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Notes Reproduction in Flowering Plants (Raffles Institution Year 4 Biology)

Cell Theory Cell theory: All cells arise from existing cells. New cells are formed during cell division.

Differences between Meiosis and Mitosis Crossing Over Number of Divisions Genetic Make up of daughter cells Daughter cells Function Type of Reproduction Mitosis 1. Interphase a. G1, S (duplication of orgenlles, DNA etc.), G2 2. Prophase (Condense, pair) a. Chromosones pair up; homologous chromosones pair up 3. Metphase (Align) a. Chromosones align along metphase plate 4. Anaphase (Split) a. Centromere split, chromosones move to opposite poles 5. Telophase a. Plant Cell plate forms b. Animal Clearage furrow 6. Cytokkinesis a. Cell (physicall) splits into two Meiosis Occurs in prophase I when homologous chromosones pair up 2 Different from parents 4 haploid gametes Sexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Mitosis Does not occur, homologous chromosones do not pair up 1 Identical to parents 2 diploid somatic cells General growth and repair of somatic cells Asexual Reproduction

Mitosis occurs the most often in the root tip of plants, because it is the region that is always growing and cell division is needed to support this rapid growth. Furthermore, while the root pushes through the soil, cells are scraped off and must be replaced. Therefore, it needs constant growth and repair, through mitosis.

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What causes genetic differences 1. 2. 3. 4. Independent assortment Random segregation Crossing over Mutation

Asexual Reporduction 1. Occurs when food is readily available (in favourable conditions). 2. Rapid method of reproduction 3. Simple organisms binary fission (e.g. amoeba), spore formation (e.g. fungi), budding (e.g. yeast), fragmentation (e.g. flatworm) 4. Flowering plants vegetative propagation (some flowering plants can undergo both sexual and asexual reporudction)

Differences between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonours plants Monocots Embryo with single cotyledon Pollen with single furrow or pore Flower parts in multiples of three Major leaf veins parallel Stem vacular bundles scattered Roots are adventitious Secondary growth absent Dicots Embryo with two cotyledons Pollen with three furrows or pores Flower parts in multiples of four or five Major leaf veins reticulated Stem vascular bundles in a ring Roots develop from radicle Secondary growth often present (producing wood and bark)

Artificial Selection Select fruits that are larger. Plant the seeds. New plants that grow is likely to produce larger fruits. Repeat the process until the fruits ontained are suitably large.

Vegetative Propagation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Part of parent plant becomes detached Grows into a new plant Underground storage organs (e.g. rhizomes, tubers, corms, bulbs) Buds produce shoots Obtain nutreints from storage organs

Storage organs act as perennating organs. Food is stored in storage organs during unfavourable conditions. When favourable conditions return, plant

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uses food stored in storage oragns. Therefore, plants can survive from one growing season to another. Choose a branch that bears the fruits of good quality. Either cut and plant it to let it grow into a new plant, or graft it onto a new plant that will be likely to produce fruits of similar qualtiy.

Advantages of Vegetative Propagation 1. Reliability (always same time) 2. Consistency (same quality) 3. Early maturity (grows fast)

Rhizome 1. 2. 3. 4. Horizontal underground stem Scale leaves and bud Food storage Potential of vegetative propagation

Bulbs 1. 2. 3. 4. Vertical underground shoots Has flatten disc-like stem Closely set nodes bearing fleshy scale leaves Adventitious roots at the base of the bulb

Corms 1. 2. 3. 4. Swollen, short vertical underground stem With inter-node and modified scale leaves Storage organ Potential of vegetative propagation

Angiosperms 1. Flowering plants 2. Well-developed vascular system or transport of water and food substances 3. Development of flowers for sexual reproduction

Flower

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1. Contains reproductive structures 2. Bisexual (hermaphrodite) both male and female parts present 3. Unisexual either have the male or female part present

Structure of Flower

Flower Part Pedicel No peddicel Receptacle Petals Sepals Stamen Anther Filament Pollen Grains Carpel Stigma Ovary Ovule

Description Flower Stalk Sessile Flowers Enlarged end of flower stalk Flowers are attached here Brightly coloured, sometimes scented Arranged in circle/cylinder (corolla) Attract insects/agents of pollination Modified leaves, often green Protect flower in bud stage Male reproductive organ Consists of filament with anther on the end Each anther usually made of 2 lobes Each lobe has two pollen sacs In pollen sacs are pollen grains Filament holds up the anther in suitable position to release pollen grain Pollen grains released when anther matures, lobes split Each pollen grain gives 2 male gametes Female reproductive organ Consists of ovary, style and stigma Stigma receive pollen grain Ovary contains one or more ovules Ovary will become fruit Ovule contains female gamete called ovum Ovule will become seed

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Region where ovule attaches to ovary is placenta Pollination 1. 2. 3. 4. Transfer of pollen grain from anther to stigma Anther split open, exposes pollen grain Pollen grains carried away by either wind or bodies of insects Flowers are adapted for different modes of pollination

Self-pollination 1. Transfor of pollen grain from anther to stifma of same flower 2. Transfer of pollen grain from anther to atigma of another flower in same plant Advantages Only 1 parent plant needed Beneficial qualtiies likely to be inherited by offspring Does not depend on external factors Less pollen neded, less energy wasted Features favouring self-pollination 1. Bisexual flower 2. Same maturation times of anthers and stigmas 3. Anthers situated just above stigmas on same flower Disadvantages Offspring has less genetic variation, less adpated to envrionmental changes Weaker, smaller, less resistant offsprings

Cross-pollination 1. Transfer of pollen grain from anther to stigma of flowers from different plants (same species) Advantages Can inherit beneficial qualities from both parents Greater genetic variation, better adapted to changes in environment More viable seeds, longer dormancy possible Disadvantages 2 parent plants needed Depend on external factors (e.g. wind, insects) More pollen needed, more energy needed to imrpove chances of pollination

Features favouring cross-pollination

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1. Dioecious plants (one plant, one gender) 2. Different maturation times of anthers and stigmas 3. Anthers and stigmas on the same flower situated far apart

Wind Pollinated vs Insect Pollinated Petals Nectar Scent Stigma Stamen Pollen Wind Small, dull or absent Absent Absent Large and feathry, protrudes out of flower Long and pendulous filaments with protruding anthers More abundant, tiny and light with smooth surfaces Insect Large, brightly-coloured Present (nectar guides may be present on petals) Present Small and compact, does not protrude out of flower Not pendulous, does not protrude out of flower Fairly abundant, larger with rough surfaces

Double Fertilisation The ploidy of the eight nuclei in the multinucleate embryo sac is haploid, and is formed by meiosis. Therefore, the megaspores produced are not genetically identical.

1. Pollen grain lands on stigma a. Pollen grain produces a sugary fluid, e.g. sucrose b. Sugary fluid stimulates pollen grain to germinate to form a pollen tube (cytoplasm in pollen grain grow out as a tube)

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c. 2 Nuclei in each pollen grain vegetative nucleus (in front) and generative nucleus (behind) 2. Tip of pollen tube grows towards micropyle (pore of ovule wall) in response to chemical produced by ovary a. Vegetative nucleus secretes enzymes to digest part of the tissue of the style and ovary, and soften the tissues b. Generative nucleus divides by mitosis into 2 haploid sperm cells 3. Male gametes enter the ovule via the micropyle a. Vegetative nucleus degenerates b. Tip of pollen tube tabsorbs saps and burst to release the 2 male gametes c. 1 male gamaete (n) fuse with ovum (n) to form the zygote (2n) d. 1 male gamete (n) fuse with 2 endospermic/polar nuclei (2n) in ovuyle to form endosperm nucleus (3n) e. Zygoe will develop into an embryo via mitosis, which consists of the plumule, radicle and cotyledons f. Endosperm nucleus will develop into an endosperm, which serves as the embryos food supply 4. Both fertilisation together termed as double fertilisation.

Superior and Inferior Ovaries 1. Superior ovary is when the ovary rests above the receptacle. 2. Inferior ovary is when ovary embedded within the receptacle.

Flower Part and Post-Fertilisation Changes Flower Part Ovule Zygote Endosperm Nucleus (Central Cell) Integuments (Outer layer of ovule) Ovule Stalk Ovary Ovary Wall Sitgma/Style Stamens/Petals Sepals Post-Fertilisaion Changes Seed (Mitosis) Embryo consisting of plumule, radicle and cotyledons (Mitosis) Endosperm, stores food for plant Testa Funicle Fruit Fruit wall or Pericarp (Dry or Fleshy) Wither, but may persist and be modified to help in fruit dispersal Wither and fall off May persist, or be enlarged/modified to help in seed dispersal Done by Goh Zuo Min 4M

The Fruit 1. Protects the seeds and mebryo inside the seeds 2. Disperse seeds to new habitats 3. Remains of style 4. Scars present left behind from attachment to receptacle 5. Funicle (seed stalk) attaches seed to placenta; presence of vascular tissues 6. Fruit chambers (loculus or loculi) may be filled with juicy pulp (e.g. tomatoes); may remian as empty spaces (e.g. peas)

Locules The arrangement of the ovules in the chambers (locules) of the ovary determines how the seeds are arranged in the fruit. Different arrangements of ovules and locules within ovary of different flower types.

The Seed 1. Testa (seed coat) 2. Embryo (radicle, plumule and cotyledons) 3. Micropyle (por where pollen tube enters and for water and air to enter for germination) 4. Hilum/Hilus (Scar indicates original postion of seed stalk)

Cotyledons Some seeds store food in cotyledons. They contain the immature plant (embryo) plus food reserves in large cotyledons, surrounded by a seed coat (testa). These seeds usually have two cotyledons (dicot plants) (e.g. peanut, bean) Some seeds store food in endosperm. These seeds usually have one cotyledon (monocot plant) (e.g. rice, maize)

Post-disersal of Fruits When fruits get dispersed into a suitable habitat, 1. Perciarp (fruit wall) breaks down 2. Seed(s) released

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3. In favourable conditions, seeds germinate 4. Embryo grow and develop into new plants

Funciton of Dispersal 1. Avoids overcrowding, competition for resources (e.g. light, food) with parent plants 2. Enable plants to colonise new favourable habitats, enhances chance of survival 3. Reduce spread of diseases

Explosive Mechanism 1. Dry pericarp 2. During drying process, pricarp contracts, twists suddenly and split open with great force to throw out seeds 3. E.g. Legume of Clitoria, Balsam

Wind 1. Wing, hairs that may develop from style, calyx , fruits, seed coats (e.g. winged fruits of Angsana) 2. Structures enlarge surface area 3. Fruit and seed can stay afloat longer, drift further away from parent plant 4. Small, light seeds 5. E.g. Winged seeds of Tecoma

Animals 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Usually edible Sweet smelling, scented to attract animals Tough seed coats to withstand aciton of digestive enzymes Seeds passed out in animal droppings Have attachments (e.g. hooks, hairs) on seed coats or wall of fruit Enables fruits and seeds to cling on to animal bodies E.g. Papaya, Mango, Spear Grass, Urena

Water 1. 2. 3. 4. Waterproof fruit surface Light and spongy parts filled with air in seeds or fruit wall Enable fruits or seeds to stay afloat E.g. coconut, lotus seed Done by Goh Zuo Min 4M

Germinating Seed 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Seed consits of embryo Embryo consists of plumule (shoot) and radicle (root) Two leaves (cotyledons) are attached to shoot Cotyledons store food Embryo and cotyledons enclosed in seed coat (testa)

1. Digested food translocated to plumule and radicle 2. Digested food used to provide energy, synthesie cell wall, protoplasm and enzymes 3. Radicle grows out of split testa, and grows downwards to absorb water 4. Plumule emerges from between cotyledons, and grows upwards 5. Food tissue (endosperm/cotyledons) shrink as food store is used up 6. Dry mass decreases as food is used up by respiration 7. Growing plumule produces green leaves (shoot) 8. Shoot continues to grow upwards, producing more leaves (seedling) 9. Photosynthesis begins, dry mass of plant starts to increase

Germination 1. 2. 3. 4. Seed absorbs water through micropyle and swells Ruptures testa Process of hydration activates enzymes in cotyledons Enzymes digest stored food (amylase digest strach, protease digest protein)

Water 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Water necessary to soften testa Testa can be ruptured easily Enables carbon dioxide and oxygen to diffuse in and out rapidly Provide medium for metabolic reactions (photosynthesis, digestion) Activates enzymes Transport nutrients to growing regions of embryo Expand vacuoles of newly formed cells, causing root and shoot to grow, and leaves to expand 8. Maintains turgor or cells, helping to keep the shoot upright, and leaves expanded

Oxygen 1. Early stages of germination, testa not permeable to oxygen, respirates anaerobically Done by Goh Zuo Min 4M

2. Testa soaked, splits open, allows oxygen to enter 3. Oxygen used for aerobic respiration 4. During aerobic respiration, more energy released and are used for metabolism (utilisation of food reserves, synthesis of new cytoplasm)

Temperature 1. Rise in temperature speeds up chemical reacitons 2. Germination takes place best at higher temperatures, 40 degrees Celsius 3. Above 45 degrees Celsius, enzymes denatured, seedling killed 4. Low temperatures, seedling may not germinate

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