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SUBMITTED TO: SHAMSHER PRAKASH FOUNDATION
SUBMITTED BY: VARUN AGGARWAL MISHIKA SINGLA RAHUL KUMAR TANSY JINDAL
To Dr. Manoranjan Parida (coordinator) Associate professor Civil Engineering Department Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee Roorkee – 247667 India Respected sir, This report entitled “Extraction of Biodiesel from Jatropha Plant” was prepared to meet all requirements of criteria underlined in the pamphlet of Shamsher Prakash Foundation. Our purpose of this report is to fabricate an innovative biodiesel processor that is quite efficient and cost effective. I, Varun Aggarwal, on the behalf of my team of four members, submit this innovative proposal for your kind consideration. Sincerely, VARUN AGGARWAL Ist year T.I.E.T student Team members: VARUN AGGARWAL MISHIKA SINGLA RAHUL KUMAR TANSY JINDAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………… SUMMARY……………………………………………………… 1.0 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………… 1.1 Problem overview…………………………………… 1.2 Report objectives…………………………………… BACKGROUND…………………………………………… 2.1 Scope of Jatropha in India………………………… 2.2 Benefits of biodiesel………………………………. 2.3 Process of obtaining oil from plant……………….. 2.4 Basic process of manufacturing biodiesel………. PROCESSOR DESIGN…………………………………… 3.1 Physical size………………………………………… 3.2 Material selection…………………………………… 3.3 Components………………………………………… 3.3.1. Selection…………………………………….. 3.4 User interface………………………………………. 3.4.1 Safety……………………………………….. 3.4.2 Maintenance…………………………………. 3.4.3 Ease of use………………………………….. 3.4.4 Aesthetics…………………………………… PROCESSOR FABRICATION………………………….. 4.1 Assembly…………………………………………… 4.2 Progressive testing………………………………... COST: 5.1 Cost effective. …………………………………….. 5.2 Cost analysis ……………………………………… CONCLUSIONS…………………………………………… RECOMMENDATIONS…………………………………… REFERENCES…………………………………………….. -– – BIODIESEL MAKING PROCESS……….. LIST OF MATERIALS..……………..….. (i) (ii) 1 1 1 2-4 2 2 3 4 5-8 5 5 6 8
8-9 8 9 9-10 9 10 10 10-11 11 12 13
6.0 7.0 8.0
APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C
DESCRIPTION OF BIODIESEL…………… 14-15
I, Varun Aggarwal, would like to thank my teammates: Tansy Jindal, Mishika Singla, and Rahul Kumar. We would not have been able to complete the project on time or to the same degree of success, if it were not for the collaboration and cooperation between each one of us. I would also like to thank five Canadian students who helped us in the project: Dave boere, Daniel Smith, Ryan Case, Matt Stewart, Calvin Ng. Finally I would like to thank all the workshop instructors who provided help and useful advice. I would also like to thank Dr. Maneek Kumar and Dr. Ajay Batish, faculty members in the institute. Their guidance and advice was invaluable, and was used frequently throughout the course of project.
Diesel engines are very common in India. In spite of proving a great boon to the transportation and industry, they also are a major contributor to pollution in India as well as the rest of the world. Biodiesel is very effective alternative fuel as it can be used in any existing diesel engine with negligible or no modifications. But the problem is that biodiesel is not widely available in India. This report will channelise the various possible areas suitable for cultivation of Jatropha plant along with its justification. It will outline the processes involved in extracting oil from plant which acts as raw material for fabrication of biodiesel, also it will show detailed process followed in making a biodiesel processor. It will justify every decision made using analytical data, calculations and professional opinions.
Bio-diesel is found everywhere in India, and the rising population of India, combined with its developing industries, have created even more need of diesel engines. The emissions from all of these diesel engines contribute to the decreasing level of air quality in India, and rest of world [as shown in Fig. 1(a)]. The use of an alternative fuel in these diesel engines could play a major role in slowing the harmful environmental affects of combustion engines. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that can be run in any existing diesel engine with negligible or no modifications, and can be mixed in any ratio with petroleum diesel. It significantly reduces emissions with respect to petroleum diesel combustion. The problem is that biodiesel Fig. 1(a) is not widely available in India, or in the majority of the world for that matter. Though there have been many endeavors in the field of biodiesel extraction, but our project deals in making the same process user-friendly and cost-effective. 1.2 REPORT OBJECTIVES This report has several objectives. • • • • • • It will provide background information on the benefits of biodiesel as compared to petroleum diesel. It will provide information about suitable oil-giving plants and importance of Jatropha amongst these. About the process of extraction of raw oil from these plants. It will also outline the basic procedure required in making biodiesel. It will outline the FABRICATION OF A BIODIESEL PROCESSOR, justifying the decisions made in its design and construction with analytical data, calculations and professional opinion. In making the processor cost-effective and user-friendly by making use of by products like glycerin. Finally, it will provide recommendations as to any changes that should be made if the project were to be undertaken a second time.
SCOPE OF JATROPHA IN INDIA
There are more than 100 tree species which bear seeds rich in oil having excellent properties as a fuel and which can be processed into a diesel substitute. Of these some promising tree species have been evaluated and it has been found that Pongamia Pinnata and Jatropha curcas are most suitable. However, the advantage is clearly in favour of Jatropha curcas due to the following reasons. Fig. 2(a) shows the different areas under Jatropha cultivation in India. • It can be grown in areas of low rainfall (500 mm per year) and in problem soils. In high rainfall and irrigated areas too it can be grown with much higher yields. Therefore, it can Fig. 2(a) Areas under be grown in most parts of the Jatropha cultivation country. It can be grown in desert areas, with the help of drip irrigation. • Oil yielding per hectare is among the highest of tree borne oil seeds • Animals do not graze Jatropha. • Being rich in nitrogen, the seed cake is an excellent source of plant nutrients. • Various parts of plant are of medicinal value, its bark contains tannin, the flowers attract bees and hence plant has honey production potential. • The plant is undemanding in soil type and does not require tillage. 2.2 BENEFITS OF BIODIESEL
Diesel engines require, starting from Vegetable oil Diesel and now Bio diesel, as fuel. There are numerous benefits of using biodiesel as compared to petroleum diesel. As of now biodiesel is the only alternative fuel, which requires no alterations to, and can be run in, an existing diesel engine. Biodiesel in its pure form, or mixed in any proportion with petroleum diesel has no negative affects on the performance of a diesel engine. Biodiesel is much safer than petroleum diesel as it is 10 times less toxic than table salt, and has a flash point (point at which it ignites) of 125°C as compared to a Fig. 2(b) Reduction in emissions flash point of 55°C for petroleum
using biodiesel as fuel
diesel. Biodiesel can also have a very positive affect on the local economy. It reduces the dependency on foreign oil, and benefits local farmers, businesses and the national economy. One of the major benefits of biodiesel is the reduction is harmful emissions. Fig. 2(b) shows the reduction in emissions as biodiesel is mixed with petroleum diesel in different ratios. All of these reductions in emissions reduce environmental and human hazards such as global warming, health affects, and smog. One negative affect of biodiesel is that it can cause a slight increase in Nitrous Oxide emissions as compared to Petroleum diesel . 2.3 PROCESS OF OBTAINING OIL FROM PLANT:
The seeds and the leaves are the oil-bearing parts of the plant. The oil is extracted from them by any of the following methods: • The Sayari expeller: As shown in the plate (i) showing how we get oil from the seeds of Jatropha plant.
The Bielenberg Ram press: The process is explained using three plates as shown below. In this we get the oil from a machine operated manually.
BASIC PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING BIODIESEL
Biodiesel is basically made by chemically altering an organic oil (usually vegetable oil) through a process called transesterfication. Vegetable oils and animal fats are triglycerides, containing glycerin. The biodiesel process turns the oils and fats into esters, separating out the glycerin. The glycerin sinks to the bottom and the biodiesel floats on top and can be siphoned off.
Essentially this process is just thinning the oil so it can be used in an existing diesel engine. Step 1 – Pour the pre-strained used vegetable oil into the processor. Step 2 – Heat the oil to 55°C using an emersion heater. Step 3 – Titration: • • • Mix a solution of 1% v/v lye and water Mix 40mL of isopropyl and a 4mL sample of the used vegetable oil in a separate dish Add the first dish to the second dish one drop at a time, recording the number of drops it takes to neutralize the solution in thee second dish Using the equation L= ((D/4) + 3.5) x O where D is equal to the number of 1mL drops recorded in the previous step, O is the number of millimeters to be reacted and L is the mass (in grams) of lye that will be required for the reaction. Record L for use in the following step.
Step 4 - Carefully mix the methanol (0.2 x the volume of vegetable oil used) with the amount of lye calculated in the previous step. Step5 – Carefully mix the methanol mixture with the heated vegetable oil. Step 6 – Mix thoroughly. Step 7 – Allow to settle for eight hours. This will let the glycerin separate from the mixture and settle to the bottom. Step 8 – Remove the glycerin from the tank. Step 9 – Wash the Biodiesel. Step 10 - Allow the processor to sit for eight hours. Step 11 – Drain off the Water. Step 12 – Transfer Biodiesel into storage containers and allow to dry in the sun for eight hours.
Fig. 3(a) The Concept Biodiesel Processor
Fig 3(b) The Fabricated Bio-diesel Processor
The entire processor should be able to produce a significant amount of biodiesel in one batch. One larger batch, as compared to two smaller batches, would produce the same amount of biodiesel with only half of the user interface and in only half the time. The size must however be limited as the unit should be reasonable easy to relocate. The processor is 1m long and 0.6m wide with the capacity of almost 250 litres. These dimensions allow it to fit through most doorways in the Thapar Institute shop and also allow it to fit on almost any trailer. Height, kept down for centre of gravity but cone slope for glycerin. 3.2 Material Selection The tank is either to be made out of either galvanized iron (GI) or Mild Steel (MS) See Table below. GI will better prevent rust formation, but it is not easily welded so MS will be used and a coat of aluminum paint will be applied on the inside of the tank after completion to prevent the formation of rust. Fig 3.2(a), shows the comparison between GI and MS Material Galvanized iron(GI) Mild steel Advantage Prevent rust formation Easy to weld Disadvantage Can not be easily welded Not must rust prevention
The frame is to be made and all supports are to be made out of angle iron, rectangular tubing or round pipe. 1” angle iron is not strong enough and 2” angle iron is not in stock. Round pipe is more difficult to weld a base sheet onto so 1” square tubing will be used for the platform and 1” x 2” rectangular tubing will be used for the tank supports.
Fig 3.2(a) Comparison of GI and MS
Fig 3.2(b) Different angle iron rods
3.3.1 Purchased vs fabricated (i) Double-walled tank- The processor tank is specially designed. In order to reduce the heat losses to the environment, the space (1 inch) between the two walls of the cylindrical tank (34 inch in height) is filled with an insulating material (Glass wool). Further a conical flask (height 6 inch) is attached to it on the lower part of cylindrical tank. This conical flask is attached to take out the desired fluid step by step on the decided intervals.
Fig 3.3(a) Geometry of double-walled tank
(ii) Air compressor- It is used for bubble washing of biodiesel. The air bubble allows a sort of indirect agitation of two fluids-they pick up a tiny amount of water and gently carry it through the biodiesel, picking up soaps and other contaminants. This method of bubble washing is efficient and cheaper. (iii) Digital ph meter: The quantity of methanol-lye mixture to be added to the oil is to be checked so as to have a desired alkalinity. For this, a phmeter is employed in the processor. On the change of 2-3 ph level supply of methanol-lye solution is stopped. (iv) Control board- In order to keep the control of each component together we decided to go with a control board. This is given the shown position for user’s ease. It provides controls of Heater, Air compressor, ph- meter and pump.
Fig. 3.3(b) Control board
3.3.2 Selection (i) Pump Selection The main criteria when selecting a pump is the capacity. When titrating the 150L batch the liquid needs to be re-circulated reasonable quickly so the user is not forced to wait for an extended period of time while the batch titrates. In order to mix thoroughly the batch should be re-circulated a few times before taking the final titration reading. This should not take any longer than 15 minutes. The calculation below shows the rough pump capacity required for this processor. Fig. 3.3(c) pump used Pump capacity (L/hr) = 450L/0.25hr = 1800L/hr The pump capacity should be around 1800L/hr. A pump with a capacity of much less than this will result in a long wait time for thorough mixing, and a pump much larger than this will result in a cost more than allowed for by the budget. (ii) Heater Selection - In order to produce the desired environment of 550C, the heater is used. The oil and the methanol is thoroughly mixed and heated in the cylindrical processor. The thermostat in the heater serves our purpose of the required temperature. We needed a heater that would heat 150L of vegetable oil in a reasonable amount of time. To estimate the size of the heater needed some calculations were performed: Assuming the density of the vegetable oil to be 0.91kg/L , the mass of the oil in a 150L batch was calculated to be 136.5Kg. A reasonable amount of time to heat the oil was set as 15 minutes and the specific heat capacity of the oil was assumed to be 1.67 KJ/Kg . A base temperature of 25°C was used and because the oil needs to reach a temperature of 55°C ∆t was made to be 30°C. E=mc∆t = 136.5Kg x 1.67KJ/Kg x 30°C = 6,838,655J 6,838,655 / 900seconds ≈7.5kW Therefore the heater needed to be about 7.5kW.
Fig 3.3(d) Position of heater
Fig 3.3(e) Inside view of heater
3.4.1 Safety While working with the processor, care must be taken, as there could be any sharp edge of the processor tank. Most dangerous part is while mixing methoxide whose caustic dusk particles can make damage to lungs. Methanol fumes are dangerous to the eyes, can cause blindness. There is risk of spreading of methanol fumes during bubble or mist washing. Its fumes are inflammable. Also there may be a risk of getting exposed to hot fumes or electric currents. NaOH can also cause severe burns. 3.4.2 Maintenance The unit was designed to be relatively maintenance free. If the paint wears off after an extended period of time a touch up coat should be applied to prevent rust. Also if the unit is expected to sit idle for an extended period of time it should be completely drained. This is once again to prevent rust. All of the electrical wiring was made easily accessible in case any of the electrical components should fail. All parts of the processor are easily accessible and the control panel handles the electrical switching of all these parts, thus its maintenance is relaxed. 3.4.3 Ease of Use It’s not difficult to handle the machine, as its size is not very big. The goal during the design process was to make the processor as automated as possible. Within the limited time constraints given for the project it was designed to have only 2-3 hours of user interface during the roughly 48 hour process. These 2-3 hours are divided into two periods. The rest of the time the operator can walk away and perform other tasks. 3.4.4 Aesthetics With the knowledge that the biodiesel processor would be displayed in an IIT competition in May, aesthetics were even more important than they would otherwise be.
The sequence of steps followed to construct the processor is as follows: Phase 1: Construction of base and tank First of all the rectangular base of the processor was made on which the tank and all other parts are supported. Then the main double walled cylindrical tank was made. The space between the two walls was filled with Glass wool that acts as an insulating medium. The bottom of the tank was made conical so as to facilitate the outflow of Glycerin. Once the tank was made, it was fitted on to the base.
Phase 2: Assembly of various components After this, the rest of the components like the centrifugal pump, the heater, the air-compressor, the pH meter etc. were chosen according to their specifications and fitted at their appropriate places, like heater was placed at the bottom of the conical flask. Phase 3: Making of the control board: The final step was to construct the control board that provides various switches to control all the components. This was designed keeping in view the user convenience. 4.2 PROGRESSIVE TESTING
Throughout the fabrication process tests were performed on all the various parts and components of the processor. As the tank was assembled leak tests were performed on every weld made. The progressive testing was required as it spotted any design or fabrication flaws early and prevented major problems from occurring later in the process.
A lot of research is going on in the field of commercialization of Biodiesel but the only concerned point is the cost factor. So in order to reduce the cost per litre we are making use of the major by-product of the process, Glycerin. 5.1.1 Purification of Glycerin: The purification of glycerin involves neutralization, separation of unreacted methanol, dilution, washing it with liquid stream and then concentrating it up to around 80%. 5.1.2 Manufacturing of soap from glycerin: In order to make our process cost-effective, the glycerin is being used to manufacture soap that could be used for household purposes. The process involves melting of the purified and concentrated glycerin in a boiler and subjecting it to low heat. A teaspoon of Beeswax (for every 4 ounces (114g) of glycerin) is added to it. After removing it from heat, the mixture is stirred till the wax melts. Add Lavender oil (for odor) and color to the above. Stir and pour the mixture into moulds and let it stand till it solidifies. 5.2 COST ANALYSIS:
By the end of the project, the total cost of materials was Rs 35,880. The list of materials and their costs can be seen in appendix B. It was estimated that the amount of Labour required in fabricating the processor by skilled workers would be 50hrs. Using the cost of Rs 100/hr  the total labor cost was calculated to be Rs 5000. The total cost of the project was then calculated to be Rs 40,880.
With the limited amount of time available it was not possible to make a test batch of biodiesel, but the cost of making biodiesel was still calculated. The cost of methanol in India was found to be Rs 32/L . The cost of Lye (sodium hydroxide) was found to be Rs 160/kg . The following calculation uses the two values listed above. It also assumes that the vegetable oil can be obtained at no cost from a local restaurant as used deep fryer oil, and that 20L of glycerin is drained following the titration process. If we take used vegetable oil then cost comes to be [ (40L x Rs 32/L) + (0.5kg x Rs 160/kg)] / [150L + 40L – 20L] = Rs 8/L And if pure vegetable oil is used then the cost is [(150L x Rs 24/L) + (40L x Rs 32/L) + (0.5kg x Rs 160/kg)] / [150L + 40L – 20L] = Rs 29.17/L The previous calculation shows the cost of producing 1 L of biodiesel to be Rs.29.17. The average price for petroleum diesel in India these days is Rs.31.22/L . Taking into consideration that we wont get 100% used vegetable oil, so we will have to use mixture of these two. But whatever the situation is, calculations clearly show that net cost is lesser than the present cost of diesel.
Due to the tight schedule there was not enough time to make a test batch of biodiesel. However, all of the individual components were tested and in working order. When compared to purchasing petroleum diesel, making biodiesel results in significant savings. Calculations show that the cost of fabricating a biodiesel processor will be quickly offset by the savings generated after making a few batches of biodiesel. Building a prototype processor has also showed that there is much room for improvement in both the design and fabrication processes. A slightly different design and more time could result in a much more inexpensive processor. Although it may be small, this biodiesel processor will make a contribution towards reducing harmful emissions. Biodiesel results in significant reductions of several harmful emissions such as sulphur, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, when compared with petroleum diesel.
If this same project were to be undertaken again there are numerous things that should be done differently. Making two nearly concentric tanks and a cone to fit on the bottom was much more difficult and time consuming than planned for. It is recommended that the tank design be changed to a rectangular prism shape with a four-sided pyramid instead of
the cone for the bottom. This design does use more material, but it would save several hours during the fabrication process. One important modification that can be implemented is to make this machine automated. By automated we mean that there should not be any need of human labor in this, all we have to do is to put the raw material and switch on the machine and rest of things are done of their own. This can be achieved with certain increment in cost but if we look at aspects like, losses due to human errors will be reduced, and ultimately pendulum will shift toward benefit.
 –B.I.O. Tour 2003, BIO Fuel Facts, Brett Baker http://www.biotour.org/biodieselfacts.html (March 15, 2006) http://www.biodieselcommunity.org/howitsmade/ (March 28, 2006) http://www.utahbiodiesel.org/biodiesel_making.html (March 3, 2006)  – Dr. Ajay Batish, Personnel Communication, Machine Shop Head, Tharpar Institute of Engineering and Technology, India, (March 28, 2006)  – The Physics Factbook, Density of Cooking Oil, Glenn Elert http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2000/IngaDorfman.shtml (March 5, 2006)  – Liquid Solar, Technical Properties of Vegetable Oil, http://www.liquidsolar.org/research/oilgeneral.html (March 5, 2006)  – Methanex, Methanol Price, http://www.methanex.com/products/methanolprice.html , (April 4, 2006)  – The Soap Saloon, Lye (Sodium Hydroxide), http://www.soapsaloon.com, (April 4, 2006)  – The Tribune, Petrol, Diesel Prices Hiked by over Rs 2, Manoj Kumar, http://www.tribuneindia.com/2004/20041105/main1.htm (April 30, 2006)
– Biodiesel Making Process
APPENDIX B: List of materials
Pre batch (Chemicals):
• • • 150L of crude oil ~30L of Methanol (99+% pure) ~1Kg of Lye (96+% pure NaOH)
Work shop materials required:
Angle Iron Square Tubing Pump Pipe Nipples Plumbing Tee Joint Plumbing 90 Degree Joint Ball Valves Heater PVC Braided Hose Aluminum Paint Timer Insulation MS Sheet Metal 1" x 10' 1" x 40' 1 Hp 1" x 6 1" x 4 x2 1" x 5 5Kw 1" x 15'
34-00 per kg 38-00 per kg 6400 per piece 20-00 per piece 25-00 per piece 65-00 per piece 200-00 per piece 650-00 per piece 8-00 (per/foot) 110-00 per ltr. 2450-00 250-00 3450-00 per sheet of size 8' x 3' 1700-00 per sheet of size 8' x 3' 34-00 per kg 200-00 32-00 per kg 38-00 per kg 80-00 per ltr. 20-00/pack Donated 9000 per piece 4500 per piece 2500 per piece Total Report
Total Price (Rs)
83 760 6400 120 100 130 1000 650 120 110 2450 250 1725 4250 116 1000 64 332 160 60 0 9000 4500 2500 35880
Round Bar Electrical Switches Round Pipe Rectangular Tubing Primer, Paint M-Seal PVC Tank Air Compressor PH Meter Control Box Materials
5mm 1.5mm x 2.5 sheets 1" x5 1" 1" x 2" x 12' 2L 3 Packs 50L
Description of Biodiesel:
Section 1 – Product Identification Common Name: Biodiesel Chemical Name: Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Formula: C14-C24 Methyl Esters Chemical Family: CAS No. 67784-80-9 Section 2 – Ingredients and Hazardous Classification This product contains no hazardous materials. Section 3 – Physical/Chemical Characteristics Boiling Point: >400 F Vapor Pressure (mm Hg): <5 mm Hg @ 72 F Evaporation Rate: less than .005 versus (Butyl Acetate = 1) Solubility in Water: insoluble Appearance and Odor: light to dark yellow clear liquid / light musty odor Section 4 - Fire and Explosion Hazard Data Flash Point (method used): 321 F PMCC Flammable Limits: N/A Extinguishing Media: Use water spray, dry chemical, foam or carbon dioxide. Special Fire Fighting Procedures: Treat as oil fire. Unusual Fire and Explosion hazards: Rags soaked with any solvent present a fire hazard and should be stored in an approved UL listed covered container. Section 5 – Reactivity Data Reactivity: Stable Conditions to Avoid: Not Known Incompatibility (materials to avoid): Strong oxidizing agents Hazardous Decomposition or By-products: Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur Section 6 – Health Hazard Data Emergency First Aid Procedures: Ingestion: Rinse mouth with water, contact physician Eyes: Rinse with water 15 minutes, contact physician Skin; Rinse with soap and water Section 7 – Precautions for Safe handling and Use Steps to be taken in case material is released or spilled: Avoid uncontrolled releases. Contain spilled material. Transfer to secure containers. Use absorbent material if necessary. Disposal; Dispose of according to Federal, state and/or local regulations Precautions to be Taken in Handling and Storing: Avoid open flames
Other Precautions: None Section 8 – Control Measures Respiratory Protection: None required Ventilation: mechanical Protective Gloves: Rubber Eye Protection: Safety glasses / splash goggles Other Protective Clothing or Equipment: None required The information provided is believed to be accurate and represents the best information currently available to us. However, we make no warranty of merchantability, or suitability for an intended use, or any other warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to such information, and we assume no liability resulting from its use. Users should make their own investigations to determine the suitability of the information for their particular purposes.