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31

**Unit 3 | 12 Upper and lower bounds
**

Key Points The upper bound of a number is the highest value which rounds down to that number. The lower bound of a number is the lowest value which rounds up to that number. Let S x y. Then upper bound of S the upper bound of x upper bound of y. Let D x y. Then upper bound of D upper bound of x lower bound of y. Let P xy. Then upper bound of P upper bound of x upper bound of y. x. Let Q __ y Then upper bound of Q upper bound of x lower bound of y. For the lower bounds of S and P, use the lower bounds of x and y. The lower bound of D lower bound of x upper bound of y. The lower bound of Q lower bound of x upper bound of y.

1

The diagram shows a solid prism. The cross-section of the prism is a trapezium of height 10.1 cm. The lengths of the parallel sides of the trapezium are 4.5 cm and 7.8 cm. The length of the prism is 16.0 cm.

7.8 cm

Questions in this chapter are targeted at the grades indicated.

AO3

A

Diagram NOT drawn accurately

10.1cm 16.0 cm 4.5 cm

All the measurements are given correct to the nearest mm. The solid prism is made from metal. Exactly 1 cm3 of metal has a mass of 6.4 g correct to 1 decimal place. Work out the upper bound for the total mass of the prism. Give your answer correct to 3 sig. fig. x2 4 Here is a graph of y ______ x 2 a 4 Given that y ______ a where a 4.5 correct to 1 decimal place, calculate the upper bound of y.

2 1 3 5 x y 6 4

2 y� x �4 x

2

8 (1 decimal place) b 2. a 4. fig. but r 5 5 correct to the nearest whole number. Calculate the lower bound for the perimeter of the square.36 (2 decimal places) c 34. Could Halima be correct? 6 A formula for describing the growth of a population with time is P S 1 ___ r where r % is the growth rate per year. v 3. exactly 1 m wide goes all the way around the inside of the field.32 Unit 3 | 12 Upper and lower bounds | Student Book chapter 2 3 The diagram shows a field with length 48 m correct to the nearest m and width 36 m A AO2 AO3 correct to the nearest m. S is exactly 10000.43 (2 decimal places) e 3450 (3 significant figures) b 8.).4 (1 decimal place) c 6. a 3. 4 The area of a square is 630 m2 correct to the nearest 10 m2. ( ) n For one population. 48 m 1m 36 m Calculate the upper bound and the lower bound of the area of the path. 7 Write down: i the upper bound and ii the lower bound of these numbers. fig). 5 T_ 1 mv2 m 5 400 (2 sig. A path.0 (1 decimal place) 8 Write down: i the upper bound and ii the lower bound of these numbers.08 (2 decimal places) 9 Write down: i the upper bound and ii the lower bound of these numbers. Give your answer correct to 3 significant figures.4 (1 decimal place) c 24.00577 (3 significant figures) b 5600 (3 significant figures) 11 Write down the upper bounds of these numbers.0 (1 decimal place) d 460 (2 decimal places) .0065 (2 significant figures) b 560 (2 significant figures) 10 Write down: i the upper bound and ii the lower bound of these numbers. a 7.66 (2 decimal places) b 5.2 103 (2 sig. Use the formula to find the difference between the upper and the lower bounds of the population after exactly 10 years. S is the starting population and 100 n is the number of whole years since the start. a 456 (3 significant figures) c 0. a 48 (2 significant figures) c 0. Halima says that the value of T 2 AO2 could be 2 109.

AO2 A 2.p.) Work out the lower bounds of a a 1 b b ab c a2 AO2 16 The diagram shows a circle with a second concentric circle taken out.14159 17 The length of a rectangle is L metres and the width of the rectangle is W metres.4% A rectangle is 125 cm by 100 cm.7 (1 d. y 5 5.5 cm Diagram NOT drawn accurately 10.).p. 33 A a 8.5 (1 d. Find.44 (2 d.).8 cm.) Work out the upper bounds of a m 1 n b mn AO2 15 a 5 3. b Find the upper bound of y. Use 3.) a Find the lower bound of y. * 19 y 5 0. Each measurement is correct to the nearest cm.5 (1 d.p.8 (1 d. n 5 5. b Calculate the maximum percentage error in the calculated area of the rectangle. All measurements are correct to the nearest mm. b 5 1. 18 The percentage error in a measurement is upper bound quoted measurement ______________________________ 100 quoted measurement The length of a rod is quoted to be 125 cm correct to the nearest cm.0 (1 decimal place) d 45 (2 significant figures) 13 x 5 4.p. t 5 6. The width of the shaded region is 2.).p.00 (2 decimal places) e 4000 (3 significant figures) b 10.2 (1 d. with each measurement correct to the nearest cm. The diameter of the circle is 10.5at2.3 (1 decimal place) c 8.). a Show that the percentage error is 0. AO2 .p.p. a 5 4.85 (2 d.8 cm Calculate the lower bound and the upper bound of the area of the shaded region.Unit 3 | 12 Upper and lower bounds | Student Book chapter 2 12 Write down the lower bounds of these numbers.) Work out the lower bounds of a x 1 y b xy AO2 14 m 5 3.p. in terms of L and W the difference between the lower bound and the upper bound of the area of the rectangle.0 (1 d.5 cm.

u 5 4.8 seconds (correct to 1 decimal place) to fall a distance 2.p. Work out the difference between the upper bound and the lower bound of the volume of the cube. y and z have been written correct to 2 sig. Give your answer correct to 1 d.5 (1 d. He estimated that the length of the track he could see was 100 m correct to the nearest 10 metres. figs.8 (1 d. metres per second.) 2 Calculate the difference between the lower bound and the upper bound of s. y 5 n2 n is written correct to the nearest whole number. He timed a car as taking 5 seconds to the nearest second along the track he could see.04 (3 s.8 (1 d. b If instead x. AO2 AO3 * 27 Jim was at the racing track.).f.). Calculate the upper bound of a.) Work out the lower bound of v. Give your answers correct to 1 decimal place. of a falling object due to gravity can be found by 2h . * 23 y 5 a cos x°. Work out the difference * 29 h 5 ___ 2g between the upper bound of h and the lower bound of h. 2z a Work out the exact value of w. A ball takes 0.) and find the upper bound of y. a 5 5. Work out the upper bound of v.p.f.f. t 5 4. a 5 9.) and w 5 5. p Find the value of __ to an appropriate accuracy. q AO2 AO3 AO2 AO2 .) and x 5 60° (2 s. v 5 45 (2 significant figures). Work out the lower bound and the upper bound for the average speed of the car.) w a Calculate the lower bound of p. b Calculate the upper bound of p. a 5 4. l 5 6.0 (1 d.). AO3 AO3 AO2 * 25 v2 5 u2 1 2as s 5 28 (2 s.). b Show that the upper bound of y is n2 1 n 1 _ 1 4 c Find a similar expression for the lower bound of y.2 correct to 2 significant figures. correct to the nearest centimetre.p. y 5 26.p. where h metres is the height fallen and t seconds is the time using the formula a 5 ___ 2 t taken. * 24 a Expand (a 1 b)2. u 5 48 (2 s.44 (2 d.p.p. v 2 .34 Unit 3 | 12 Upper and lower bounds | Student Book chapter 2 2 * 20 p 5 __ l . g 5 9. * 28 The acceleration a.) Show that the lower bound of y is 2. A AO2 AO2 AO3 x2 2 y2 * 22 w 5 ______ x 5 52. work out the value of the upper bound and the value of the lower bound.45 (2 d. * 30 p 5 63 correct to 2 significant figures. 2 * 21 s 5 ut 1 _ 1 at . c Calculate the percentage difference between the exact value of w and the upper bound of w.2 (1 d. c Write p correct to an appropriate number of significant figures.8 (1 decimal place).p. z 5 10 . * 26 The edge of a cube is 10 cm correct to the nearest cm.p.f. q 5 3.55 m.

2 cm. For this system mA 2 1030 kg and M 5 5 3 1027 kg. both correct to 1 significant figure. 35 AO2 A AO2 AO3 AO2 AO2 Challenge yourself Binary stars and exoplanets The closest star system to the Sun is a pair of stars. The formula __ 1 ___ 1 ___ 1 is used by astronomers to work out the mass mB of one of the stars.Unit 3 | 12 Upper and lower bounds | Student Book chapter 2 k . * 34 The length. k 5 4. 6. Astronomers can also use techniques to discover planets outside our solar system. Find the lower bound and the upper bound of mB. The mass of the cuboid is 1.p. L m. Work out the least possible perimeter of the square. a Find the upper bound and the lower bound of mB. * 33 A cuboid has edges of length 4. b Work out the lower bound of y.40 (2 decimal places) * 31 y 5 __ 2 x a Work out the upper bound of y. For the Alpha Centauri system mA 2.6 correct to 1 decimal place and d was 7 correct to the nearest whole number.8 cm and 10. of a tyre skid when a car suddenly brakes from a speed s metres per s2 where d metres per second squared is the deceleration. both correct to 2 significant figures. .2 3 1029 kg. Calculate the lower bound of s. all measured correct to the nearest mm. Calculate the lower bound of the density of the cuboid. M mA mB if M and mA can be measured. Give your answer correct to 1 d. * 32 The area of a square is 230 cm2 correct to 2 significant figures. a binary (double star) system called Alpha Centauri A and B. the mass of the planet.6 kg correct to one decimal place.2 1030 kg and M 5 7. x 5 2. Give your answer in grams per cm3 correct to 3 significant figures. c Write down the value of y correct to an appropriate number of significant figures.0 cm.84 (2 decimal places). second is given by L 5 ___ 2d L was measured to be 15.

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