DistrictofColumbia

LEDSTREETLIGHTS:
FIELDANDLABORATORYEVALUATION
RESULTS

FinalReport

District Department of Transportation
55 M Street, SE, 6
th
Floor
Washington, DC 20003




April 2012

 
ii

DISTRICTOFCOLUMBIADEPARTMENTOFTRANSPORTATION
LEDSTREETLIGHTEVALUATION

Table of Contents
List of Figures ......................................................................................................................... iv 
List of Tables ........................................................................................................................... x 
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1
Project Objective ............................................................................................................................. 1
Methods........................................................................................................................................... 1
Specification Development ......................................................................................................... 1
System Submittal......................................................................................................................... 3
Laboratory Evaluation ................................................................................................................. 4
Field Evaluation .......................................................................................................................... 7
Measurement Procedure .......................................................................................................... 7
Test Locations.......................................................................................................................... 9
Results ........................................................................................................................................... 13
Laboratory Evaluation ............................................................................................................... 14
Vertical Illuminance .............................................................................................................. 14
Horizontal Illuminance .......................................................................................................... 15
Comparison to Predicted Vertical Illuminance ..................................................................... 19
Light Trespass........................................................................................................................ 22
Field Evaluation ........................................................................................................................ 28
Conclusions ................................................................................................................................... 34
References ..................................................................................................................................... 35
Appendix A – LED Fixture Minimum Requirements .................................................................. 36
Appendix B – Laboratory Results ................................................................................................. 40
Vertical Illuminance .................................................................................................................. 40
CobraHead ............................................................................................................................. 40
Teardrop................................................................................................................................. 46
iii

Upright ................................................................................................................................... 48
Horizontal Illuminance .............................................................................................................. 51
Cobrahead .............................................................................................................................. 51
Teardrop................................................................................................................................. 57
Upright ................................................................................................................................... 59
Ratios of Actual and Predicted illuminance .............................................................................. 62
Cobrahead .............................................................................................................................. 62
Teardrop................................................................................................................................. 68
Upright ................................................................................................................................... 70
Scatterplots of Actual illuminance and Predicted illuminance ................................................. 72
Light Trespass Laboratory Data ................................................................................................ 82
Cobrahead .............................................................................................................................. 82
Teardrop................................................................................................................................. 93
Upright ................................................................................................................................... 98
Appendix B – Field Evaluation Charts ....................................................................................... 103
Appendix C – Luminaire Pictures ............................................................................................... 119


iv

List of Figuies

Figure 1. Luminaire laboratory burning-in ..................................................................................... 5
Figure 2: Laboratory evaluation grid .............................................................................................. 5
Figure 3. Overhead view of evaluation grid ................................................................................... 6
Figure 4. Vertical illuminance meter on cart .................................................................................. 7
Figure 5. RLMMS Components Mounted On and Inside a Vehicle .............................................. 9
Figure 6. Cobrahead Field Evaluation Area - Commodore J oshua Barney (ArcMap10) ............. 10
Figure 7. Teardrop Field Evaluation Area – Overlook Drive (ArcMap10) .................................. 11
Figure 8. Upright Field Evaluation Area - 1
st
Street (Google Map – Street View) ...................... 12
Figure 9. GE Cobrahead Grid - Vertical Illuminance ................................................................... 14
Figure 10. GE - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio - Vertical ......................................... 19
Figure 11. GE Cobrahead - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Vertical ............ 20
Figure 12. GE Cobrahead - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Horizontal ........ 21
Figure 13. GE Cobrahead - Light Trespass - House Side ............................................................. 23
Figure 14. GE Cobrahead - Light Trespass - Street Side .............................................................. 23
Figure 15. GE – HPS/LED – NW Curb lane ................................................................................ 32
Figure 16. GE – HPS/LED – NW Center lane.............................................................................. 32
Figure 17. GE – HPS/LED – SE Center lane................................................................................ 33
Figure 18. GE – HPS/LED – SE Curb lane .................................................................................. 33
Figure 19. GE Cobrahead Grid - Vertical Illuminance ................................................................. 40
Figure 20. Beta Cobrahead Grid - Vertical Illuminance ............................................................... 40
Figure 21. Lighting Science Cobrahead Grid - Vertical Illuminance ........................................... 41
Figure 22. Elumen Cobrahead Grid - Vertical Illuminance .......................................................... 41
Figure 23. Leotek Cobrahead Grid – Vertical Illuminance .......................................................... 42
Figure 24. Philips Cobrahead C7951 Grid - Vertical Illuminance ............................................... 42
Figure 25. Philips Cobrahead 270W Grid - Vertical Illuminance ................................................ 43
Figure 26. Philips Cobrahead 135W Grid - Vertical Illuminance ................................................ 43
Figure 27. Relume Cobrahead Grid - Vertical Illuminance .......................................................... 44
Figure 28. Holophane Cobrahead Grid - Vertical Illuminance ..................................................... 44
Figure 29. 250W HPS Cobrahead Grid - Vertical Illuminance .................................................... 45
Figure 30. 400W HPS Cobrahead Grid – Vertical Illuminance ................................................... 45
Figure 31. Philips Teardrop Grid - Vertical Illuminance .............................................................. 46
Figure 32. Holophane Teardrop Grid - Vertical Illuminance ....................................................... 46
Figure 33. Spring City Teardrop Grid - Vertical Illuminance ...................................................... 47
Figure 34. 250W HPS Teardrop Grid - Vertical Illuminance ....................................................... 47
Figure 35. 400W HPS Teardrop Grid - Vertical Illuminance ....................................................... 48
Figure 36. Philips Upright Grid - Vertical Illuminance ................................................................ 48
Figure 37. Holophane Upright Grid - Vertical Illuminance ......................................................... 49
Figure 38. Spring City Upright - Vertical Illuminance ................................................................. 49
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Figure 39. 250W HPS Upright - Vertical Illuminance ................................................................. 50
Figure 40. 400W HPS Upright - Vertical Illuminance ................................................................. 50
Figure 41. GE Cobrahead Grid - Horizontal Illuminance ............................................................. 51
Figure 42. Beta Cobrahead Grid - Horizontal Illuminance ........................................................... 51
Figure 43. Lighting Science Cobrahead Grid - Horizontal Illuminance ....................................... 52
Figure 44. Elumen Cobrahead Grid - Horizontal Illuminance ..................................................... 52
Figure 45. Leotek Cobrahead Grid - Horizontal Illuminance ....................................................... 53
Figure 46. Philips Cobrahead C7951 Grid - Horizontal Illuminance ........................................... 53
Figure 47. Philips 270W Grid - Horizontal Illuminance .............................................................. 54
Figure 48. Philips Cobrahead 135W Grid - Horizontal Illuminance ............................................ 54
Figure 49. Relume Cobrahead Grid - Horizontal Illuminance ..................................................... 55
Figure 50. Holophane Cobrahead Grid - Horizontal Illuminance ................................................ 55
Figure 51. 250W HPS Cobrahead Grid - Horizontal Illuminance ................................................ 56
Figure 52. 400W HPS Cobrahead Grid - Horizontal Illuminance ................................................ 56
Figure 53. Philips Teardrop Grid - Horizontal Illuminance ......................................................... 57
Figure 54. Holophane Teardrop Grid - Horizontal Illuminance ................................................... 57
Figure 55. Spring City Teardrop Grid - Horizontal Illuminance .................................................. 58
Figure 56. 250W HPS Teardrop Grid - Horizontal Illuminance .................................................. 58
Figure 57. 400W HPS Teardrop Grid - Horizontal Illuminance .................................................. 59
Figure 58. Philips Upright Grid - Horizontal Illuminance ............................................................ 59
Figure 59. Holophane Upright Grid - Horizontal Illuminance ..................................................... 60
Figure 60. Spring City Upright Grid - Horizontal Illuminance .................................................... 60
Figure 61. 250W HPS Upright Grid - Horizontal Illuminance ..................................................... 61
Figure 62. 400W HPS Upright Grid - Horizontal Illuminance ..................................................... 61
Figure 63. GE - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio - Vertical ......................................... 62
Figure 64. GE - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio – Horizontal .................................... 62
Figure 65. Beta - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio – Vertical ...................................... 63
Figure 66. Beta - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio – Horizontal .................................. 63
Figure 67. Elumen - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio – Vertical ................................. 64
Figure 68. Elumen - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio – Horizontal ............................. 64
Figure 69. Leotek - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio – Vertical ................................... 65
Figure 70. Leotek - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio – Horizontal .............................. 65
Figure 71. Philips Cobrahead C7951 - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio – Vertical ..... 66
Figure 72. Philips Cobrahead C7951 - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio – Horizontal 66
Figure 73. Relume Cobrahead - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio – Vertical ............... 67
Figure 74. Relume Cobrahead - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio – Horizontal ........... 67
Figure 75. Philips Teardrop - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio – Vertical ................... 68
Figure 76. Philips Teardrop - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio – Horizontal ............... 68
Figure 77. Spring City Teardrop - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio – Vertical ........... 69
Figure 78. Spring City Teardrop - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio – Horizontal ....... 69
vi

Figure 79. Philips Upright - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio – Vertical ..................... 70
Figure 80. Philips Upright - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio – Horizontal ................. 70
Figure 81. Spring City Upright - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio – Vertical .............. 71
Figure 82. Spring City Upright - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Ratio – Horizontal ......... 71
Figure 83. GE Cobrahead - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Vertical ............ 72
Figure 84. GE Cobrahead - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Horizontal ........ 72
Figure 85. Beta Cobrahead - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Vertical .......... 73
Figure 86. Beta Cobrahead - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation - Horizontal ....... 73
Figure 87. Elumen Cobrahead - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Vertical ..... 74
Figure 88. Elumen Cobrahead - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Horizontal . 74
Figure 89. Leotek Cobrahead - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Vertical ....... 75
Figure 90. Leotek Cobrahead - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Horizontal .. 75
Figure 91. Philips Cobrahead C7951 - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Vertical
....................................................................................................................................................... 76
Figure 92. Philips Cobrahead C7951 - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation –
Horizontal ..................................................................................................................................... 76
Figure 93. Relume Cobrahead - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Vertical ..... 77
Figure 94. Relume Cobrahead - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Horizontal . 77
Figure 95. Philips Teardrop - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Vertical ......... 78
Figure 96. Philips Teardrop - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Horizontal ..... 78
Figure 97. Spring City Teardrop - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Vertical .. 79
Figure 98. Spring City Teardrop - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Horizontal
....................................................................................................................................................... 79
Figure 99. Philips Upright - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Vertical ............ 80
Figure 100. Philips Upright - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Horizontal ..... 80
Figure 101. Spring City Upright - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Vertical .. 81
Figure 102. Spring City Upright - Predicted vs. Measured Illuminance Correlation – Horizontal
....................................................................................................................................................... 81
Figure 103. Beta Cobrahead - Light Trespass - House Side ......................................................... 82
Figure 104. Beta Cobrahead - Light Trespass - Street Side .......................................................... 82
Figure 105. Lighting Science Cobrahead - Light Trespass - House Side ..................................... 83
Figure 106. Lighting Science Cobrahead - Light Trespass - Street Side ...................................... 83
Figure 107. Elumen Cobrahead - Light Trespass - House Side .................................................... 84
Figure 108. Elumen Cobrahead - Light Trespass - Street Side ..................................................... 84
Figure 109. Leotek Cobrahead - Light Trespass - House Side ..................................................... 85
Figure 110. Leotek Cobrahead - Light Trespass - Street Side ...................................................... 85
Figure 111. Philips Cobrahead C7951 - Light Trespass - House Side ......................................... 86
Figure 112. Philips Cobrahead C7951 - Light Trespass - Street Side .......................................... 86
Figure 113. Philips Cobrahead 270W RVM - Light Trespass - House Side ................................ 87
Figure 114. Philips Cobrahead 270W RVM - Light Trespass - Street Side ................................. 87
vii

Figure 115. Philips Cobrahead 135W RVS - Light Trespass - House Side ................................. 88
Figure 116. Philips Cobrahead 135W RVS - Light Trespass - Street Side .................................. 88
Figure 117. Relume Cobrahead - Light Trespass - House Side .................................................... 89
Figure 118. Relume Cobrahead - Light Trespass - Street Side ..................................................... 89
Figure 119. Holophane Cobrahead - Light Trespass - House Side............................................... 90
Figure 120. Holophane Cobrahead - Light Trespass - Street Side ............................................... 90
Figure 121. 250W HPS Cobrahead - Light Trespass - House Side .............................................. 91
Figure 122. 250W HPS Cobrahead - Light Trespass - Street Side ............................................... 91
Figure 123. 400W HPS Cobrahead - Light Trespass - House Side .............................................. 92
Figure 124. 400W HPS Cobrahead - Light Trespass - Street Side ............................................... 92
Figure 125. Philips Teardrop - Light Trespass - House Side ........................................................ 93
Figure 126. Philips Teardrop - Light Trespass - Street Side ......................................................... 93
Figure 127. Holophane Teardrop - Light Trespass - House Side ................................................. 94
Figure 128. Holophane Teardrop - Light Trespass - Street Side .................................................. 94
Figure 129. Spring City Teardrop - Light Trespass - House Side ................................................ 95
Figure 130. Spring City Teardrop - Light Trespass - Street Side ................................................. 95
Figure 131. 250W HPS Teardrop - Light Trespass - House Side ................................................. 96
Figure 132. 250W HPS Teardrop - Light Trespass - Street Side.................................................. 96
Figure 133. 400W HPS Teardrop - Light Trespass - House Side ................................................. 97
Figure 134. 400W HPS Teardrop - Light Trespass - Street Side.................................................. 97
Figure 135. Philips Upright - Light Trespass - House Side .......................................................... 98
Figure 136. Philips Upright - Light Trespass - Street Side ........................................................... 98
Figure 137. Holophane Upright - Light Trespass - House Side ................................................... 99
Figure 138. Holophane Upright - Light Trespass - Street Side .................................................... 99
Figure 139. Spring City Upright - Light Trespass - House Side ................................................ 100
Figure 140. Spring City Upright - Light Trespass - Street Side ................................................. 100
Figure 141. 250W HPS Upright - Light Trespass - House Side ................................................. 101
Figure 142. 250W HPS Upright - Light Trespass - Street Side .................................................. 101
Figure 143. 400W HPS Upright - Light Trespass - House Side ................................................. 102
Figure 144. 400W HPS Upright - Light Trespass - Street Side .................................................. 102
Figure 145. Beta - HPS/LED - NW Center Lane........................................................................ 103
Figure 146. Beta - HPS/LED - NW Curb Lane .......................................................................... 103
Figure 147. Beta - HPS/LED - SE Center Lane .......................................................................... 104
Figure 148. Beta - HPS/LED - SE Curb Lane ............................................................................ 104
Figure 149. Holophane - HPS/LED - NW Center Lane ............................................................. 105
Figure 150. Holophane - HPS/LED - NW Curb Lane ................................................................ 105
Figure 151. Holophane - HPS/LED - SE Center Lane ............................................................... 106
Figure 152. Holophane - HPS/LED - SE Curb Lane .................................................................. 106
Figure 153. Leotek - HPS/LED - NW Center Lane .................................................................... 107
Figure 154. Leotek - HPS/LED - NW Curb Lane ...................................................................... 107
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Figure 155. Leotek - HPS/LED - SE Center Lane ...................................................................... 108
Figure 156. Leotek - HPS/LED - SE Curb Lane ........................................................................ 108
Figure 157. Lighting Science - HPS/LED - NW Center Lane .................................................... 109
Figure 158. Lighting Science - HPS/LED - SE Center Lane ...................................................... 109
Figure 159. Philips C7951 - HPS/LED - NW Center Lane ........................................................ 110
Figure 160. Philips C7951 - HPS/LED - SE Center Lane .......................................................... 110
Figure 161. Philips Cobrahead 135W - RVS - N Center Lane ................................................... 111
Figure 162. Philips Cobrahead 135W - RVS - S Center Lane .................................................... 111
Figure 163. Relume Cobrahead - HPS/LED - NW Center Lane ................................................ 112
Figure 164. Relume Cobrahead - HPS/LED - SE Center Lane .................................................. 112
Figure 165. Philips Teardrop - HPS/LED ................................................................................... 113
Figure 166. Spring City Teardrop - HPS/LED ........................................................................... 113
Figure 167. Philips Upright - HPS/LED - N Center/Inside Lane ............................................... 114
Figure 168. Philips Upright - HPS/LED - N Outside Lane ........................................................ 114
Figure 169. Philips Upright - HPS/LED - S Bike Lane .............................................................. 115
Figure 170. Philips Upright - HPS/LED - S Center/Inside Lane ................................................ 115
Figure 171. Philips Upright - HPS/LED - S Outside Lane ......................................................... 116
Figure 172. Spring City Upright - HPS/LED - N Center/Inside Lane ........................................ 116
Figure 173. Spring City Upright - HPS/LED - N Outside Lane ................................................. 117
Figure 174. Spring City Upright - HPS/LED - S Bike Lane ...................................................... 117
Figure 175. Spring City Upright - HPS/LED - S Center/Inside Lane ........................................ 118
Figure 176. Spring City Upright - HPS/LED - S Outside Lane.................................................. 118
Figure 177. Beta Cobrahead ....................................................................................................... 119
Figure 178. Philips Cobrahead - C7951 ...................................................................................... 120
Figure 179 - Philips Cobrahead - C7951 - Installed, Daytime ................................................... 120
Figure 180 - Philips Cobrahead - C7951 - Installed, Nighttime ................................................. 121
Figure 181. Philips Cobrahead - 135W80LED - RVS ................................................................ 121
Figure 182 - Philips Cobrahead - 135W80LED -RVS - Installed, Daytime .............................. 122
Figure 183 - Philips Cobrahad - 135W80LED - RVS - Installed, Nighttime ............................. 123
Figure 184. Philips Cobrahead - 270W160LED - RVM ............................................................ 123
Figure 185 - Philips Cobrahead - 270W160LED - RVM - Installed, Daytime .......................... 124
Figure 186 - Philips 270W160LED - RVM - Installed, Nighttime ............................................ 124
Figure 187. Elumen Cobrahead .................................................................................................. 125
Figure 188. GE Cobrahead ......................................................................................................... 125
Figure 189. Lighting Science Cobrahead .................................................................................... 126
Figure 190 - Lighting Science Cobrahead - Installed, Daytime ................................................. 126
Figure 191 - Lighting Science Cobrahead - Installed, Nighttime ............................................... 127
Figure 192. Relume Cobrahead .................................................................................................. 127
Figure 193. Holophane Cobrahead ............................................................................................. 128
Figure 194. Leotek Cobrahead .................................................................................................... 128
ix

Figure 195 - Leotek Cobrahead - Installed, Daytime ................................................................. 129
Figure 196 - Leotek Cobrahead - Installed, Nighttime ............................................................... 129
Figure 197. Holophane Teardrop ................................................................................................ 130
Figure 198. Spring City Teardrop ............................................................................................... 130
Figure 199. Philips Teardrop ...................................................................................................... 131
Figure 200. Philips Upright......................................................................................................... 132
Figure 201. Holophane Upright .................................................................................................. 133
Figure 202. Spring City Upright ................................................................................................. 133
Figure 203 - Standard HPS Cobrahead - 400W .......................................................................... 134
Figure 204 - Standard HPS Cobrahead 250W ............................................................................ 134
Figure 205 - LED Fixture on 28' Mounting Pole ........................................................................ 135


x

List of Tables
Table 1. Lighting Requirements of DDOT ..................................................................................... 2
Table 2. Illuminance Conversion .................................................................................................... 3
Table 3. Evaluated Luminaires ....................................................................................................... 4
Table 4. Field Evaluation Dates and Locations .............................................................................. 8
Table 5. Summary - Cobrahead Style ........................................................................................... 13
Table 6. Summary - Teardrop and Upright Styles ........................................................................ 13
Table 7. Summary of Lab Cobrahead Illuminance ....................................................................... 16
Table 8. Summary of Lab Teardrop Illuminance .......................................................................... 17
Table 9. Summary of Lab Upright Illuminance ............................................................................ 18
Table 10. Summary of Slope and Correlation for Measured and Predicted Values. .................... 22
Table 11. IES Light Trespass Limitations .................................................................................... 22
Table 12. Summary of Lab and Field Cobrahead Light Trespass ................................................ 25
Table 13. Summary of Lab and Field Teardrop Light Trespass ................................................... 26
Table 14. Summary of Lab and Field Upright Light Trespass ..................................................... 27
Table 15. GE Cobrahead - Field Evaluation Results .................................................................... 28
Table 16. Beta Cobrahead - Field Evaluation Results .................................................................. 28
Table 17. Lighting Science Cobrahead - Field Evaluation Results .............................................. 29
Table 18. Leotek Cobrahead - Field Evaluation Results .............................................................. 29
Table 19. Philips Cobrahead C7951 - Field Evaluation Results ................................................... 29
Table 20. Relume Cobrahead - Field Evaluation Results ............................................................. 30
Table 21. Holophane Cobrahead - Field Evaluation Results ........................................................ 30
Table 22. Philips Teardrop - Field Evaluation Results ................................................................. 30
Table 23. Spring City Teardrop - Field Evaluation Results .......................................................... 31
Table 24. Philips Upright - Field Evaluation Results ................................................................... 31
Table 25. Spring City Upright - Field Evaluation Results ............................................................ 31

1

LEDSTREETLIGHTFIXTURES‐FIELDANDLABORATORYRESULTS
REPORT
Introduction
This report describes the results of the field and laboratory evaluation of sample LED street
lighting fixtures procured by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and the
Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) under contract to the Washington DC Department
of Transportation (DDOT). The results of this report will inform DDOT’s decision to incorporate
one or more LED fixtures into its catalogue of standard fixtures.
ProjectObjective
This project consisted of the evaluation of a variety of luminaire solutions suitable for roadway
use in the District of Columbia. These lighting systems were tested both in a laboratory setting
and in test-bed locations in Washington, DC. The object of the project is to provide the data
required for the selection of the appropriate luminaire by the District Department of
Transportation (DDOT).
Methods
The SAIC/VTTI Team assisted DDOT with the development of a set of minimum requirements
for the replacement luminaires. The SAIC/VTTI Team distributed these minimum requirements
to luminaire manufacturers and distributors. Interested parties shipped 5 units of luminaires to be
evaluated, three to DDOT and two to VTTI. The SAIC/VTTI Team tested and evaluated sample
luminaires’ power consumption, light output, and spectral performance in a laboratory
environment. After laboratory testing, the luminaires were sent to DDOT to be installed with the
other three provided systems. After installation, the SAIC/VTTI Team evaluated the sample
luminaires’ performance in test-bed locations in Washington, DC. For comparison purposes, the
SAIC/VTTI Team also performed laboratory and field evaluations of DDOT’s standard high-
pressure sodium fixtures.
SpecificationDevelopment
Based upon current DDOT lighting specifications, the SAIC/VTTI Team helped DDOT develop
minimum requirements for the LED fixtures. This document (included as Appendix A – LED
Fixture Minimum Requirements) describes the system luminance, power consumption, and
compatibility requirements LED fixtures must satisfy to be considered for use in the District
Lighting System.
2

The luminaires were also evaluated based upon the DC Department of Transportation Design
and Engineering Manual Chapter 41. Table 1, below shows the District’s requirements for street
lighting, highlighted with the classification under comparison.
Table 1. Lighting Requirements of DDOT

These requirements relate closely to the IES RP-8 requirements of roadways of similar type for
high pedestrian conflict areas. The cobra head style will be considered in the “Collector”
classification. The teardrop style will be considered in the “Arterial” classification and the
upright style will be in the “Local” classification. The foot-candle values of the specification are
converted below to the lux values recorded in the field. As the DDOT requirements are in foot
candles and the evaluations by VTTI are in lux, the values were converted using a factor of 10.76
lux per foot-candle. These conversions are shown in Table 2.
3

Table 2. Illuminance Conversion
Luminaire 
Type 
Foot‐candles  Lux  Uniformity Ratio 
Upright  0.8  8.6  6:1 
Cobrahead  1.1  11.8  4:1 
Teardrop  1.6  17.26  3:1 

SystemSubmittal
In all, 10 cobra-head type systems, 3 Teardrop and 3 Upright systems were received for
evaluation. Table 3 shows the received luminaire in each category (the 250 Watt HPS and the
400 Watt HPS listing are the standard luminaires currently used by DDOT).
Per Appendix A, vendors also provided IES intensity distribution files for the LED luminaires.
Not all were received and these are highlighted in the table. Similarly, while all luminaires were
tested at VTTI, not all of the systems were installed by DDOT. DDOT elected not to install some
luminaires due to installation difficulties, appearance, or other limiting factors.
Table 3, below, details the manufacturer and model of the fixtures submitted for evaluation. The
table also shows whether an IES file was received, whether the fixture was installed by the field,
and if the fixture was evaluated in the VTTI laboratory.
4

Table 3. Evaluated Luminaires

LaboratoryEvaluation
The SAIC/VTTI Team performed a laboratory evaluation of the luminaires to compare actual
luminaire performance with manufacturer claims. The process entailed mounting each luminaire
in the VTTI test facility for a “burning-in” time of approx. 100 hours (Figure 1). Next,
luminaires were individually mounted in the outdoor environment at the VTTI test facility
(Figure 2). Here, the output of the luminaire was measured in terms of horizontal and vertical
illuminance along a grid of test locations beneath and to the side of the luminaire.
The SAIC/VTTI Team did not receive IES files for the Holophane cobra head, upright, and
teardrop fixtures. DDOT elected not to install the Elumen cobra head luminaire, and the
holophane teardrop and upright luminaires.
Manufacturer Type Model
IES file 
received
Installed 
by DDOT
Tested 
at VTTI
Beta Cobra Head BXUL0203D‐UC Yes Yes Yes
Elumen Cobra Head SEG200NC3TMR5A Yes No Yes
GE Cobra Head ERMC0C343A2GRAY Yes Yes Yes
Holophane Cobra Head LEDG120534KASGL2R No Yes Yes
Leotek Cobra Head GCA2‐120E‐MV‐NW‐2‐GY‐700 Yes Yes Yes
Lighting Science Cobra Head DBR10004 No Yes Yes
Philips Cobra Head C7951‐I3NA5RNAN Yes Yes Yes
Philips Cobra Head 270W160LED4K Yes* Yes Yes
Philips Cobra Head 135W80LED4K Yes* Yes Yes
Relume Cobra Head VUE 400, 110‐277V, AC 60Hz Yes Yes Yes
250W HPS Cobra Head DDOT luminaire N/A N/A Yes
400W HPS Cobra Head DDOT luminaire N/A N/A Yes
Holophane Teardrop ESLT1505KASBR No No Yes
Philips Teardrop C7950‐AKL3NA5NN Yes Yes Yes
Spring City Teardrop Columbia LED Yes Yes Yes
250W HPS Teardrop DDOT luminaire N/A N/A Yes
400W HPS Teardrop DDOT luminaire N/A N/A Yes
Holophane Upright WFL1055KASBL3BH No No Yes
Philips Upright C7949‐A5NA5RNAN Yes Yes Yes
Spring City Upright Washington LED‐ 18902 Yes Yes Yes
250W HPS Upright DDOT luminaire N/A N/A Yes
400W HPS Upright DDOT luminaire N/A N/A Yes
* ‐ fi l e recei ved, but not processed at ti me of 
reporti ng
5


Figure 1. Luminaire laboratory burning-in

Figure 2: Laboratory evaluation grid
The luminaire pole stands on a level surface offset in the measurement grid (the luminaire noted
as “L” in the overhead grid view of Figure 3). The pole is fitted with an attachment bracket for
luminaires and the bracket can be adjusted based on the type of luminaire. Cobra head and
teardrop style luminaires were mounted at a height of 30ft. Upright luminaires were mounted at
6

a height of 14ft. The measurement grid extends 6 meters behind, 13 meters in front of, and 20
meters to each side of the luminaire. This configuration allowed the SAIC/VTTI Team to
evaluate the light not directed at the roadway, (the “house-side” of the luminaire) as well as the
light output to the roadway-side (the “street-side”, of the luminaire). The SAIC/VTTI Team
performed both horizontal and vertical illuminance measurements on a one meter spacing in the
test grid using Minolta T-10 illuminance meters. The SAIC/VTTI Team recorded data manually
at each point along the grid.

Figure 3. Overhead view of evaluation grid
The SAIC/VTTI Team took horizontal measurements with an illuminance meter on the
pavement, facing up, at each location on the 20x40 meter grid. The team took vertical
measurements using an illuminance meter affixed to a mobile cart, mounted 1.5 meters from
ground level (Figure 4). For the vertical measurements the meter was aimed along the roadway
direction with the meter facing the luminaire. This means that in the top half of the grid the meter
was aimed parallel to the grid facing the bottom half of the grid and in the bottom of the grid, the
meter was reversed and faced towards to top of grid parallel to the grid.
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12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 L
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
1 2 3 4 5 6 4 3 10 9 8 7 6 5 13 12 11 1 0 2
7

The SAIC/VTTI Team took additional vertical measurements along each edge of the grid with
the meter aimed into the grid to estimate light trespass.

Figure 4. Vertical illuminance meter on cart
The SAIC/VTTI Team compared these illuminance measurements to the expected illuminance
developed from the manufacturers’ specifications and IES intensity distribution files. The
SAIC/VTTI Team used the AGI32 lighting design software to develop the expected values.
The SAIC/VTTI Team also measured the electrical power usage and the spectral power
distribution of the sample luminaires. The team used a Yokogowa WT 110 power meter to
measure electrical power usage. The SAIC/VTTI Team measured spectral power distribution
using an Ocean Optics S4000 spectraradiometer with a Teflon integrating sphere acceptance
optic.
FieldEvaluation
MeasurementProcedure
The SAIC/VTTI Team conducted a before and after evaluation of street lights and their
illuminance at three different Washington, DC locations. Table 4 details the dates of the
evaluation, the location of the evaluation, and the types of luminaires at each location.
8

Table 4. Field Evaluation Dates and Locations
Date of Evaluation Location Luminaire Type
J une 8, 2011 Commodore J oshua Barney
Overlook
1
st
St.
Cobrahead HPS
Teardrop HPS
Upright HPS
October 25, 2011 Commodore J oshua Barney
Overlook
1
st
St.
Cobrahead LED
Teardrop LED
Upright LED
November 1, 2011 Commodore J oshua Barney Cobrahead LED (Continued)

On J une 8, 2011, the SAIC/VTTI Team made the initial evaluations of the three testing locations
using the VTTI Roadway Lighting Mobile Measuring System (RLMMS). Each location had its
own type of luminaire fixture and every fixture across all locations was High Pressure Sodium
(HPS). The SAIC/VTTI Team measured illuminance by driving the routes of each location
several times with the data collection equipment. The SAIC/VTTI Team drove each lane and
every possible turn for each lane (if the location contained multiple lanes and multiple turn
options). The results of this initial evaluation provided the baseline data for the system
evaluation.
On October 25, 2011 and November 1, 2011, the SAIC/VTTI Team followed the same protocol
for the LED luminaires. At DDOT’s decision, some sample luminaires were not installed in the
field. Due to the number of cobra head LED luminaires to be tested, the SAIC team returned on
November 1 to complete the testing at Commodore J oshua Barney Road.
The VTTI RLMMS device includes illuminance meters, GPS, and luminance and color cameras
to accurately evaluate roadway lighting. The RLMMS “spider instrument”, which includes four
light meters and a GPS system, is mounted on the roof of an SUV. The luminance and color
cameras record data from within the vehicle.
The RLMMS hardware is connected to the data collection system and controlled by a specialized
software program created in LabVIEW™. The entire hardware suite is synchronized through the
software program with data collection rates set at 20Hz. Video image capture rates are typically
set at 3.75 frames per second (fps). The final output file used during the analysis contains a
synchronization stamp, GPS information (e.g., latitude and longitude), button presses, individual
images from each of the cameras inside the vehicle, the illuminance meter data from each of the
Minolta T-10s, the vehicle information, and a spectrum file. The data collection system consists
of three computers linked with an Ethernet network. Each color and luminance camera has a
dedicated computer to ensure proper data collection and is triggered by the master data collection
system which captures all of the other data. The system has also undergone successful reliability
and repeatability tests (Gibbons et al., 2010).
9

Figure 5, below, shows the hardware mounted on a vehicle. The illuminance and GPS receiver
can be seen on the vehicle roof and the cameras and illuminance meters are visible inside the
windshield.

Figure 5. RLMMS Components Mounted On and Inside a Vehicle
The SAIC/VTTI Team assessed potential light trespass and lighting distribution of the using a
measuring wheel and handheld Minolta illuminance meter. The team measured illuminance six
feet behind the fixture pole and halfway between each different luminaire type and the next
luminaire in each direction. Measurements were taken at five feet high, facing the roadway to
assess the lighting distribution for each luminaire type. The SAIC/VTTI Team used luminaires
between like-typed light sources for these measurements to prevent light trespass from different
luminaire type to interfere with the measurements of one. Luminaires were often staggered on
the roadway and a luminaire on the opposite side of the roadway was considered as the next
luminaire in the sequence. The SAIC/VTTI Team also took illuminance readings on the
opposite side of the road, six feet from the roadway, directly across from the luminaire.
TestLocations
“Commodore J oshua Barney” is a two lane roadway with no turns or intersections. Luminaires
were spaced 156 feet apart. The luminaires were mounted 30 feet high. The layout is shown in
Figure 6.

“Overloo
base. Th
lane brea
first lumi
majority
“Overloo
at 30 feet
Figure 6. C
ok” is single
here are no tu
aks into a me
inaire in the
of the testin
ok” were loc
t. The layout
Cobrahead F
e lane connec
urns located
erge lane for
segment of
ng area, the d
ated on the r
t is shown in
Field Evalu
(A
ctor between
in the portio
r another hig
road. For th
distance acro
right side of
n Figure 7
10
ation Area
ArcMap10)
n two highw
on of “Overl
ghway and co
he single lan
oss the roadw
f the roadway
Elum
Relum
Light
Beta
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ways and also
look” which
oincides with
ne portion of
way was 37ft
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ting Science
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phane
ore Joshua B
o runs alongs
was evaluat
h the covera
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ft. All of the
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e
Barney
side an Arm
ted however
age area for t
hich made u
e luminaires
part and mou

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“First Str
luminaire
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8.
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Spring C
Philips
ure 7. Teard
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uminaires we
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11
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ArcMap10)
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Two lumin
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rlook Drive
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rently
Figure

Sp
Ph
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Figure 8. U
pring City (W
hilips Uprigh
hilips Cobra
hilips Cobra
Upright Fiel
(Google M
Washington
ht
a Head RVS
a Head RVM
12
ld Evaluatio
Map – Street
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13

Results
Table 5 and Table 6 summarize the findings of both the field and laboratory evaluations based
upon DDOT’s minimum requirements. Average illuminance readings are a summary of the
multiple lanes of the roadway that were evaluated in the field measurements. The luminaires
meeting or surpassing the requirements of DDOT are highlighted in green. Luminaires that did
not meet DDOT’s minimum requirements are highlighted in red.
Table 5. Summary - Cobrahead Style


Table 6. Summary - Teardrop and Upright Styles


Beta GE Hol ophane Leotek
Li ghti ng 
Sci ence
Phi l i ps 
(C7951)
Phi l i ps 
(270W)
Phi l i ps 
(135W)
Rel ume
Hi gh 
Pressure 
Sodi um 
(250W)
Average I l l umi nance (l ux) 5.90 19.66 22.99 30.37 34.04 18.92 40.96 19.05 19.82 32.60
Average I l l umi nance (fc) 0.55 1.83 2.14 2.82 3.16 1.76 3.80 1.77 1.84 3.03
Max I l l umi nance (l ux) 14.48 83.50 90.05 122.55 123.41 61.05 69.89 71.42 79.11 197.13
Max I l l umi nance (fc) 1.34 7.76 8.37 11.38 11.47 5.67 6.49 6.63 7.35 18.31
Average:Max 0.41 0.24 0.26 0.25 0.28 0.31 0.59 0.27 0.25 0.17
Mi n I l l umi nance (l ux) 0.52 1.07 1.40 8.18 1.26 2.10 18.63 5.69 1.52 0.76
Mi n I l l umi nance (fc) 0.05 0.10 0.13 0.76 0.12 0.19 1.73 0.53 0.14 0.07
Average:Mi n 11.29 18.33 16.42 3.71 27.07 9.02 2.20 3.35 13.06 42.75
Actual  Wattage Measured 50.60 145.20 192.90 271.80 284.10 132.60 266.00 131.00 282.50 322.10
Cobrahead
Phi l i ps
Spri ng Ci ty 
(Col umbi a)
Hi gh 
Pressure 
Sodi um 
(250W)
Phi l i ps
Spri ng Ci ty 
(Washi ngton)
Hi gh 
Pressure 
Sodi um 
(150W)
Average I l l umi nance (l ux) 4.90 4.96 15.57 18.52 11.44 11.30
Average I l l umi nance (fc) 0.45 0.46 1.45 1.72 1.06 1.05
Max I l l umi nance (l ux) 7.44 7.88 33.41 49.06 49.94 27.34
Max I l l umi nance (fc) 0.69 0.73 3.10 4.56 4.64 2.54
Average:Max 0.66 0.63 0.47 0.38 0.23 0.41
Mi n I l l umi nance (l ux) 2.41 2.75 3.57 5.06 2.53 5.80
Mi n I l l umi nance (fc) 0.22 0.26 0.33 0.47 0.24 0.54
Average:Mi n 2.04 1.81 4.37 3.66 4.52 1.95
Actual  Wattage Measured 130.60 156.60 324.20 130.80 100.60 N/A
Teardrop Upright
Meets requi rement
Does not meet requi rement

More spe
Labora
Vertical
The SAIC
Figure 9
Vertical i
eyes 1.5
of the lum
experienc
detection
grid are a
one can s
evaluated
ecific evalua
toryEvalu
lIlluminan
C/VTTI Tea
below, show
F
illuminance
meters from
minaire to hi
ced by a driv
n, these value
aimed towar
see the overa
d luminaires
ations of the
uation
nce
am evaluated
ws the vertic
Figure 9. G
measuremen
m the ground.
ighlight obje
ver. The FH
es are shown
rds a driver in
all uniformit
are displaye
luminaires i
d each lumin
al iluminanc
GE Cobrahea
nt gives an i
. This measu
ects and pede
HWA recomm
n in the top h
ndicate high
ty of the outp
ed in Append
14

in the laborat
naire at the V
ce for the GE
ad Grid - V
ndication of
urement pro
estrians in th
mends 20 ve
half of the gr
h levels of gl
put of the lum
dix B – Labo
atory and the
VTTI laborat
E cobrahead
Vertical Illum
f the light tha
ovides inform
he roadway a
ertical lux in
rid. High val
lare. In the c
uminaire. Co
oratory Resu
e field are dis
tory in the gr
luminaire a
minance
at would aff
mation about
as well as th
crosswalks
lues in the lo
case of this G
omplete char
ults.
scussed belo
rid environm
s an exampl
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t both the ab
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for pedestria
ower part of
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rts for all
Lumin
ow.
ment.
e.

rver’s
ility
an
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naire
15

HorizontalIlluminance
The SAIC/VTTI Team also measured illuminance at the ground level (horizontal illuminance) at
the VTTI Laboratory. This measurement gives an indication of the distribution of the light
actually reaching the ground. This shows the level of uniformity of the luminaire’s output. This
data provides the information required to assess the overall lighting of the roadway brightness of
the road surface.
Table 7, Table 8 and Table 9 provide a summary of the illuminance measures within the each
luminaire’s grid. Charts for each of the evaluated luminaires are included in Appendix B –
Laboratory Results.
16


Table 7. Summary of Lab Cobrahead Illuminance

HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS
Average Vertical Grid 
Illuminance (lux) 6.52 12.07 2.82 4.44 4.75 13.92 5.49 15.75 11.15 21.99 13.65 25.36 6.76 10.75 11.76 23.13 7.20 11.62 9.56 15.67 16.91 16.04 34.54 32.90
Average Vertical Grid 
Illuminance (fc) 0.61 1.12 0.26 0.41 0.44 1.29 0.51 1.46 1.04 2.04 1.27 2.36 0.63 1.00 1.09 2.15 0.67 1.08 0.89 1.46 1.57 1.49 3.21 3.06
Average Horizontal Grid 
Illuminance (lux) 4.37 12.02 2.34 3.73 4.42 10.56 5.02 14.77 10.86 21.26 16.98 25.32 7.37 10.35 12.28 21.43 7.62 10.89 8.54 12.41 17.88 16.29 36.70 33.15
Average Horizontal Grid 
Illuminance (fc) 0.41 1.12 0.22 0.35 0.41 0.98 0.47 1.37 1.01 1.97 1.58 2.35 0.68 0.96 1.14 1.99 0.71 1.01 0.79 1.15 1.66 1.51 3.41 3.08
Max Grid Vertical Illuminance 
(lux)
Max Grid Vertical Illuminance 
(fc)
Min Grid Vertical Illuminance 
(lux)
Min Grid Vertical Illuminance 
(fc)
Max Grid Horizontal 
Illuminance (lux)
Max Grid Horizontal 
Illuminance (fc)
Min Grid Horizontal 
Illuminance (lux)
Min Grid Horizontal 
Illuminance (fc)
0.87 1.35 0.75 2.56 2.05 2.72
0.66 1.95 3.86 7.63 6.75 3.36 6.55 3.47 4.42 5.39 11.25
2.54 0.96 2.77 3.64 4.27 8.87 2.14
77.20
3.95
121.10
0.25
250W HPS 400W HPS
37.70
1.67
58.00
0.19
3.50 7.17
0.37 0.16
0.13
0.46
0.07 0.24
37.4 47.6
0.09 0.04 0.16
1.14 1.88 0.53
0.06 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.08 0.08
0.05 0.17 0.11 0.06 0.06 0.01 0.04
4.54
0.6 0.38 0.66 1.01 1.26 0.83
27.3 10.31 29.81 39.2 46 95.5 23.03
0.39 0.98
48.9 7.06 20.96 41.55 82.1 72.7 36.2 70.5
0.07 0.65 0.67
Lighting Science Philips (C7951) Philips (270W) Philips (135W) Relume
46.9 24.08 34.4
1.69
4.36 2.24 3.20
GE Beta Elumen Holophane Leotek
17

Table 8. Summary of Lab Teardrop Illuminance

HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS
Average Vertical Grid 
Illuminance (lux) 6.68 10.03 10.73 9.99 3.94 14.52 19.66 23.56 30.28 33.36
Average Vertical Grid 
Illuminance (fc) 0.62 0.93 1.00 0.93 0.37 1.35 1.83 2.19 2.81 3.10
Average Horizontal Grid 
Illuminance (lux) 6.57 9.44 8.29 9.39 2.01 7.24 18.08 19.48 27.86 28.66
Average Horizontal Grid 
Illuminance (fc) 0.61 0.88 0.77 0.87 0.19 0.67 1.68 1.81 2.59 2.66
Max Grid Vertical Illuminance 
(lux)
Max Grid Vertical Illuminance 
(fc)
Min Grid Vertical Illuminance 
(lux)
Min Grid Vertical Illuminance 
(fc)
Max Grid Horizontal 
Illuminance (lux)
Max Grid Horizontal 
Illuminance (fc)
Min Grid Horizontal 
Illuminance (lux)
Min Grid Horizontal 
Illuminance (fc)
2.21 3.16 4.24 5.53 6.61
0.07
2.71
0.07
0.02
1.91
<0.01
0.02
1.76
0.03
0.19
6.60
0.25
0.27
9.41
0.45
2.90
101.30
4.86
59.50 71.10
250W HPS 400W HPS
0.79 0.03 0.34
0.72 0.17 0.26
29.16 20.58 18.97
Philips Teardrop Holophane Teardrop Spring City Teardrop
23.8 34 45.6
2.70
2.05
71.00
18

Table 9. Summary of Lab Upright Illuminance

Note: HS =House-Side, SS =Street-Side
HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS
Average Vertical Grid 
Illuminance (lux) 15.34 10.79 12.16 8.04 5.96 5.14 19.13 14.17 32.82 23.26
Average Vertical Grid 
Illuminance (fc) 1.43 1.00 1.13 0.75 0.55 0.48 1.78 1.32 3.05 2.16
Average Horizontal Grid 
Illuminance (lux) 7.78 7.22 8.36 6.53 4.49 3.94 9.53 7.94 17.06 12.66
Average Horizontal Grid 
Illuminance (fc) 0.72 0.67 0.78 0.61 0.42 0.37 0.89 0.74 1.59 1.18
Max Grid Vertical 
Illuminance (lux)
Max Grid Vertical 
Illuminance (fc)
Min Grid Vertical 
Illuminance (lux)
Min Grid Vertical 
Illuminance (fc)
Max Grid Horizontal 
Illuminance (lux)
Max Grid Horizontal 
Illuminance (fc)
Min Grid Horizontal 
Illuminance (lux)
Min Grid Horizontal 
Illuminance (fc)
5.37
0.15
3.11
0.11
9.30
0.22
4.71
0.15
4.18
0.08
2.01
0.03
5.28
0.02
2.95
0.01
3.55
0.03
2.36
0.02
100.10
2.40
50.70
1.60
57.80
1.60
33.50
250W HPS 400W HPS
21.64 31.7 25.41
0.36 0.12 0.25
45 56.8 38.2
0.81 0.2 0.29
Philips Upright Holophane Upright Spring City Upright
1.20

Compar
The SAIC
predicted
noted tha
were pro
1, below
Here aga
shown in
The valu
expected
of the GE
risontoPre
C/VTTI Tea
d illuminance
at compariso
vided by ma
:
Comporis
ain as an exam
n
Figure 1
es indicated
d to be found
E luminaire p
edictedVer
am compared
e values of t
ons were only
anufacturers.
Equati
on Rotio =
mple, for the
10. GE - Pre
in the Figur
d at each grid
presented ab
rticalIllum
d the in-situ
the luminaire
y be made fo
. The compa
ion 1. Illum

HcosurcJ
e case of the
edicted vs. M
re 10 can be
d point and w
bove, the erro
19
minance
illuminance
e using the A
or luminaire
arison was c
inance Com
J Illuminon
Hcosur
e GE cobrahe
Measured Il
thought of a
what is actua
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measureme
AGI32 lighti
s where AG
calculated as
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lluminance
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ally measure
oughly in 0.4
ents to the ex
ing software
GI32 standard
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of the error
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. It should b
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hown in Equ
inoncc

parison ratio
rtical
between wh
mple, in the c
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uminaire
be
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hat is
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the meas
indication
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For exam
meter is l
this case
environm
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Laborato
In order t
performa
While a t
in this ca
illuminan
Figure 12
Figure
ured values
n of how a lu
f stray light,
cted illumin
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located direc
the software
ment of the d
han “0” due
vement surfa
ory Results
to give anoth
ance, a gener
typical corre
ase it can also
nce to the pr
2. Graphs of
e 11. GE Co
being higher
uminaire wo
reflections,
nance values
deal environ
ctly in line w
e reports “0
designed grid
to the presen
face. Charts
her indicatio
ral display o
elation show
o give an ind
redicted illum
f all luminair
obrahead - P
r than the pr
ould perform
or ambient
do not matc
nment of the
with the lumi
lux” in the id
d, the illumin
nce of stray
for all lumin
on of how we
f the correla
s the level h
dication of th
minance. Fo
res may be fo
Predicted vs
20
redicted. Be
m in an ideal
temperature
ch the actual
software, th
inaire, but fa
deal environ
nance meter
light and ref
naires with p
ell the lumin
ation of the il
how one vari
he strength o
or the GE lum
found in App
s. Measured
ecause the pr
environmen
e fluctuations
measured il
here are insta
acing perpen
nment. How
at the same
flections off
provided IES
naire perform
lluminance v
able is depen
of the rate of
minaire, this
pendix B – L
d Illuminan
redicted valu
nt devoid of
s; it is under
lluminance v
ances where
ndicular to th
wever, in the
location rep
f environmen
S file are in A
ms in relation
values can b
ndent upon a
f change of t
s is shown in
Laboratory R
nce Correlat
ues are an
impacting
rstandable th
values perfec
the illumina
he luminaire
actual
port values
ntal objects s
Appendix B
n to its claim
be undertaken
another vari
the actual
n Figure 11 a
Results.

tion – Vertic
hat
ctly.
ance
. In
such

med
n.
able,
and
cal

Figure
A linear
overall d
overall q
cobra hea
earlier in
vertical m
measurem
the horiz
value of
performa
12. GE Cob
correlation w
difference bet
uality of the
ad, the vertic
n Figure 10. F
measuremen
ment. As can
ontal as com
greater than
ance and a va
brahead - Pr
was calculate
tween the m
e relationship
cal measurem
For the corre
ts is 0.8908
n be seen in
mpared to the
1 in the slop
alue of less t
redicted vs.
ed for each o
measured and
p of the pred
ment slope i
elation metri
and Figure 1
the figures t
e vertical tha
pe indicated
than .85 in c
21
Measured
of these relat
d the predicte
dicted and th
s .4595 whic
ic, Figure 11
12 a correlat
the relationsh
at is indicativ
that the inte
correlation lik
Illuminance
tionships. Th
ed and the co
e measured.
ch is similar
1 shows that
tion of 0.960
hip of data to
ve of the hig
ensity distrib
kely indicate
e Correlatio
he slope of l
orrelation in
From Figur
r the 40-60%
the correlat
02 for the ho
o the line is
gher correlat
bution file ov
es issue in th
on – Horizo
line indicate
ndicates the
re 11, for the
% error predic
ion for the
orizontal
much tighte
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ver-predicts
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ontal
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e GE
cted
er for
A
the
ty.
22

Table 10. Summary of Slope and Correlation for Measured and Predicted Values.
  Vertical   Horizont
al
 
  Slope Correlation Slope Correlation 
Cobrahead   
Beta  0.694 0.7276 0.9561 0.86 
Elumen  0.7587 0.876 1.09 0.7416 
Leotek  0.6159 0.6073 0.898 0.9765 
Philips C7951  0.6807 0.8525 0.906 0.984 
Relume  0.6715 0.7043 1073 0.8445 
Teardrop   
Philips  0.6645 0.6473 0.9055 0.9773 
Spring City  0.6558 0.5791 0.9249 0.4573 
Upright  
Philips  0.6879 0.8817 1.016 0.8928 
Spring City  0.6808 0.8512 1.0322 0.9765 

LightTrespass
The level of light trespassing beyond the for light that is directed or “spilled” into areas where
light is not intended to reach (such as into residential homes or commercial locations). The
Illuminating Engineering Society roadway to the house-side of the luminaire was also evaluated.
This level is considered due to the concern recommends (IES TM-11-00) the following
limitations on light trespass (Table 11).
Table 11. IES Light Trespass Limitations
Environmental Zone Pre-Curfew Limitations* Post-Curfew Limitations*
E1 1.0 (0.10) 0.0 (0.00)
E2 3.0 (0.30 1.0 (0.10)
E3 8.0 (0.80) 3.0 (0.30)
E4 15.0 (1.50) 6.0 (0.60)
* Lux (footcandles)
Environmental Zone 3 is described as generally “urban residential areas” which corresponds to
the test-bed locations for the cobra head and teardrop style luminaires. Environmental Zone 4 is
described as “dense urban areas” which corresponds to the test-bed location for the upright style
luminaires. Each luminaire was evaluated in the laboratory setting for this factor on both the
house-side of the luminaire and what would be considered beyond the intended reach of the
luminaire on the street-side of the luminaire. Figure 13 and Figure 14 show an example of the
light trespass measured in the laboratory setting.



Table 12
laborator
Fi
Fi
, Table 13 an
ry and field s
igure 13. GE
igure 14. GE
nd Table 14
setting.
E Cobrahea
E Cobrahea
provide a su
23
ad - Light T
ad - Light T
ummary of l
Trespass - H
Trespass - St
light trespass
House Side
treet Side
s as evaluateed in both th
Luminaire
Luminaire
Luminaire


e
24

The SAIC/VTTI Team also calculated the ratio of the average light trespass to the average
illuminance on the roadway and the ratio of the maximum light trespass to the average
illuminance on the roadway. This factor provides an indication of the effectiveness of the
luminaire to provide data where it is used (on the roadway) versus the amount of light that
travels outside of the roadway.
25


Table 12. Summary of Lab and Field Cobrahead Light Trespass


HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS
Average Lab‐Measured Light 
Trespass (lux) 3.29 6.91 1.93 2.31 2.71 8.54 2.94 6.83 4.25 8.93 12.62 10.05 3.52 2.08 6.05 13.19 3.43 3.58 4.75 8.14 13.68 8.79 26.19 19.21
Average Lab‐Measured Light 
Trespass (fc) 0.31 0.64 0.18 0.21 0.25 0.79 0.27 0.63 0.39 0.83 1.17 0.93 0.33 0.19 0.56 1.23 0.32 0.33 0.44 0.76 1.27 0.82 2.43 1.78
Max (lux) 5.08 8.74 3.62 4.66 5.42 12.52 5.19 10.93 8.43 13.64 36.39 21.14 7.04 3.08 12.29 16.27 6.94 5.50 8.52 12.44 32.28 13.79 67.82 29.80
Max (fc) 0.47 0.81 0.34 0.43 0.50 1.16 0.48 1.02 0.78 1.27 3.38 1.96 0.65 0.29 1.14 1.51 0.64 0.51 0.79 1.16 3.00 1.28 6.30 2.77
Min (lux) 1.34 3.31 0.36 0.51 0.76 4.67 1.07 2.96 1.31 3.40 1.08 1.63 0.71 1.28 1.50 8.93 0.87 2.32 2.28 5.21 2.34 5.24 4.00 11.10
Min (fc) 0.12 0.31 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.43 0.10 0.27 0.12 0.32 0.10 0.15 0.07 0.12 0.14 0.83 0.08 0.22 0.21 0.48 0.22 0.49 0.37 1.03
Ratio of Average Lab‐
Measured Light Trespass : 
Field Evaluation Roadway 
Illuminance 0.17 0.35 0.33 0.39 N/A N/A 0.13 0.30 0.18 0.29 0.37 0.30 0.19 0.11 0.15 0.32 0.18 0.19 0.24 0.41 0.42 0.27 N/A N/A
Ratio of Max Light Trespass : 
Field Evaluation Roadway 
Illuminance 0.26 0.44 0.61 0.79 N/A N/A 0.23 0.48 0.37 0.45 1.07 0.62 0.37 0.16 0.30 0.40 0.36 0.29 0.43 0.63 0.99 0.42 N/A N/A
Average Light Trespass in 
Field (lux) 2.89 7.83 1.95 4.61 N/A N/A 4.30 7.18 9.46 8.52 11.77 44.80 5.92 4.15 N/A N/A 6.36 18.09 9.24 9.54 20.64 19.65 N/A N/A
Average Light Trespass in 
Field (fc) 0.27 0.73 0.18 0.43 N/A N/A 0.40 0.67 0.88 0.79 1.09 4.16 0.55 0.39 N/A N/A 0.59 1.68 0.86 0.89 1.92 1.83 N/A N/A
Meets pre‐curfew and post‐curfew limit
Lighting Science GE Beta Elumen Holophane Leotek 250W HPS 400W HPS Philips (C7951) Philips (270W) Philips (135W) Relume
Does NOT meet pre‐curfew and post‐curfew limit
Meets pre‐curfew, does NOT meet post‐curfew limit
26

Table 13. Summary of Lab and Field Teardrop Light Trespass

HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS
Average Lab‐Measured 
Light Trespass (lux) 3.11 4.38 6.03 3.92 1.97 5.74 11.58 18.00 16.54 23.89
Average Lab‐Measured 
Light Trespass (fc) 0.29 0.41 0.56 0.36 0.18 0.53 1.08 1.67 1.54 2.22
Max (lux) 6.21 5.18 12.46 11.77 3.54 10.14 25.83 32.55 36.02 44.62
Max (fc) 0.58 0.48 1.16 1.09 0.33 0.94 2.40 3.02 3.35 4.15
Min (lux) 0.97 1.92 0.37 0.10 0.73 1.70 2.35 4.66 2.82 6.74
Min (fc) 0.09 0.18 0.03 0.01 0.07 0.16 0.22 0.43 0.26 0.63
Ratio of Average Lab‐
Measured Light Trespass : 
Field Evaluation Roadway 
Illuminance 0.64 0.89 N/A N/A 0.40 1.16 0.74 1.16 N/A N/A
Ratio of Max Light 
Trespass : Field Evaluation 
Roadway Illuminance 1.27 1.06 N/A N/A 0.71 2.04 1.66 2.09 N/A N/A
Average Light Trespass in 
Field (lux) 3.65 13.36 N/A N/A 1.05 1.94 3.92 16.34 N/A N/A
Average Light Trespass in 
Field (fc) 0.34 1.24 N/A N/A 0.10 0.18 0.36 1.52 N/A N/A
Does NOT meet pre‐curfew and post‐curfew limit
Meets pre‐curfew, does NOT meet post‐curfew limit
Meets pre‐curfew and post‐curfew limit
250W HPS 400W HPS Philips Teardrop Holophane Teardrop Spring City Teardrop
27

Table 14. Summary of Lab and Field Upright Light Trespass


HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS HS SS
Average Lab‐Measured Light 
Trespass (lux) 15.12 2.91 11.01 0.80 2.87 1.46 15.17 8.08 26.15 12.88
Average Lab‐Measured Light 
Trespass (fc) 1.41 0.27 1.02 0.07 0.27 0.14 1.41 0.75 2.43 1.20
Max (lux) 40.24 5.62 39.36 1.56 9.60 2.72 44.65 14.57 74.96 22.40
Max (fc) 3.74 0.52 3.66 0.15 0.89 0.25 4.15 1.35 6.96 2.08
Min (lux) 0.49 0.50 0.25 0.09 0.25 0.30 1.57 2.44 2.58 3.04
Min (fc) 0.05 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.15 0.23 0.24 0.28
Ratio of Average Lab‐Measured 
Light Trespass : Field Evaluation 
Roadway Illuminance 0.82 0.16 N/A N/A 0.25 0.13 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Ratio of Max Light Trespass : Field 
Evaluation Roadway Illuminance 2.17 0.30 N/A N/A 0.84 0.24 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Average Light Trespass in Field 
(lux) 15.58 7.36 N/A N/A 12.00 3.55 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Average Light Trespass in Field (fc) 1.45 0.68 N/A N/A 1.11 0.33 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Meets pre‐curfew, does NOT meet post‐curfew limit
Meets pre‐curfew and post‐curfew limit
Does NOT meet pre‐curfew and post‐curfew limit
250W HPS 400W HPS Philips Upright Holophane Upright Spring City Upright
28

FieldEvaluation
The SAIC/VTTI Team also recorded field measurements for DDOT’s current HPS luminaires.
These luminaires were then replaced with SSL luminaires under consideration. Each SSL
luminaire can then be directly compared to a HPS luminaire previously mounted at the same
location. The SAIC/VTTI Team acquired the Philips 135W80LED-RVS and 270W160LED-
RVM cobra head luminaires later than the other luminaires - these luminaires were mounted near
the 1
st
Street, SE test-bed. It should be noted that some portions of the road were not evaluated
due to the presence of parked vehicles (such as curb lane portions of Commodore J oshua
Barney).
Summary of comparisons between the illuminance of both the HPS condition and the LED
condition at identical locations are presented in Table 15 through Table 25. It can be seen that
most of the replacement systems underperform their HPS counterpart. It is interesting to note
that the uniformity of the SSL sources is typically better than that of the HPS luminaires. Using
the Beta luminaire, although the overall lighting level is much lower than the HPS, the
uniformity ratio reduces from as high as 33.55 to 9.16 for the same area. This indicates that while
the lighting level is lower, the overall area is much more uniform than with the HPS system.
All field comparisons of HPS and LED cobrahead fixtures are based on the 400W HPS fixtures
installed at the Commodore J oshua Barney field evaluation area.
Table 15. GE Cobrahead - Field Evaluation Results

Table 16. Beta Cobrahead - Field Evaluation Results

HPS LED HPS LED HPS LED HPS LED
Average Illuminance (lux) 35.82 21.44 37.49 22.32 40.94 22.15 36.17 12.74
Average Illuminance (fc) 3.33 1.99 3.48 2.07 3.80 2.06 3.36 1.18
Min (lux) 3.38 2.59 3.45 2.71 3.67 2.99 2.20 1.07
Min (fc) 0.31 0.24 0.32 0.25 0.34 0.28 0.20 0.10
Max (lux) 156.87 81.28 126.44 83.50 162.91 82.75 197.13 63.91
Max (fc) 14.57 7.55 11.75 7.76 15.13 7.69 18.31 5.94
Average:Min 10.59 8.27 10.87 8.24 11.15 7.42 16.42 11.88
Average:Max 0.23 0.26 0.30 0.27 0.25 0.27 0.18 0.20
GE area
SE Bound CurbSideLane SE Bound CenterLane NW Bound CenterLane NW Bound CurbSideLane
HPS LED HPS LED HPS LED HPS LED
Average Illuminance (lux) 26.24 5.23 34.18 6.84 40.58 6.74 38.25 4.79
Average Illuminance (fc) 2.44 0.49 3.18 0.64 3.77 0.63 3.55 0.44
Min (lux) 3.30 1.13 3.15 1.57 1.61 0.78 1.14 0.52
Min (fc) 0.31 0.11 0.29 0.15 0.15 0.07 0.11 0.05
Max (lux) 148.91 14.48 114.02 13.56 145.03 13.14 180.46 12.67
Max (fc) 13.83 1.34 10.59 1.26 13.47 1.22 16.77 1.18
Average:Min 7.96 4.62 10.86 4.36 25.20 8.70 33.55 9.16
Average:Max 0.18 0.36 0.30 0.50 0.28 0.51 0.21 0.38
SE Bound CenterLane SE Bound CurbSideLane NW Bound CenterLane NW Bound CurbSideLane
Beta Cobrahead area

Average Illu
Average Illu
Min (lux)
Min (fc)
Max (lux)
Max (fc)
Average:Min
Average:Ma
Table
T
Tabl
Ave
Ave
Min
Min
Max
Max
Ave
Ave
H
minance (lux)
minance (fc)
n
x
SE Bound Curb
17. Lightin
Table 18. Le
e 19. Philip
erage Illuminanc
erage Illuminanc
n (lux)
n (fc)
x (lux)
x (fc)
erage:Min
erage:Max
SE 
L
HPS LED
32.19
2.99
1.85
0.17
159.27
14.80
17.40
0.20
bSideLane
g Science C
otek Cobra
s Cobrahea
HPS
ce (lux)
ce (fc)
1
Bound CenterLa
ighting Scie
HPS
26.41 3
2.45
8.77
0.81
106.55 12
9.90 1
3.01 1
0.25
SE Bo
Le
29
Cobrahead -
ahead - Field
ad C7951 - F
LED
39.54 32
3.67 3
2.79 1
0.26 0
165.52 123
15.38 11
14.17 26
0.24 0
ane
ence Cobrah
LED
36.00 35.8
3.34 3.3
3.20 10.9
0.30 1.0
26.44 113.9
11.75 10.5
11.26 3.2
0.28 0.3
ound CenterLane
eotek area
Field Evalu
d Evaluation
Field Evalua
HPS
2.99 39.95
3.06 3.7
1.26 3.20
0.12 0.30
3.41 145.45
1.47 13.5
6.24 12.48
0.27 0.27
NW Bound
head area
HPS L
88 36.35
33 3.38
93 3.00
02 0.28
96 162.91
59 15.13
28 12.11
31 0.22
NW Bound C
uation Resu

n Results
ation Result
LED
5 35.08
1 3.26
0 1.28
0 0.12
5 92.23
1 8.57
8 27.46
7 0.38
d CenterLane
LED HP
36.47
3.39
11.62
1.08
122.55
11.38
3.14
0.30
CenterLane NW
ults
ts

S LED
25.86
2.40
0.76
0.07
197.13
18.31
33.91
0.13
W Bound CurbSid

22.70
2.11
8.18
0.76
94.03
8.74
2.78
0.24
deLane
30

Table 20. Relume Cobrahead - Field Evaluation Results

Table 21. Holophane Cobrahead - Field Evaluation Results

Table 22. Philips Teardrop - Field Evaluation Results

HPS LED HPS LED
Average Illuminance (lux) 20.84 20.94 23.42 18.70
Average Illuminance (fc) 1.94 1.95 2.18 1.74
Min (lux) 1.42 3.81 1.27 1.52
Min (fc) 0.13 0.35 0.12 0.14
Max (lux) 157.47 79.11 145.08 72.75
Max (fc) 14.63 7.35 13.48 6.76
Average:Min 14.73 5.50 18.48 12.33
Average:Max 0.13 0.26 0.16 0.26
SE Bound CenterLane NW Bound CenterLane
Relume Cobrahead area
HPS LED HPS LED HPS LED HPS LED
Average Illuminance (lux) 30.32 25.89 36.00 25.75 32.01 27.37 28.25 12.94
Average Illuminance (fc) 2.82 2.40 3.34 2.39 2.97 2.54 2.62 1.20
Min (lux) 1.65 1.62 1.73 1.72 1.15 2.39 0.76 1.40
Min (fc) 0.15 0.15 0.16 0.16 0.11 0.22 0.07 0.13
Max (lux) 162.67 85.85 121.38 85.09 117.75 90.05 150.64 45.15
Max (fc) 15.11 7.98 11.28 7.91 10.94 8.37 14.00 4.19
Average:Min 18.40 15.95 20.78 14.97 27.96 11.48 37.05 9.24
Average:Max 0.19 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.27 0.30 0.19 0.29
SE Bound CurbSideLane SE Bound CenterLane NW Bound CenterLane NW Bound CurbSideLane
Holophane Cobrahead area
HPS LED
Average Illuminance (lux) 15.57 4.90
Average Illuminance (fc) 1.45 0.45
Min (lux) 3.57 2.41
Min (fc) 0.33 0.22
Max (lux) 33.41 7.44
Max (fc) 3.10 0.69
Average:Min 4.37 2.04
Average:Max 0.47 0.66
Philips Teardrop area
S Bound Lane
31

Table 23. Spring City Teardrop - Field Evaluation Results

Table 24. Philips Upright - Field Evaluation Results

Table 25. Spring City Upright - Field Evaluation Results

Charts showing these same comparisons are also included in Appendix B – Field Evaluation
Charts. Examples for one of the luminaires across multiple roadway lanes are Figure 15, Figure
16, Figure 17, and Figure 18.

HPS LED
Average Illuminance (lux) 15.38 4.96
Average Illuminance (fc) 1.43 0.46
Min (lux) 2.94 2.75
Min (fc) 0.27 0.26
Max (lux) 37.80 7.88
Max (fc) 3.51 0.73
Average:Min 5.23 1.81
Average:Max 0.41 0.63
S Bound Lane
Spring City Columbia Teardrop area
HPS LED HPS LED HPS LED HPS LED HPS LED HPS LED
Average Illuminance (lux) 14.20 26.62 8.78 16.34 8.01 7.72 10.89 13.53 14.62 22.26 N/A 24.65
Average Illuminance (fc) 1.32 2.47 0.82 1.52 0.74 0.72 1.01 1.26 1.36 2.07 N/A 2.29
Min (lux) 5.81 5.06 6.27 5.80 6.34 5.96 6.10 6.15 5.80 6.07 N/A 6.05
Min (fc) 0.54 0.47 0.58 0.54 0.59 0.55 0.57 0.57 0.54 0.56 N/A 0.56
Max (lux) 27.34 48.58 12.60 27.03 10.34 9.56 12.98 23.99 22.75 43.08 N/A 49.06
Max (fc) 2.54 4.51 1.17 2.51 0.96 0.89 1.21 2.23 2.11 4.00 N/A 4.56
Average:Min 2.45 5.26 1.40 2.82 1.26 1.30 1.79 2.20 2.52 3.67 N/A 4.07
Average:Max 0.52 0.55 0.70 0.60 0.78 0.81 0.84 0.56 0.64 0.52 N/A 0.50
N Bound BikeLane
Philips Upright area
S Bound BikeLane S Bound OutsideLane S Bound CenterLane N Bound CenterLane N Bound OutsideLane
HPS LED HPS LED HPS LED HPS LED HPS LED HPS LED
Average Illuminance (lux) 10.42 11.26 7.50 5.86 7.88 5.26 12.40 10.07 9.30 14.68 N/A 21.54
Average Illuminance (fc) 0.97 1.05 0.70 0.54 0.73 0.49 1.15 0.94 0.86 1.36 N/A 2.00
Min (lux) 4.07 2.53 4.40 2.63 4.97 2.96 5.82 3.80 5.63 4.12 N/A 4.43
Min (fc) 0.38 0.24 0.41 0.24 0.46 0.27 0.54 0.35 0.52 0.38 N/A 0.41
Max (lux) 28.69 35.75 11.69 14.07 12.23 9.51 21.28 17.97 36.45 30.05 N/A 49.94
Max (fc) 2.67 3.32 1.09 1.31 1.14 0.88 1.98 1.67 3.39 2.79 N/A 4.64
Average:Min 2.56 4.45 1.71 2.23 1.59 1.78 2.13 2.65 1.65 3.56 N/A 4.86
Average:Max 0.36 0.32 0.64 0.42 0.64 0.55 0.58 0.56 0.26 0.49 N/A 0.43
N Bound BikeLane
Spring City Washington area
S Bound BikeLane S Bound OutsideLane S Bound CenterLane N Bound CenterLane N Bound OutsideLane
32


Figure 15. GE – HPS/LED – NW Curb lane

Figure 16. GE – HPS/LED – NW Center lane
33


Figure 17. GE – HPS/LED – SE Center lane

Figure 18. GE – HPS/LED – SE Curb lane

These charts indicate the longitudinal variation of each of the light sources as compared to the
HPS original.
34

Conclusions
This document provides an indication of the performance of replacement SSL luminaire systems
as compared to the incumbent HPS systems. The luminaires were compared on a variety of
metrics both in the field and in the laboratory. While no specific recommendations are made, this
data can provide guidance to DDOT for their luminaire decision.
A summary of luminaires that met DDOT requirements is in Table 26.
Table 26. Summary of Luminaires Meeting Requirements

Field
Average
illuminance
Field
Uniformity
Light
Trespass
Cobrahead
Beta 
Elumen N/A N/A 
GE  
Holophane  
Leotek   
Lighting Science 
Philips (C7951)  
Philips (270W-RVM)   
Philips (135W-RVS)   
Relume  
250W HPS 
400W HPS N/A N/A
Teardrop
Holophane N/A N/A 
Philips  
Spring City  
250W HPS
400W HPS
Upright
Holophane N/A N/A
Philips  
Spring City   
250W HPS N/A N/A
400W HPS N/A N/A

A few items were noted from the measurement results:
 Regarding the cobra head luminaires, of the 9 luminaires that were installed for both the
laboratory portion and the field test portion, all but the Beta luminaire met the DDOT
requirement for illuminance. In terms of uniformity, however, the Leotek and Philips
35

270W and 135W were the only of LED cobra head luminaires that met the DDOT
requirement.
 Regarding the teardrop luminaires, of the 2 luminaires that were installed for both the
laboratory portion and the field test portion, neither of the provided luminaires met
DDOT’s requirements for illuminance.
 Regarding the upright luminaires, of the 2 luminaires that were installed for both the
laboratory portion and the field test portion, both of the provided luminaires met the
DDOT requirement of illuminance and uniformity.
 Luminaires evaluated in the laboratory, but excluded from field evaluation were excluded
either due to not meeting DDOT specifications or other decisions made by DDOT (such
as aesthetic appeal or aspects of installation).
 The field evaluations showed that the LED luminaires typically underperformed the HPS
but typically had more uniformity in the lighted area than the HPS systems.
References
Gibbons, R.B., Meyer, J . and Edwards, C. (2010). “Development of a Mobile Measurement
System for Roadway Lighting.
DC Department of Transportation Design and Engineering Manual.
http://dcra.dc.gov/DC/DDOT/Publication%20Files/Projects%20and%20Planning/Standards%20
and%20Guidelines/publication_design_and_engineering_ch41__ddot.pdf
Light Trespass: Research, Results and Recommendations. IES TM-11-00



36

AppendixA–LEDFixtureMinimumRequirements
Government of the District of Columbia
Department of Transportation



Minimum Eligibility Requirements Testing and Evaluation of LED
Replacements for Cobra Head, Teardrop, and Upright Fixtures
Luminaire Requirements: 
Correlated Color Temperature 
(CCT) 
Luminaire Nominal CCT(°K) shall be between minimum 4000°K ‐ 5000°K
 
Color Rendering Index (CRI) Luminaire shall have a minimum CRI of 70.
Off State Power Consumption  The power draw of the luminaire including PE devices must be zero 
watts when in the off state. 
On State Power Consumption  The luminaire must use at least 40% less energy compared to its 
commercially available 400W High Pressure Sodium counterpart.  
Warranty 
 
Luminaire must have a minimum five (5) Year warranty due to any 
failure. The Warranty shall provide for the repair or replacement of 
defective electrical parts including but not limited to the light source 
and power supplies/driver for a minimum of eight (8) years. Shipping 
shall be included. 
Weight  Luminaire shall not weigh more than 45lbs
Operating Environment   Luminaire shall be able to operate normally in temperatures from ‐40°F 
to 120°F 
Cooling System 
 
Shall not consist of any fan, pump or liquids and must be resistant to 
debris buildup. 
Dimensions (Approx.)  Luminaire shall not be larger than approximately 30” long x 16” wide x 
6” tall. 
Housing  Shall be primarily constructed of metal.
Finish shall be grey/black in color, powder coated and resists rust. 
Driver must be internally mounted and replaceable. 
Captive screws are needed on any components that require 
maintenance after installation. 
No parts shall be constructed of polycarbonate unless it is UV stabilized 
(Lens Discoloration shall be considered a failure under warranty). 
The Luminaire must have a self leveling mechanism. 
The Luminaire shall be filtered against entry of insects, rain, dust, and 
other offending foreign matter. 
 

37

Mounting arm connection  Luminaire shall mount on 1‐1/4 to 2 arm and shall have not more than 
an 8 inch long nor less than a 5 inch horizontal insertion length on the 2 
inch bracket arms and shall be adequately equipped with clamping and 
leveling devices or a similar mechanism to allow proper clamping and 
positioning of the luminaire on the bracket arms. 
 
The clamping mechanism bolts shall not pass through the housing. 
Clamping with only two bolts is not acceptable. The clamp must be able 
to accept a 1 1/4 to 2 inch pipe bracket without having to rearrange the 
clamp. 
PE Cell Receptacle  Shall have a 3‐prong twist locking ANSI C136.10 photocell receptacle.
 
Photocell adapter must be built into the housing and be directionally 
adjusted without the use of tools. 
 
LED Module /Array Requirements: 
Lumen Depreciation of LED Light 
Source 
Must comply with IESNA LM‐80
LED module shall deliver at least 70% of initial lumens, when installed 
for a minimum of 50,000 hours. 
Light Distribution (Cobrahead)  The LED module should be suitable for the following scenario: 
Mounting Height:  30’ 
Pole spacing:  120’ 
Road width:  40’ (3 Lanes) 
Staggered pole placement configuration 
Roadway Type: Commercial / Freeway 
Must meet the requirements of the DC Department of Transportation, 
Design and Engineering Manual 
Light Distribution (Teardrop)  The LED Module should be suitable for the following scenario: 
Mounting Height:  30’ 
Pole spacing:  120’ 
Road width:  35’ (2 lanes + shoulders) 
Single‐sided pole placement configuration 
Roadway Type: Commercial / Freeway 
Must meet the requirements of the DC Department of Transportation, 
Design and Engineering Manual 
Light Distribution (Upright)  The LED Module should be suitable for the following scenario 
Mounting height:  14’ 
Pole spacing: 50’  
Road width:  68’ (5 lane) 
Staggered placement configuration 
Roadway Type: Intermediate Mixed use 
Must meet the requirements of the DC Department of Transportation, 
Design and Engineering Manual 
BUG Ratings  The luminaire should comply to a BUG rating as (According to IES 2011‐
LM‐15 Annendum A): 
 
Cobra Head Fixtures: B2, U0, G2 
Teardrop Fixtures: B2, U1, G3 
Upright Fixtures: B2, U2, G3 
 
 
38

Power Supply/Driver Requirements: 
Power Factor  Shall have a power factor not less than 90%
Operating Voltage  120‐240 volts
Operating Temperature  Shall operate between ‐40°F and 120°F
Frequency  Output operating frequency must be ≥ 120 Hz and input operating 
frequency of 60 Hz 
Interference  Shall meet FCC 47 CFR Part 15/18
Noise  Shall have a class A sound rating
Startup  Must be instant restart
 
Roadway Application Minimum Requirements:
Minimum Light Output  Shall have a minimum of 3500 lumens
Minimum Luminaire Efficacy  70 lm/W
 
Delivery  Requirements: 
 
Must be able to exceed 1500 units per month 
 
 
File\TestRequirements: 
IES File  Absolute photometric testing data in IES LM‐63 electronic file format.  
LM‐79 Test  Provide Independent Testing according to IES LM‐79 that provides 
efficacy, output, color, and photometric distribution of your product.  
An Integrating Sphere Test will be required to provide color information.  
A Goniophotometer test by itself is not adequate. 
Lifetime  Provide written explanation of how L70 Lifetime of Product is 
determined using the LM‐80 and In‐situ temperature tests referenced 
below.   
LM‐80 Test  Provide LED Package Manufacturer IES LM‐80 Test Report with results 
showing relative (%) light output over time at 55°C, 85°Cand X°C (a third 
temperature at the manufacturer’s choice). 
In‐Situ Temperature Test  Provide test report indicating the Temperature of the hottest LED In‐Situ 
in ANSI/UL 1598‐04 (hardwired) or ANSI/UL 153‐05 (corded) 
environments.  This temperature measurement will be used with LM‐80 
data to validate lumen maintenance and useful life of product.  Note 
that this temperature measurement should be specially requested by 
the manufacturer as they are getting their UL testing. 
UL  Provide copy of UL certification 
 
Other  Requirements: 
39

Scotopic Light contributions will not be considered at this time
A Full Specification Sheet must be submitted. Warranty information must be included.
The Luminaire must be commercially available. Prototypes will be permitted.
The fixture must not contain any moving parts or fans.
The driver must be located inside the housing, but should be easily accessible.
 
Note: 
These requirements must be met before the District will accept the product for testing and evaluation. 
 


Appen
Vertica
CobraHe
dixB–La
alIllumina
ead
F
F
aboratory
ance
Figure 19. G
Figure 20. Be
yResults
GE Cobrahe
eta Cobrah
40
ead Grid - V
ead Grid - V
Vertical Illu
Vertical Illu
uminance
uminance
Luminaire
Luminaire




Figure 2
Fig
21. Lighting
gure 22. Elu
g Science C
umen Cobra
41
obrahead G
ahead Grid -
Grid - Vertic
- Vertical Il
cal Illumina
lluminance
Luminaire
Luminaire

ance



Fig
Figure
gure 23. Leo
e 24. Philips
otek Cobrah
s Cobrahead
42
head Grid –
d C7951 Gr
– Vertical Il
rid - Vertica
lluminance
al Illuminan
Luminaire
Luminaire


nce

Figur
Figur
e 25. Philips
e 26. Philips
s Cobrahea
s Cobrahea
43
ad 270W Gr
ad 135W Gr
rid - Vertica
rid - Vertica
al Illuminan
al Illuminan
Luminaire
Luminaire

nce

nce

Fig
Figu
gure 27. Rel
re 28. Holop
lume Cobra
phane Cobr
44
ahead Grid -
rahead Grid
- Vertical Il
d - Vertical
lluminance
Illuminanc
Luminair
Lumina


ce
re
aire


Figu
Figur
re 29. 250W
re 30. 400W
W HPS Cobr
W HPS Cobr
45
rahead Grid
rahead Grid
d - Vertical
d – Vertical
Illuminanc
l Illuminanc
Luminaire
Luminaire

ce

ce
e

Teardro op
Fi
Figu
igure 31. Ph
ure 32. Holo
hilips Teard
ophane Tea
46
drop Grid -
rdrop Grid
Vertical Illu
d - Vertical I
uminance
Illuminance
Luminaire
Luminaire


e

Figu
Figu
ure 33. Sprin
ure 34. 250W
ng City Tea
W HPS Tea
47
ardrop Grid
rdrop Grid
d - Vertical I
d - Vertical I
Illuminance
Illuminance
Luminaire
Luminaire

e

e
e

Upright
Figu
t
F
ure 35. 400W
Figure 36. P
W HPS Tea
Philips Uprig
48
rdrop Grid
ght Grid - V
d - Vertical I
Vertical Illu
Illuminance
uminance
Luminaire
Lumina

e

aire

Fig
F
gure 37. Hol
Figure 38. S
lophane Up
Spring City
49
right Grid -
Upright - V
- Vertical Il
Vertical Illum
lluminance
minance
Luminaire
Luminaire


e


F
F
Figure 39. 2
Figure 40. 4

250W HPS U
400W HPS U
50
Upright - V
Upright - V
Vertical Illum
Vertical Illum
minance
minance
Luminaire
Luminaire


e


Horizon
Cobrahe
ntalIllumi
ead
Fi
Fig
inance
gure 41. GE
gure 42. Bet
E Cobrahea
ta Cobrahea
51
ad Grid - Ho
ad Grid - H
orizontal Ill
Horizontal Il
luminance
lluminance
Luminaire
Luminair


e
re

Figure 43
Figu
3. Lighting
ure 44. Elum
Science Cob
men Cobrah
52
brahead Gr
head Grid - H
rid - Horizo
Horizontal
ontal Illumin
Illuminanc
Luminaire
Luminaire

nance

e

Figu
Figure 4
ure 45. Leot
46. Philips C
tek Cobrahe
Cobrahead
53
ead Grid - H
C7951 Grid
Horizontal I
d - Horizon
Illuminance
tal Illumina
Luminaire
Luminaire

e

ance
e

F
Figure
Figure 47. Ph
48. Philips
hilips 270W
Cobrahead
54
W Grid - Hor
135W Grid
rizontal Illu
d - Horizont
L
uminance
tal Illumina
Luminaire
Luminaire


ance
e

Figu
Figure
ure 49. Relu
e 50. Holoph
me Cobrah
hane Cobra
55
head Grid - H
ahead Grid
Horizontal
- Horizonta
Illuminanc
al Illuminan
Luminaire
Luminaire

e

nce

Figure
Figure
e 51. 250W
e 52. 400W
HPS Cobra
HPS Cobra
56
ahead Grid
ahead Grid
- Horizonta
- Horizonta
al Illuminan
al Illuminan
Lumina
Luminair

nce

nce
aire
re

Teardro op
Fig
Figur
gure 53. Phil
re 54. Holop
lips Teardr
phane Teard
57
op Grid - H
drop Grid -
Horizontal Il
- Horizontal
lluminance
l Illuminanc
Luminai
Luminair


ce
ire
re

Figur
Figur
re 55. Spring
re 56. 250W
g City Tear
W HPS Teard
58
drop Grid -
drop Grid -
- Horizonta
- Horizontal
al Illuminan
l Illuminanc
Luminaire
Luminaire

nce

ce
e

Upright
Figur
t
Fig
re 57. 400W
gure 58. Ph
W HPS Teard
hilips Uprigh
59
drop Grid -
ht Grid - Ho
- Horizontal
orizontal Ill
l Illuminanc
luminance
Luminaire
Luminaire

ce


Figu
Figu
ure 59. Holo
re 60. Sprin
ophane Upri
ng City Upr
60
ight Grid - H
right Grid -
Horizontal
Horizontal
Illuminanc
Illuminanc
Luminaire
Lumin

e

ce
naire


Figu
Figu
ure 61. 250W
ure 62. 400W

W HPS Upri
W HPS Upri
61
ight Grid - H
ight Grid - H
Horizontal
Horizontal
Illuminanc
Illuminanc
Lumina
Luminair

e

e
aire
re

Ratioso
Cobrahe
ofActuala
ead
Figure 6
Figure 64
andPredic
63. GE - Pre
4. GE - Pred
ctedillum
edicted vs. M
dicted vs. M
62
inance
Measured Il
easured Illu
Lum
lluminance
uminance R
minaire
Ratio - Ver
Ratio – Hori
Luminaire

rtical

izontal

Figure 65
Figure 66.
5. Beta - Pre
. Beta - Pred
edicted vs. M
dicted vs. M
63
Measured I
Measured Ill
Illuminance
luminance R
e Ratio – Ve
Ratio – Hor
Luminaire
Luminaire

rtical

izontal

F
Figure 67.
Figure 68. E
Elumen - P
Elumen - Pr
Predicted vs
redicted vs.
64
s. Measured
Measured I
d Illuminanc
Illuminance
ce Ratio – V
e Ratio – Ho
Luminaire
Lumina

Vertical

orizontal
aire

Figure 69.
Figure 70. L
. Leotek - P
Leotek - Pre
redicted vs.
edicted vs. M
65
. Measured
Measured Il
Illuminanc
lluminance
ce Ratio – V
Ratio – Ho
Luminaire
Luminaire

Vertical

orizontal

Figure 7
Figu
71. Philips C
ure 72. Phili
Cobrahead C
ips Cobrahe
C7951 - Pre
ead C7951 -
H
66
edicted vs. M
- Predicted
Horizontal
Measured Il
vs. Measur
lluminance
ed Illumina
Luminaire
Lumina

Ratio – Ver

ance Ratio –
aire
rtical


Figur
Figure
re 73. Relum
e 74. Relum
me Cobrahe
e Cobrahea
ead - Predic
ad - Predicte
67
cted vs. Mea
ed vs. Meas
asured Illum
ured Illumi
minance Rat
inance Ratio
Lum
L

tio – Vertica

o – Horizon
minaire
Luminaire
al
ntal

Teardro
Figu
Figur
op
ure 75. Phili
re 76. Philip
ips Teardro
ps Teardrop
op - Predicte
p - Predicted
68
ed vs. Meas
d vs. Measu
sured Illumi
ured Illumin
inance Rati
nance Ratio
Luminaire
Luminair

io – Vertical

– Horizont
re
l
tal

Figure
Figure 7
e 77. Spring
78. Spring C
g City Teard
City Teardr
drop - Predi
rop - Predic
69
icted vs. Me
ted vs. Mea
easured Illu
asured Illum
uminance Ra
minance Rat
L
Luminaire

atio – Verti
tio – Horizo
Luminaire
ical
ontal

Upright
Fig
Figu
t
gure 79. Phi
ure 80. Phili
lips Uprigh
ps Upright
ht - Predicte
- Predicted
70
d vs. Measu
vs. Measur
ured Illumin
red Illumina
nance Ratio
ance Ratio –
L
Lu

o – Vertical

– Horizonta
Luminaire
uminaire
al

Figur
Figure

re 81. Spring
82. Spring
g City Upri
City Uprigh

ght - Predic
ht - Predict
71
cted vs. Mea
ed vs. Meas
asured Illum
sured Illum
minance Ra
inance Rati
L
L

atio – Vertic

io – Horizon
Luminaire
Luminaire
cal
ntal

Scatter
Figure
Figure
plotsofAc
e 83. GE Co
84. GE Cob
ctualillum
obrahead - P
brahead - Pr
minancean
Predicted vs
redicted vs.
72
ndPredict
s. Measured
Measured
tedillumin
d Illuminan
Illuminance
nance
nce Correlat
e Correlatio

tion – Vertic

on – Horizo
cal
ontal


Figure
Figure 8
e 85. Beta C
86. Beta Cob
obrahead -
brahead - P
Predicted v
Predicted vs
73
vs. Measure
s. Measured
ed Illuminan
d Illuminanc
nce Correla
ce Correlati

ation – Verti

ion - Horizo
ical
ontal

Figure 8
Figu
87. Elumen C
ure 88. Elum
Cobrahead
men Cobrah
- Predicted
head - Predi
H
74
d vs. Measur
icted vs. Me
Horizontal
red Illumina
easured Illu
ance Correl
uminance Co

lation – Ver

orrelation –
rtical


Figure 8
Fig
89. Leotek C
ure 90. Leo
Cobrahead
tek Cobrah
- Predicted
head - Predi
H
75
vs. Measur
cted vs. Me
Horizontal
red Illumina
easured Illum
ance Correl
minance Co

lation – Ver

orrelation –
rtical


Figure
Figure
91. Philips
92. Philips
Cobrahead
Cobrahead
d C7951 - Pr
V
d C7951 - Pr
H
76
redicted vs.
Vertical
redicted vs.
Horizontal
Measured I
Measured I
Illuminance
Illuminance

e Correlatio

e Correlatio
on –
on –

Figure 9
Figu
93. Relume C
ure 94. Relu
Cobrahead
ume Cobrah
- Predicted
head - Predi
H
77
d vs. Measur
icted vs. Me
Horizontal
red Illumina
easured Illu
ance Correl
uminance Co

lation – Ver

orrelation –
rtical


Figure
Figure 9
95. Philips
96. Philips T
Teardrop -
Teardrop - P
Predicted v
Predicted vs
78
vs. Measure
s. Measured
ed Illuminan
d Illuminanc
nce Correla
ce Correlati

ation – Vert

ion – Horizo
tical
ontal

Figur
Figur
re 97. Sprin
re 98. Sprin
ng City Tear
ng City Tear
rdrop - Pred
V
rdrop - Pred
H
79
dicted vs. M
Vertical
dicted vs. M
Horizontal
Measured Ill
Measured Ill
luminance C
luminance C

Correlation

Correlation



Figure
Figure 1
e 99. Philips
100. Philips
s Upright - P
Upright - P
Predicted v
Predicted vs
80
s. Measured
. Measured
d Illuminan
d Illuminanc
nce Correlat
ce Correlati

tion – Verti

ion – Horizo
cal
ontal

Figu
Figu

re 101. Spri
re 102. Spri
ing City Up
ing City Up

pright - Pred
V
pright - Pred
H
81
dicted vs. M
Vertical
dicted vs. M
Horizontal
Measured Illu
Measured Illu
uminance C
uminance C

Correlation

Correlation



LightTr
Cobrahe
respassLa
ead
Fig
Fig
aboratory
gure 103. Be
gure 104. Be
yData
eta Cobrahe
eta Cobrahe
82
ead - Light T
ead - Light
Trespass - H
Trespass - S
House Side
Street Side
LLuminaire
Luminaire



Figure 10
Figure 10
05. Lighting
06. Lighting
g Science Co
g Science Co
83
obrahead - L
obrahead -
Light Tresp
Light Tresp
pass - House
pass - Street
e Side
t Side
Luminaire
Luminaire



Figu
Figu
re 107. Elum
ure 108. Elum
men Cobrah
men Cobra
84
head - Ligh
head - Ligh
ht Trespass -
ht Trespass
- House Sid
- Street Sid
de
e
Luminaire
Luminaire



Figu
Figu
ure 109. Leo
ure 110. Leo
otek Cobrah
otek Cobrah
85
head - Light
head - Light
t Trespass -
t Trespass -
- House Side
- Street Side
e
e
Luminaire
Luminaire



Figure 1
Figure
111. Philips
112. Philips
s Cobrahead
s Cobrahead
86
d C7951 - L
d C7951 - L
Light Trespa
Light Trespa
ass - House
ass - Street S
Side
Side
Luminaire
Luminaire



Figure 113
Figure 114
3. Philips Co
4. Philips Co
obrahead 27
obrahead 27
87
70W RVM -
70W RVM
- Light Tres
- Light Tre
spass - Hou
espass - Stre
use Side
eet Side
Luminaire
Luminaire



Figure 115
Figure 116
5. Philips C
6. Philips C
obrahead 1
Cobrahead 1
88
35W RVS -
135W RVS -
- Light Tres
- Light Tres
spass - Hous
spass - Stree
se Side
et Side
Luminaire
Luminaire



Figu
Figu
ure 117. Relu
ure 118. Relu
ume Cobrah
ume Cobrah
89
head - Ligh
head - Ligh
ht Trespass -
ht Trespass -
- House Sid
- Street Sid
de
e
Luminaire
Luminaire



Figure
Figure
e 119. Holop
e 120. Holop
phane Cobr
phane Cobr
90
rahead - Lig
rahead - Lig
ght Trespass
ght Trespas
s - House Si
s - Street Si
ide
ide
Luminaire
Luminaire



Figure
Figure
e 121. 250W
e 122. 250W
W HPS Cobr
W HPS Cobr
91
rahead - Lig
rahead - Lig
ght Trespas
ght Trespas
s - House Si
ss - Street Si
ide
ide
Luminaire
Luminaire



Figure
Figure
e 123. 400W
e 124. 400W
W HPS Cobr
W HPS Cobr
92
rahead - Lig
rahead - Lig
ght Trespas
ght Trespas
s - House Si
ss - Street Si
ide
ide
Luminaire
Luminaire



Teardro op
Fig
Fig
ure 125. Ph
gure 126. Ph
hilips Teardr
hilips Teard
93
rop - Light
rop - Light
Trespass -
Trespass -
House Side
Street Side
Luminaire
Luminaire



Figur
Figur
re 127. Holo
re 128. Holo
ophane Tear
ophane Tear
94
rdrop - Ligh
rdrop - Ligh
ht Trespass
ht Trespass
- House Sid
s - Street Sid
de
de
Luminaire
Luminaire



Figur
Figur
e 129. Sprin
re 130. Sprin
ng City Tea
ng City Tea
95
rdrop - Lig
ardrop - Lig
ht Trespass
ght Trespass
s - House Si
s - Street Sid
ide
de
Luminaire
Luminaire



Figur
Figur
re 131. 250W
re 132. 250W
W HPS Tear
W HPS Tear
96
rdrop - Ligh
rdrop - Ligh
ht Trespass
ht Trespass
s - House Sid
s - Street Sid
de
de
Luminaire
Luminaire



Figur
Figur
re 133. 400W
re 134. 400W
W HPS Tear
W HPS Tear
97
rdrop - Ligh
rdrop - Ligh
ht Trespass
ht Trespass
s - House Sid
s - Street Sid
de
de
Luminaire
Luminaire



Upright t
Fig
Fig
gure 135. Ph
gure 136. Ph
hilips Uprig
hilips Uprig
98
ght - Light T
ght - Light T
Trespass - H
Trespass - S
House Side
Street Side
Luminaire
Luminaire



Figu
Figu
ure 137. Hol
ure 138. Hol
ophane Upr
lophane Upr
99
right - Ligh
right - Ligh
ht Trespass -
ht Trespass -
- House Sid
- Street Sid
de
e
Luminaire
Luminaire



Figur
Figu
re 139. Spri
re 140. Spri
ing City Up
ing City Up
100
right - Ligh
pright - Ligh
ht Trespass
ht Trespass
- House Sid
- Street Sid
de
de
Luminaire
Luminaire



Figu
Figu
ure 141. 250W
ure 142. 250W
W HPS Upr
W HPS Upr
101
right - Ligh
right - Ligh
ht Trespass -
ht Trespass -
- House Sid
- Street Sid
de
e
Luminaire
Luminaire




Figu
Figu
ure 143. 400W
ure 144. 400W

W HPS Upr
W HPS Upr
102
right - Ligh
right - Ligh
ht Trespass -
ht Trespass -
- House Sid
- Street Sid
de
e
Luminaire
Luminaire


103

AppendixB–FieldEvaluationCharts
BetaCobrahead

Figure 145. Beta - HPS/LED - NW Center Lane

Figure 146. Beta - HPS/LED - NW Curb Lane
104


Figure 147. Beta - HPS/LED - SE Center Lane

Figure 148. Beta - HPS/LED - SE Curb Lane
105

HolophaneCobrahead

Figure 149. Holophane - HPS/LED - NW Center Lane

Figure 150. Holophane - HPS/LED - NW Curb Lane
106


Figure 151. Holophane - HPS/LED - SE Center Lane

Figure 152. Holophane - HPS/LED - SE Curb Lane
107

LeotekCobrahead

Figure 153. Leotek - HPS/LED - NW Center Lane

Figure 154. Leotek - HPS/LED - NW Curb Lane
108


Figure 155. Leotek - HPS/LED - SE Center Lane

Figure 156. Leotek - HPS/LED - SE Curb Lane
109

LightingScienceCobrahead

Figure 157. Lighting Science - HPS/LED - NW Center Lane

Figure 158. Lighting Science - HPS/LED - SE Center Lane
110

PhilipsCobrahead–C7951

Figure 159. Philips C7951 - HPS/LED - NW Center Lane

Figure 160. Philips C7951 - HPS/LED - SE Center Lane

111

PhilipsCobrahead135W80LED–RVS

Figure 161. Philips Cobrahead 135W - RVS - N Center Lane

Figure 162. Philips Cobrahead 135W - RVS - S Center Lane
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RelumeCobrahead

Figure 163. Relume Cobrahead - HPS/LED - NW Center Lane

Figure 164. Relume Cobrahead - HPS/LED - SE Center Lane
113

PhilipsTeardrop

Figure 165. Philips Teardrop - HPS/LED
SpringCityTeardrop

Figure 166. Spring City Teardrop - HPS/LED
114

PhilipsUpright

Figure 167. Philips Upright - HPS/LED - N Center/Inside Lane

Figure 168. Philips Upright - HPS/LED - N Outside Lane
115


Figure 169. Philips Upright - HPS/LED - S Bike Lane

Figure 170. Philips Upright - HPS/LED - S Center/Inside Lane
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Figure 171. Philips Upright - HPS/LED - S Outside Lane
SpringCityUpright

Figure 172. Spring City Upright - HPS/LED - N Center/Inside Lane
117


Figure 173. Spring City Upright - HPS/LED - N Outside Lane

Figure 174. Spring City Upright - HPS/LED - S Bike Lane
118


Figure 175. Spring City Upright - HPS/LED - S Center/Inside Lane

Figure 176. Spring City Upright - HPS/LED - S Outside Lane

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AppendixC–LuminairePictures


Figure 177. Beta Cobrahead
120


Figure 178. Philips Cobrahead - C7951

Figure 179 - Philips Cobrahead - C7951 - Installed, Daytime
121


Figure 180 - Philips Cobrahead - C7951 - Installed, Nighttime

Figure 181. Philips Cobrahead - 135W80LED - RVS
122


Figure 182 - Philips Cobrahead - 135W80LED -RVS - Installed, Daytime
123


Figure 183 - Philips Cobrahad - 135W80LED - RVS - Installed, Nighttime

Figure 184. Philips Cobrahead - 270W160LED - RVM
124


Figure 185 - Philips Cobrahead - 270W160LED - RVM - Installed, Daytime

Figure 186 - Philips 270W160LED - RVM - Installed, Nighttime
125


Figure 187. Elumen Cobrahead

Figure 188. GE Cobrahead
126


Figure 189. Lighting Science Cobrahead

Figure 190 - Lighting Science Cobrahead - Installed, Daytime
127


Figure 191 - Lighting Science Cobrahead - Installed, Nighttime

Figure 192. Relume Cobrahead
128


Figure 193. Holophane Cobrahead

Figure 194. Leotek Cobrahead
129



Figure 195 - Leotek Cobrahead - Installed, Daytime

Figure 196 - Leotek Cobrahead - Installed, Nighttime
130


Figure 197. Holophane Teardrop

Figure 198. Spring City Teardrop
131


Figure 199. Philips Teardrop
132


Figure 200. Philips Upright
133


Figure 201. Holophane Upright

Figure 202. Spring City Upright
134


Figure 203 - Standard HPS Cobrahead - 400W

Figure 204 - Standard HPS Cobrahead 250W
135


Figure 205 - LED Fixture on 28' Mounting Pole