. and there sat down. whose boat was on the margin of the river. Then the young man whose companion she was. why did she come to you. they also were converted and became Eahats. Addressing him respectfully. aroused his fellows. passing on through the wood. them to sit whilst he recited to the end they were all converted. So Buddha. they asked him if he had seen the woman of pleasure. oh youths and I will ask you a question whether it is better. under a tree. think you.

" etc. suddenly there appeared an alms-bowl. having received the food. by degrees approaching nearer to XJravilva. and filling it with every sort of tasty food.— . he arrived at length at the village of the soldierchief. and. very beautiful to behold. Now this illustrious Brahman had two daughters. approaching his house. At this time. in his right a precious staff. having heard from some other quarter that Buddha. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. they brought it again to him. who went forth on beholding the venerable one. . Little the profit that your calling lie useless in the sun (on the So if you can appetite. and proceeded onwards. he entered it and sat down. one called Nandi. one. and escorted him with much reverence within the house. having gone on board. and his appearance altogether was like that of an old Bhikshu and thus. And so going on his way thus prein his hands . having preached further to him. pared before him. became a Eahat. eat. On their account Buddha began to explain the four sacred truths. that I may transport you to the other side !" Then Buddha. had returned left Then the world-honoured t to the neighbourhood of Uravilva. forthwith began to reflect thus 1 These G-athas are obscure. too. at once the village.. and his hair seemed as though it had only just been shaved. And forthwith they took from his hand the alms-dish which he carried. the great Shaman. let would bring you go your hold on the shore of desire and of your enterprise. 289 him and exclaimed: "Welcome! world-honoured. whence come you thus unexpectedly ? Deign to enter my boat. and desired him to the other Bala. began to instruct the ferryman according to the purport of the following Gathas " If you should allow your boat to shore). eto. Buddha saw before him a Brahman youth. this man. and so they also became disciples. the great Brahman called Deva.^ and arrive Having thus preached to the ferryman. in his left hand a golden ewer. bo. who had assumed this shape. Soon shall you attain the reward at Nirvdna. This was Sakra.

Deva and his guest returned home. Deva returned to his house. or permit him so much as to touch me . After accepting it the world-honoured one arranged his seat. meanwhile." him what money I please. Then the woman advised him to do as follows Senayana. and entering within. but now. Escorting him thus. and there his wife. and bade his wife prepare a ! sumptuous repast for the morrow. placed his seat close to the feet of Buddha and attentively listened. he reance. by my art and persuasiveness. On the morrow. to invite the great Shaman to partake of his hospitality. and if not. asking her " I rememadvice. and laid the case before his wife. and. having asted this now great Shaman to accept at my hands an offering of food. After this. : came to my house. and besought him at once to come to his house to partake of it. seeing that things are as they are. This having been done and his invitation accepted. my master. What expedient shall I adopt ?" turned to his house. " Far be such a thing from me it would be entirely contrary to the purity of my caste to permit yon so to behave yourself. he addressed the latter as follows—" My dear friend Senayana I beseech you lend me for a short time five hunded pieces of money. having dressed the food made of the most delicious ingredients. my two wives will undertake to repay you by working for you as slaves in your house!" On this. but I would not allow it. going forth. Such a thing can never be !" Then Deva proceeded to the house of Senayana. in former days." she said. and proceeded to expound the system of his teaching for the sake of the Brahman and his wife. and accepthis worth nothing with him present I can I am so poor that Eeflecting thus. I will get from his dalliance as I think fit.290 THE EOMAKTIC with himself—" I remember. Senayana having lent him tbe money. he acquainted Buddha that the offering was prepared. ber. Deva returned to his house and made all ready. you had better let me go to the house of Senayana. Deva. and that yon have made a vow to provide entertainment for this great Shaman. whilst he himself went out into the neighbouring wood. I will do my best to return it to you very soon . and made promises. . " not long ago that the rich Brahman. herself waited on Buddha and placed the offering before him. to tempt me to permit him soft dalliance with me. yielding to On this. the Brahman Deva replied— . and used blandishments.

Just then a thief spying about saw the robe which the woman had borrowed lying by itself. and then. "My lord my lord come quickly hasten with all your speed !" Deva. of which she knew nothing before. and to her great surprise. and he detected at once that he was the very thief robe. he took the garment up and returned with it to his house. after they wife took off a robe she domestic duties. he saw a man approaching the spot. and. hearing his wife's shouts. he inquired the reason . he departed. and adwoman thus — " You know that I had to borrow that money to buy the food necessary for the offering that the great Shaman has accepted. she set up a great shout. all full of gold. and beckoning to her husband. she saw one and two and three more. Meantime. seeing it was a costly one. found unexpectedly the mouth of a sort of hole in the ground. Just then. Seeing this. escorted as before had gone. discovering her loss. and putting it on one side by itself. who had stolen the borrowed Stopping underneath the tree where Deva was. Then the wife of Deva. she cried out. was greatly distressed. others. and now you have borrowed a robe. Deva was greatly cast down. she began to sweep and clean the house and attend to other it Now came to pass that. he got up into a high tree. dressed the On this. Deva went out. and which she had borrowed from a neighbour. began to think " What which in fact he was carrying in his hand. and going into the wood. the Brahman's had worn during the feast. on examining further. left 291 the house. having covered it. his wife. and clearing away the opening and looking down into it she saw a red copper vessel full of gold pieces.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. on which she told him all about her loss. the thief dug a hole and put the garment there. and seeing hig wife looking so disconsolate. the Brahman returned home. and undevnL-iith these. and in sad perplexity. determined to himself by throwing himself down. and it how shall I ever be able to repay all this. the world-honoured one arose and by the Brahman Deva. seeing we are so is lost ! poor?" On this. and how she had borrowed the robe that had been stolen. where dead kill bodies are placed. ! ! ! — . Meantime. searching and sweeping through every corner of the abode. he slyly entered the room and went off with it. and removing the earth. On this Deva came down.

you see. made to that great Shaman !" Deva invites Buddha a second time to his house." On this. and then give it back. both he and his wives heeome faithful disciples. showed them to Senayana and said. but only charred wood! But Deva." and at last she led her husband to the place. for the stuff was not gold. and pointed to the erects full of gold. " why here. three celebrated Kishis of the Brahman caste (Brahmacharis). and took him back to his house.! 292 is THE ROMANTIC the matter with the woman now ? why is she bellowing out likfe a madwoman. the woman continued to exclaim. At this time." On this. and. On arriving at Senayana's house and oifering him the money. " Oh I have found it I have found it . he bade his wife take back the robe to the person from whom she had borrowed it. " See what good fortune is mine. taking up some of the pieces. and the reward of liberality in religious matters. and at last he told Senayana all about it. at last. he asked his wife what she meant by saying. the world-honoured one thought thus with him- self—" What man convert to my over with him a body of disciples ?" Wow it so happened that there dwelt near the viUage of Uravilva. taking some of the money out of one of the pots. Deva assured him that he had borrowed it of no one and. who wore their hair as a of distinguished character is there whom I may doctrine. entering into his house. ' I've found it I've found it ?' Found what ? for it is I who have found the garment and not she !" So. it is I who have found it. and not you. At first. so that by his conversion he may bring . went straight to Senayana to repay him the five hundred pieces he had borrowed. the latter addressed Deva thus " I agreed with you that you should not borrow this money of any one for the purpose of repaying me. whUst he. ' she had found it'. On this. but that you should wait till you could by your own effort save it from your labour. and showed him all the crocks fuU of gold. he said the earth had given it to him. finally. of my [On offering this.] [This story is intended to show the folly of covetousness.'] The History of the Three Kasyapas. Senayana said he was mad. being further questioned. § 2. and it is aU in consequence ! ! — .

Uravilva KAsyapa. Alighting thus in their midst. if it seem good to you to stay here awhile. Buddha assumed his own appearance. The third." Then reflecting that these Eishis made much ado about self-mortification and penance. the world-honoured one transformed himself into a spiral-haired Yogi. his head shaven. " Kashdya-coloured robe over his shoulders. so that aU his foUowers and those who believe in his sanctity may come over to me. The second. and aU the people hold him to be a great Eahat. whose votaries you are " Now it had so happened that one of Kisyapa's disciples. and with 500 followers he came flying through the air to the place where Uravilva Kasyapa and his foUowers were located. with his arrivals." as foUows " Your excellency has from far. there was no small stir amongst the foUowers of the Eishi. I wiU enter the place where you worship the Fire Spirit. dweU in whatever place you wish. but he is not a Eahat like myself. and so there may be much happiness conferred on the world. and a haU for worship. " Thanks. Nadi Kasyapa.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. is observable throughout the Sanohi and Amravati . as they hurried here and there to bring water and mats and other and meantime they addressed Whence come ye. Then all at once. so suddenly." To whom Buddha replied. Gaya Kasyapa. all of whom were learners at the feet of these three Eishis. I must convert this man first. in years gone by. who had three hundred followers. had : — Then he addressed Buddha — doubtless come ! ! 1 This style of head dress sculptures. oh sirs ? Why did ye not teU us beforehand of your coming ? " [and so on]. who had five hundred spiralhaired foUowers. and stood there alone in their midst. Altogether there were one thousand of these disciples. who had two hundred followers. we wiU welcome you with our best.i 293 spiral head-dress their names were these— the first. necessaries for the new them in hurried language saying. Then UravUva KSsyapa began to think thus " Doubtless this great Shaman is possessed of considerable spiritual power and is of great personal dignity . Then the world-honoured thus reflected: "the fame of this TJravilva Kasyapa is spread throughout all Magadha. the chief of the three. there is a pansal for you to sleep in. oh Kasyapa if it be not disagreeable to you. .

Buddha urged his request. he there beheld the form ot Buddha seated on the ground in meditation. And thus he lost himself in meditation. so that no one dare go near it or rest in it. Buddha. Whereupon. how much less this one " evil creature permit me then to make my abode there Then Kasyapa. that whatever man or other creature entered that abode he slew them at once. and it live in . So Kasyapa replied to Buddha that he could not consent to his entering there. come back to the place and have his revenge for the slight done to him. and had come back in the form of this fiery dragon. the monster emitted a more .. Kdsyapa if the place were fuU of fiery serpents. At this sight he reflected thus. " Oh. ThenKasyapa reflected that nought but the Pire Spirit could subdue the malice of this poisonous dragon. he sat down on the mat (prepared from the twigs he had taken in). 294 been afflicted THE EOMANTIC with a disease that rendered it impolitic for him to company with the others he had been obliged therefore to leave his Pansal and dwell apart. where he died . holding in his hand some twigs from the leafy roof of the hut. and he took up his abode in that very pansal from which he had been driven. who would certainly destroy him. seeing that he had thrice urged him to comply. entered forthwith into the Dragon's abode. caused a counter blast to proceed from his mouth. Then. but before he died he prayed that he might. in his rage. spreading out his Sanghati garment on the ground above it. but Buddha replied. to pass. " What man is there whilst I live here shall dare to intrude or enter within this Pansal ?" On this he emitted from his mouth a flery blast to destroy the intruder but Buddha. and Kfeyapa again and detailed all the history of his disciple who had died. which quite overpowered that of Whereupon. and reverenced him vrith fire according to right religious usage. and having entered. ! they could not hurt one hair of my body. because of the evil came and poisonous snake that occupied the place. in his next birth. and therefore he consecrated the place to his worship. ! ! consented. after a while returning to his abode. the Naga. Now it so happened that the fiery dragon at this time was out seeking for food . objected. still lost in ecstatic meditation. Accordingly he was born as a great poisonous snake. having obtained permission.

as he wept. till it seemed to be wrapped in fire. weeping with emotion ! " Alas ! for the superlatively beautiful body. in fact. Then these young men standing on one side in astonishment. and dipping up the water from ! ! the river. instead of decreasing its strength. . ' This apparent contradiction seems to illustrate the conventional figures of Buddha with what is called the " shell-ornament on his head this being.^ the delicate fingers. And so the contest proceeded. by — ! ! ! ! ! muni! Tamagni! Arnivachyana! Parivarsha! Chamrayana! Pariyana! Gatiyana! ye sons of Gotama! MuchUinda! Basita! all of you there come quickly and rescue this Great Shaman from the flames of the fiery dragon " Then all these young men hurried to the spot with their water vessels.i thought thus with himself "alas alas this Shaman is being destroyed by the monster within the hut alas would that he had obeyed me. the fire increased in power. beautifully rounded eyes. too. caUed Ardhagiraka. Then Uravilva KAsyapa. so clear and bright ! " Destroyed by the Dragon. as they flung vessel after vessel-ful of water over the flames. The The curling locks of his shaven head.— HISTORY OF BUDDHA. who. : . So. born of the most exalted race. is the subject of PI. and not entered there I" Then there was one of the disciples. the first took up the conversation and said. the young hair ourUng as it grew. shouted out to others and cried. whilst his spiritual power. caused flames of every colour to proceed firom his body and envelope the dragon. xxxii. as Eahu destroys the Sun Then another repeated. seeing the flames.^ they hastened to pour it over the fiery pansal to extin- guish. the following ! : " Alas that he. and the brightness waxed greater and greater. the flames that were destroying the world-honoured one. referred to above. And so it oame to pass that the brightness of the flames which each breathed out filled the hut. as they supposed. until shorn again. seeing the flames darting forth from the hut. " Here Grati- Buddha. 1 This adventure Worship. ! " 295 terrible and destructive vapour from his mouth but this. were so occupied. was overpowered as before. Tree and Serpent 2 It would seepi as if the figures in the Plate.

the world-honoured one. but the centre part alone. before which the Kfeyapas are there worshipping. unequalled amongst those born of women.059 taels." At this time. .] CHAPTER At this time. I 1 It seems very probable that this adventure of Buddha with the Dragon is also the subject of Plate Ixx. able to emancipate others. and for fear of which you dared not enter the HaU of the Fire Spirit. the fiery XLI... without even the appearance of fire . for For all their diseases and infirmities. If a man." And yet another said. He alone is rightly called the Master . So much as the patience of this Honor'd one of the world Of all Devas and men who inhabit the world. and having come nigh. etc. 296 Even THE KOMANTIC of the Ikshwaku family of Kings. That he. seeing this.. and that the alms-dish." etc. " Were with undivided heart hundreds of thousands of myriads of years. came forth in the morning holding his alms-dish in his hand . [Kiouen XL contains 6. Should thus be destroyed by this Fiery Serpent. and with the N&ga in it ^ he approached to the place where Uravilva was. to worship the Tire Spirit. with tears. flames. He alone by his patience is able to provide a cure. Tree and Serpent Worship. after the night had passed. he addressed him thus. The flames are even now consuming his body. " His body adorned with thirty-two excellent marks Himself arrived at emancipation. represents the Patra of Buddha with the Dragon in it. dragon seeing the four sides of the hall in where Buddha was seated in contemplation.117 words and cost 3. and then with a leap sprang into his alms-bowl and then repeated this Gatha. this is the fiery dragon you so much dreaded. It would not avail to remove his wrath. he stealthily approached the spot. Destroyed by the hate of this poisonous monster. " Excellent Kisyapa.

besought the world-honoured one to remain with him as his guest and receive his offerings of food and drink. . His hand holding him there in perfect security. on which the fiery snake." Then Kasyapa began to reflect thus " This great poisonous Dragon entered of his own will into the alms-dish of the Great Shaman. induced so to do by the spiritual power of his vanquisher find desirous to hear his instruction. taking the poisonous Dragon." and so the Gdtha says. Then Buddha. " I have dismissed him to dwell in the ocean between the great iron mountains that encircle the earth . The world might come to an end without Salvation j No the heavens may fall to earth. Shewed him the poisonous Ndga in his alms-dish. and covered his Buddha ohided him and said. the Devas of the Suddhavasa heavens sang this dwell song. — who on his part was filled face with his hands." on hearing which. bade him go and in. " Now after the night watch had passed. or deceitful. Sumeru may be moved from its place of rest. " Yesternight I went to teach and convert this creature. approaching the place where ESsyapa stood. The earth itself be triturated into fine dust. though he allowed the mighty spiritual power of the honoured one. TJravilva asked him and said." At this. The world-honoured. 297 have overcome his poisonous blast by my more powerful breath. emerging with his nine heads. stretched out his neck in the direction of Kasyapa. If he now were to desire to hurt you or bite. on which. denied that he was so great a Eahat as himself. Buddha removed his hand from the Patra. and now I pray take him and show him to your followers. Kstsyapa. " My Lord. At this time. But my words cannot be false." ! Still. On this with fear at the sight. You need not fear him therefore or tremble at his presence. whither have you sent the fiery Dragon ? " to whom Buddha replied. overcome with awe and astonishment.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. the ocean between the iron mountains that encircle the Sakwala . TJravilva Kasyapa.

" Is rendered vain Now after this. All the labour of the three K4syapas in propitiating the Fire Spirit by the strength of this Great one's patience. [After this. knowing the thoughts of K&syapa. "The religious merit and spiritual energy of this Shaman are very great indeed. visits Buddha for the same purpose. Then. Then Kdsyapa thought. ^.] ^ Now. etc. Uravilva K&syapa bethought himself thus. they advanced and bowed at the feet of Buddha in worship. but yet he is not a Kahat. whilst Buddha was dwelling in the wood before-named. as they were accustomed to do once a year. . that very night. 1. the world-honoured one. inquired who those glorious beings were who had come to the wood ? to whom Buddha answered. Sakra. .298 " Such is THE EOMANTIC the might of this great and loving Lord.. Tree and Serpent Worship.' At this time the four guardian kings of the world came down from their abodes. and other heavens. better than I. can bind the malice of the fiery Dragon That his virtue . Tusita. on 1 These visits may possibly be the subject of plate xxv. as I am.syapa. to-morrow all the people of I Magadha are going to present me with must contrive by some expedient or other to prevent this Shaman Gotama from coming near us. Now the world-honoured. the incident alluded to above. intending on the morrow to present them to the three KS. or. lest by some superiority of spiritual power he convince the people that he is their offerings. fig. The glory of these kings made the wood so luminous that it seemed as if on fire. The next morning.nd. the Devas of the Tama. the King of the Gods. resplendent with their glory. these were the four Kings of Heaven who came to me to inquire some particulars about the Law. 74." having received food from Uravilva K&syapa. proceeded onwards a little way towards a wood called Tcharnaka (sirrup from the bark). and with 'the same result and after him.syapas. all the people of Magadha. he rested awhile. brought their several offerings of food. bringing some food to the world-honoured one. and arrived there. Uravilva Kd. vide p.

and. sale.^ on which occasion. and much noise and confusion. So Kasyapa began to think thus. and how in consequence he had gone to Uttara and eaten his meal by the side of the Anavatapta Lake. then all the people wUl be looking at him and will think nothing about me. there was held in the place where Uravilva KSsyapa lived an annual assembly called yih suh-yih (fair-day). Eahat as I have. the account is as follows At this time. Tree and Serpent Worship. food and other commodities. Uravilva Kasyapa thought thus with himself. 232. after which he returned to the Then Uravilva Kdsyapa. having taken his meal. and you would rather dwell in this your peaceable retreat than in the middle of such a crowd as will be there. prefer peace and quiet. On this. ^ according to the Mahasanghika school. for this "Fair" is evidently the subject of Plate XXXV. I know. "this great Shaman possesses much spiritual power and is of great personal dignity j but he has not yet attained to the condition of a. HISTORY OF BUDDHA. "The preparation fig. n. and do not disturb yourself to come to me. vide Wassi- lief. 299 food. Anavatapta Lake and consumed wood where he abode. Excellent Sir to-morrow there will be a great best food. said he." : — — ! concourse of people at Uravilva. for having neglected to come to call him to his meal but. telling him exactly what his thoughts had been. . the morrow departed to the northern country of Uttara to beg hia and having received it. Eemam therefore in this place. p. at the conclusion came to Buddha and excused himself on the plea of forgetfulness." [This account is according to that held by the Nijasas . so that whatever one needed might be purchased." So he went to the place where Buddha dwelt and said. 3. Thousands and tens of thousands of men and women came there from aU Magadha. "if this Shaman comes here tomorrow.] ^ This is undoubtedly the school of the Mahisasakas. Now you. " I have not forgotten now to bring you a store of our ' On this. 2. They brought with them all sorts of merchandise for.. of the day. the world-honoured exposed the foUy of Kdsyapa'a conduct. the people were accustomed to give liberally to the Kisyapas. they will supply me with no food or other necessary. he sat down on the margin of the it. therefore.

whilst a tree-Deva bent down a. he transported himself to Sumeru. and plucking some fruit from the Djambu tree that grows there.. knowing what occupied the mind of Buddha. Buddha besought Kasyapa to go on a little way in front. On another occasion. was ! Brahman Senayana was are deposited. the God of the Trayastrinshaa Heavens.300 THE ROMANTIC [Here follows an account of the visit of all the Q-aruda Bijaa. thinking within himself where he could find a tank of water in which to wash it. on which he might lay out the cloth to rub it. caused a lake of water to appear suddenly. again returned to the Teharnaka wood and took his usual seat there. went and took the soiled robe that enveloped the corpse. by his spiritual power. On hearing the history of Buddha's visit to Mount Sumeru. nevertheless. which the world-honoured wore over his other robes. just fit for the purpose. Whilst thinking thus. on hearing the account he was not converted. and inquired whence they came . and by what way. At this time the Kash^ya-coloured robe. and washed the robe [in the same way. astonished to find his guest already seated. also of Buddha's miraculous appearance to £&syapa in a remote corner of the forest. " Let the world-honoured one use this tank of pure water for the purpose of washing the soiled robe of the corpse " Accordingly. he was lost in wonder but yet would not acknowledge him to be a Eahat . he asked in some surprise whence he had come. The world-honoured surprised to see the lake of water. filled with pure water. on which. Then Uravilva Kasyapa coming to him as before. and just then a man who had laid in the died in the house of the rich wood where corpses one perceiving this. a great stone is brought from beyond the iron circle of mountains. etc. the Naga E^jas. to Buddha. and still thought that Buddha was not such a Kahat as himself. was completely tattered and in rags . S^kra. Kasyapa having come to invite Buddha as usual to return with him to take his food. and so make a clean garment for himself. When Kisyapa arrived there. and another stone on which to dry it in the sun. branch of a tree for him to hang up the robe. Buddha complied. having received his food from the hands of Kasyapa. and then coming forward he addressed Buddha and said. .] And so it came to pass that the world-honoured one. and the stones. he returned in a moment and took his seat in the Hall of the Fire Spirit. before drying it in the sun].

with the same [Kiouen XLI contains 614. and there plucks a flower called Parijataka. as in the to last chapter. when the disciples of Kasyapa river. on another occasion they could not put their At another time. if they or. and told him that now they would be able to chop their wood as they wished. to the hatchet were in the wood. And so on another occasion the spiral-haired fires till disciples were unable to light their Buddha permitted them.4 words and cost 3. Buddha goes in a moment the Trayastrinshas Heavens. he went again to Sumeru and and other fruit and flowers. On another occasion. Euddha asked him about these misadventures. or. were standing upright.] Amra fruit. Plate xxzii. fires And out. and so it came to pass. Tet Kasyapa was not able to accept him as a Eahat. Tree and Serpent Worship. same way. XLII. had entered the Nairanjana ' and were nearly This is evidently the scene by the lower tablet. . to lift them- up again.072 taels. when Uravilva Kasyapa went to the wood again.] CHAPTER Again.^ Then they were convinced result of the great spiritual Accordingly. out. to get it that it was aU the power of that Shaman. 301 [In tlie brought an effect. if they were stooping down. the spiral-haired disciples found themselves unable to chop the wood. selves or.HISTORY OF BUDDHA: like himself. if stoop down.

the great stone in front. which they might warm themselves the fires and then again were extinguished without any apparent cause.)] I thiuk it very likely that this is the scene depicted. At another when pots would not stand and but moved about in every direca fierce storm came on. Kasyapa found himself unable ascend into the air as usual- — or having ascended. he. in a moment passed through the air and alighted in the middle of the boat.302 THE EOMANTIO frozen to death with the cold. moreover. 2. ed. the disciples wished to dip At another so. At another all time.^ [The Mahasangstill as- hikas affirm that after each miracle. the fire come down tion. whereupon he took a boat to search and after a time found him peacefully seated on a dry spot of ground. Buddha caused five hun- dred bright charcoal fires to appear on the shore. time. rain. fig. seeing the suddenness of this storm downpour of for his body. the place where Buddha was perfectly whereupon Kasy- apa. the grouping itself is highly suggestive. The left hand pillar of the Eastern gateway at Sanchi seemsdevoted to this Kasyapa history. but were unable to do At another time. and Buddha himseK in Moreover. Kasyapa having addressed Buddha. the surrounding country sat was dry. Plate xxxi. to earth. district was visited with a flood. by . . to time. Kasyapa serted that ^ Buddha was no Eahat as he was (Ch. still. up some to water in their pitchers (Kundikas). flooded. " surely this Shaman must be drowned". surrounded on every side by water. and the vast began to think. Wliereupon. the four disciples on shore and the one in the boat (the other figure is undoubtedly Kasyapa). Tree and Serpent Worship. the half immersed trees show that the the middle.

only they had been afraid to propose it. and all the vessels in which you held the blood of your victims. and your fire vessels. " alas alas surely my brother has been slain by robbers. from the river every sort of strange ' noise proceeded after this they all came and wor- shipped at Buddha's feet and became disciples. dwelt some way down on the shore of the Nairanjana Eiver. and your fanciful head dresses. These soon returned and reported all things perfectly safe. Buddha plainly said that Kasyapa was no such a condition. And so they did.syapa professed -willingness to become a disciple of Buddha. whilst . to the place Then Kl.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. And it so happened that. That Gaya Kasyapa. also thought with himself. with his spiral head-dress.syapa and aU his disciples went where Buddha was. when he observed these various implements and the leathern doublets floating down the stream. At this time. K§. seeing the various utensils of the fire worshippers floating down the stream past the place where he dwelt. and on one said. Nadi Edsyapa. and therefore could enjoy none of the fruits of On five this. went to the spot [and were soon converted. and respectfully stood addressed Kasyapa and deer skin doublets. finally all opened his mind to his confessed that they had hundred who long wished for this step. and exclaimed. and followers. I will go and see whether it is so or not. he was filled with fear and anxiety. Eahat. and fling them all into the Nairanjana river. " side. with 3uO followers. as his brother had been]. " Surely my brothers have ! ! . that he had not entered on the path. and these are the things which they have flung in the river. Buddha You must take off your take your pitchers (kundikas) and your staves. he first of all sent some of his disciples before him to spy out what the calamity was. On this." Thinking thus. 303 At last. and then Nadi Kdsyapa himself.

these three At company with 250 other disciples. a KSsyapas had a sister whose son was Brahmachari adorned with a spiral head-dress. of Upasana.304 THE ROMANTIC ! ! [Then Gaya been slain. " Most wonderful to think. should at this time suddenly become Shamans It is my duty on their account to go direct to the spot where they dwell and remonstrate with them on this indecorous proceeding of theirs. showing them how they ought to regard and conclude respecting aU mundane existence. he addressed them in the following Gathas : . and then Upasana addressing them said.000 disciples dwelt for some short time longer in the village of TJravilva. 2nd. etc. showing them how to discriminate.ya garments of a Shaman. Thus Buddha and these 1. making fire and water proceed from it. And thus those thousand men became perfect Eahats. [In each case when the Kundikds and other utensils were cast into the river. [Here follows a list of the magical exhibitions 1 st Of the body. thought. the mouth. strange noises proceeded from them as they floated down the stream and sank]. and they also are converted]. This youth was dwelling in a mountain called Asuraganga. : . my friends. These. ! On seeing which. Of the mouth. Of the mind. with 200 followers. proceeds to the place where Buddha was. they took up their abode at the top of the Elephant-head Mount. having heard what had happened to the three brothers. called Upslsana. where he taught them the mysteries of spiritual manifestations (miraculous powers') exercised by the body. 3rd. deed). argue. and wearing the kasha. and these are the proofs of it. and then gradually going onwards to the city of Gaya. and determine. and the mind (word. behold he saw the three brothers with shaven heads. making it ascend and descend at pleasure. with a view to reject all these things as unreal." ! Then going to the spot. The Story § 2. were filled with astonishment and alarm. in this time. and so to rise to that which alone is real]. that those who have for so many thousand years been ! worshippers of the Fire Spirit. all of them preparing themselves to become Rishis. alas alas Kasyapa.

on which TJpdsana and his followers resolve to become his disciples. Afterwards. Having sacrificed to the sea-spirit. inquired further. TJravilva. Sirs ! who have worshipped ! a hundred years in its pure essence "And have practised austerities and self-mortifioation in dependence on that alone. and the third 200.116 taels. Now. And it happened on their mid-passage that they . " Wherein resides the superior excellency of the system you have adopted ?" " And cast To this. where they were becalmed. cast away our old habiliments. on hearing a discourse on the three miraculous powers of body. having heard this." [Kiouen XLII contains 6. proposing to return with one of still greater worth. and vessels for holding blood. and Gaya. " How is it that to-day ye have deserted this ancient religion of yours. The first had 500 merchants in his charge.] C At HAP TEE' so XLIII. Nadi. length. and were soon borne by a storm into mid-ocean. they set out on their return homewards. as you say. these also became Bahats. even as a snake shifts its skin !" Then TJpisana. they set sail.250 disciples. and are received. having completed their voyage. on one occasion. " We have. these merchants undertook a voyage of great importance. in the presence of these 1. even as a serpent wriggles out of its old skin ?" the three brothers answered simply. one of whom Jambudwipa.] And now it came to pass that. [Then the three brothers explained the system of Buddha. the world-honoured one related their previous history as in years gone follows " I remember by in this continent of there were a thousand merchants.232 words. The names of these three were as follows. and embarked with a very rich cargo. and possessed them- selves of a very valuable freight.: HISTORY OF BUDDHA. and cost 3. " the 305 for Oh Eeverend fire. on condition of laying aside their deer-skin doublets and their fire vessels. amongst thers. were three bro- whom in his turn took upon him the oSiae of chief merchant. it off. word. and thought. the second 300.

so is the excellency their followers are the thousand of these three brothers in point of disciples version. and so may receive the benefit of his !" preaching then that at the present time these three Kasyapas and merchants and their chiefs. lated the following story. in ruins and falling to pieces. Ed. called Anghada [this means " to § 3. Know ye and priority of con- Again. Then the senior of the three merchant princes addressed the others as follows " Tou know. but he was a heretic.: 306 saw a THE EOMANTIC Stiipa. and then they put up the following prayer: "Oh! would that we in ages to come may have the privilege of hearing the words of Buddha. A man by good fortune obtains much profit. that I am always ready to risk my life in these ventures of ours. severally contributed according to their means. king. being the 15th of the mouth. let us not forget then that it is our duty to do something. . not only for our own beueiit. Now it came to pass on a certain night. And from this he gradually sinks lower. when the moon was full and bright. my comrades. erected to the memory of K^syapa. in relation to this subject. till he goes to hell. The first was . Obtaining this he becomes idle and listless. And according to the proportion of money contributed by each of those chiefs towards the restoration of that Stupa. and now we seem to have had a very successful voyage and are returning home in safety. He was a regularly anointed (baptised) and possessed of wealth and means in abundance. but for the good of those who shall come after us . let us not forget the burthen of the old saying which wise men have handed down •" to us. containing the relics of K^syapa. give parts of his body"]. the world-honoured reI remember in years gone by there was a country called Videha [this means " not graceful body"Ch.} in which was a Kshatriya monarch.and restored the building to its original beauty and perfection. that this king summoned all his great ministers to his presence. Prom this he is careless about his religious duties. the successor of this Katyaf a." And so the senior merchant proposed that out of the abundance So they of their wealth they should devote some portion to the restoration of the sa-cred Stupa.

living in the called Kasyapa and surnamed the naked. and so keep yourself awake. The king hereupon returns home. " My Lord King engage your attention about the subjugation of your enemies. plan some method of attack by your army by which the countries yet unsubdued may be brought under the yoke. vid.HISTORY OF BUDDHA.} 307 cond Sumana The seThe third Arvata [beforespohen. Gh. «(J. M. births. Ed. " Tell me. Gh. house of pleasure {beautiful 1 — and retires himself to a colour) in the neighbour- This is evidently the same as Purana Kasyapa. called Vijaya (pi-che ye) [Various Excellences." The third said. and " where shall I meet with to send for such a man ?" is The king Deer Park.] .^ respecting the relation of things as " father past. . dancing." The second answered and said." some Shaman or Brahman. adopting this suggestion. Gh. 149. gives up the anxieties of govern- ment to his three ministers. B. and Ea kone p. Ed." who convinces the king of the unreality and folly of all positive assertions one with another —such and and son. then informed of an ascetic. " I advise my Lord ! ! King last before you on the merits of religion. my ministers. who refer to their former exerted and declare that there has been no influence by these on their present condition. "My Lord King it seems to me that all your enemies being subdued^ you may now amuse yourself with music." "king and is subject. during this night ?" Then one answered and said. and let him discourse The king. what what other plan except tlie enjoyment of the sois your opinion ciety of my courtesans is there. 291. and the other pleasures of sense which are usual under such circumstances." "present This sceptical view supported by the ministers. ki.'] These three chief ministers having come into the king's presence lie said to them. by which I may Ije kept awake [Excellent thought. further inquired.

all this is nought. or wish to give. All things are vain and bear no fruit of good or ill. and so on. Men and angels. !" On A the 15th day of the coming moon. this 'giving alms. Listen." all are ' nought !" etc. There is no bond that joins the works of man to any consethis fact — ! quence. That.' For all things present. past. — ^joy"' (manah- her body adorned with the most beautiful costliest clothing. he asks whether the beauties of the garden had attracted her hither? She begs permission to speak to the king without straint . etc. 193. At length there comes to this palace^ a certain damsel called " thought priti?). re- and on permission being given.. The words of Kasyapa are true and cannot change. oh foolish girl to what I say. and future. And so the words 'sire. ' Called " Eucha" in the Southern ac. she utters the following words " My reverend king I would bestow on (father-king) I ask your charity all the Shamans and Brahmans.' 'mother. and her neck with the jewels. ghosts. Coming into the presence of the king. etc.B. What people say about good. M. are but nought. . "Why then has such a thought possessed your heart.' 'friends. demons.. spirits.' relatives. and there abandons himself to a of ease and unchecked indulgence. bad.: : : 308 THE EOMANTIC life hood. 'Tis but the foolish talk of a mad world. I ask you then to give me lOOO golden pieces gift — To whom the king " Illustrious maiden I have just learned ! replied listen now and understand ! from an ancient sage. notwithstanding all the wealth we give.

indeed. 309 On this. revivified. endless ages. the maiden expostulates. and after a long exit position of the truth.HISTOKY OF BUDDHA. ground to dust. this. and after bowing down him for a refutation of Kasyapa's sceptical views. the seat she herself had ocat his feet. recants wicked and becomes a true and faithful dis- himself the Buddha then explains Buddha now that the Eishi Narada was existing. and I will repay sand-fold. and declares that such scepticism is absurd and contradicted by facts. the king creed. gift or loan . On this. impaled. again consigned to hell. the present be but a part in the chain of the past and future. "And as the Eishi . " if. and that the E^ja Angada was Uravilva Kasyapa. as she entertained (relating her own experience). she invites to sit sees a divine messenger flying This messenger. " How then. terrified." the Eishi asks. for his body and there cut by swords. and in abject fear." tells in some future birth a thou- On which the Eishi reproves the king. that he never will have the chance of returning any such will be born in hell. called N"arada. she appeals down on cupied to . the king in a bantering way says. " can you presume to say that you will pay fold?" my loan a thousand- On his ciple. The Eishi at once enters on the subject.religion and har- bours sceptical thoughts. and him that if he thus trifles with . passed out to other wretched births. and so through burnt. then I pray you lend it me five hundred pieces of money. she down from heaven.

. dwelling in his leafy Pansal. approaching the place where this Eishi and his followers were dwelling. it was his fortune to meet with Buddha.] [Eiouen XLIIl contains 5510 words. was now very old. his head white and hoar. and his whole appearance lamentable. not very far from the latter. man That the confes- Called " Tashti. He had thus completed a hundred years of Ufe . than a hundred Gathas which self is the have no such power. in which dwelt an old Eishi. on the very borders of the grave. who practised self-mortifioation. his teeth gone. was moved with compassion for them. and standing outside the entrance door of the grot where they were sitting lost in meditation. Dharmavarsha.' The Eishi. his breath feeble. The world-honoured one. having dwelt for some short gift of the Bamboo Garden [Karandavenuvana] one." M. that it were better to repeat one line which has the power of bringing light to the soul. and now. and surrounded by 500 disciples.B. the world-honoui-ed time on the summit of that elephant-head mount (Pilusara ? for Pilusila ?) began gradually to advance towards the city of Eajagriha. The purport and release of the Gathas is. and his body bent nearly double. owing to his former good works. was the means of turning the king back so have I also converted this Uravilva Kasyapa. Now it so happened that on the road from the village of Uravilva to Eajagriha. and CHAPTEE The § 1. and led him back to the right way/^ cost 3. there was a celebrated The garden was called garden. scarcely able to move a step through decrepitude. XLIV. he began to recite the following G^thas.. Now.757 taels. 310 THE KOMANTIC to the truth.. greatest victory a 1 That the conquest of can achieve. 191. and be converted.

whose name was Salapati. Plates xxxiv and Compare also the scene at Bharahut. of a. exercising their miraculous power. of his great fame as a teacher he resolved to go forth to meet him. the priest- hood—and is the sum day the refuge provided by these for the faithful.ll duty. she was of incomparable beauty. who hearing that Buddha. was approaching the for a and had arrived as far as the bamboo grove [cheung-lin] and was resting for a time near a tower erected therein and hearing. is far and power of this religious conbetter than he who lives a hundred years it. the law. therefore. and immediately flying away through the air they exhibited themselves moment. they entered Nirvana. {Tree and Serpent Worship. drawn by four horses in his chariot. and accomplished in every female art and blandishment. Now there was at this time a certain courtesan dwelling in Eajagriha. At this time. described by G-eneral xxxv). the king of Magadha was called Bimbasdra." HISTORY OF BUDDHA. Sitting. Cunningham. is 311 the one That the invocation of the precious objects of worship— Buddha. 1 This excursion of Bimbas3. in his beautifully adorned chariot.' . selfconsumed.ra seems to be the subject of one of the processional scenes on the pillars of the northern gateway of the Sanchi Tope.^ and surrounded by his ministers of state and the Brahmans. prostrated themselves at the feet of Buddha. he proceeded from Eajagriha towards the place where Tathagata was dwelling. with countless other persons. sion of sin. ' Bhagavato damma ohakam. This royal city. as " Prasenajita Edja. it. who for one realizes the virtue dition. gathering the relics of their bodies which had fallen to the earth. And that a man. with his followers. in ignorance of On hearing these verses. — — woman. having heard of the approach of the world-honoured one. the five hundred ascetics coming forth from the grotto. Then Buddha. and then. moreover. with his own hand erected over them a St<ipa and proceeded onwards to EAjagriha. and consequent triumpli over object of all religion. going to pay respects to the wheel symbol.

B. ' This account Hardy. Then the world-honoured one. Buddha began to preach for the good of Bimbasara. entertainment on the morrow and. but send quickly into the city for such and such a man. saluted him. and stood on one Then. in turn.^ they each. departed. so that he could not move onwards. and declared no more blood.312 and reflecting that THE EOMANTIC he was a Prince of the Sdkya race. Then reflecting that she would be unable to push her way through the crowd that accompanied the king. but to be compassionate to that lives. and so proceeded onward. Astonished at this accident. perfectly knowing the purpose of the woman. and rendered homage to master. and circumambulated him three times. Then finally he invited Buddha and his followers to an . and he shall deliver solved to go forth herself and salute his feet. the his latter having dis- played his miraculous powers. is almost identical with that found in Spenoe . : ! you. M. without making himself visible. residing in the air. the chariot was now able to proceed. she reif possible. side. he desired Buddha at once to take his seat in himself would help draw and he This him into the city. that my chariot will not move?" spirit. it." Having done this. Arriving at length where the world-honoured one was seated. before the king arrived. caused the wheels of Bimbasara's chariot to fix themselves in the soil. after some preliminary conversation between Buddha and Uravilva Kasyapa. 191. having saluted Tathagata. and exclaimed. offering his chariot. Then the king and his followers. Buddha declined. she caused a breach to be made through the city wall. the king was filled with fear and anxiety. spake thus to the king "Oh raja be not dismayed or anxious. who finally took upon him the vows of a his purpose to shed all disciple (Upasakawa). " What demon or power of evil has brought Then a this calamity on me.

went before the body of the disciples recited the following verses : and " Tathdgata. Himself delivered and at peace. And now. etc. and arriving there had been visited by Sakra. and also the gift of the chariot which Matali drove. under the name Sumana (illustrious or virtuous thought) — he had been taken up to heaven (the Tra. HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. and said Then SAkra continued ! his " The Buddhas alone by their virtue can subdue aU Their condition is the highest and the most exalted Able to advantage Gods and men by their Teaching And therefore I join myself to this cortege to honour the worldhonour'd. under the guidance of an angel called Matali. sent forth to the world-honoured to invite him to come and partake 'of the feast. assuming the form of a young Brahman (Manava). he can deliver others So has he delivered these thousand spiral-haired converts. 313 first Buddha then relates that this was not the had been time that the gift of a royal chariot offered him but that formerly. with his robes properly arranged. with the Supreme Lord of the world. can succour others. when he reigned as king of Kasi. and swept and garnished the apartments of the palace. See all these one thousand spiral-haired converts. having prepared a sumptuous repast. Converted by h'im whose body is bright as pure gold. At this time S4kra. approached the city.: ! ! ! . and tempted by aU kinds of offerings to remain there and indulge in pleasures which he declined. utters ?" and what words are these he song." etc. Then Buddha. the conqueror of himself. his alms-bowl in his hand. " Wonderful Who is this handsome youth ? Whence does he come." . ! Then all ! wonderful those within the city began to exclaim. Now enter the city.yastrinshas heaven) in a splendid chariot. — Now it came to pass that Bimbasara. and surrounded by all his followers.

and He resolved. Tree and Serpent Worship.314 THE EOMANTIC Thus slowly and with dignified gait approaching the Eoyal Palace. they also down and awaited his instruction. and said.J CHAPTER XLV. [The above account is according to the school of the Mahtsfeakas. the Lord of the World and his disciples entered into the apartments prepared for them. having recited some verses in token of his intention to preach in this grove for the salvation of men. to offer this the you and your followers Oh would that of your condescension you would receive the same at my hands !" Then Buddha. having provided water for washing. §1.^ poured water on the hands of Buddha. Now at this time there resided in Eajagrihaa very wealthy noblecalled Kalanda. and placing sat garden sects for the purpose —so quiet and shady ! free from all noxious in- garden as a free gift to Buddha and the congregation. possessed of untold riches. partook of the hospitality of the king. and. after the meal. and arranged for the purpose of entertaining and living in a paNow. . and keep him in the vicinity of the royal city.068 words.] [Kiouen XLIV contains 6. he remembered the suitableness of the Bamboosmaller cushions. ! parted. arose and de! Lord of the World I give in free charity to Bamboo garden. exhorting his followers henceforth to resort to the G-arden of Bamboos as their place of rendezvous for religious teaching. the Northern King. therefore. and cost 3. had a bamboo garden not far from the city. Then the king began to reflect how he might retain the society of the world-honoured. the several attendants and the royal household took them in front of Buddha.034 taels. this Kalanda which he had purchased religious persons 1 This pitcher is evidently the teapot-shaped utensil seen in plates xxxiv and xxxv. and the Raja. taking their seats. who himself attended to all their wants and waited on them in person. having arisen and taken a pitcher. Then. lace like that of Vaisravana. Eefleoting thus. Having done so. man. " Illustrious pollution. the Lord accepted it at once. situated not far from my capital.

for the purpose of receiving in a proper manner the Lord of the World. And so. the thousand disciples who accompanied him abode in this Kalanda-venu-vana. he took in his right hand his water pitcher. To whom the Lord replied. I have already received all things. The History §2. in preparing as they said. when Buddha dwelt in Eajagriha. are needless for me. meeting him about half a yojana from the garden. " Good sirs we are Takshas. fro. having understood this. " Such gifts of land or houses. having heard this news. who is coming hither to abide for a time. rising early in the morning. ere the ! stars had yet disappeared. who was coming there to rest. who is coming there to dwell a time [during the season of the rains].i [This is Seeing this. and whence do you come ?" Then they answered and said. and then rising up. " Sirs who are you. 315 These religious persons (tao-sse) were what the Kdsyaplyas say. sent by the Kings of the four quarters for the ! ! purpose of preparing this garden for the arrival of the Lord of the World. and pouring some pure water on the Lord's hand.] Now at this tirae. they came near and said. The Mahasanghikas say The Chinese Tika as follows: explains " Ajivaka" as equivalent to "here- .HISTORY OF BUDDHA. and said. he begged him to receive the garden as a free gift.'' And so it was bestowed by Kalanda. he bowed down before him. for the arrival of the Lord of the for World. went forth to receive the Lord of the World. saw these blue-clad messengers performing their mission and sweeping the garden.'' Then the Ajivakas." ThenKalanda. we saw in your garden certain heavensent messengers sweeping and watering it. went at sunrise to the house of Kalanda. " Honorable sir this morn. but for my disciples in perpetuity I will accept your offering of the garden. the four Kings who preside over the world sent certain blue-clad Takshas to the garden of Kalauda to sweep and adorn it. and. and otherwise engaged it. who passed to and called Ajlvakas. or clothes or riches. Then the Ajlvakas who dwelt there. 1 of Maha Kasyapa. for the perpetual use of the priests [congregation].

Now. the seasons. it came to pass that as Pippalayana grew up. the Mantras. 2) and the Lalita Vistara (p. to accompany in out-of-door walks. Now. So dearly did his parents love this their only child that they could not bear him to be out of their sight. As for other cattle. n. and of a beautiful golden complexion. the child was called Pippalayana. p. he learnt all the — and acquainted himself generally with the literature of the time. 245) was one of these heretics. 389. the four Vedas and the various treatises on writing and calculation. desiring to find rest and freedom from sorrow. his parents wished him to marry and fulfil the duty he owed to his ancestors by continuing the race. whose name was Nyagrodha Kava. the different sections relating to thefive elements." but a religious person of any denomination. and hung upon the tree . so that there was no subject on which he was not fuUy informed.. notwithstanding all this. In this dwelt a certain rich Brahman. to fondle. His parents procured for him the best nurses for the various purposes required viz. they were simply innumerable. and it catne to pass that at his birth a garment of rare workmanship was brought by the Deva for the use of the child. for fear the king should be envious if he possessed a greater number than himself. ' This is the phonetic rendering of the Chinese. 378. the Chhandas. the casting of events (lucky and unlucky days). and dissatisfied. 4) that the Upakama spoken of (supra. I wish to avoid marriage and live : ! I'- tic. to feed.316 THE ROMANTIC Not far from Eajagriha there is a district called Mahasudra and a hamlet belonging to this called by the same name. n. and instructed in the various books belonging to his religion —to wit. his wealth was so great that while Bimbasara raja had one thousand yoke of oxen for ploughing. this Brahman kept only one less. Prom this and many other passages it would seem that the Chinese expression "tao-jin" does not always mean a " Buddhist. Yet. And so he grew apace. He was very lovely. to play and laugh. Moreover. like the sparks of the fire for number. his wife having brought forth a son under a Pipal tree. the heavenly constellations. his mind was ill at ease polite arts. . p." It is evident from BninoMf (Introd. But Pippalayana spake thus " Papa mama I desire no such event. and at eight years of age was initiated into the religious customs of the Brahman caste. hence his name of Fippalayana [the robe being so called].

saluted it thus " May continued prosperity and increased happiness attend this : ! ! ! house !" " Where is Then. Nyagrodha tells him all. they told him how the matter stood .. and then. the youth took some very fine Jambunada gold. of this narrative with the Kusa-jitaka ia singular. and offices. sat down in great sorrow. Pippalayana still pleaded for freedom. and salutes him much respect. the lord of the house ?" On with tliis. that you may find a place in Heaven. a certain Brahman friend coming to the house of Nyagrodha. where- iipon he goes at once to his benefactor.^ Lis friend's kind a wife is found for his [Kiouen XLV contains 6. " Papa mama I desire not to marry. but if it be your wish that I should. even after .088 taels]. silent. until his heart and relate appeals to The Brahman householder remains friend having urged him to open his his grief. and I will comply with your request !"^ On hearing this his parents were much afflicted. 1 Heavenly ' The resemblance Vish. Both she and Kasyapa. finally. and then when old you may retire from the world and live as a. At length. 168. and his father Nyagr6dha.lV6 words. gold. 317 the life of a Brahmana !" Then his parents began to remonstrate with him " Let not our son say so . Pur. but first fulfil your duty to your ancestors.: HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. recluse !" But their appeal was in vain The youth replied that he desired to be free from such attachments. seeing the master was not there. he said. At this time. he inquired. In vain they urged the desolation of their house and family from lack of descendants. and remained there in silence. then find me a wife as beautiful and as resplendent as this figure.^ and desired a celebrated artist to make from it the figure of a female. ^ Her name was Bhadraka. and for help him and sympathy. going up on the roof of his house. taking this to his parents. through son. after his parents had three times repeated their entreaties. and cost 3.

he took her hand. And from this her attention was turned to the universal prevalence of suffering and sorrow in the world. Accidentally meeting with attached to him. and.] and because he belonged he was called the to the family of the Kasyapas venerable Maha K^syapa. raising her arm. awoke and began to reproach him with having had some other intention than that which caused him thus to act. Pippala. which were destroyed with the seeds when being ground. roused by the touch of her husband's hand. he became After a time having given his San- ghati robe to Buddha. At time. M. But Bhadraka. bu-t separately.318 THE EOMANTIC CHAPTER Now it so happened that as in the XLVI. Catena 256. who. observed a small black snake creeping on the floor and approaching the spot where the hand of Bhadraka was exposed. she Having become very sad in consequence of communicated her thoughts to Pippala. he placed it gently upon the couch and covered it from sight. lived perfectly pure lives. Tathagata. Telesdhutanga} founded a scJiool wlw adhered to the marriage. and received the soiled and unsightly one of Buddha's in return. . full of sorrow. was so impressed with the conviction that the world that he left his home and became a recluse. in the preparation of some oil-cake for the cattle. he explained the circumstance and she was lived in perfect purity. On this. 9. his followers were called Kasy- m apiyas. [He rules. and so on. this discovery. that the latter unconthe couch and let her Pippala and Bhadrata were sleeping same apartment. he became a Eahat. being awake. Kasyapa was the founder of the ascetic school Buddhism . 1 B. satisfied. . in is his turn. Softly rising up and going to the spot. sciously in her sleep threw her arm from this off hand touch the ground. was grieved to find the namber of insects. Thus they passed twelve years and At length Bhadraka.

The beginning of of this section is occupied by an account Maha Kasjapa's condition at present. and with his hands clasped over his head he prayed that.At that time. if ever that Eishi came into the world as a Buddha to teach men.] etc. he returned to his place of residence. there was scarce any grain to be had. he addressed him as follows " Venerable Eishi have you obtained aught in alms during your To whom the Pratyeka Buddha replied visit to the city. who was converted by the preaching of that Eishi. owing to a famine. At this time the Pratyeka Buddha. and entering the city went begging from door to door. and the mendicants of the various religious orders could scarce obtain any food in alms. the poor man fell down on his face in adoration.J CHAPTER XL VII. On this the poor man asked him to his house. which was just one measure of coarse cockle seed. being enclosed . took his alms-dish in his hand.— HISTOET OF BUDDHA. Having cooked this he gave it to the Eishi. At this time all the ! 319 Bhikshus asked Buddha. saying. had watched the Pratyeka Buddha as he went from house to house. to share with him all he had. on seeing this. born in the present age as Sakya Muni. on which the latter rose up and passed away through the air . having got up early one morning and put on his robe. and cost 3. or not ?" that he had received nothing. and there watching his peaceful and contented behaviour. Having obtained nothing. washed his bowl. and seeing that he got nothing he had followed him to his place of residence. [And so it came to pass he might be one of his disciples. who lived in the city of Benares. .06 taels. Now there was a certain poor man in Benares at that time who. " Lord of what previous oiroumstances in the history of Maha Kasyapa led to this happy termination of his life?" Then Buddha answered. a certain Pratyeka Buddha. and sat down. that this poor man was afterwards born as Maha Kasyapa. on this very morning. and in consequence many men died from want. the world : ! [Kiouen XL VI contains 6121 words. whose name was Tagara Sikhi. " I remember in ages gone by that there was.

by the exercise of her spiritual power. Now after among the number power of priya. gifted with spiritual power. awaiting the arrival of Maitreya Buddha. And shall no more be hampered by personal existence. and committed to her the rules of the community. looked abroad to see what had become of Bhadraka Having done so. Whereupon Buddha bade Ananda to conduct her to Mah^prajapati for instruction and initiation. and so she became a true Bikshuni. by virtue of the power she possessed. after receiving the commission. Then overpowered by the excellency of his presence. ° Cap. in a moment alighted on the spot where Bhadraka was. "Now am I freed from the power of birth and death. Then Maha Prajapati Gotami.' the Lord of the world had admitted Mahapraj^pati of his disciples." final deliverance. Then she became a Eahat and obtained Vide Fah-hian. of Bhadraka. near the river Ganges. xxxiii. This Bikshuni. Easyapa. Now all my discipline as a Brahmani is ended. I have experienced a true and living conversion. having received Bhadraka at the hands of Ananda. and in the joy of her heart she sang this Song. conducted her. his former wife.^ The History § 1. admitted her into the number of the female disciples.320 witliin THE EOMANTIC a niouiitain cavern. he perceived that she had joined herself to an heretical sect. . That is. to his side. in a moment to Srdvasti. and after describing the character of Buddha as a teacher. exercising his divine sight. where the Lord of the world was residing in the Jetavana. he prayed her to go to the spot where Bhadraka was and endeavour to bring her into the number of the disciples. and was now leading the life of a Paribrajika. Having therefore called a Bikshumi. the newly arrived Bhadraka besought the Lord to admit her among the number of his female disciples.

pray you give me my daily portion of meal.' To this. so having seen this. and I will bestow some portion of it on him. and I have nothing to give him. Then Buddha related further the history of Bhadrata in her former birth and said. took his alms-bowl in his hand. the girl replied. Coming to the door of the householder. he put on his robe. not iy any preaching of the Law. there was dwelling at Benares a certain rich householder. On this. — ! ! ' — ' ! ! ! ! ' ' ' ! ! T . Now it so happened that the slave girl had watched the movements of the mendicant. a Pratyeka Buddha. the slave girl at once gave it in charity to the Pratyeka Buddha. the mistress said. so dirty and graceless I have nothing to give him !' On this. [The Pratyeka Buddhas can convert people only by displaying their Ch. ' Well. she said at once to the slave girl. but purity of heart But her mistress said. ' I have taken a dislike to that ugly old man. having come to the neighbourhood of the city. I hate such ugly people. girl you may have your food to do what you like with it. § 2.! HISTORY OF BUDDHA. She saw that he was old and ugly. as he stood before the gate.] spiritual powers. above named.' Whereupon. she had found her mind much comforted and pacified. Eeverend and virtuous lady pray give him a little pray give him something in the case of such holy persons. having received it.' On this the girl rejoined. her left hand holding up her tresses. directly he had taken slave girl to wait on her in the house. Eeverend mistress if you cannot find it in your heart to bestow some charity on this mendicant. took up his abode there for a time. whose wife had a One day. and being impressed by his dignity and self-possession. and went forth to beg his food. one does not look for comeliness of person. 321 The Story of the Eeligious Servant Girl. and withoiit any graceful way with him . " I remember in ages gone by. Early in the morning. she saw the Pratyeka Buddha at some little distance off. she came indoors to her mistress and addressed her ' Eeverend thus mistress [Holy woman or lady] There is a Bhikshu standing before the door begging food Now it so happened that just then her mistress was engaged dressing (combing) her hair. he stood there awaiting the time when some food should be given him. " So it came to pass that this mendicant. and as she was sitting down. Ed.

' My as this Pratyeka Buddha ! ' the lady who was good little girl ! if you will give me action you have just performed. THE ROMANTIC was moved with compassion for her. whatsoever she pleased of aU he . 'how dare you disobey me! how dare you refuse me I wiU beat you well. turning to her master. and make you feel for Whereupon. told him all about it. ' Tou know that I warned you that I would lock you up (Hm k.322 the food of the sight of him. and then he ordered the servant girl to go wash herself and put on her mistress's clothes and jewels. either to Shaman or Brahman. having watched the whole proceeding. and ordered her to take off her fine clothes and her jewels. mistress getting angry cried. and Oh.' weep and to scream with as loud a voice as she could. came indoors. up to twenty times as much food. he inquired what was the matter with her. and so he flew away through space. But she still Then the declined to part with the merit she had acquired. so that I may not create feelings of dislike in the breasts of those who see me. " Seeing this wonderful event. I will give as I bestowed just said. and shut her up in the small house at the back. who on her part began to it.' Thereupon he drove her out of doors. girl. till she lost girl fell mounting into the air. Now did in the mind of my mistress dressing her hair. may meet with this divine personage ' — as a teacher life. hearing the hubbub. and so coming out to the girl she said. 'My good girl (bhadrA). she chastised the girl. 'indeed.au. and told her to give away just as she Uked. Then the lord being angry. who may instruct me how to avoid the evU ways of and be born with a graceful and attractive body. she Whereupon the mistress offered her twice as much. dear lady ! the merit of the charitable you as much food again But the servant refused. would clasping her hands over her head she prayed thus that I. at some future time. and said to her. called out at once for the mistress to come. why are you crying so?' on which. was filled with astonishment at the sight of the spiritual power of the Bhikshu. the slave girl. and then he opened his treasures. put in the stocks) if you ever refused to give charity to any Brahman or Shaman who might come to the door to beg. and seeing the servant girl weeping and sobbing. the down in adoration. ! now ' I cannot ! ' ! " Now it so happened that the master of the house. in this way.

after having crossed over. " Then the mendicant. and by his spiritual power flew through space to another spot " Seeing this miracle the woman turned to her lord and said. ! 323 " Bhikshus this slave girl was Bhadrakd in a former birth. he exclaimed." The Story § 3. who had seen his wife set out from the house. she saw there a Pratyeka Buddha w_ork in the fields. but that you and I should immediately give ! . she remained adoring him with hands clasped above her head. and falling prostrate.' " Then the peasant who had beaten the Pratyeka Buddha was • Dear woman I see nofilled with remorse. there was a certain poor man at at the proper time set forth to take came down to the river sitting and lost in reverie at the sight of this reverend person. by. up the thing for it. ' master. Where in the world is the woman gone leaving me here toiling and sweating without my dinner or my drink " On this he went down to the river bank. Meantime the peasant. for whom the very gods were jealous. "Whereupon. him •' ! !' ' !' ! whilst I have been left dinnerless !' so he took up a big stick that was lying near and began to belabor the Pratyeka Buddha with he was tired. the woman put down her basket. for in truth this was a good man. what have you done ? see what a crime you have Alas it till ! committed. on his side of the stream. and watched her a long way off as she went down to the river side. having said nothing. 'I see the reason of this fellow has been amusing himself with my wife. Oh thought he. and finally she was born in the house of that rich Brahman. and is now the Bhikshuni Bhadrakapriya. of the Peasant's Wife. and aU through your own perverse thoughts. rose into the air. and in reward for her charity she was bom in heaven as a most beautiful girl. and said to his wife. was astonished that she did not appear. the delay : whose wife Now. Again Buddha related this story — " I remember in years gone his dinner. and incapable of anything like you wickedly imagined. after waiting some time. as she bank.! mSTOET OF BUDDHA. and there saw the Pratyeka Buddha and his wife.

live. the fifth Vpatissa. Danyayana) [other accounts say that his name was Vanadatta. Ill n.324 THE ROMANTIC world and enter on a religious life. let us give up all worldly pleasures and lead a life of purity. Of all the third XJpadamma. 1 2 Vide Pah-Hian. . who was called by the same name.] Now this wealthy Brahman had eight sons. young Kolita and Upatissa there sprung up a close friendship. not very far ?).^ and in that village a Brahman." who had become a recluse belonging to the At this time. CaUed Koulika by Jul. Moreover. So do two loving hearts entwine and. exceedingly rich. if haply I may thus atone His wife having consented. Ed. the first called these Upatissa Damma. p. Upatissa and Kolita likewise. and his disposition was most gentle and loving. ! and his wife was the Bhikshuni Bhadrakapriya. 51. the fourth Tissa. Ch. of Sari(putra) and Mulin (Mudgalaputra)." The History § 4. called Danayana (or. JSd. He was tho- roughly acquainted with the literature usually acquired by the Brah- mans. was the most promising talented. [But the MaMsanghikas say that he had only seven sons. "Now Bhikshus that peasant was Mah^kasyapa in a former birth. etc. and never so much grieved as when necessity kept them apart. Such is the power of love to join in one. and so the G^tha says— " Closely as cause and effect are bound together. they both became for my wickedness. he had one daughter called " Susimika. and the second Sudamma. who was also Between this very accomplished and of great natural genius. from Eajagriha. so that they were always together. there was a village where lived a certain rich Brahman. iii.' religious ascetics. Oh.'] Not far from the spot where Upatissa lived there was a village Kolita. the first was called "Upatissa (and so on). and he had an only sou. called Naradai (Nalanda heretical order of Pariprajikas. Even as the lily lives upon and loves the water. and after death were horn in heaven.

they were both accommodated with high chairs in the midst of the assembly. Now the distance of the villages Narada (orNalanda) and KoUka (for Kolita ?) from Eajagriha was not more than half a yojana. is a. on which similar assemblies were held . At this time also the youth Kolita began to think thus.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. At this time it happened that the convocation took place on the mountain called Grihakuha (or guha) and countless people. XLVIII. caparisoned for the occasion. At this time the youth Tissa thought thus with himself. to see what the people there assembled were doing. Now. were assembled together to witness the spectacle. afoot and in carriages and vehicles of aU descriptions. and cost 3. set out from Narada towards Giriguha. Were overcome by grief and aching heart. mountain on which mountain at stated periods there used to be an assembly convened for the purpose of distributing charity among the priests. and moved by the same considerations. Then TTpatissa observ- . to see if the people assembled there can do me any good or benefit my mind in any way. drawn by four elephants.054 words. Thus it was these two accomplished youths set out to visit the same spot." and so. and another called Vaihara." So TTpatissa having ordered his chariot. and another called Panda. If by necessity compelled to live apart. mounting on his elephant. These two joined by closest bond of love. " I ought certainly to go to this assembly on Mount Gririguha. called Giriguha. he set out and gradually drew near to the spot . There was also another mountain called Eishigiri. before him were all sorts of dancing men and women. to be harnessed at once. Having arrived at the place. whilst the music sounded on every side as he pro- at a short distance from Eajagriha there ceeded. " Certainly I ought to go to that great assembly on Mount Grihaguha.] CHAPTEE Now.027 taels. contains 6. also on a mountain called Vaibhara. on all these mountains assemblies were held iu certain rotation." [Kiouen 325 XL VII.

— . all engaged in listening to music and watching the performances of dancers and acrobats. he gave years not one of all this himself to severe reflection. ! 326 THE ROMANTIC ing the vast crowd. seeing that vast assembly convulsed with laughter and hearing nothing but " Ha ha. the youth Kolita addressed his friend and said. who by his amusing tricks caused was one celebrated great merriment ! among the people. where. he found after a while seated beneath the tree as having approached to the spot. dear friend. he was much depressed. began to reflect thus. sitting down beneath a tree. too ? This is a time for happiness and glee. rising from his seat." of XJpatissa. and so rising from his seat. The sound of voices like the choir of Heaven This meeting. surely no calamity or misfortune has befallen you. The voice of singing men and women Listen to the merry ringing laugh. dear TJpatissa. and why are you sitting here alone. and felt very sad . then the youth Kolita. and not for grief. like the assembly of the Gods Surely this is not a place or time for tears !" ! ! ! Then bly ! TJpatissa replied. whom for ." " Ho ho !" on every side. " Why are you so sad. this is a time mirth and joy. scattered Thinking thus. " How strange that so vast a multitude should be amused by such trifles as these and then to reflect that after a hundred ! multitude will be alive !" Thinking thus. he left the assembly and sought the retirement of a neighbouring wood. began to think thus— "All these people ! in a hundred years will be nothing but bleached bones. This is a time to laugh and sing And not to weep and sigh Hark then listen to the pleasant sound. lost in reflection. "Dear Kolita! look at that vast assem! listen to the merry sound of music and of singing hark to . Why then do you rejoice not. he began to regret that he had come to such a place. therefore. Now in the middle of that assembly there performer. before described . And not for sorrow and despondency. to cause you such aifliotion ?" And so the Gatha says " Hark to the sound of drum and lute. he went his way in search here and there.

With respect Parijava in the text is evidently a mistake for to Saniaya compare Introd. In sorrow and in happiness alike That which the wise man says in verse. That I rejoice in. 532. TJpatissa. p. therefore. after much solicitation and repeated prayers. and so finally left their friends and retired apart to lead a religious life. and Kolita. under the dominion of desire and Can find no safety whilst in such a state. these two inseparable friends agreed to become religious mendicants together. at this time there was in Eajagriha a certain heretical teacher called Parijava Sanjaya. Ere long will be consigned to lowest hell. in my filled To this Kolita replied " In grief as well as joy we are united. at length found their to this Sanjaya. 52. my sorrow swells and grows. love. and then remember in a hundred years not one of all that multitude will be alive !" And so the Gdtha says— " This people. and tasy. Defiled by lust and fleshly appetites. Is now the case with me and you. they obtained their parents' permission.] 1 way Jul. B. wiU have none of them !" I. Paribajaka. quired the use of medicinal herbs for the purpose of producing ecsHaving tried this method for seven days and nights. For all such things are weak and perishing.' followed by 5U0 disciples. But rather heart can find no place for joy with dread. For all these pleasures.where you are not ! : !' Thus. Eeturning to their homes. having as yet no master. gave [This system appears to have rethemselves up to practise it. iii. and after inquiring into his system. therefore. to Ind. and all things living. 327 the ringing laugh. tho' repeated. Than vainly try to Hve. and pursue It were better I should die with you.. therefore. . Now. What joy can people such as these possess ? These multitudes. and seek the waters of immortality. ' What your heart rejoices in as good. then.— " HISTORY OF BUDDHA. cannot avert The coming end— I.

ed. they found no rest to their souls." man Then TTpatissa asked. and forthwith they resolved to follow him to his place of residence.^'] Whilst so begging. having found him. who all agreed that he must be one of the Sakyas.)'] Then Asvayujatta replied to TTpatissa as follows " My master is the Great Shahis doctrine : and his religious system of complete retirement from the world is that which I have adopted. they saluted him and stood on one side. with his alms-dish carried evenly in his hands. went very early in the morning. Eajagriha. and enquire respecting the reUgious system he had adopted. as full of dignity " and is that great Shaman of whom you and grace as you are ?" To whom Asva: yujatta answered as follows ^ Called elsewhere Asvajita. speak. attended by the thousand Eahats. the At this most reverend of all the disciples of Buddha.— 328 thoroiigUy investigated THE EOMANTIC it. Mahasanghihas say. having beheld him were convinced that if there was a Rabat in the world that he was one. robed in his Sanghati and his Nirvasana. just after the Lord of the world had arrived at supreme wisdom. and waited on by Bimbasara and countless thousands of people. so graceful and dignified his appearance. The two youths. learner (sravaka) and not a teacher. in the time it was that the Lord of the world was dwelling near Ealandavenuvana. "I myself am only a. to my of the race of the Sakyas. TTpatissa then addressed him as follows " Most reverend Sir. heart's joy." is ? TTpatissa rejoined. 2292. TTpatissa and Kolita. but the other schools say that the Bhihshu's name was Asvayujatta. and were still dissatisfied. .] [I derive Asvayujatta from Jul. he was watched by the people. It so happened that an old Bhikshu. re- your master. called TJpasana. " Who then. with his robes properly adjusted. he was universally known as "the Great Shaman" (Ch. and his alms-bowl [So the in his hand to beg from house to house in Eajagriha. Mithode. likewise. Accordingly. do you receive disciples to instruct them in your doc: trine P" To whom Asvayujatta verend sir 1 replied. and where does he dwell ? and what is and what is his name ?" [Now at this time.

so opening his mouth. Our Shaman says. whilst the venerable Asvayujatta went on to explain them." To which "CTpatissa replied." and so the Gatha says: ." to Then Asvayujatta consented ." Then Upatissa. " Pray tell me in few words. By cause also are destroyed Destroy this cause. and know but little of the profound doctrine of my master but yet I will tell you in brief what I have understood. discourses knew of his on the connection of causes and their consequences. and as follows] " What then is this system of doctrine. The wise man Eelying on master's teaching loves sound Eeason. [The above is what the Mahasanghikas say . he frames his Life. thus " The phenomena which result from cause. the great Shaman. !" At length. . " As a mustard seed compared with Mount Meru. 329 As the gnat compared with the Garuda. having clearly perceived the truth of this doctrine. he also touches on the path of deliverance. Asvayujatta replied." Then XTpatissa (the Paribrajika) at once comprehended the character of the doctrine involved in these lines. and so a G4tha which he often repeats will explain. the Paribrajika. As the pool. caused by the cow's footstep. So am I compared with my master [And much more to the same effect]. — . explain what he said. TJpatissa having inquired what was the doctrine taught by the great Shaman. and you arrive at supremo wisdom. the account of the Kdsyapiyas is a little different.. venerable sir ?" " My master repeats the following aphorism of the Law " All things are produced by cause. : " My master. this. " I am but the disciple of a day. obtained perfect peace and was freed from all doubt . venerable one. " I desire only true Eeason. he — : AU things are destroyed by cause Thus Destruction and Production. compared with the great ocean. — HISTORY OF BUDDHA. he said. So teaches my master. I love not words and sentences. for I love not long discourses. result from cause.

reflecting on what had happened. Thro' Niyutas of Kalpas Has not thus been exhibited. turning to all the Bhikshus. and accompany them to the great Shaman. Then approaching the presence of the Lord of the world. bowed down at the feet of Asvayujatta. seeing the sparkling eyes and joyful countenance him if he had found the deliverance he sought. Then Buddha. and on his refusing to let them go or to come himself with them. not for the purpose of disputation.' and therefore have cast off the trammels of worldly sorrow ! ! ! — ! . and entreated his permission to join themselves to the company of the Lord of the world. accompanied by the 500 Paribrajikas." Then tTpatissa. ye have practised the Eules of a Brahmana. ! . overcome with grief. the Paribrajika. to whom the world-honoured spake thus.330 THE ROMANTIC " This Dliarmaohariya (mode of teaching). Whioli I have heard. was dwelling. "These two shall be the most distinguished of my disciples— the one for wisdom. they besought him to admit them into the company of his disciples. they turned away from him and left his They then went to the society. he said. the other for spiritual power (irddhi). went on to the Kalandavenuvana. addressed Kaundinya thus " See you those two young men they are coming hither.] at a condition of abode of Sanjaya. the disciples of the Paribrajika Sanjaya. " Oh leave me not do not go " for they heeded not his entreaties. and having circumambulated him three times. resolved to follow after Upatissa and Kolita. Then KoUta. having uttered this stanza. Meantime. " Welcome Bhikshus enter into my fraternity . and Kolita also arrives rest. Upatissa repeats the of his friend. to join themselves to the company of the Lord of the world. Then the two young men. TTpatissa and Kolita. . departed to the place where KoUta. and departed. [On this. began to vomit up blood and died. asked stanza above given. seeing them afar off approaching to the place." And so the G4tha says [to the same effect]. and the way of immortality. the Paribrajika. In vain Sanjaya cried. Then Sanjaya. but because they seek to learn a more excelleht way than that in which they have been instructed " and then.

and cost 3. adored him." [Kiouen XL VIII contains 6. Whereupon the Paribajika. both called Supriya. On this. a brother and sister. who likewise fed a Pratyeka Buddha. Bhikshus ! is now born as Sariputta. so that their heads were as smooth as a child's head when first shaved. the Pratyeka Buddha. ! 331 welcome. and so Upatissa was generally called Sari putra (putta). 1 Vide Jul. I remember in days gone by there was a certain shell merchant residing at Benares. falling into the evil paths of transmigration.] Now the mother of the venerable Upatissa was called Sari. And so Kolita is called Mugalana (because this was his family name). the Pratyeka Buddha went to visit his sister.J . The boy became a recluse and afterwards a ^Pratyeka Buddha.' This Supriya.374 words. desiring that he might possess the same spiritual power as that Pratyeka Buddha had. 52. the girl became a Paribrajika heretic. iu. Bhikshus. " On a certain occasion.187 taels. he offered up a similar prayer. at which time she provided every kind of delicate food and drink for him. by his spiritual power. the venerable Kolita on the left and the venerable Upatissa on the right of the Lord of the world. and on seeing him fly away through the air. rose up into the air and flew away. and six days afterwards Kolita likewise obtained that condition. "Again. then. the new Bhikshus were provided miraculously (of itself) with the proper garments with which to invest themselves. falling down on the earth with her hands clasped over her head. is the present Mugalyana. after partaking of which she then presented him with a. . and having put on these. They then took their places in the assembly. and prayed thus ' Oh Uiat I — ! may in some and so avoid the needle is future birth meet with a divine teacher like this man. their hair fell off. Then the world-honoured related the following stories in connection with the previous history of these two distinguished disciples.knife and (a case of) needles. so And as may I be able to pierce through the most difficult subjects of enquiry and cut away every doubt by the acuteness of my intellect. to my company " On this. [And in the course of a half month Upatissa became a Eahat. able to penetrate everything by its sharpness. This shell-merchant. " I remember in years gone by there were two childi-en living in ^ Benares.HISTOEY OF BUDDHA.

* his bodily appearance most and weigh my words. all the Bhikshus inquired of Buddha how it was that these 500 ParibAjikas.332 THE EOMANTIC CHAPTEE The Story of the Five XLIX. chap. " Listen well. His head of a bright fiery colour. they set saU for the purpose of seeking jewels and precious stones. First of aU.. Hundred Merchants. e. Having then confessed to one another whatever crimes they had committed and duly repented of them." is equal to the " main-sheet. and having moreover instructed one another in all the preliminary duties before embarking in such an undertaking as theirs." his feet swift as the wind. and find deliverance in the hearty belief of the doctrines taught by the Lord of the world. the draught or stowage). p. One to manage the sails^ (sailing master ?). At this time. they appointed five men to superintend the various departments.. 54U. his coat as white as the driven silver. were able to accept the guidance of Sariputra. a second to hold the oar (helmsman ?). beautiful. they came down the sea shore for the purpose of embarking their merchandise and setting out on the voyage. his voice mellow as that of the softest drum. On this Buddha answered and said. At this time.the heretic. a third to pump out the water. oh Bhikshus ! This is not the first time that by the guidance of Saciputra these 500 heretics have been able to find escape and deliverance . Pur. there were in Jambudwipa five hundred merchant to undertake a voyage hy sea for the men who wished purpose of exchanging their goods for others and so increasing their wealth. i. the colour of the sandal wood. known as Gosirsha. 3 suppose "mi" Vide below. and escape from the pitfalls and wastes of heretical teaching. having paid their devotions to the Sea-God. also to the Prem Sagar. snow or as the brightest pure as the moon when full. or as the fiower of the kuta (grass). and a fifth to be captain. followers of Saiijaya. Accordingly. having selected a wise man as their chief and leader. p. § 1. 73 (Eastwick's translation.) " That is. 1' For allusions to this horse Kesi refer to the Vish. 50. Compare Bucephalos." I . where the expression is " shap mi. but I remember in ages gone by there was a certain royal horse born called Kesi. a fourth to manage the stowing (floating and sinking.

gave They raised their voices and cried. ' Welcome welcome dear youths Whence have ye come so far ? But now ye are here. unequalled for beauty and deaJas !' One lamented for his father ' ! and his ! !' • ! !' ' !' !' ' ! !' ! light. another cried. adorned with jewels. their ship " Now the Kakshasls having perceived the disaster and the fate of the 500 merchants. Be not afraid. and we will be your wives We have no one here to love or cherish us . going apart by themselves. flowers. lift your arm. let us be happy. At this' time the merchants bound themselves to pieces of the wreck.! HISTOEY OF BTIDDHA. 333 " Suddenly. from their real shape as hideous ogres into the most lovely women. ' ! ! be not alarmed. Alas ! alas !' ' That is. Alas vent to their sorrow fully supplied come to our houses. Having transformed themselves. . lovely youths! with every nehasten with us to share in the joys of mutual love. therefore. hastened with all speed to the place. sorrovr.' " Then those merchants addressed the Eakshasis thus ' Illus(sisters) let your hearts rest awhile trious maidens Give us a short space to expend our grief and dispel the^sorrowful thoughts that afflict us !' Then those men. they hurried down and when arrived there. to dispel our grief! Come. My dear kinsfolk ' My house Alas my loved ones My ' Alas feUow-clansmen !' ' Alas we shall see you no more for Jambudwlpa. and every kind of charming ornament. they cried out.i and ere they could reach the shore the tempest beat so ajvainst them. dear youths stretch out your hand. and seeing the pleasing forms of the women. well adorned and cessary : ! ! ! ' mother . ' Alas my sister !' or. " Then the Eakshasis in great joy cried out. and struggling with the waves endeavoured to reach the shore. Alas my brother Another exclaimed. to illustrious strangers ! ! ! ! drive away . hearing these welcome words. rest yourselves here! thus! thus!' and so the merchants. did as they were told. half drowned in the ocean. there arose a fierce storm. and there devour them at their leisure. whilst on the voyage. be ye our lords. our own dear country. Be ye our husbands. to the spot. intending to rescue the men and enjoy their company for a time. which blew their vessel toward the country of the Eakshasis. Ceylon. that was entirely broken up and destroyed. and then according to their custom to enclose them in an iron city belonging to them. and so by their help reached the shore in safety.

There were no wild shrubs or thorns. " Then the Eakshasls. taking their guests through the city.' thought ' should these women exhort us never to go towards a certain part at the south of the city ? I ought to look into the matter. and then arising softly from his bed.were kept con- stantly burning. whilst lovely canopies (umbrellas) crowned the In every direction throughout the city were placed metal in which the choicest aromatic woods . surrounded by a four square wall of the whitest marble. " So time passed. as the cliffs rise one above the other on the beetling shore . The flowers. but all they saw was charming to the eye and grateful to the senses. so that without any sound. censers. we may avoid it. bright as the Snowy Mountains or like the fleecy white clouds.' " Having thought thus. and brightly painted. seizing his sword. vice that art can provide or love suggest. the Eakshasls he. floated every sort of garland and highest.334 THE EOMANTIC cries. all were beautiful ! —soft to the touch. before it is too late. the grass. from the numerous turrets. the fruits. the trees. the chief merchant waited that night tiU the women were all asleep. he came at . they advanced towards their city. they bring for them luxurious seats on which to recline. and birds. Going onwards in the forbidden direction. and when the women are asleep endeavour to see what danger there is. and they are lulled to forgetfulness The music raby every de- having warned the merchants against approaching a certain part towards the southern side of the city. being a man of very superior parts and of penetrating mind. that surrounded the central towers. they relieved their burthened " Then going on gradually with the EakaJiasSs. he got away. left the house. " Uttering sueh lamentable hearts. no dust flying about. and. and. pleasure. flowers. And now they give way to unhindered vishes their ears. sweetly scented. the curiosity of the merchant chief was excited. At length. he began to have some doubts about the matter. bid them cast off their dripping clothes. [Here follows a list of the trees. flag. no unsightly flowers. and having washed their bodies in warm and scented water. and as they went they observed that the ground was beautifully soft and level. ' Why. Inside rose tower upon tower. no broken pots or stones. if there be any.] "At last they approach the city.

they raised a piteous cry. Garuda. then. and ? bring us deliverance ?" Then those miserable ones. listening. like those proceeding from the wretched beings confined in hell. so as to attract attention. or what ? or are you Maha Sakra Kausika. were dismembered and mutilated. looking up they saw the merchant chief seated on a branch of the hoh-hwen tree outside the wall. and he soon perceived that the cries and groans he heard proceeded from within the walls of that place. 335 length to a narrow path. Having observed this tree. which had neither tree or plant growing beside it. till at length recovering his self-possession. Taksha. whose name was hoh-hwen. Gandharva. scarcely dead. ! — ished to death .pits . or the adorable Brahma Kaja. by some wild beast . the merchant chief was seized with the hairs of his body stood upright. which grew beside the wall and seemed to overtop it. only on the north side of it be observed a tree. he saw before him the dim outline of an iron city. Asura. their eye sockets like deep well. he heard the sounds of groans and lamentations. G-oiug round the city. again. others with their flesh half torn from their limbs. the merchant forthwith resolved to mount it and look within the city. : are you Are you Deva. The sound of his voice having reached the prisoners inside the city. Seeing this doleful spectacle. Hearing these sounds. and in the midst or all there arose off place where a constant wail. and lo he beheld before him a piteous sight. Then. he entered on the desolate path he had seen. Thus he continued for some time. come to visit us in our misery. After proceeding a short distance. and spake to him these words " Who. waving it vio- lently about. and others. were sitting about. and. falling down ." HISTORY OF BUDDHA. others. Kinnara. his hair stood erect through terror. famwonderful fear. Beholding him thus. as from the culprits who suffer torments in the Tama rules. Naga. he seized • a branch of the tree on which he was seated. he gazed over the wall. he raised a great shout. the merchant chief was once more overpowered by fear . again. Others. He saw many dead men lying about — more than a hundred and of these some were half-eaten. regaining his courage. At length. and he remained silently transfixed as it were to the ground. Having climbed to the top. sightless. (united joy). others with their hair matted and covered with filth and dirt. Mahoraga. and cautiously advanced along it. as if gnawed torn. and was altogether of a dreary and fear-inspiring character. he could see no gate.

his head a rosy mellow as the softest (?) tint. and afforded us every pleasure for a time but as soon as they heard of your shipwreck they carried us forthwith to this place. ' There is but one method of escaping from them. ! • Pity us ! oh. his feet drum . and said. Seeking precious pearls. 336 THE ROMANTIC to earth. and here within this iron city we are doomed to lie till those Eakshasls have devoured us alive We were the other day five hundred men. with AshSdha (June.V.Vol. 'Upon the fifteenth day of the fourth moon. but were rescued by some women who suddenly appeared. know you of any stratagem by which we may escape from those Eak! ! ! ! ! shasis p' " They answered.— this Probably the conjunction of the Sun July). p. having come to our rescue. I am no god or other unJambudwipa.. your time will soon come on !' " Then the merchant chief replied. conveyed us to the shore. when the Moon. Oh. a storm came on and destroyed our ship. Sun. pity us ! and help us ! We are ruthlessly torn from those we love help us to escape from this wretched city. called Kesi (the hairy one).pl. swift as the wind. . who set out on a voyage seeking precious stones. he addressed them thus : ' Be it known to earthly creature. merchants of Jambudwipa. Beware. of most beautiful form. and enjoying their society to the full But tell me.4. worshipped the merchant chief. we entered on a voyage. "They then explained.! a certain Horse King. and now we are but half that number all the rest devoured by those infuriate demons. For a time they seem to love their companions. Whilst crossing the sea. having heard these sad words proceeding from the miserable men within the city. of their wiles . and were lost as you were.S. then. Their hearts are quite incapable of love. J. ii.' On which the chief inquired respecting it. and placing their hands above their heads. ' Ah dear sir we likewise were once like you. but all the while they live on human flesh. iJ. help then ! and once more see the faces of our dear ones !' Then the merchant chief.263. and now we are living with these women hard by this. whereupon I and my comrades were near perishing. his heart filled with unutterable sorrow. to escape us. and Pleiades {Man) are in conjunction. what can I do to assuage your sufferings ?' Then they answered. 'Oh most unhappy men. but a man of you all. Then those Eakshasls. his voice '^ white as the driven snow.

'^ " Then again the merchant chief inquired. "the white mane of the horse. And have you your- — ' ye did not escape ? From whom." Now. seeking food upon the sea-shore. and elsewhere on that coast. We have remnants of the same idea in the expression common amongst sailors. comes to this shore once every year and half his body seen. the Horse E4ja. 2 Vid. and why ? How can they expect ere the Pleiades and Moon be in conj unction in the middle of the fourth Moon how can they dare to try a northern course ?^ But then. to such a town (or. and are now here the certain victims of the — — But. ah. village). He shall carry them across the briny sea to the other coast. dear friend! if you escape. Hence. The White Horse Kesi denotes the white crested waves that roll in with a remarkable sound punctually as the monsoon changes. if they would try. and if you reach Jambudwipa again in peace. they see the half-revealed form of the White Horse King Kesi. The white horse of the Saxon sea kings may have a similar origin. Jul. z . 1 The whole of this description seems to refer to the change of monsoon. There can be no escape for us we shall most women that we heeded not the voice. 62. let them wait unto. we pray you. into the sea on the full moon of August. go. did you hear this strange story ? it may be it is selves seen this horse ? If so. etc. II. ' We heard from heaven a voice " The merchants of Jambudwtpa are foolish and ignorant men. He cries three times.' ! HISTORY OF BUDDHA. Kakshasis. 1 will convey him over. The setting in of the south-west monsoon would be a sio-nal for the land-bound vessels of Ceylon to start for the north again. Avalokiteshwara was pictured under the figure of a white horse. this is the only way await the arrival of Kesi. "Quand le aoleil se meut en dedans (de I'equateur) c'est la marche au Nord (Oudagayana). alas were : — ! so besotted with the love of and let the time slip. and tell our loving friends that surely all be eaten by the Eakshasis. having partaken of some dainty food (corn or grain without hust and of aromatic flavour). again. the holes fill up again as soon as they are made. because of his attributes. after which the native craft set sail. like this " Then those captives answered. to fling fruit." when the waves break. for there is no escape from this city the walls so high If we dig to escape under the walls. " "Whoever wishes to cross over the great salt sea. 337 horse." It is still the custom at Madras." But we. how is it — false. then if you would escape from your present danger..

[The chief then narrates his adventure before the all iron city. and met at the appointed spot.' " Then the merchant chief returned to his abode and found the Eakshasls asleep as he left them. the words of the Githa " ' Every one who has learned a secret.' he added.' " Having heard so much. they acted as their chief advised. and let them not risk their lives upon the treacherous ocean. he begged them to oast off the unconcern resulting from a Ufe of ease and shake off the power of love. the merchant chief descended from the tree. who cried.] . and I will tell you more. in fact. Exhorting them to constancy and determination. and 'when the women are asleep. be sure to pay your vows to Heaven. parents and wives. against the love of money and the desire for precious stones. And stir up strife and enmity. Forgets that those who hear wOl tell the same. and all you see. you and all your friends use every diligence to make good your escape. and then he began to reveal his plan to his comrades. and so their condition be rendered desperate. lest by any cliance they should let it be known to the Kakshasls. thinking of this. And with thoughtless heart and head Lets out some portion of what he knows. the fifteenth day. if safe there. The wise man and the man of prudence Let nothing out. and lead a holy and religious life.' Accordingly. THE EOMANTIC is now condemned to die within the iron city of the Eakand warn them all. to feed upon dear country. following. " Finally.' And so the merchant chief. after much thought. he determined to keep the know- ledge of his night's adventure perfectly secret from his brother merchants. So saying. ' Alack Par better. Jambudwipa the very offal of the streets than risk one's life upon the sea in ! ! ! search of wealth. held his peace.— 338 Bo-and-so shasls. ' rise up and hasten to the spot. Meanwhile. he appointed a certain place of rendezvous on the night before. but conceal the matter. and when yon join your loving relatives. and as he went his way he listened to the piteous lamentations Oh for one more look at our of the captives. And so bring trouble and disgrace. and awaited the arrival of the joyous day of the fourth month.

having partaken of the pure came to the shore. They will bring their in their arms or. will certainly fall off my back and convey become the prey you but you steel your hearts against their wiles. bowing their down to the earth. Their very hair stood erect with delight. and. he flew away like the wind. across the waves of the briny sea. suppose for a if moment that I will convey you away. "Ah there is my wife. dear youths return to your children and your wives !' But all their entreaties were in vain. I wiU convey him. " that the children and entreat you to return. "Nowat this time. Eemember your former mishap. " After a while the Horse KingKesi.' ! Then the horse replied to the merchants. they exclaimed. Bhikshusj the five hundred merchant men . hurrying down to the shore. and cling to him with their legs and feet. they uttered piteous alas dear masters why are you about to cries. Meantime the Eakshasts. raising his body half out of the waves.' they journey on through the air. Seeing this. and cling closely to my hair.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. and. and the Horse King soon carried those five hundred mer• ! ! ! — ! chants back to the welcome shore they had left. Then." — ! Ah ! there is m^ child. and said. mounting into the air. clinging to his hair. Would that you would transport us hence to that side where we would be. Oh illustrious Horse King we wish to be conveyed across to that shore. and. 339 food. the Horse King invited them all to mount his back. and holding fast in every way. then I will Having said this. hearing the thunder-voice of the Horse King. after looking on every side.' Then those merchants. Why do you leave us thus ? What pain have we caused you ? Have you not had your fill of pleasure ? Have we not been loving wives ? Then why so basely desert us ? Eeturn. of the dangers of the sea. at length perceived afar off the merchants mounted on the HorseKing's back. with ' hands above their heads. dear ones. they each seized her child. suddenly awaking from their sleep and missing their companions. 'If there be anyone here desirous to pass over to the other side across the briny ocean. seeing the Horse King and hearing his words. exclaimed in aloud voice three times. as safely across the salt sea to the other shore. were filled with joy and exultation. Alas leave us desolate ? whither are ye going ? Beware. ' Be it known Eakshasis wUl certainly pursue you. If either of you relent or be moved by feelings of regret if you say." then do not You of those Eakshasis .

L.'] [Kiouen XLIX contains 5. they requested to be instructed what law they should repeat. cap. the • ( Sthavlras) to assemble. v.794 taels. and villages it . On this he told them to preach upon the excellency of Buddha. and there exhibited many marvellous changes of. and cost 2. in imitation of his royal example. and BimbasSra on his part undertook to be present at these convocations. in a monotonous voice. 15. and complete personal discipline (Dh-ata Eules. and that in the meantime the people of Magadha thought he the rules was dead. in the Law. who were opposed to him.. 9) to avoid entering crowded towns .] CHAPTER § 1. ther. The Kasy&piyas say he went to the Southern Blountains [Lanka ?). Sariputra was the wise chief. and say. to the cultivation of wisdom. p. Nowitsohappened that BimhasaraE^ja. T® this the Lord of the World consented. and began to break through when he suddenly returned. as their master directed. M. vid. the king exhorted Buddha to hold similar assemblies. There seems to be a reference here to the assemblies known as Vid. to live in quietness Now came to pass that as soon as the and retirement [and so on]. Pah Hian.340 THE ROMANTIC were these five hnndred heretics. ^ pan-che-yu-sse.587 words. and the Church. p. Seeing this. the followers of Sandjaya . to exhort the people to charity.person. and so draw the people togefive days. temperance. that the people also began to find fault with them. " How is it that these teachers of ours continue to repeat the same thing over and over again." [The Mahasanghikae say that after this Buddha travelled onwards through the neighbouring villages and so came again to Edjagriha. . E. to repeat the law. Then Buddha having ordered the leaders of his community manner aforesaid. and I was the horse Kesi. observing the advant- age got by the heretics in consequence of their convocations held for during which they explained to the people their system of Doctrine and preached to them out of their law. Bhikshus had begun to recite the law. during the five successive days of assembly.^ and so keep pace with the Paribajakas.

explaining each word and sentence according walls. Buddha restricted the permission fumes. and also of of the want of agreement in the omissions and alterations made by some of the priests. clothes.. On this Buddha ordered them to confine themselves to explanations of the Agama. also an elevated place to be erected. and each priest (if there were more than one in an assembly) to take up the recitation in turn. to to individual ability. for the purpose of being heard . He then permitted them to use incense [perfumed cow dung] and scented water. and on a certain occasion. The people then complained that the priests were transgressing the order that they should not use or possess any unguents or per- On this. on which the priest or priests should sit. but when this permission was abused. priests to enclose a space within four Buddha then permitted the smooth the enclosed ground and plant it. Buddha permitted them to receive gifts of flowers and incense from lay persons. and gone to a certain town contrary to the ' Doubtless the origin of the Sangharamas or "priests' garden. medi- Buddha afterwards permitted selections of the sacred books to be read . just like children 341 masters"? their who have learned their lesson repeat it to their Then Buddha gave the priests permission to vary mode of repeating the law. for the purpose of assisting in the religious function. [viz. when some Bhikshus had disobeyed this order. undertaken for the purpose of reciting the law]. and the Sutras generally. such as the Gdthas. according to their individual character of voice and ability. and money and other things offered. meat. drink." . The people then complained mode of recitation. if any Bhikshu wanted to go to any place for the purpose of reciting the law. to gifts of the necessary things cine]. and argued that they could not be true teachers if they varied so. but he forbad anything like irreverent or indecent singing . he should first ask permission of the Acharya. for the purpose of purifying the place of recitation..i Buddha then gave them permission to wash their feet [after a journey along a muddy road. etc. he also permitted those assembled to join in the recitation of certain portions of the law. lest there should be confusion of sound . he also ordained that. he forbad two preaching halls to be near one another.HISTOKY OF BUDDHA.

Story of the Merchant who Struck His Mother. " Maitri approaching her. § 2. and to say. and scarcely got back alive to the Sangharama. dear Son darling MSitri all these dangers infest the ocean. exercising herself in religious discipline [laws of purity and self-restraint]. to get her permission and blessing ere he set out on the expedition contemplated. ' ! ! ! ! ! . the world-honoured one related this story. addressed his mother thus: ' Honoured mother! [or. At this time his mother was living in retirement in the upper por- tion of the house. and every comfort and necessary without stint. silver. there is no impediment in the way of your happiness (merit).' " Then his mother began to expostulate with him. and begun to consult how they might best embark on some expedition for the purpose of getting gain. Dear son why venture your life at sea ? Surely you have wealth enough at home. jewels of every kind. to show the fatal consequences of disobedience to parents and religious superiors. "I EEMEMEEE in years gone by. returning to their homes.342 THE EOMANTIC wishes of the Aoharya (senior priest). Darling Son dear Son the sea is full of perils. they separated for a time. and ghouls . You can easily afford to give what is necessary in religious charity. Having agreed upon a voyage in a certain direction. and also to that of the members of my family [give me then your permission and blessing]. these merchants all assembled toge(sse-ohfe). hungry and cruel monsters (fishes). to take leave of their wives and families. and if you leave me now. honoured "parent"] I am' about to undertake a voyage by sea. for the purpose of getting much profit. there were 500 merchants in Jambudwipa. his name was Maitri On one occasion. it happened that they were robbed and beaten. evil spirits. Eakshasls. of whom acertain one was chief. ther. " Now at this time M aitri went to see his mother. on which occasion. and so be able to minister in every way to your comfort. and settled all preliminaries as to freight and provisioning the ship. boisterous winds. and now I am getting old. I hope to return home with gold.

was at length thrown on the shore of an islet called Vaisvadipa [North island or islet]. and what gifts I can bestow in religious charity. that all your ! pious intentions may be of little use to me . and so she forbids me go this voyage. extremely beautiful it was full of towers and palaces. and most exquisite to behold and glorious ! by a lofty wall.] ! ! " Then M^itri answered. dear Son stay to be the comfort of my old age' [And so she entreated him three times. ' Tes dear mother.' " Then his mother arose from her seat. various departments [as before]. Darling Son dear you leave to risk your we have money enough. after tossing about on the waves for a long time. and all the merchants except Maitri were lost. having clung to a plank. and there he saw a path leading right before him. he came to a southern division (fork) of the island. ! M aitri ! I cannot let you go I cannot give ! ! — ' ) ! their worship to the Sea-God. and does not want me to prosper. censers.' and then he got angry. we life on the ocean just to seek for gain !' have all we need at home I cannot let you go " Then Maitri thought thus My mother is cross with me. But he. and offered cried. at length recovered his strength. and threw her arms round ! ! his neck. shining like silver. and calculated for the unbridled indulgence of love and pleasure. he slapped (kicked her head. Following the say ! their ship track. sad to was soon overtaken by a storm and broken to pieces. selected five men to superintend the sail. a city immediately in front of him. etc. as she . from a slight eminence. woods. surrounded and in every respect perfectly adorned [with lakes. and pulling his mother to the ground. as he went on.! HISTORY OF BUDDHA. and then set But. . So Miitri. At length. built of the seven precious substances. and rushed out of the house " Then the merchants having assembled on the coast. althougli as you say you 343 want to return a rich man to minister to my necessities. still the day of my death is so near.. and began to explore the neighbourhood of the spot where he had been cast ashore. after a short distance he saw.]. etc. having refreshed himself with some of the wild seeds and medicinal herbs growing on the shore. flags. ' and embraced him. then. In the centre of the city was a charming palace (called "Merry -joy "). but still I must go think of the wealth I shall bring back. stay. the gold and silver and jewels think bow I shall be able to nourish and cherish you in your old age.

and leaving the precious tower. till at last. then. and go not to any other city. ! ' lovely palace called ' ever-drunk'. there is a beautiful palace which we occupy. lo eight forth from the city to the place where he made Now ! stood. whilst we nourish and cherish you without intermission. along which he pursued his way.' So when they had dropped off to slumber. beautiful women came of the seven precious subwhilst he gazed. they addressed him as follows ' Welcome. and enjoy our society. after a long lapse of time. Maitri enjoyed the society of those women. then. See yonder beautiful palace. 344 THE EOMANTIC " And now from within the city there came forth four beauwomen. ! we rise with no one to molest us come.. there is no lack of any come. he went out. his suspicions were aroused as before. and addressed Maitri as follows: 'Dear Maitri! come near and enter this city in our company. many years . oh MMtri let us conduct you within yonder city. Dear M4itri remain here with us. with no one to molest comfort or necessary within its walls . MMtri arose. Thus passed many. and passing through the Eastern gate. and in the middle of it a lie up and down as we like. constructed of tiful : ! the seven precious substances. and said. and there is an abundance of every necessary for food and enjoyment.' So entering into that pleasant hall. It is there we four live. with no one (man) to dispute possession with him. I will wait till they are asleep and then go and explore in every direction. At length. and see whether there is good or bad luck in store for me. At length he saw before him at some distance a city of gold. and enjoyed their company for many years. nothing to interrupt the current of his happiness. these four women addressed Maitri. adorned with jewels and every ornament calculated to please. spot where MAitri stood. and then leaving this by the Southern gate. most beautiful to look at. he entered the garden which surrounded the city. and he resolved when they were asleep to explore further and find out what other . there is no one there to interfere with us. when they began to talk to him about going to some other city. Approaching the. he struck into a road. called 'joy and pleasure'. stances and beautifully adorned.' Then Maitri began to doubt about the matter. and he thought ' "What do those women mean when they talk about other cities. we wiU nourish you and cherish you with the fondest care. oh Mditri enter there with us and enjoy our company without interference.' So he went with them. us.

receiving similar hints from these. whose name was Viruka.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. he went on further discoveries. what dreadful crime have you committed in former days that you Then are constrained to wear that fiery wheel on your head ?' Grovinda answered. Woe is me I am undone I am ruined At length. ' Pray then teU me. suddenly came to the spot. the other of lapis lazuli. and glowing as from a furnace. and the hairs of his body stood upright. ' Oh. what have I done to merit this torment ? ' [the Gslthas . I must search into this. lo he saw confronting him a man. self-accused. the first with sixteen. who kept guard over that city.' At this time Maitri. on whose head there was placed an iron wheel. he placed it on the head of Maitri. as he ran here and there. Accordingly he entered the city to see whence the voice proceeded. he was fiUed with remorse in recollection of his own conduct. and he felt that he was alone within the walls and all escape cut oflf. but only hear this doleful voice. [And so he disooyered two other cities. began to cry out and lament. and exclaimed in his agony. one built of crystal. teiTible to behold. ' Who are you ? why do you carry that terrible wheel on your head ?' On this that wretched man replied. MMtri exclaimed. In former days I was angry with and struck my mother on the head as she lay upon the ground. Maitri began to consider with himself. him ' quite desolate. but here I see no one.' " Then a certain Taksha. and for this reason I am condemned to wear this fiery iron wheel around my head. No sooner had he passed through the ? is who weary ? gate. " Dear Sir is it possible you know me not P I am a merchant chief called Govinda.] On that appeared to constantly crying out. in succession. his limbs trembled. and removing the fiery wheel from off the head of Goviuda. On this he was filled with fear. 345 cities there were. only he heard a voice is is Who who hungry ? who is thirsty ? who is naked a stranger p who wishes to be carried ?' On hearing this voice. at the other cities I found agreeable companions. Then the wretched man cried out in his agony and said. the other with thirty-two maidens.' Then Maitri asked him and said. Now am I caught like a ' ! ! ! ' ! ! ' ' deer in the snare. He began to run to and fro in every direction. Seeing this terrible sight. than it shut behind him. this wheel was red with heat. exclaiming. till at length he saw an iron as before. who invited him to enjoy their com- pany city.

on your head you shall wear this fiery wheel. saying. and spoke to one of his attendants. Suddhodaua. and used none but the commonest to pass. • Tou wretched your mother on the head as she lay on the ground.027 taels. through 60. so be ye assured that disobedience to your religious superiors will be punished in the same way !" [Kiouen L contains 6. whilst affliction my lord is thus enduring and suffer and want." . and partake of delicate food. now. Bhikshus I was that wicked M^itri. and where he is living ? see if you can find out.' " Now.053 words. Then the Raja's heart was oppressed. for she said. "How shall I enjoy the luxuries of a royal resi- dence.— 346 THE ROMANTIC ! Tatsha replied.privation the same pain. and cost 3. the Sakya princess. messengers were sent to the banks of the Uravilva river. the Lord of the world related the following story about Tasodhara : " I remember in years gone by. and a correct report brought back to Suddh6dana E4ja as to the condition of his son. therefore. I will even share his self.] CHAPTER The History LI." lu obedience to this inquiry. dared to strike (kick) .000 years are to this effect] to whicli the man. immediately laid aside her jewels and fine clothing. and in the exercise of self mortification had reduced himself to the one grain of millet and rice in the day.. began to think about the welfare of his son. having heard of the privations and sufferings endured by her Lord. there was a certain remote forest ' Sikhi " who wears a crown." Then Tasodharfi.i Now it came Bodhisatwa was dwelling on the banks of the TJravilva river. and for 60. of Sikhi Buddha. at this time his father. whilst ! ! ! food. through all these years you shall wear this wheel.000 years your punishment shall last be assured of this. ! I wore that wheel for disobedience to my mother ." Then. and he uttered his lamenalas for my poor child tations and said " Alas how can he survive this penance of six years' duration. "I wonder what my son is doing. in answer to Udayi.

in Gathas which she addressed to the king : " ' Deer-King exert your strength. seeing the hunter thus armed approaching the place. Meet with such a misfortune " as this : !' And the G^tha continues as follows " • At this time those two Deer. and prepare ! ! . aranya). in which a deer-king with his herd had found a place of pasture. At this time a certain hind. In vain should J struggle to get away from such a Oh ye mountain deUs and sweetest fountains May none of your occupants henceforth ! ! snare. the deer-mother spake as follows. set a snare to entrap one or more of them.— — — — ! — HISTORY OF BUDDHA. said to the Mother-deer " ' This is the Hunter. and lived in contentment. At this time a hunter. Made as it is with thongs of skin. and as it happened he caught the king of the herd himself. his doublet of skin. His face dark and forbidding. 347 enclosure rdistrict. sewn with silk. seeing the deer king thus in the snare of the huntsman. Push with your head and your heel. Break to pieces the trap which man Has set to catch you. stopped in the neigh- bourhood and would not leave the spot where he was. big with young. the wife of the deer-king.' ! " Then the Deer-king answered in the following G4thas and said : " ' Although I used all my strength. coming here. and " Then the female deer gradually approaching the hunter.' Cut up my flesh in joints. addressed him and said "' Most illustrious Hunter listen Tou may arrange your seat of grass. having discovered the spot where these deer congregated. Filled with alarm. aU the other deer having fled from the spot. Meantime. and shedding bitter tears Beheld the wicked hunter approaching the spot With " his knife and club in his hand (ready to slay. and escape. Tet I could not escape from this trap.. He will come and strip off my hide. depart.)' Then the Deer-king.

buried alive. hunter and afterwards do as you list to him !' " Then the huntsman reflected and said. kiU me first then. Go. on which the hind overjoyed. so much indead. was much incensed against Yasodhara. that for six years she carried Eahftla in her womb. etc. After consultation. " • Seldom have I seen such faithfulness.' : " At this time the hunter addressed the hind as follows ' Is this Deer-king related to jou ?' Then the hind answered and said. That she should be whipped. they severally proposed the following punish- ments : impaled. and clothed and adorned him as became the child of a queen. and the huntsman said !' . likewise so May rejoice. etc. hearing of the birth of the child. and thought she had done his son dishonour. mutilated. addressed the huntsman and said " ' Most virtuous and iUustrious all huntsman ! your friends and relations. Deer-king And as you owe your life to your mate.' ! " Then the huntsman loosed the snare and let the Deer-king go. " This Deer-king was myself. tOl at last hearing that I was about to return and assume the dignity of a universal monarch (whereas my kingdom is of a spiritual character).' " Then Buddha said. Eahula. I love and revere him with all my heart. 'Most respectable one! your conduct is very commendable I will let your lord go " Then there was great joy. [But at length the Lord of the . then oh. and skin Then go and kill my hide from my body. and therefore I am determined to share his fate . burned." Then Suddh&dana. and the hind was Tasodhara.! — — 348 THE EOMANTIC rirst of all to kill me.. experienced much sorrow. your prisoner— the Deer-king. who. on which he assembled the various S4kya princes and laid the case before them. on my account. * He is my husband. Cherish and nourish her as you ought. As you have caused me to rejoice Seeing my husband escape. blinded. ' "What a faithful and !" exemplary wife is this seldom indeed is such a one to be found ! ! Then he addressed the hind and said. overcome with joy she brought forth her son.

Buddha then country. of Udayi. having taken on them the usual vows. fountains. and all created things combined to do him honour]. or a pure mind.' CHAPTEK The History § 1. Here follows a poetical description of his progress. They gradually returned till they arrived at the Garden of the Nyagrodha-trees. and how he had no desire to have anything to do with the Bhikshus. for the purpose of asking him to return to Kapilavastu. began to On this occasion the earth quaked and countless Devas accompanied the cortege. fiowers. beheld them. Astonished when he heard that these two strange figures were Shamans like his own son. sent to Suddliddana and said. 201. having gone for some other purpose. having arrived in the neighbourhood. and producing many spiritual manifestations. own The trees. 349 knowing the trouble and danger of Tasodhar4.' and then aU honour was done both to the mother and babe.^ Then Udayi and Tchandaka. at the end of the 14th day of the month.] [The rest of this chapter is occupied by an account of the conversion of TJdayi and the charioteer Tchandaka. birth. the worldhonoured one took up his residence in the Nyagrodha wood. rivers. 1 " Compare M. as he returned to his grief. B. similar to that of Sikhin in the previous chapter. filled with without further inquiries. and shaved and assumed the robes. who had been sent to the place where Tathagata was. ' The child is my child.HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. having saluted the feet of the Lord of the world. he returned within the city walls. were sent by Buddha to KapUavastu to announce his intention of visiting the place of his their heads. move towards showering down flowers. called Sikhin. Now Buddha. related how Suddhodana had not a believing heart. These two. where Suddh6dana. LII. etc. 202. relates to Sariputra the miracles that attended the progress of a former Buddha. . his native country of Kapilavastu. world. At length.

000 birds) that frequented the city This Suputra had a wife called Suputrl. 350 THE EOMANTIC The Lord of the world. Nadi Kdsyapa. Upfaana. who dwelt in the midst of all the birds (80." [TJdayi then proceeds to Kapilavastu. having received the food of Udayi.— . The king then begins to form an affection for the Shaman. of the Two Parrots. some how or other. Hereupon the king orders a special dish to be prepared for his son. others. The latter. but Udayi instructs the king that his master will eat nought except rice and vegetables. . Uravilva K^syapa . yas and the Mah&sanghtkas. oh Bhiishus is able to go to the place where SuddhSdana resides. lord addressing TJdayi said. Sariputra can Mah4 Kasyapa others. understanding the case. others. related the following story] discharge this mission : The Story § 2.] Then Buddha. others. On this she told him the whole truth and assured him that she never could survive her trouble unless she had some of the food from the royal table of the E^ja of of Benares. or else that she would die. inquired of her the reason. and TJdayi consents to take [There is some slight divergence here betwixt the Kasyapiit to him. . get some of the food to eat of which the King of Benares partook day by day. in the country about Benares. Mugalan is able others Katyayana . with sugar and honey. Her husband seeing how restless and excited his mate had become. " Which of all your company. ! Then the are fit to go then to the presence of Suddhddana. TJdayi . named Suputra. and explained to Suddhodana that he had come from the royal prince who is now residing in the Nyagrodha garden. and heard that his royal father was about to visit him. "I EBMEMEEK in years gone by. and convert ! ! him to the faith I" Then some said. there was a certain King of the Birds. . addressed all the Bhitshus and said. but not of any importance. offers to give other and better food for his son . took a strange fancy that she must. others. " Tou. on a certain occasion. and orders food to be prepared for him. and use your ability to convert him to the faith. but Udayi Suddhodana prefers taking the food to the Lord of the world.

000 in aU. he inquired what he meant by this conduct. and bit it so hard. surrounded by aUthe Sakyas of Kapilavastu. and accompanied by the four kinds of military escort. he watched his opportunity till the servant brought in the rice and other food for the king. at that time I was the faithful one who got the Suddh8dana Raja.884 taels. on which the bird told the whole truth. having picked up as much as he wished. and Brahmadatta was [Kiouen LII contains 5. and Brahmadatta. At this time. he laid hold of his nose. and cost 2. Then flying into the chamber and alighting on the head of the dishcarrier. and at last. the world-honoured one thought thus with himself: "If I rise not to salute my father.762 words. let him go.] CHAPTER LIII.] " Then Brahmahdatta. 351 of the birds 'bemoaued her fate. began to think. that he let go the dishes and scattered aU the food on the floor. Benares. being deprived of his food. left the city in order to go to the spot where Bhagavat was sojourning. 99. At this time a bird belonging to the company undertook to provide for the queen the food she wanted taking his seat therefore on a tree near the open window of the royal palace. Suddhodana Eaja. and told him he was always welcome to as much food as he desired less as to the : The king from the royal table. but was hopeaccomplishment of her wish.' " Accordingly. is neglectful of this him. men will say ' how comes it to pass that he who first duty professes to teach others their duty. being brought into his presence. much pleased with his faithfulness. conveyed it to the disconsolate queen. was King of the Birds." food.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. the King of Benares. then all my of aU—respect to his father?' if I rise to salute . TJdS. On perceiving him thus approaching. ' I wonder what bird this is that comes here and dares to carry off my food in this way. "Now. he ordered his fowler to catch the bird. [And so he does again and again.yi said Buddha. 1 §. The bird then.

Buddha perceiving his Eoyal Father drawing near. but was closed shaved. and he now has evidently attained to the spiritual power of a Eishi. to be surrounded by followers belonging to the Brahman caste." Thinking thus. began to think thus with himself: Prince Siddartha left his home. and whence they came on which the world-honoured one. At this time. according to Buddha's law. and there manifested himself in various and wonderful transformations. afar off. Buddha forthwith. they will lose respect for me. seated around their master. perceiving the spiritual transformations of Bhagavat. he departed and returned to his palace. mentioned their same time pointing to each of his disciples names one after the other. and approached the spot near which Bhagavat was. for he thought it derogatory to his son. by the exercise of his spiritual power.i must do the same. descended from the air.000 S^kya people joined. a Prince of the Eoyal Kshatriya line. . On this. for a moment transfixed to the earth . there was a youth called Upali. as he remained unsupported in the " It is long since the Eoyal air.352 followers THE EOMANTIO . of Upali. that he wore no royal head dress. before. the ] narrative continues thus Then the king observing Sariputra and the other Eahats. was. and at the The History § 2. he found relief in tears and sad all those 99. And so rising up. no priest should rise. but this is not right if I alone rise. [After a long argument between the Eaja and the Prince. turning to ! his father. but re- lamentations. who had come ^ That is. inquired of Buddha who these were. and occupied the same spot as Then the Eaja beholding his son's appearance. and reflecting on the beat course of action. At this time. Suddhodana was not pleased. Suddhodana. in succession. and clad in a poor Kashaya robe. even in the presence of a king." Thinking thus. ascended into space. the Eaja descended from his chariot. in which covering himself after a while.

At a certain time it happened that they just had in their house one pint of millet. five hundred of the Sakyas agreed to They then determined to consign all their become disciples. having entered the city on a begging excursion. "Whereupon. the Pratyeka Buddha accepted it. which had been con• signed to them by a stranger who was leaving the city of Benares. Sakyas approached. bowed down at the feet of Upali. the two poor men resolved to bestow the grain in their charge on this begging priest. but they were both poor and looked down upon by the world. and explained how hijs son had now become pos. Then they replied. but he knowing their purpose. and requested permission to enter the priesthood This being granted. At this time a certain Pratyeka Buddha. and how he was surrounded by a body of Brahmans instead of Kshatriyas. hastened to Buddha. and during four different operations the youth entered successively the four Dhyanas. holding his alms-dish in his hand before each door.] . proceeded from house to house. Then Suddhodana having returned to his palace. proclamation having been made. they also were permitted to become disciples on condition that they first among the seated. So the pride of these S^kya princes was mortified. Suddhfidaua Kaja and the five hundred first.: " _JH1ST0EY OF BUDDHA. convoked all the Sakya princes to an assembly. and. On this Buddha consented.sessed of supreme wisdom. Buddha then related the previous history of TJpaU thus "I remember in days gone by there were two men living in Benares who were great friends. and. " and what would the king have us to do ? On this Suddhodana Kaja recommended that as many of the Sakya princes as were so disposed should leave their homes. Having done so. and cost 3. 353 first of the people to the spot where Buddha was This youth being led by the hand of his mother.158 words. forthwith mounting into the air." [Kiouen LIII contains 6. his mother desired that Buddha would allow her child to shave his head. on making their request known. and had begun to turn the wheel of the Law (establish his kingdom). assume the robes and become followers of Buddha. goods to the care of Upali . and standing thus. now approached the world-honoured one. flew away. Whereupon. and at the same time beseech his pity.079 taels.

" XJpaka hearing this. very fair to behold. his slumbers when suddenly in he thought he heard the sound of some one shouting out the words of a love song. they bowed down and worshipped . for some reason or other. seeing the mendicant fly away tlius. so skOful in learning that he was able to explain all the Shasters with ease. as Upaka went along from his house to the village. " Go now. so oveqoyed was he that he did nought but sing and shout for very delight. to the market. my dear. the other was born as a Brahmatn. taking out a gold piece he had noon-day to buy the necessary articles for wife alter her Now the sun at this time was scorching hot and the earth dried up like a sheet of red copper (as red as a cock's feather). "What in the made my good-tempered again ?" hidden. mind and become Whereupon. and. " has for delight. after the four months of extreme summer heat had passed. and in her love the whole of TJpakamanava's happiness consisted. and of incomparable grace. he went forth at his wife's adornment. was overjoyed and beside himself world. joining their hands in adoration. At length. Now this Upakamanava had a wife. and be as I was before. of the royal race. The two friends. At this time. and lived altogether apart. and gain perfect knowledge of the four Vedas and the six treatises on the mechanical arts. whose name was Manavika. for I wish to enjoy the pleasures (five pleasures) of life again. were filled with joy. Having listened and heard the . the wife said to her spouse. that Manavika withdrew herself from the company of her husband. Brahmadatta E&ja was reposing in the balcony of his palace. sleeping through the heat of the day. Now it so happened.354 THE ROMANTIC CHAPTER LIV." he said. whilst one in particular prayed that he might be bom as a Brahman. and thus escape the evil ways of birth. nevertheless. and buy me perfumes and flowers. and his name was Brahmadatta. and as they worshipped they prayed that they might always be privileged to be born within sound of the true doctrine. So it came to pass after their deaths that one was born in Benares as a Kshatriya. very much to his grief and distress. and his name was TJpakamanava.

as the lily appears As mysteriously on the water. things is only when a man is vexed about all sorts of That he is irritable and weighed down by care. Then the king addressed and said.] To which TJpaka " Maharaja ! replied in the following Gathas What care I if I be roasted at present no heat would irritate by the sun. carelessly trolling his lay as he went. Brahmadatta. and so the G4tha says " Whether from one's own foolish thoughts. Though the rays It of the sun were as hot again. he looked through his window. suddenly roused himself and said." etc. [repeated.— HISTORY OF BUDDHA." Meantime. a sort of affection sprung up in his heart for him. "Manava! and pray . Prom either cause the pollution of love arises. when the sun pours its rays On the earth. This would give me the least of trouble just now." the hairs of his body to stand on end through fear. having listened to the burthen of the love ditty. me. is it you Instead of singing your songs and being so light-hearted At this time of day. and he addressed him in the following Gathas calling to his attendant minister. fellow to his presence. " Who can this fellow be that in the broiling sun at noontime goes along singing his lovesong ?" Having thought thus. and there he saw Upaka strolling along on the parched and reddened ground. Then the king. " Young man Then TJpaka's heart began to fail him and tlie king wants you. as soon as ever Brahmadatta saw Mm. It is only when a man has had bad luck That he gets angry at such trifling matters as these. ! ! : : " How with the heat. parched as red as the plumes of the cook ? are not irritated How is it. commanded him to bring in the on which the minister went out and cried (Manava) come hither come hither after him. the king himself began to entertain similar thoughts." TJpaka. : ! • 355 sounds. and he thought thus " What crime have I committed that the king orders me to his presence ?" But the minister meantime conducted him into the palace and brought him to the king. Now. Or from thoughts raised up by others.

on TJpaka's repeated asseveration that it was so. and. his previous merit had obtained this great eminence as a Eishi. and was about to put his plan in. owing to his extreme affection for him. he woke noise." The king having heard this." Manava having received these. still begged one more [and so on to one hundred and twenty pieces]. but afterwards. and proceeded to the side of the sleeping monarch. " Maharaja I wiU venture to ask you for one more piece. the king. said. stiU hankered after his home. and so addressed the king and said. his oovetousness cluse On this Upaka.356 • THE ROMANTIC in the heat what were your thoughts just now as you went along singing your ditty ?" Then TJpata explained to the king all about Then Brahmadatta addressed him his private matters at home. a district. to the company of a famous Eishi of Benares. the king at first refused to believe him. but stop here with : ! me. was constrained to credit it . Upaka having joined himself powers (and was his finger). raising a shout. soon acquired supernatural able to touch the this. to that Upaka by . The king then offered him the government of a viUage. but yet." On this he took a sword in his hand. I will give you eight pieces. . thus " Manava I pray you don't leave me. will make four. remaining in the palace with Brahmadatta. execution. thought thus with himself: "Why should I not possess the whole kingdom ? I have only to slay the king as he sleeps. sun and moon with On the hearing Brahmadatta. having received these two golden pieces. when the thought of such ingratitude suddenly stopped him. and these will buy abundant ! luxuries for my wife at this time of her returning affection. and then the three you have given me. and at last consented to give him half his kingdom. higlily gra- recited a G4tha in the presence of his chameffect berlain. and all will be mine. with the one I already possess. seeing to what a pass had nearly brought him. resolved to become a re- and to leave his home. freely forgave him. Then TJpaka." Upaka. tified. a town. and I will give you two golden pieces. " Pray don't go . who inquired the reason of his making such a Having told him the truth.

" added Buddha. called Ganto who managed sbave his Majesty's head whilst he was asleep. But finally.HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. and had no time to attend to any other business. and begged the hairdresser. e. desiring that he should be brought up to his father's trade. seeing the holy man con. in gratitude and admiration. Brahmadatta had a barber. At last the youth. paid them worship. Once more the barber put him off till noontide and the evening. proceeded further. presented over {i. Brahmadatta and five hiindred of his chief ministers proceeding to the place where these Eishis dwelt." Buddha having declared that UpaJi was the chief of his followers in the exercise of moral discipline. It came to pass. The barber. the boy's uncle. that a certain Pratyeka Buddha came to the city. " There was once in days gone by a barber living in this city (BeShortly afterwards the bar?) whose wife bore to him a sou. In consequence of this. whilst his five hundred chief ministers were these five hundred Sakya Princes. 357 At tMs gapala. without waking him . shortly after the child . instantly coming to his uncle's house and going away .. him with a village to rule made him a magistrate). So matters continued for several days. "At that time. Ou this his mother took the child to the house of his paternal uncle. "I was TJpakaj TJpali was Gangapala. and Suddh6dana E&ja was Brahmadatta. where- upon the king. again. who have now become my disciples. in reply to the questions of the Bhikshus. and constantly went to the palace. time. to shave his hair and face. and ^became a Eishi. where he was detained more or less all the day. and gave him into the charge of the man and his wife. Gangapala followed TJpaka's example. put the holy man off till the next morning. nares had grown up to boyhood. Again the Pratyeka Buddha came on the following morning and requested to be shaved. the barber's nephew. being in a hurry. to relate the following particulars respecting Upali's previous history. ber sickened and died. Now his uncle was barber to the royal household.

and some of the this. and said. looking up and seeing the sight. 'Who but I. On this the latter consented. himself volunteered to shave the head of the saint. occupied with state business (counting out his money). this newly. boldly came forward into the king's presence and denounced it as a falsehood. your majesty. into the air and flew away gracefully as the King of the Hansaa. and after death continued to be born either as a Deva or man until he was again bom in Benares in a barber's family. ' See yonder. and quickly asked who had been the fortunate man that had shaved the saint. shaved Pratyeka when suddenly one of them saw Buddha flying away through the air. ! they cried out to the king. and remain in the condition of a man fit to profit by the instruction of Holy Teachers. closing both his hands. surrounded by his ministers.' So he banished the uncle and adopted the youth as the royal barber and nail-cutter. and be taught by him. assuring him it should be for hia great benefit. addressed ! Wretched man how dare you ? Be gone for ever from my palace and my kingdom. On holy man ! hair of the Pratyeka Buddha.358 THE EOMANTIO quired the reason. On this the king laughed at him. and no one utter such a lie else. by the exercise of his spiritual faculties. and repeated. it so happened that at this very time the ESja was in his council chamber. should have done the matter ?' " The youth hearing that hia uncle had boasted thus. and as he grew up. ' ' I shaved the holy man. On this hia family barber came forward and aaid. "Now. finding out the state of the case. well acquainted with aU the accomplishments and his household barber and said. at length convinced. was rejoiced to think of the good fortune that should accrue to the neighbourhood from such a circumstance. and declared that he had been the barber on the occasion. 'Tou how could you have shaved him ? Where is your razor and where your appUanees ?' On this the youth brought forth his instruments. and that he might ever be saved from the evil ways of birth. and prayed that hereafter he might meet with this PratyekaBuddha. and.' The king. a beautiful youth. bowed hia head in adoration. "And so it came to pass that this youth lived and died. seeing this miracle. . oh Eaja goes a fresh-shaved flying through apace. Then the youth. in my very presence arts.' The king. After it was mounted over the Pratyeka Buddha.

and as the worldto accept of his hospitaUty on Eaja understood he had acthe sHent. Respecting him Kasyapa predicted that he should be born as a Buddha. the for tions . with respect to discipline. but the other part of it.332 taels.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. It so happened that they were reciting the law in the assembly. and cost 3. the father of the child just named went to the park to attend to the requirements of the Bhikshus. And so. it has come to who is pass. and was told that only the Bhikshus were allowed to hear the entire rules of the community. he paid his homage. and join the community?' (Sthavira) and desired permission to take on him the vows of a recluse. Now at this time Suddh6danaEaja requested the morrow. At this time.] CHAPTER LV. remained honoured one Buddhaandthepriesta up. oh Bhikshus. he was not allowed to hear. History of RahClla. and cepted the invitation. his name should be S^kya. he returned holy the circumambulated having made all necessary preparaand palace.664 words. and so rising one three times. he inquired the reason. and to leave his home and follow the Lord Kasyapa. During came to Benares. And so he became a Bhikshu. and that youth is TJpaU." my disciples LIV in respect of his acquaintance with the [Kiouen contains 6. and dwelt in the deer park with two myriads of men who had become his disciples. This having happened more than once. " Now it came to pass that among KiiiSyapa's followers was one called Prabhapala. 359 as "At this time Kasyapa appeared in the world his career he Buddha. and was distinguished for his knowledge of the rules of moral discipline (Vinaya). On this he inquired. and one of his principal followers should be this youth distinguished for tis knowledge of the precepts. the chief of moral law. and took his little boy with him. his with his foUowers to entertainment. and some part of it the child heard . ' Why may I not become a SamanOn this he went to the superior era. for I was then Prabhapala.

His mother. as the day dawned. Accordingly. ail the Bhikshus and said —"I remem- . went forward to the palace of Suddh6dana Eaja. for all things one. and to vindicate both her own and her son's character. seeing Buddha had returned to KapUavastu. This is my son. Accordingly. and after the feast was over he provided water for cleansing the mouth and hands. he arose and returned to his own place. to bid him and the Ehikshus come to the On place where feast. the world-honoured and left by his disciples.200 followers proceeded to the palace. and then taking a small seat he came and took his place in front of Buddha and thus began the discourse. and Eah-lila. Now at this time Eahula began to be about six years of age. " Is it ! — ! ! true or not that this is your son ?" To which the world-honoured one replied. So Tasodhara sent messengers to Buddha to ask him to an entertainment on the morrow. and in recoUeotion of all the charges which had been made against her. Then by the intervention of Sariputra. Shaman are you quite happy and weU ?" Then Suddhodana Kaja asked Buddha plainly. Then Tasodhari instructed EahMa her son in this wise " My child the great Shaman who is now our guest is your father.360 THE EOMANTIC the morrow. upon his guests. and taught his father and the rest the secrets of his law. they took their seats in due order. After the discourse. Buddha and his 1. therefore. go to him then and speak to him!" On this the child EahMa proceeded to the side of the world-honoured and said to him. having been born six years after his father had left bis home. the Eaja sent his messengers to the Buddha was. surrounded right were ready. they rejoiced and exulted for joy at the news. resolved to set the matter clear. and entering into the apartment appointed. Buddha and how Then Buddha addressed was that the child was borne so long by his mother. therefore. " How are you." Then the Eaja and all th^ company present were exceedingly glad. " Oh that the honoured of men would open his mouth in instruction. Having entered the royal apartment. and teach us some of his own divine lessons I" On this Buddha opened his mouth. himself leading the way. they took their seats in due order Then the king himself personally waited according to the law. Then SuddhSdana requested some it of the priests to ask to relate the previous history of TasSdharS. " Tas6dhar4 is perfectly pure and innocent. Suddhodana !Baja obtained light and became a disciple.

' What are the rules customary before ' accepting the royal authority ?' The other answered. ' It your duty. 5. And so also one evening when he was thirsty. I am about to become a recluse. what is ' Well and I order you to conduct the empire in my stead. Confer. Then the owner of the pitcher coming and finding some one had taken the water that was in it said.^ They both of them had a distaste for the world and its pleasures. and desired to become religious mendicants. seeing all his followers around him.cleaner ("twig of willow for cleaning the mouth and teeth). as the elder. and he made a vow to the effect that henceforth he would rely only on their charitable offerings for his own support. and saw a certain person's pitcher {kundilca) full of water. What thief has stolen the ' done to him ?' He ' is punished heavUy. down even to a draught of water and a tooth. and that he would have nothing. I now take king. is clearly and rule the kingdom. consulted together as to the suc- cession. he went and helped himself.i this monarch had two sons born to him. 'a man after this disobeys or disregards the authority which the king takes. in the absence of any one to offer them to him. 361 ber in yesLrs long gone by. ' ^ " or Man-God {Manusliya-deva?). and being in want of some medicinal herbs and other things.HISTOKY OF BUDDHA.' The other said. ' Tou.' Thus Surya. having given the kingdom to his brother.' Then Surya replied.' The other answered.' 'And if. Then Sdrya. I shall not consent to be your substitute.' said the other. you must of necessity be Mug because I am going to give up the world and become a recluse. accompanied by many of his relations and friends. ' First of all you adopt the royal title.' said Surya.' To this the first repUed. the king their father died. undertook to be their teacher. the title of then. But after a time it came to pass that SArya forgot his vow. ' Not so.' said Stirya. to do so. he went and helped himself and put the empty pitcher on one side. pp. 4. and take nothing himself unless freely given him. Then the and Chandra. the one was caUed Surya(Sun). It is your duty to reign. Weber's K^mayana. n. Man-Heaven . to practise religion. Now not long after their two princes. The elder said. Sib?ya minds were so directed. went into the desert as a hermit. there was a certain king of the Brahman caste whose name was Jin-tien. my brother. ought to assume the reins of government. the other (Moon) Chandra.

at the suggestion of his little cousin who was standing by. to conduct him there. sent forth horses and elephants. I am a thief. come here to be punished. but it was not so before but Chandra replied.' To this Sdrya replied. I pass a law that all Eishis may take medicinal herbs and water when they need them. Now by a strange accident after this interview was over. and consider himself as a prisoner. and aU other creatures. he immediately gave orders the culprits in his kingdom who were suffering imprisonment should be set at liberty. to be treated as his crime deserved. one of his other followers. he offered to Surya every kind of charitable offering. But they declined to do anything in the matter. I have freely permitted all Shamans and Brahmans to take these things. Then some business or when he came into his presence. On this not ? that all Sflrya departed. hearing that Surya wished to come to his city. hurriedly inquired of his ministers came back. and on his approach Chandra bowed down at his feet in reverence. It has been so from the day I ascended the throne. coming to him for bowed down at his feet. But his heart was weighed down and fuU of grief because of his broken vow.362 THE EOMANTIG thief water out of my pitcher ? It is no Eishi that dwells here. but Surya Eishi forbad him and said. Chandra a youth. Upadhyaya (master) how so Then he told the entire circumstances of his case. But Surya forbad him and said. and received the full pardon of the other. it is a and nothing else.. ' My son no more bow down to me. Chandra ordered the Eishi to go into his own royal garden. as he was accustomed i !' ' ! !' ' !' ' ' ! !' ' entirely forgot about his brother being in the after this interval the recollection of the fact garden for six days. but all at once he bethought him of an expedient and said. Then his brother Chandra. on hearing them Chandra was very sorry. in the way of meat and drink. and then gave him the option of leaving whenever he liked. and he whether the Eishi had gone or Hearing that he had not gone. and so Surya Eishi resolved to give himself up to the king. etc. and then going to the garden. Maharaja you make this a law now." .am a thief To which the youth replied.' Sflrya was still dissatisfied. so you have committed no robbery. for I. and at length.' Then Surya acknowledged what he had done. birds and beasts. do not pay me reverence Then Surya told the whole circumstances . and demanded that they should punish him as a thief.

unattended to and without food." The world-honoured one having explained these matters. Finally who instructed should be most remarkable for holding or keeping the precepts of the law (moral precepts). The Kasyapiyas say somewhat otherwise. Now this girl was afterwards bom as TasSdhard. rose up ! and departed. Accordingly. Once the mother took the girl with her. on returning home. therefore he was himself for six years shut up in his mother's womb. whilst I step on one side for a purpose. Every day the wife and daughter of the owner of the cows went to milk them. But the girl only complained of the heavy weight of the pail of mUk. I remember in years gone by there was a large herd of cows kept by a certain rich man." On this Buddha holding out his hand. and because of her undutiful conduct to her mother in making her carry the heavy pail for six kr6sas. whilst she dawdled behind." " Again. Then Tasddhara sent EahWa to the place where Buddha was. At last. " at that time I was Surya. unable to find deliverance. Sariputra. Kahiila took it. and because he allowed that Eishi to remain for sis days in the garden. when Suddhodana had prepared the feast for the worldhonoured one. mother you carry my pail for a bit. this occasion Buddha bare record that. ' Here.: HISTORY OF BUDDHA. and going up to him said. and EaMla was Chandra. 363 " Now. and made her carry the larger of the two mUk pails . she got angry. and further preached the law. and told the child to ask his father for his kingdom (or authority over a district). he gave strict orders through the palace that no one should tell EahOla that Buddha was his father. and thus they went Buddha delivered Eahula to the care of him in the rules of moral discipline. when her mother continued to urge her on. she let her mother carry it a distance of six kr6sas. [The foregoing is what the Mahasanghikas swy. Eahula on together. and put down the paU and said. and And on finally he was admitted as a member of the community. to Suddhodana and his guests. the — . as follows] Now.' And so having got rid of the mUk-pail. of all his disciples. she had to carry Eahula for six years. I want the Shaman to give me authority over a district. " I want the Shaman to give me a kingdom." said Buddha. On this the child came to where Buddha was. the mother kept urging the girl to go faster as that part of the road was dangerous.

and provided water. and then went up to the balcony where Tasodhar^. And so the Githa says children. When she saw for the first time the marks of a Eecluse. Of all lights the Sun is the chief . his mother. sat down by his side.—— 364 THE EOMANTIC next morning EaMla. The Bhikshus wished to drive Mm away. on which she said. finding his mother thus giving vent to her grief. is your father." and quickly ran down. Swamy (Triibner & Co. " My child. inquired why she wept. and let him hide himself in my robes. "Never since I was born have I heard better news. proceeded in order and with much decorum towards the king's palace. listened to the exposition of the law. proceeded to the grove where Buddha was. and her tears flowed fast. to tell him that Then Buddha. too. *Rahula." Then EahMa replied." Translated by Sir M. surrounded by the Bhikshus. observing the decorous behaviour of the Bhikshus. Coomara following are also to be found in the "Sela Sutta" of the "Sutta Nipata. for cleansing the mouth and fingers. in number.. the king occupying a small seat near the world-honoured one." of her Kahula. Her heart was grieved. . Of all stars the Moon is the chief. and comparing it with the noisy conduct of the was very much impressed. his discourse* Then Buddha began " Of Of all sacrifices (that all by) Fire is the chief. " The young wife of the Sakya Prince Was called TasodharS (Sudara).). Of all waters the Sea is the chief. was. Suddhodana having himself waited on the priests. and on seeing her husband with his shaven crown and Kashaya robes. but the world-honoured one forbad them and said. had watched the world-honoured one and his followers approach. 1. and covered himself over with the robe of his father. Of all men a King is the chief. ^ The stanzas 19. surrounded by children of his own rant. 20) (sects. etc. " Let him stay.200 all was ready. she burst into tears. whose skin is bright as gold. exhausting passions Grief is the chief." Then the feast over. and going up to Buddha. She. and on reaching the palace. yonder Shaman. he watched the assembled priests take their seats with their accustomed gravity.

] Then for the sake of Suddhodana. he sent to the Nyagrodha grove. but on sending for him he was nowhere to be found. Then Suddhodana having to be occupied for some time in official Eahula took the opportunity of leaving the palace and going after Buddha. the world-honoured one entered on an explanation of the law. and went onwards with him to the STyagrodha grove.] Meantime.HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. he went to Kapilavastu. After this the E4ja returned home. Ananda. and see if he was in either of the palaces there. fore [There are other teachers^ who say that BahUla was born two years beBuddha commenced his six years' penance. Then Suddhodana was filled with grief.itted to the community. "Whether gods or men. and rising up he went to the place where Buddha was.. and food for the use of himself. the world-honoured one ai'ose and departed to his place. and Eahflla. below. for there is no one to succeed me. and that sevenyears after This he had arrived at supreme wisdom. Then.'' [Then Buddha made the rule that no one should be adm. Amongst all creatures that have life. 1 Five teachers. so filled the king's heart with joy. now sat down to meat and desired to have Eahula by his side . Arrived there the king explained how he had successively intended to leave his kingdom to Nauda. Suddhodana having sent every necessary article of Buddha and his followers." 365 Having repeated these lines with a view to excite in Suddh6dana some desire or thought about religion. Eahula was admitted by Siriputra into the community as a Samauera. " I may as well resign my throne. . and then the messengers came back with the news that Eahula had entered the community. except he had the express sanction of his parents. and through the earth. On this the world-honoured one took him by the hand. Buddha is chief. Buddha it that the age for ordination was 20. . Above. but aU these had become Ascetics. at his own request. Not finding him. Aniruddha. the world-honoured made a rule that at 15 (EahUla's age) a youth may be received as a Samanera (momce). [The Shikshus having reminded duties. and now the king said. Then the king ordered messengers to go to the different resorts of the prince first to the Asoka grove.

was so piously endowed that it even fetched food and other necessaries for its parents. two tusks. Now in this. she. this elephant had six tusks (chhadanta). with Eahfda and 99. But this is generally regarded as a beetle. having set eyes on him. Buddha said this was not the first time such an occurrence had taken place in the history of Mahipraj apati. . having wandered rather far in search of food. " I BEMEMBEB. which was of a dark rosy colour like the head of the IndragSpa'' bird. and trunk). and its seven parts planted on the ground (four feet. Now. this young elephant. oh Bhikshus in years gone by there was a mountain was called Utsanga.] CHAPTEK ! LVI.917 taels. [Eiouen LV contains 5833 words. and water-tanks. he related the following history. near Benares. went forth to salute him.366 would make Bahiila Samanera. who. then twelve years afterwards when Buddhareturned to Kapilavastu. Then all the Bhikshus astonished at this miracle. And so it happened that on one occasion. Moreover. amongst which was a certain female elephant that gave birth to a young one of a perfectly white colour except its head.' which been supplied. Then hearing of the wonderful miracles which he wrought. and shady groves. and washing her eyes with it was restored to sight. thought thus : ^ 8 According to certain teachers.000 of the SJkyas.] THE ROMANTIC exactly 15 years old at the time of his ieooming a Again the body of teaoherB (sthaviras ?) say that MaMprajapati haviDgthrough much weeping lost her sight. this elephant was seen by a certain chief of hunters. she took some of the miraculous water. and cost 2. on the southern face of which was a garden beautifully adorned with flowers. so that it would never touch anything to eat himself tUl they had first in the Kasi country. such as causing fire to proceed from one part of his person and water from another. having grown up to its fuU size. or cochineal. and at the request of all the disciples. mountain at a certain time there gathered a herd of elephants.

' 367 like this none ought to ride but King Brahmadatta Having thought thus. beautiful creature. and then he represented how broken-hearted his : sigh and moan and weep. by means of certain charms (calls) they soon caused the young elephant to approach the spot. 'There never was such u. ! !' ' !' . if that would give your Majesty any pleasure. and I have treated you with the utmost gentleness. he went straight to Brahmadatta and said. and. I have taken every care that your cords and housings do not hurt you. An elephant himself. and yet I see that your heart is so sad that all my tenderness is lost. seeing the party approaching. ^ " Then the king. they brought him at once to Brahmadatta stated. Nevertheless.' Then the ESja summoned his elephant trappers to his presence. etc.' Then the king himself proceeded to feed and provide for the animal. Then these trappers. went forth to meet them. and. ' Maharaja you must know that in such and such a place there is a certain beautiful elephant^ its body perfectly white. and was so charmed with the beauty of the captive animal thajt he exclaimed. May it please you. King Brahmadatta. the elephant did nothing but seeing this. clasping his hands together in token of respect. and how he was trapped in the very place where he was seeking food for them. How is it that you What can be done for you to give you any pleaare so sorrowful Then the young elephant sure.' ! fit only for your majesty to ride. fit only for a king to ride. therefore. and wondering at it. On this the young elephant told Tiim how he had been accustomed to feed his father and mother.' Then the king reflected. No sooner had he come near than the trappers enclosed him in their snare. taking with them cords and snares. spoke to it thus ' I have given you every kind of choice food.. to send proper persona to the spot to trap this elephant and bring it to your majesty. came and stood in front of the creature. Tell me and it shall be done addressed Brahmadatta and said. Eaja. went to the spot indicated. and having safely bound him. How wonderful to hear this creature reply to me in Then the king bade him tell him all the case human language and explain the matter thoroughly. had and told them just what the lord of the huntsmen and then ordered them to go at once and take the elephant and afterwards bring him to his presence.HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. ' I could explain it all in a moment. using every kind of endearing gesture and attention.

she asked what had befallen him that he had been absent so long from her. Then he told her his adventure." . through the power of that refreshing stream. and I promise your majesty I will return and partake of all you provide for me. and end it now. and never want wife or child. and so the G4tha says " ' Go and welcome. to wait upon him and supply all his requirements. Then the mother. and not seeing his mother. he ran forward. aad he said. thou faithful elephant N%a. But meantime his mother. had wept herself blind. and perceiving her offspring before her.' So he loosed him at once and let him go. Than cause thee and them the grief of separation. and. coming to the place. ' I would than prevent this faithful creature from fulfilling his duty to his parents. Nourish and cherish thy parents as in duty bound. rather myself be condemned to hell the wants of his parents. he gradually found his way back to his native mountain.: 368 THE ROMANTIC parents would be. at once replied with a lamentable and tearful cry. he took his trunk full. 'Oh! may that merciful Eaja Brahmadatta partake with me in my happiness. And now the elephant cub. soon came to the spot where his 'mother was.' "Then Buddha explained that at that time he was the young elephant king— the elephant-mother was Mahaprajapati Gotamt. ing the cry and knowing the voice of her offspring. and that she recovered her sight in the same way as the elephant dam had done. nor could she find her way back to the spot she had left. and when she had heard it she exclaimed. 'Let me but go give them some food. Then the mother. and so had wandered away from the place where she had dwelt before. hearset up a loud cry and wept for very sorrow.' Then the king was astonished beyond mea- and he thought. as she rejoiced with exceeding joy. of water and bathed his mother with the cooling stream. recovered her sight. from grief at losing her son.' " So Brahmadatta having set the elephant at liberty. guided by the sound. The son. and seeing her standing unmoved by the side of a water-tank. and bade him be ever happy in attending to sure at the singular piety of the elephant. servant or minister. I would rather lose my life. filled with joy.

Then Nanda replied. Nanda began to speak. through a feeling of reverence. O Lord Whence dost thou come ? Oh. but Nanda had refused. regretted most of aU not to find Nanda.kya Prince.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. Now just at this time Nanda was on the top of his house with his female companion (Sundari). and bowed down at his feet. On this. and. and then Buddha. Having spoken a few complimentary words. rose from his seat. food— i e. as though he 1 " Fi sH tseung. as they loitered up and down and looked about. the S4kya Prince. But Buddha assured him he had already eaten and required nothing in addition. my unworthy mansion and rest awhile I" On this. and asked the Lord if he would partake of either food or drink. the S5. with his follower. seeing Nanda carrying a patra full of honey and rice out of the house. taking the patra full of honey and Meantime his sweetheart rice. of the conversion of IsTanda." an extraordinary supply of tional or irregular as to time. went forth to meet Buddha. went out and followed Buddha. " As you please. and. he then sat silent. Then Nanda. suddenly they saw the worldhonoured one approaching. and. " Even so. the Lord entered the house of Nanda and took a seat. I pray you. called out to him and said." Then Nanda said. Then. 369 The History § 2. All his invitations having been in vain. but that he would not leave his home and become a disciple. proceeded to the house of that S4kya Prince. enter. and made : ! Now it would return to his dwelling-plaoe. " But may I not offer you a dish of broth (congee) provided at an irregular^ hour ?" Buddha replied to Nanda. (Sundart) at the top of the tower. my Lord I" and he took Buddha's patra. taking with him one disciple. saying he would gladly administer of his substance to the support of Buddha and the priests. Wanda. descending from the tower. Nanda got up. excep- . or sat down. filling it up with congee. came to pass that the world-honoured one. having finished his noon-day meal. he offered it to him as a meal provided at an irregular hour. as did also the attendant he had brought with him. amidst all the followers whom he had converted. the worldhonoured one. But Buddha hesitated to accept it. Having then stood on one side he spake thus " Welcome. He had repeatedly urged him to leave his home and follow him.

" But Nanda urged that he wished not to become a recluse. has much greater merit." ! ! 370 THE EOMASTTIO "Nanda. " Nauda return not to your house. etc. oh Lord "Nevertheless. and desire to escape from their power. do come back and don't let anything delay you. and provided them with a sufacienoy of aU the articles of the four sorts they needed. and to stop in the different streets diately return home. "In this vast continent of Jambudwlpa. Then Buddha which is replied. " very much merit. and presented before these monuments every kind of religious offering flowers. oh Nanda and you will cease to — ! hanker after them. lamps. abide here. bowing his head in reverence. perceiving the intention of the Lord. Moveover." said Buddha. they began to say." Meantime. wishing everyone to see the dish full of (unseasonable) food. On this the Bhikshu. " Why lowing his master I" Nanda following him with So when the people saw it. suppose there were a pious man or woman who carefully tended all these Eahats. on which Buddha replied. incense. Nanda you should be satisfied that the enjoyment of pleasure is momentary and passing. " Oh. made a sign with his hand to one of the Bhikshus to take the dish full of food from the hand of Nanda. the world-honoured one. sion to return to his to show hospitality and charity to the Lord and the priests. numerous as the tender shoots which grow up in a bamboo plantation. Nanda has become a disciple. "the man who leaves his home to become my disciple. j tell me." . seven thousand yojanas across. and is attended with much sorrow j for all the — ! indulgences of sense are impermanent and perishing. of the town. like the tapering of a chariot Irom front to rear. and after their Nirvana erected monuments over their ashes. Now. pointing to the dish he held in his hands. broad at the top. full of evil and misery regard them so. began to walk here and there. soon. Nanda do you think that man or woman would acquire much merit or little ?" Nanda replied. desired permishome . having left Nanda's house. said that he was going to offer the food therein contained to Tathagata. my Prince! (Aiya) where are you going ?" On this Nanda. but rather to remain in a position dish. went straightway up to Nanda and took the Then Nauda. having arrived at the Sangharama. narrow at the bottom. and would imme- Then Sundart replied. and is fol- At length the Lord. there are a vast number of priests.

who having arrived." said Buddha. let him be dealt with as Then Nanda thought thus— the law (Pratim6ksha) directs!" " The master does not allow my garment to be of equal size with his. "Lord! I desire to go to the town and beg my food !" Then Buddha answered and said. So he had a Kash4ya garment made similar to his master's." Then Nauda permitted him to shave assumed the Kash^ya robes. and lunirious slippers. " I ought to become a disciple. " it is so. and only when they discovered their mistake did they return." " Then if this be the case. and shus." On this. let no Bhikshu presume to wear a garment (safighati) of the same size as mine or if he does. Now Nanda was a man of great personal beauty. Then all the Bhikafter seven days he him at a distance gradually approaching the assemthought that he was the lord himself. and by the very discipline. and impossible. " From this time forth. and the and so completed the act of professed discipleship. Then the Bhikshus expostulated with Nanda for having a garment precisely the shape and size of their lord's. and represented the case to Buddha himself. " Yes my Lord it is as you say. and so proceeded to rise from their places to salute him. 371 Nanda hearing this discourse about the misery of bodily indulgence. on this Nanda addressed him and said : " What advantage wiU it be. yet out of deference to Buddha. if you do out off my locks ?" to whom Buddha replied. on which he asked Nanda if it were so. " It is clearly out of the question. sources of misery.HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. you oast away all sorrow. ! ! ! with painted eyes. his umbrella in his left hand and his alms-dish in his right. and just like that of Tath%ata. approached to Nanda as though to shave his head. and desired him to send for the hair-cutter at once. acquiesced and said. and said. Buddha made a sign to one of the Bhifcshus. his head. he put it on. ! ! . seeing bly. and put an end to all the . and when he said. at any rate I may have a beautiftdly adorned and shining one (bespangled)!" And so he assumed one of this character." then he forbad it. his body straight and comely and of a golden hue. is it not so " True my lord !" Nanda answered. " Suffer it to be so for thus you enter into my community. although he had no real desire to become a recluse. " what means this bespangled garment. and haying received it. and alms-dish. oh youth for surely ?" you have accepted the vows and become a recluse. he proceeded to the spot where Buddha was and said.

" so going out of the Vihara." Nevertheless. careless about the rest j And rejoicing to have got rid of all anxious thought !" Then the lord. though obliged to give up his beautiful robe and the other personal adornments we have named. that umbreUa in your hand. On which he began to think thus " Tathagata is going to the town to beg his food. be sure before you go to close all the doors of the different apartments. with gazing at her from morning till night. " Nanda if you should have occasion to leave the TibSra. said to him before he departed. moved by this circumstance. and your garments were aoUed and unpretentious." And then the world-honoured one added this Gatha and said " When shall we see this Nanda. go a-begging ? Contented with little. and forbad it under penalty of expulsion from the commuThen again." The world-honoured one having said this. and delight himself Then Buddha. with a burnt piece of stick as a pencil. whoever commits himself thus. assembled the Bhikshus. according to his turn. " Brethren from henceforth let none of my disciples wear a decorated robe. Nanda. unguents. and the delight afforded him by the company of Sundari. assembled the Bhikshus and said. Then Nanda thought thus — " Now is my opportunity for escape and to return home. to take charge of the Vihara and guard it. knowing his thoughts. he saw that the door of the ! — ! . and so all day long in his retreat he did nothing but draw the figure of his sweetheart on a fragment of a tile.— 372 and your body THE EOMANTIC so cared for. having been acquainted with the circumstance. Nanda. and so go a-begging . to beg his daily meal. let him be dealt with according to the law. you were living in a desert place (Aranyaka). and your feet shod with delicate slippers. you might then be permitted to go a begging to get food enough to keep you aUve . or lightly bold his patra. or use any unguents. departed at once for the town. and the patra in the other as if you were going to heg ? If. nity. Dwelling in a desert spot. your eyes anointed with. but not as the case is now. and solemnly warned them against any such misconduct as this. could not forget the joys of his royal home. at a certain time Nanda was commissioned. I will take the opportunity of escaping and returning to my home !" The lord.

Gayakasyapa's. than he saw the door of Mah^kSsyapa's chamber open [and so on with ' Ma- chamber was open. " I was going back to my home. for I cannot reconcile myself to give up the pleasures of my palace and the society of Sundari. but just then the world-honoured one. " Now then I will go back to my home. spake thus Then Buddha. When escaped. was discovered sitting in his place of concealment. Kauchtila ? or Mahakauchtila. no sooner had he done that.— HISTOKY OF BUDDHA. and so Nanda will shut. by his spiritual power perceiving what was taking place. and seeing that he had no sooner shut one than another opened. Suddenly catching sight of Buddha. he hurried through the Nyagrodha garden wishing to escape . Buddha then addressed him —" Where are you going. lord's 373 it . on account of this " Does the man who wishes to escape from the wood. and I can find no comfort in the practice of the Brahma-chariya (continence). and as he did so. for the master will be back soon. Kuvira's^ (?). XJpasena's. and so he ran and shut it . Nanda sat down behind a tree to conceal himself.'' Having thought thus. return and enter it again ? I " Kia-tchen-yen for Zia-to-yen-na.. he went therefore and closed hakatyayana's. I therefore desire to give up the attempt and to return home. Upalivata's Having thus gone from cell to cell shutting the doors." No sooner had he shut this door. these Bhikshus door]. he thought." confession. TJravilva Kasyapa's. . whether the doors are open or I will hasten away and return home. and when he shut that. another N'anda began to think thus with himself. — be sure to find fault with me. Nanda ?" to which he replied. immediately transported himself to the spot. and entered the Nyagrodha garden just as Nanda was hastening away from the Vihara towards Eajagrlha. Mahachunda's. Eevata's. " I will just shut this one door and then hasten to my home. Nadikasyapa's. then he ran to shut that door and thought. than he saw the door of Sariputra's chamber wide open." but just then he saw Mogalan's door standing open. " It is no use taking any more trouble. But the lord by his power caused the tree to rise straight up into the air.

and then I will hurry home." thoughts and his purpose. having recited this fragment of the law for the good of Nanda." On this the master went to the town. Meantime Nanda reflected thus "What should prevent me returning home at once. Tath&gata will soon be here j I will hurry home as fast as I can." Resolving on this." lord ! — — 1 net. but no sooner had he filled up one than it upset and all the water was wasted again. it may be " oh honourable. he could not forget the pleasures of his former life. Nanda went to each cell. " Remember. "I will take this opportunity while the Now But Buddha. But as soon as he had brushed the dirt away. i. and to return home to his palace and his mistress. a breeze seemed to spring up and blew it all back again." . 20. and he still longed to give up his religious profession. and so entirely rid yourself of all disappointment and sorrow in the diligent practice of self denial and abstention. on which occasion it happened to be Nanda's turn to take charge of the temple and guard it . about this time. return you to the net. vol. There seems to be a play on the word " Vigura. Then Nanda thought.'" From Then the lord. "Tou should. he went in and fetched a broom and proceeded to carry out his purpose. fol. Then Nanda thought. ' Fu-ka-lo. a certain nobleman asked Buddha to partake of hospitality at his house." Thus the world-honoured one instructed S'andaj but notwithstanding all this. the net escaped. oh VSgara ! THE EOMANTIC seeing these things." Thinking thus." a Vide also Kai-yuen-shi-kian-mu-lu. compose your mind to obey the directions of my law. "I will just run and fill up the different pitchers (kundikaa) of the priests. on which he thought. he looked towards the cell of Buddha and saw it was full of dirt. Chang-lo. and fill all the pitchers (kundikaa) with water. spoke to him before he went. leaves and dust and dirt. then I will go. oh '^venerable Nanda. Nanda that you must sweep and water the temple. at this time Nanda thought.374 Tou. knowing his is away to return to my home. "I will just sweep out the dirt from the cell of Buddha. further exhorted Viim in these words. and taking the water-vessels filled them up in succession. "what is the use of trying to sweep up the dirt. or fill the water vessels it is aU in vain." Whilst thus planning his escape.

caused that hollow place to become level as one's hand. and there appeared right in front of Nanda. etc." etc. the following verses again " Does the man. by the exercise of the power of divine sight (samanta chakku). what impurity and disgusting secretions. intending to return to his palace. by his power of transformation. sat still. perceived how the case was with Nanda. what vileness and filth. " Nanda the Tathligata wishes you to accompany him to Kapilavastu. and wishing to hide himself from him. by his spiritual power. Then Buddha.: HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. ran down a high bank into a hollow. and from morning till night they did nothing but talk about worldly matters and forbidden pleasures. he bade Nanda think that the body which he was so enamoured of was but a collection of bones and flesh within it. Then Buddha began to discourse on the deceptive character of female beauty . determined to break off the intimacy between Nanda and these worthless priests. he passed unseen from the nobleman's house straight to the Nyagrodha wood. and so they went together. seeing Buddha. and could not — . But the teaching was all in vain. Then Nanda. on which a hundred and more dead and stinking fish were placed. as he was hurrying onwards towards Eajagriha. as he sat in the nobleman's house. and there crouching down. [as before]. he asked him whither he was going. and he longed to go back to his palace and the arms of Sundart his mistress. perceiving the evU consequences of this conduct. and then he added as an argument. Then Buddha. endure the restraint of discipleship. and so." Nanda readily assented to this intimation. he hastened through the Nyagrodha wood. they gradually passed along tiU they came to the shop of a fishmonger. sent a message to him. Then the world-honotured. And so it came to pass that he got six of the common (lewd) sort of priests to come to him. and on what business ? Then Nanda again told his master that he had no heart for the life of an ascetic. And then Buddha dwelt on the power of religion and self-control to secure peace and expel sorrow. and said. having done this and held it in his hand a . for Nanda still longed for a life of pleasure. Then Tathagata. seeing within the shop a mat of straw. he bade Nanda go inside and bring him a handful of the straw . Seeing Nanda there. 375 Thinking thus. ! On entering the city.

having left Kapilavastu and returned to his own by his disciples. being surrounded ! Then Buddha. and produce its evil consequences j " and then he recited this Gatha ' ' : Just as a man living in a fisherman's hut. After this.— 376 little while. or Sariplitra. or UravUvakasyapa. or Katyayana. and asked him if he perceived anything disagreeable ? On this. Wheeetjpon Buddha replied. And so scents himself with the stink of the fish. and taking a small quantity of scent. the Master bade him smell his hand. or Mah^kasyapa. and then credit shall be given you. even in this By the influence of such companions A man hereafter goes to hell. [Kiouen LVI contains 5784 words. CHAPTER and LVII. he addressed Nanda thus " Nanda if you desire the company of friends. choose not the bad. . but : consort with Mogalau..892 taels]. Nanda! so it is if a man keep evil company j the influence of this society will always affect the life of such a person. Nauda explained that the smell of the fish was most offensive and impure. he addresses him thus) : "As when upon the hand is poured a little scented water. §1. Such is the influence of a virtuous friend upon the life. And then he recited these verses : " If a man makes friends of bad men. THE EOMANTIO Buddha told him to fling it away. The power of the perfume destroys all other scent. Or aromatic powder of any kind. and cost 2. or the six Bhikshus with whom you have now made alliance. So is he who keeps bad company. and placing it on Nanda's hand." (And then Buddha enters a perfumer's shop." place. He wUl lose his character. world. " very true! very true. etc. Takes in his hand a single straw on which fish had been placed.

and that the burned ape was not more inferior to his sweetheart in point of beauty. asked him if he saw the sad state to which it was brought. become ignited. by friction. Buddha transported him at once to the Trayastrinshas heaven. I see it. Still he shall escape the cause of future pain. So by his spiritual power he transported him from the Nyagrodha plantation. owing to a heavy storm of wind." Notwithstanding all the advice of the world-honoured one. (The rest of the history of Nanda is identical with that found in the Manual oj Buddhism^. But if 377 one clioose tlie good and virtuous as friends. and then asked if his sweetheart was as beautiful as one of those Devis on which JSTanda confessed that no comfive Nanda . " Yes indeed. still hankered after the enjoyments of worldly rank and sensual pleasures.HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. and so a great fire had taken place on that mountain . Whereupon Buddha resolved to have recourse to some expedient to wean him from these fascinations. and showed him Sakra with hundred Devis attending him. 205-6). one in particular was dreadfully disfigured J Buddha showing this one to Nanda. pp. Though he may not come to great advantage (in the world). parison could be made. two branches of a tree had. in consequence of this fire many of the monkeys inhabiting the mountain had been seriously burnt — amongst the number. Whereupon Nanda replied. present And follow their example in the daily wor"k of life." Nanda ! Then Buddha asked him if his sweetheart was as beautiful as the burned monkey. than she was to the Devis. Now it happened that. world-honoured one. on which Nanda having professed that there could be no comparison between the two. to the top of the hiang-isui (perfume-drunken) mount. .

the Brahman erected a stftpa forhis ashes. he clad himself in a. he explained his intention. drawn by elephants. of Bhadraka and others. so as to Bhikshu. saw that he was not in a condition to become a and so bade him return home again. he Jived in a city oaUed Pandumati. Novf at this time. beautiful garment. Nanda having arrived at the condition of a Eahat. thought thus with himself " I too will go to the place where Buddha resides. and proceeded in a sumptuous chariot. . there was a Buddha born in the world. Mugalan. disciple. with a view to induce them to admit him into the fraternity. called Vipasyi Tath4gata. and greatly venerated it." On this. and having received their consent. [The story then proceeds to relate that this Brahman was Nanda in a former birth]. Devadatta seeing the number of Sdkya who had left their families to become followers of Buddha.378 THE ROMANTIC Whereupon. Buddha : The History § 2. and was gratified beyond measure to see the spotless forms of the Bhikshus as they came forth from the bath. going to his parents. [Kiouen LVII contains 5930 words and cost 2. hut they each refuse on the ground of their master's previous decision. After the death of this Buddha. Having arrived there and made known his youths. where reigned a king called Pandu. to the place where Buddha dwelt. declared to all his diaciples that he was the most eminent of all his followers in point of mastery over the senses . : purpose. In this city there was a rich Brahman who constructed for Yipasyi and his followers a bath-house. looking into the previous history of Devadatta. with a view to become one of his followers. and Kasyapa. and then he related this story " I remember more than ninety-one kalpas ago. and bestow his fit wealth in charity.96 taels]. the world-honoured one. himself for the condition of a Devadatta then goes to Sariputra.

On this his parents relented. but in vain. At this very time. the younger called Maniruddha (formerly called Aniruddha." And now. After a time he entered.).HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. he returned to KapUavastu. Ed. advanced to the place where Buddha wa^ residing. and so Maniruddha proceeding to the palace found the king in the Nataka Hall. whereupon Buddha gave his consent. community. And so it came to pass. This Bhadraka was the son of a Sdkya princess called "the dark Gotami. These two accordingly proceeded to the HimatMa Region. having reigned twelve years. on condition that the king also resigned his throne . that Bhadraka. also. called Sangha. other disciples. After . 379 CHAPTER The History of LVIII. the king agrees to become a recluse on the expiration of a week]. Ananda having thus been thwarted of his intention. and stood on one side. Ananda and Now it came to pass that Devadatta having been refused admission into the fraternity by all the chief disciples. on account of some jealous feeling his mother had encouraged in her breast. and joined themselves to the company of a Paribr^'aka. and a Eishi. and admitted them all except Ananda and Devadatta. requested to be admitted into his community . the elder called Mahanama. [After some discussion. and by silence gained the reputation of being and gave him permission to join the company of the S^kya youths who had entered the self-inflicted austerities. riding upon his white elephant. Ananda had sought his parents' permission to join the community. because of Buddha's exceeding beauty. and proceeding to the king saluted him. listening to the music of his dancing women. when he was living at home. it came to pass that Maniruddha gained the permission of his parents to become a recluse. Ch. in a village called Anumegha. Maniruddha. the former of these had become a who had been anointed king of the Sakyas in succession to Suddhodana. and all the remaining Sakya princes on a day agreed upon. and having saluted him in the customary manner. special favourite with Bhadraka. At this time there were at Kapilavastu two brothers. retired into a desert place.

"king and people. book v. p.— 380 THE EOMANTIC remaining with him some time. fable 14.^ re- " I EEMEMBEE in years gone by. Le singe et le crocodAle\. he prepared to set out. and also in the "Avadtoas" (translated by Stas. fable 1. Then Devadatta addressed Buddha as follows " I formerly requested permission to their master resided." To whom the world-honoured replied. requested to know the reason of it which the world-honoured related the following story." book iv. he asked : enter your community. and having arrived at the place where Buddha was residing.." is also in the "Panchatantra. Bhadraka and others Wow when Devadatta saw Ananda about to leave the place where him whither he was going. world-honoured but you refused permission do you object now to see me the disciple of another for a ! : — recluse I have become. and having obtained permission of his master (UpstdyS-ya) Sangha. And so they went both together. they made their obeisance and stood on one side." [The fable found supra. [Kiouen LVIII has 6244 words and cost 3. The Story of the Bird with two heads. Ensigns bearing this emblem may be derived from the same source. there was a two-headed bird ' This story is also found in the "Panchatantra" (translated by Lancereau). Ananda desired to return to the place where Buddha was. Then the other disciples seeing the constant enmity which Devaon datta bore Tathagata. cv). Julien. "the foolish dragon. e. 231.] CHAPTER The History of LIX.122 taels. . continued. On being informed." denoted by the two heads. "Devadatta! and why have you done so? why have you thus turned against me ? " . It seems likely that our own "swan with two necks" may be derived from it. he begged Ananda to wait until he also obtained permission to accompany him. The moral of the tale is evidently the necessity of agreement between the members of the "body corporate. i.

of the other XJpagaruda. 381 the name of the one head was Garuda. and vowed that he would eat what he liked when the other was asleep.' Then TTpagaruda was very angry on this account. began to think thus. Then the head that was awake seeing a blossom of the poisonous tree near him. Plots against those with whom he Uves. perceiving from his inward sensations that something delicious had been eaten during his rest.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. Then the other perceiving himself in pain awoke. • why have the said ' wicked act.' So snatching it up. yet when it enters our stomach. Borne on the gentle breeze close to my beak. So every foolish man.' eaten a blossom of yonder poisonous tree. and Garuda went to sleep whilst the other watched. you have eaten during my sleep?' ' Whilst you were asleep. that they were close to a Madhuka tree. bereft of faith and reason. And then I ate a luscious perfumed flower. Whereupon the wakeful head began to reflect thus: 'Although I should eat this blossom by myself alone.' And so the head that was awake eat the flower unknown to the other. that once on a time whUat Garuda was watching. ' I have thing whilst he was on watch. ' I will eat it even if it kills us both. and at once challenged his companion with having eaten some' Yes. ' Where did you get the scented blossom which I perceive. And so they lived on. then tjpagaruda watched (and vice versd). On this account you entertained an angry temper. I 'Saw a Madhuka blossom wafted by the air close to my beak. and ITpagaruda asleep. " When therefore ITpagaruda awoke. . he said to his companion. which was in full bloom. and time passed. And so. and we shall both other. both of us wUl enjoy its exquisite flavour. and not say a word about it. breath. Now it so happended. fanned by the breeze.la Eegion . from my inward sensations and flavoured The other replied. siding in the Himatfi. if Garuda slept.' and suicidal a what Alas ! you acted ' so?' And so the Gatha says : " You in days gone by were once asleep. a lovely blossom of the tree was wafted close to Garuda's beak. and as I thought you would benefit from it as well as myself. till once they happened to alight near a certain poisonous tree. die. I ate it without naming it to you. the heads took it in turn which should watch . Now when this bird with two heads wished to sleep.' said the other. he swallowed it.

he has contracted a spirit of hatred and revenge against me. " and my mind is in perfect peace as to the future. by Brahmadatta. though alone in the forest. meantime.' Then Buddha said. or in the solitude of the mountain. How he feared death in a thousand shapes. that on one occasion Bhadraka. He then in- . was observed by Pasena (Pasenajit). he was born in consequence as a S4kya prince. number of beggars who had come out from Sravasti. the worldhonoured one having sent for Bhadraka. who only acquired the first step (Sowan)." And so it happened that the several S4kya princes having entered the community. asked him to explain why he repeated nothing else but the words. whereupon he desired his minister to approach to Bhadraka. "at that time I was Garuda. and Devadatta was ITpagaruda. Buddha. king of Kosala. and would gladly destroy me if he could. Pasena found out who the recluse was. and finally a Eahat. his chief minister. and therefore I exclaim ' ah me what joy!'"] ! . "ah me! what joy. except Ananda. Pin a former was made "king of the beggars" of Benares." he said. Now it so happened. although surrounded by troops and guards and how he looked forward to the future with dread. and became Eaja of Kapilavastu. And so because I have acquired supreme wisdom and desire by benefitting myself to benefit others. On inquiry. But now. the EAja descended and approached the saint. Destroys himself and them together. On this. having received some food from a. who was riding on his white elephant. overwhelmed with joy.! 382 THE ROMANTIC And desiring to bring them to destruction." [On this Bhadraka relates his experiences when he was a king. "ah me! what delight! ah me what delight !" and the other disciples hearing him thus constantly repeating these words. Being not far off. riding on his elephant. could do nothing but exclaim. in company with Silabhadra. Buddha next explains how Bhadraka. asked Buddha to explain why he did so. Having given some food to a Pratyeka birth. obtained the condition of Eahats. Bhadraka. after becoming a Eahat. "I have no fear.

On a certain occasion Buddha. all Having my eyes opened. and come frequently to my house for food. "wonderful! wonderful indeed is the miracudown. But I would gladly make these poor people.124 words. ago. residing at Benares. and without the seven precious possessions of which you speak . Having escaped from all chance of sickness or I would set disease. sat This event that has just happened lous power of our teacher. and cost 3. I would gladly rescue them also and others from the waters that engulf mankind. and so afforded sufficient food for the whole community. departed from the kiilg. and all living things as rich as myself. I ! would gladly heal these and all others also. when there puts me in mind of what occurred in days long On . which accompanied him back to the Deer Park. I would also recover others from the blindness of ignorance. this. and so I take their food. and thereThen Pasena replied." Bhadraka having assured him that such a step was unnecessary. in a miraculous manner. in the Deer Park. but with no success. there appeared five hundred vessels full of food. fore I accept their food.] CHAPTEE LX. and arrived at the other shore. " Holy one (arya) I also am poor. Having crossed over the sea of sorrow and trouble. Maniruddha having returned to the preaching haU and exclaimed. Suddenly. them and all others at liberty also. quired gars. 383 whj he received such food as this at the hands of the begTo this Bhadraka replied. Maniruddha accordingly proceeded to beg from door to door. in a place occupied by an old Kishi. them and their eyes.062 taels. History of Maniruddha and others. requested Maniruddha to proceed to the city to gather alms for himself and the community. for indeed I possess seven precious kinds of wealth.HISTORY OF BUDDHA. "Mahar&ja! it is not because of my poverty that I receive food from these beggars . and open Having escaped from the meshes of anger and passion." [Kiouen LIX contains 6. would that you would pity me also.

I will share it with others. my good friends. and the fields covered with bleached bones and skeletons. Then the man seeing this wonderful sight. but all for no purpose. Do you all come and try to help me. Brahmadatta calling his attendants. After the repast. he could not free himself from the skeleton on his back. they said in ' ' .' On this he went to king Brahmadatta. bade them accompany the man back to his house. sprang on to the back of the poor man. said to himself. man. the Pratyeka Buddha having departed. and was returning to his hermitage to sit in meditaThe poor man having perceived this. without any means of support. all of a sudden the whiteboned skeleton changed itself into yellow gold and fell off his shoulders on to the ground. Hereupon the poor man gradually crept to his abode.384 was a dreadful famine all THE ROMANTIC in Benares. and took him back to his house for this purpose. 'behold the treasure!' But to the attendants there appeared nothing but the bones of a skeleton and so turning to the poor man. so fatal to the inhabitants. could not be got off. when the sun was just sinking in the west. had tion. that the neighbourhood was filled with the dead. 'Indeed. the man tried to reach his home unobserved. and said. Just then a Pratyeka and his supply of food nearly all gone. Suddenly one of these skeletons jumping up.' On this. and invited him to share with him his two last handfuls of cockle seed. the poor man went out into the neighbouring cemetery (Sitavana) to pick up a few sticks. Now there was a poor man in the city at that time. Mah&rdja. for there he remained unmoved and unmovable. Buddha having gone round from house to house a-begging. But as he entered the city. and darkness coming on. Everywhere he was surrounded by skeletons. some men perceiving him carrying this skeleton on his shoulders. ' I will not keep all this treasure to myself. got nothing. what are you going to bring that skeleton into the town for ?' On this he answered. It was in vain he used his utmost force . and twisting his legs round his neck. be it known to you I have discovered a treaOn sure. . went after him. and I wish it to be used for the good of the icountry. and having opened the door and gone in. the man pointed to the gold on the floor and said. this. the men came and aU began to pull at the skeleton's legs and arms. cried out. At length. I have exerted my utmost strength In vain. for I cannot get the thing off my shoulders. Having reached the door and gone in. ' Psha.

Brahmadatta E^ja set out in company with the citizen. suddenly the Eaja's eyes were opened. discovered. fool that you are. presume to mock me thus What makes On this.' On this. through an indefinite series of births. At length. they explained what had happened. pointing to it with exultation. however. let the king Brahmadatta also perceive that it is gold !' Having uttered this prayer. ' There. ' ! you call this stinking skeleton a golden treasure ?' On this. called Sisava. ' Indeed. going back to the palace.' And he thrice asseverated that it was no skeleton. was the resort of numerous . The poor man. there saw a ghastly skeleton lying on the floor. my friend What good deed of yours has brought this good fortune to your house ? What spirit or deva have you entertained to give you such a treasure as this P' Then he related what he had done for the Pratyeka Buddha.] The remainder of this chapter is filled with some trifling allusions to Ananda in his former births. turning to him. This tree. and besought him to come and see for himself the treasure he had On this. taking up some of the pieces in his hand. "Now. nothing daunted. he uttered the following vow " If this gold was conferred on me for some good deed done in times gone by. and nothing else. it is pure gold.' the king. sirrah. How dare you. at this time the Pratyeka Buddha was Tathagata in a former birth.HISTOEY OF BUDDHA. mock us thus ? We will return to the king and acquaint him with your impudence. 385 a rage. Maharaja. oh let the king." : ! ! [The text then proceeds to relate in G^thas to what wonderful consequences the gift of the handful of cockle seed led. indignantly said. arriving at his house. midway between the Jetavana Monastery and the town. ' How dare you. ' Well done. he replied. and. Ues the treasure of which I spoke. The whole concludes with a story of Ananda when going to SraOn this occasion he came to a large tree vasti to beg. and then said. exclaimed. soon followed them to the king. whilst the man. much to the delight of the king. and he saw before him a heap of gold. and the poor man was Maniruddha (the speaker). Maharaja.



Brahmans, who, as Ananda went along, challenged


to tell the


of leaves on the tree.


answered with precision, "
are so


the eastern branch there

western branch so

many hundreds and so many thousands on the many hundreds and so many thouHaving
said this, he

went on

his way.


the Brahmans, hoping to deceive him, gathered certain

handfuls of leaves from the tree, and then, on Ananda's
return, they inquired, "

How many leaves

did you say
at once their

were on the tree


Ananda, perceiving

intention^ replied, "

On the eastern branches are so many
many hundreds and On hearing
of the superior

hundreds and thousands (deducting a certain number),

and on the western branches so

thousands (deducting a certain number)."
this reply, the

Brahmans were convinced


of Ananda, and, embracing the tenets of


became Eahats.

There are three other leading disciples,
vasu, Kompira,


and Nandaka, of




as to their previous births, but only that they


be asked, " By what

title is this


to be
call it

called ?" to

which we

reply, the


" Ta-sse" {great thing.


The Sarvastavadas
Bouddisme) gives

So I would restore Ta-sse.

"Wassilief (§ 114,

call it "

Lalita Vis-

Ta-chong-yen" {great Tnagnificmce.

The Kasy^piyas

call it "

Fo-woug-yin-un" {forcall it


history of


The Dharmaguptas





" Pi-ni-tsong-kan"

was the

call it

into Chinese, about a.d. 70.]

The Mahisasakas

{Foundation oj the Vinaya Pitaha).
cost 2.962 taels.]


LX contains 5,924 words,

us da-cine as the equivalent of the Chinese characters, but I think there must be an error of type here.

So restored by Wassilief (§

176, op.




Title Page. I use the compound " Chinese-Sanscrit," in order to denote the mixed language in wMoli Chinese Buddhist books are generally composed. It must be remembered that the greater number of these works were translated into Chinese by natives of India.

P. 1, n, 3. The "Pure Heavens" are caUed in the Southern Becords "Suddhawasa Brahmaloka, from whence there is no return to the world." Vid. J. A. S. B., Sep. 1838. P.

6.— Omit the "K"

in J. E. A. S. B.,


in all subsequent


P. 9. The " True Law" and " Law of Images,'' two important epochs in Buddhist development; the first extended over five hundred years after Buddha's death, the second over the succeeding thousand years. P. 13, line
P. P.

—For " Bodhuatwa," read " Bodhisatwa."
§ 2,

26.— For


§ 1.

28.— For

"ViSoora," read "VAjra."

P. 33, line 7. Compare the Southern account " for the purpose of redeeming the world." J. A. S. B., Sep. 1838, p. 799.

— P. 33, line 35. —For "Kama," read " Earma."
P. 34, line

25.—After "exalted stamdard," place "2."

P. 35, line 21.— Omit the full stop after " on every side," and substitute a comma ; also substitute a small "a" for the capital "A" in the word "At."

P. 35, line 22.
P. 37.

—The constellation

the Southern Eecords.


S. B.,

Ewei is called Utird salha in Sept. 1838, p. 800.

It must be understood that the parentheses printed in which occur in the text, are translated from the Chinese.


are so introduced, to indicate that they are explanations of

the previous subject matter.

P. 38, line


P. 41.

— For "Brahmas," read "Brahmans." —Por remarkable agreements between tbe circumstances

of B6dhisatwa's birth, and the legendary (apocryphal) accountB of Christ's birth, vid. Lord Lindsay, " Christian Art," vol. i, p. 44,



P. 43, line 5. The account in the Christian legend mates a date tree to bend to the Blessed Virgin. The "Koran" says that the Virgin brought forth her Son under a withered date tree. (Lord Lindsay, op. cit., 47.)

P. 47, line 9. Compare this account of the birth of B6dhiBatwa from the side of his mother, with the less pleasing Orvieto sculpture of the creation of Eve. (Mist, of our Lord, by Mrs. Jameson,

p. 96.)

P. 52, line 20, ss. Compare the account of the idol in the temple of the city of Hermopolis coming down and bowing before the infant Saviour, when Joseph and Mary entered the hospice. (Apoc. Gosp. of the Infancy of Jesus, cap. x. Codex Apoc. N. Test, i,
p. 75.)

P. 55, line 1, ss. It is worth whUe to compare with this account of the peculiar marts of Buddha's person, the description of Christ given in the apocryphal letter of Publius Lentulus to the

senate of Rome.
P. 56, line 20.
P. 57, line 22,
p. 802.)

—Por "attained," read " attain." —The accounts given in the text agree closely

with the Southern Eecords.



A. S. B., Sep. 1838,

P. 58, line 2. Compare the account in the text and picture in Mrs. Speirs' boot, from the Cave of Ajunta, with the illustration 108, in Mrs. Jameson's work (cited above) after Guido.

P. 61, line 28. P. 79, line

—Por "previous,'' read "precious."

32.— Por " Suddartha," read ''Sidd4rtha."

P. 96, § 3.— This, of course, describes the custom tnown as " Svayambara," i. e., "choice for oneself," about which, vide Mrs. Speirs and Talboys Wheeler, passim. P. 104, note.— Por "Asa." read "As."
P. 105, line 18.

—No doubt the


T'so Ping


the same as

P. 121, Une 25. With this custom of circumambulating a sacred object or person three times, compare the "deeursio" of the Eoman soldiers, and the lines

" Ter circum aceensos cincti fulgentibus armis
Deeurrere rogos."



P. 129, line 25.—The first watcli extended from 6 p.m. to 10 p m the second from 10 p.m. to 2 a.m.; and the third from 2 a.m to 6 A.M.

P. 136. The flight of B6dhisatwa on his horse Kantaka, is the subject of the illustration on the cover of this work, copied from pL lix, Tree and Serpent Worship.
P. 142, line

P. 145, line

25.—Omit "to" after "or?' 1.— For " Kaahya," read "Kaahaya," and


aU sub-

sequent cases.
P. 165, line

6.— For

"eating,'' read "eaten."

Karma wiU be understood to signify "the necessary consequence of works done during some previous
P. 173,
P. 176,


— Of course

note.— For "tsen," read "tseu."

term Ajapala, applied to

origin of the or Nyagrodha Tree ; although the Southern Becords say that it is so called because ' shepherds and goatherds used to seek shelter under it."

P. 192, line 22, ss.

—This incident seems to be the

fig. 2,

P. 199, line 1, ss. This seems to be the subject of pi. xxiv, Tree and Serpent Worship.

Compare this account of the army of Mdra, with the P. 221. translation from the Thibetan (Lalit. Vist., p. 293), and also note three on the same page.
P. 227, § 2. Compare this story with that translated by M. Julieu {Les AvadAnas, I'homme et la perle, T. ii, p. 30). P. 231, §5. This story is found in the Panchatantra (translated by Laucereau), book iv, fable 1.
P. 233, line 26.

P. 239, line

For "Udambara," read " TJdumbara,'' and The TJdumbara is the Ficus glomrata.

— — " Tripusha " may also be read " Trapusha."


P. 240. The offering of the two merchants seems to be the subject of the sculpture, pi. Ivui, pillar 1, middle disc, Tree and Serpent Worship, P. 244,

note.— For " ChOder's," read "Childers'."

P. 251, line 20.

— For "neither tend,'' read "tend neither." P. 261, line 16. — For "who lately inhabited this heaven," read
lately descended


from the Tusita heaven."

P. 261, line 17.

—For "he has arrived," read "he will arrive."



P. 273, line 27. This " chatta ful in distinguishing the story of

appearing by itself" may be use Tasada irom that of B6dhisatwa



resembles so much.

P. 276, line

37.— Instead

of " SSgara," read " Sankha,"



P. 278, line 7. The six "AbidjnAs" are the six supernatural talents which Bodhisatwa acquired on the night before his complete enlightenment. P. 288, lastUne.
P. 290, line 8.

— Supply "towards," after "hurried."


fig. 2, pi. xxxv, Tree and Serpent Worship, represents this very dalliance of SenaThe village at any rate is Uravilva.

—It seems likely that the scene in

P. 315, line 19.

—Omit "during the season of the rains."

P. 319, line

4.— Omit

320, line

13.— For "Bikshuni/' read "Bhikshuni," and


P. 349, Uue 1.— The story of TasodharS is told at full length in the text. Among other proofs of her innocence she causes a large stone to float on the surface of the water, and on this stone she places her child. This incident is also narrated in the Lalita Vistara. The error corrected in the translation of M. Poucaux (Lalita Visiara, p. 431), is strangely repeated in the "Glossary" to the

" Life of Bouddha Sakya-mouni," by Mme. Summers,

p. 198.

P. 373, line 22. -For "Eajagriha," read also on p. 375, line 8.

" EapUavastu


and so

[There are so


I have not thought

Glossaries of Buddhist terms already published, it necessary to produce another'].

Abhid]'nas, the six, 278

Adjnitasa Kimbala, an heretical doctor, 115

Chatur Maharajas, the four guardians
of the world, 51

Agrajanman, 14, 17 Ayudhya, land of, 287
Akanisnta, the highest heaven, 24, 25 Aiara, a hermit, 161, 169, 244 Ambarisa, 167

Champa, a town, 18 Chandra, a village beautiful and bright,
245 Chilocosm, 27

Chunh, true reason, 14

Aniruddha, 8 Amrita, 23
Amritachittra, 64

Danara Karaka, the
Dandapani, 97

flower, 22

Ananda, the histoiy
Anguli, 68


Aturapala (The), a ta-ee, 22 Apsaras goddesses, so called, 122 Arahato, 3 Arjtma, 85 Artabandu, a Taksha city, 277 Asoka, a tree, 22
Asterism, JToA, 64

Devadatta, cousin of Buddha, 72 Devalaya, 82 Devaputra, 27, 193 Devasruta, 15, 16 Devas, 13

Dharmaraja, 203 Dhyana, a state of ecstasy, 173, 353 Dipankara, a Buddha, 6, 6 DJnanakuta, a Shaman of the Brah-

Atyushagami, name of a Buddha,
13, 15

man caste,




Raja, tree king, 28, 167

Asterism, Chin, 64 Avitchi, a hell, 37 Atdmiikta, the tree, 22
Basita, minister of state, 45, 88 Bhadra Elalpa, an age, 16

Elapatra, a NagariLja, 366, 379

Bhadraka (same as Batrika
history of, 320 Bhaghlrathi, a river, 21 Bhagavat, Buddha, 2, 279



Bhikshns, disciples of Buddha, 3 Bimbasara, the fear of, 103, 184 Bodhi, a tree, 9 Bodhyanga, 44 Bodhimandala, the sacred arena around
the Bodhi tree, 27 Brahmans, 3, 113 Brahmabhadanta, one of the

Gandharvas, 13, 23 Gandhara, country of North India, 2 Gangapala, 356, 357 Garuda, 25, 38 Gokuru, 23 Goeirshachaaidana, sandal wood, 68 Gotami, choice of, 96 Govinda, a merchant chief, 345 Griya, a king of a city called Savatti
(otherwise Griha,
960), 38

A. S. B., page

Hastinapura, a city, 18, 39 Hastipa, a descendant of Brahmadatta, 18

Brahmans who

interpreted dreams,

Himatala, the sub -Himalaya region, 381

Brahmachari, 61, 161 Brahmadatta, King of Benares, 351 Buddhakshetras, the innumerable worlds of space, 9

Ecshwaku, the first kiag of the Suryavansa line, 33



Jambudwipa, 4, 37 Jambu, a tree, 33, 74 Jambunada, gold, 66
Jataka, a storjr of previous births, 330

Chakravartti, a universal monarch,

Jetavana Vihjira,


Kalila, the tree, 23 Kalpas, 14, 15 Kalibinka, a bird, 212

Panava, a flower, 32

Pandava Yaihara, the
mount, 27 Pandumati, 378



Kakutasanda, a Buddha, 10, 15, 16 Kanakanmni, a Buddha, 10, 25 Kapila, a name of a "Bishi, 23 Kapilaya, a town, 18 Kapilavastn, a town, 23, 113, 349 Karandaveuuvana, bamboo^arden, 310 Kausambi, a city, 28 Kaundiaya, the previous history of,

Paribajakas, 340 Parijava Sanjaya, an heretical teacher, 337 Paryala, a river, 230 Patra, a flower, 33 Pattana Pura, 17 Pindubhadanta, one of the eight Brah-

Kasyapas, the history of the three, 293,

mans, 38 Pipal, a tree, 316
Pippalayana, the name of a child, 316 Praj^pati, the qi).een-mother, G-otami,

Kashaya, a priest's garment, 371 Kasyapa, a disciple of Buddha, 378 Katyayana, a Buddha, 380 Kshatriya Eaja, 17, 37, 353 Kuru, grandson of King Ikshwaku, 33 Kusinagara, a town, 18 Kuranya, the flower, 33
Kubitara, the flower, 33

Pradyota, bright lamp, 29
Hahiila, the history of, 359

Kumbhandas, 36, 200 Kwei, a constellation,
Lumbini, 42 List of numbers, 87

Rajagriha, a town, 16, 18, 178 Eajawanso, 6 Rishi Raja Sakriti, a Brahman, 167 Rigdeva Raja, a Brahman, 167


Madhnka, a sweet flowering tree, 381 Magadha, a country, 27 Mahanama, the private name of Basita,
45, 85

Sabahu, a great king, 29 Sala, a tree, 32 Samadhi, a condition of ecstasy, Samantabhadra, 7 Sarvabhibu, 12 Sadarsana, a town, 12
Sanjaya, the heretic, 333
Savatti, a city, 28 Sari (putra) and
tra) ,


Maha-Sagara, 17 Maha Sudarsana, 17 Mahoragas, giants, 13, 25 Mahasadarsana, a king, 12
Malika, a flower, 134 Maniruddha, otherwise called Amiruddha, 379

Mulin (Mudgaulapuof,

the history


Senayana, a rich Brahman, 290
Senapati, the story of, 285 Sidd^rtha, a prince (Buddha) 97 Sikhi Buddha, the history of, 346 Sobhiya, story of, 380 Sinhahanu, father of Suddhodana, 33

Mathura, a.city, 29 Maudgalyayana, disciple of Buddha, Mara, the author of evil, 36, 199 Mavanti, a country, 39 Marichi, a ray of light, 237 Mithila, a city, 30 Mogalan, a disciple of Buddha, 378


Suklodana, 33 Suddhodana, the eldest son of Sinhahanu, 33 Subhadra, the wife of king Ikshwaku,

Snmana, a

flower, 22

Nagas, giants, 13, 25 Narada, story of, 275 Nanda, a prince who excelled in the
arts and martial exercise, 96 Nanda, the history of the conversion (same as Nandaka) 64, 369 Narada, the name of a boy, 40 Nataka, the women's hall, 379

Suddhavara, a deva, 67 Supra Buddha, a nobleman, 259 Snputra, king of the birds, 350 Suputrt, the wife of Suputra, 350
Takshasila, a town, 18 Talas, a tree, 32

Nidanas, 241

Nyagrodha, a
Okeuh, 18

tree, 23, 192, 377

Tchandaka, a charioteer, 34 Tchundajira, a village, 245 Tinduka, a fruit tree, 22 Tulodana, 23
Tusita, the joyous heavens, 9

Padmottara, a Buddha, Padma, a flower, 23 Palasa, a flower, 22

10, 16

Udumbara, a tree,

22, 23

Udapali, a royal Rishi, 27 UdSyi, the history of, 349

13 Tajnabhadanta.INDEX. a Brahman. a disciple of BuddJia. GREAT QUEEN STREET. a village. 285. the previous history of. . 5 Varanasi. 41 Upali. a flower. 305 Upagamda. a Buddha. 374 Vaisravana. 22 UpS^aka. a city. 258 Tasada. 234 Vaisali. 28. Udraka Ramaputra. 2 Upasita. 167 T. fish-kiag. a city. 40 Virupaksha. 2 395 Vairochana. 381 Utpala. 61 Visvamitra. the name of a guardian 66 spirit. 363 U-wang. 28 Vimala. a teacher. 29 TJravilva.. 270 Vagara Raja. a bird. Giants. the history of. Virudhaka Raja. 67 Visivabhu. RICHAEDS. a city. 37. PBIKTEB. 18 Visvakarman. 14 Takshas. 243 tTjiayani. the history of. 38 Yasada. a female disciplei of Buddha.


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