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By Zaynudeen Muhammad Ibn Abu Bakr ibn Abdulqadir Ar-Razi
The BOOK of Prayer
بسم هللا الرحمن الرحيم
In the name of Allah the Most Merciful the Most Compassionate
Translated by Arfan Shah (Sheikhy Notes and Straight Translations) This is the book of prayer from the above mentioned text in the Hanafi school of Islam. Anyone who is confused by any points mentioned in the text please email me on firstname.lastname@example.org so we will endeavour to answer your questions.
All praise is Allah‟s and peace be upon his chosen servants.
The Chapter of Prayer Time that necessitates prayer Whoever becomes Muslim, sane, mature, becomes pure (female) and there is time to for her to make the opening magnification, if apostasies or is mad. If she enters into her period then it is not necessary.
Call to prayer Ruling of the call to prayer and its description The call to prayer is an emphasised Sunna for the five daily prayers and for gatherings,1 only, without being repeated.2 In the call to prayer of the dawn prayer „Prayer is better than sleep‟ is added after „come to success,‟ twice.
Description of commencement call The Commencement call is like the call to prayer; added is „Prayer is established‟ is said twice after come to success. The Call to prayer is extended and the commencement call is hurried. The direction of prayer is faced; they turn to the right and left (come to success) and his voice should be voiced.
The call to prayer of the impure It is desirable to be in a state of ablution for them; disliked for someone in major impurity; then the call is repeated and it is disliked to say the commencement call without ablution.
A gathering is a minimum of three. Any call to prayer is valid from the four schools.
Call to prayer for missed prayers The call to prayer for missed prayers is done for the first then commencement call is made; commencement call is sufficient for the remainder and it is permissible to the commencement call with the call of prayer.
Wage for the caller It is disliked to accept money for making the call.
Answering the call The hearer repeats what the call of prayer and commencement by following the caller; except when he says „come to success‟ he says, „there is no power or mighty except Allah, the exalted, the great.‟ In the second he says, „Whatever Allah wills is and what he does not will never be.‟ When he says „prayer is better than sleep‟ we say, „truthful speak and sincerity.‟
Speech during call to prayer The hearer does not speak, read, greet, reply and does not busy himself with any action other responding. The reader of the Quran stops for both.3
The conditions of prayer are six Time,4 Purification by its type,5 covering nakedness, facing the direction of prayer, intention and the opening magnification.
The call to prayer and commencement call. The time of the prayer has to enter. Prayer is not valid before its time. 5 The body needs to be pure for major and minor impurity, the clothes and the place.
Pillars of prayer Its pillars are six: Standing, recitation, Bowing, prostration, moving from one pillar to another6 and the final sitting.
Necessities of prayer The necessities are eleven: To recite Sura Fatiha in the first units (aloud in aloud prayers for the Imam), being silent in the silent prayers (for the leader and the follower), tranquillity in bowing and prostration, following the order of the actions, the first sitting, Tashahud in the sittings, greetings, supplication in Witr and the magnification of the Eid prayers.
The Sunna of prayer The Sunnas of the prayer in other than this7 of words and actions. The first condition Times of prayer The time of dawn prayer is time of true dawn, on the horizon, until sunrise. The midday prayer is from the zenith until the shadow becomes double itself, minus the length at zenith. The late afternoon prayer is (after the time of the midday prayer ends) until sunset; then this is the first time of the sunset prayer. The last time of the sunset prayer is when the twilight appears after the redness; then this is the first time the night prayer and the last time is until the true
This is not a pillar according to most books. Thana, seeking refuge, saying Bismillah, saying Ameen silently, magnification of bowing and magnifications, magnifications of prostration and magnifications three times and supplications upon the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah upon him).
dawn. The time of Witr is the time of the night prayer and it is necessary to delay it.
Brightness at dawn prayer It is desired to pray when it is very bright except during pilgrimage at Muzdalifah then praying during darkness is superior.
Pray the midday prayer during coolness Wait until it is cooler in summer and read with haste in winter; delay the late afternoon until the sun‟s colour has not changed; in summer and winter.
Delaying and hasting the night prayer Always read the sunset prayer quickly; delay the night prayer to a third on the night and read earlier in summer. On a cloudy day read the late afternoon and night prayer in haste, and delay the rest.
Joining prayers Do not join two prayers in one time except on Arafat and Muzdalifah.8
Superior (time) for Witr It is desired to pray Witr in the last part of the night; if he is sure that he will remain awake or in the first he will not. Time of Friday congregational prayer and Eid prayer The time of the Friday congregational prayer is (same time as) the midday prayer.
With the condition they are on pilgrimage.
The time of Eid prayers are after sunrise until the zenith.
Disliked times The disliked times are eight: Three are disliked for any prayer, recitation of prostration, forgetful prostration, sunrise, when the sun reaches its zenith, sunset except for the late afternoon of the prayer. There are two times of dislike are supererogatory prayer and oaths, two units of Tawaf, make up and supererogatory. Not disliked are between the dawn prayer and sunrise; then after late afternoon prayer until sunset. Three times that supererogatory are disliked are after sunset before sunset prayer, the time of Friday sermon and before the prayers of Eid.
Second condition Purification Purification of the one praying The prayer needs to be pure, his clothes and the place; are a condition.
Types of filth Fifth have two types; light: urine of the horse, what we consume meat from and faeces from meat that we do not consume form the bird family. The amount that prevents prayer is one quarter of a limb or a fourth of the surface of the clothes like the back, the front, the sleeve etc and not others. Heavy filth is the remainder of the filth, to the extent of 9/10 grams is pardoned, if solid with dislike.
The amount of filth that prevents prayer The amount of water that sits in the palm and not the extra.
Pardoned fifth The place of exit of the Istinja is pardoned, prayed urine like needle heads is pardoned, if he prays on a carpet which has some filth on a side (is pardoned) and does not effect unless large.
Carrying a container of Musk If the person praying has a container of musk (check audio)
What happens to prayer with filth For he who cannot prayer with filth, and a fourth of his clothes is clean he prays in them and does not repeat. If less than a fourth is clean then he has a choice to pray in it or pray naked; the first is superior.
Condition three Covering nakedness The nakedness of a man and a woman The nakedness of man is from the belly button the knees; the knees are nakedness and not the belly button. The nakedness of a free, mature woman is her whole body including her hair except her face, hands and feet. The nakedness of bondswoman is the same as a man with the addition of her belly and back. Major nakedness and minor nakedness are the same.
Nakedness during prayer Anything less than a fourth is pardoned and a forth prevents.
See thru clothes Covering with see through clothes does not fulfil the narration and is not sufficient.
Lost their clothes Whoever loses their clothes prays sitting naked; indicated bowing and prostration or standing bowing and prostrating; the first is superior.
Condition four Facing the prayer direction The obligation of facing The obligation of the Meccans resident is the face the Ka‟aba and for others it is to face a side.
Guessing the direction Whoever is doubtful about the prayer direction, does not guess, he asks (someone) and not is the desert, clear skies; if there is no proof or person in the desert he guesses and prays. If his error becomes clear then he builds upon the prayer and if it becomes clear after he has prayed he does not repeat.
Condition five Intention What does the person praying intent? This is desire to pray, in the heart; using words is Sunna; the follower intents for the prayer, to follow the leader etc.9
Caution in intention Caution is to make intention with the opening magnification and if it is before then it is correct as long as he does not do anything between.
Condition six Prohibition magnification What authenticates the opening magnification? The opening is validated by magnification, saying there is no deity but Allah, saying In the name of Allah and any of the names of Allah (the exalted); in O‟Allah. It is not valid to say, “O‟Allah, forgive me.”
Magnification whilst the Imam is bowing If he reaches the prayer and the imam is bowing; he says the magnification and enters (the prayer). If he makes magnification before the imam then intention of the follower is invalid (and his prayer).
Intention can be defined as the hearts inclination to do or not do something. Or if someone asks some else what they are doing their response is their intention.
Best (practice) for the follower It‟s better for the follower to pronounce the magnification after the Imam‟s pronouncement and delay the greeting (at the end of prayer).
How to make the magnification One raises their hands until the thumbs are at the level of the earlobes; he does not spread out his fingers; he does similar in Qanut (Witr) and in the magnifications of Eid. A woman raises her hands to the level of her shoulders.
Positions of raising the hands The hands are not raised except for the prohibition (opening) magnification.
Position of the Imam’s magnification It is Sunna for the imam and the people to stand when the caller says, “Come to felicity.” The Imam pronounces the magnification when it is said, “The prayer is established.”
The Pillars The first is: the standing Standing in prayer It is not permissible to leave in the obligatory and necessary (prayers) without excuse, except on a moving ship.
Where to place the hands When magnification is made he places his hand over his left underneath his belly button. A woman places her hands on her chest. Then say, “Free from defect are you; O‟Allah, praise is yours; may your name be glorified; may your majesty be exalted; and there is deity but you.”
The second Recitation Description of recitation He seeks refuge, if he is an Imam or follower, says Bismillah and recites Sura Al-Fatiha as well as another Sura. Or three verses from any Sura he wills; in both of the first units of prayer.
Obligatory recitation The obligation is to recite a verse10 and it is necessary is as explained.
Description of Ameen When the Imam says, “Not those astray,” he says “amen” and the followers say silently.
Reciting in the final two units Reciting Al-Fatiha in the last two units is Sunna. It is permissible to praise in them and silence is disliked. Ruling of recitation
The obligation of recitation is to recite one verse consisting of two words – this is the opinion of Imam Muhammad. Abu Hanifa states to recite anything that could be considered Quran and Abu Yusuf’s opinion is that it should be one verse consisting of three words. The necessary level is recitation of Sura Al-Fatiha and another Sura as well.
Reciting in necessary in every unit of supererogatory and Witr prayers.
Aloud and silent in prayer The Imam recites aloud in the dawn prayer; and the first two units of the sunset prayer and the night prayer. The individual is silent in the remaining prayers. The Imam recites aloud in the Friday and Eid prayers.
Recitation is supererogatory He recites silently during the day and aloud in the night?
Specifying the recitation It is disliked to specify a Sura in prayer; except if it is easier to do so by following the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).
Recitation of the follower The follower does not recite behind an Imam.
Third Pillar: Bowing Bowing position and magnifications When he has finished reciting; he pronounces a magnification and bows then says, “Glory be to my Lord the greatest;” Three times. This is the best for its validity and if he praises once then it is disliked.
Standing after bowing
When is satisfied with his bow; he stands and says, “Allah hears who praises him.” The followers say, “To you our Lord belongs praise.” The one praying on his own does both.
Fourth pillar: Prostrating When he is content with standing; he praises then prostrates; he says, “Praise be to my Lord the highest.” Three times and raises his head; praises then sits; praises then prostrates again and praises as he did initially.
What is permissible to prostate on? It is permissible to prostrate on upon a dangling Turban or on a side of a cloth.
Fifth pillar: Moving from pillar to pillar (This is moving from Pillar to pillar, in the prayer, with without pausing in between. For example: bowing at the waist to prostrating; from prostration to prostration.)
Fifth pillar: the final sitting Testification He sits for time it takes to read the testification, in the first sitting, whislt reading the testification he indicates with his index finger when reciting the testimony of faith;11 according to the sound opinion.
The length of the first sitting
He points with his index finger and presses lightly his middle finger and thumb.
He does not sit any more after saying, “I testify that Muhammad is his servant and Messenger.”
The second sitting Added in the second is the invocations on the Prophet (may Allah bestow upon him peace and blessings) and upon his family; whatever supplication they wish; asking for everything that can only given by Allah (the exalted) like mercy and forgiveness.12
Description of greeting Then he greets on his right hand and then left. He intends to greet whoever is on that side of him of angels and those present in prayer. 13 The person praying on their own intends to greet the angels. The follower intends to greet the Imam on whichever side he is on and if his is opposite him.
Order of Sunna prayers These are: Two units before Fajr, Four before Zuhur and two after, Four before „Asr,14 Two units before Maghrib, Four before Isha and four or two afterwards, Four before Jummah15 and four afterwards.
One of the definitions of God: the one who you have the most fear and hope in. This means the angels who make the records, the congregation and the Imam. 14 Two after according to Quduri 1/90. Two is valid and four is superior. 15 This is the Friday congregation prayer prayed at the time of Zuhur which replaces the Zuhur prayer of that day.
Making up the Sunna prayers Sunna prayers are not made up with the exception of Fajr if it is missed with it; then it is made up with it before the zenith of the sun. Similarly the Sunnas of Zuhur are also not made up and it can be separated into to two units.
Supererogatory during the night and day The supererogatory are two or four, with one greeting, during the day. Two, four, six or eight during the night. It is disliked to do more than these; four is better during the night.16
The best place to perform supererogatory prayers The best place for the Sunna and extra prayers is the house.
Standing and sitting in the supererogatory prayers Supererogatory prayers can be prayed sitting down without excuse except the two units before Fajr. They can be completed standing or the opposite, they are valid. If he begins riding then comes down he builds on the prayer. If the opposite occurs then he restarts.
Supererogatory in congregation It is highly disliked to hold a congregation of any supererogatory prayers except Tarawih.17
According to Abu Hanifa the maximum that can be read with one greeting is eight, AbdulGhani An-Nabulusi is twelve and four according to Imam Muhammad & Abu Yusuf. 17 This is the nightly Ramadan prayer performed after the daily fast has been completed.
Whoever begins a supererogatory prayer or fast; has to complete it or make it up if it is broken.
Tarawih Description of Tarawih This is ten units of Tarawih; each unit is has two greetings; the sitting (in between) four units is the length of one Tarawih. After the last unit Witr is performed there is no sitting after the last unit of Tarawih; according to the reliable opinion. Then they perform Witr.
Sunna of Witr Finish the Quran in one month or in every unit ten Quranic passages. The reading of this in congregation is Sunna upon all the people of an area. The Imam leaves out the supplication after the testification if he knows that the people will get bored.
The time of Tarawih Is after Isha has been performed until the time of Fajr enters; before Witr.
Witr Description of Witr18 and Qanut19 This prayer is necessary; it is three connected units. Qanut is performed in the third unit secretly before bowing in the Sunna prayers. There is no Qanut in Fajr and if he follows and imam who performs it; he remains silent according to the reliable opinion.
This prayer is performed after Isha. This is a supplication said in the final unit of the Witr prayer after Quranic recitation and before bowing. This supplication is also said in the final unit of the Fajr prayer according to the Shafi’s but the Hanafi’s this is can only be done at a time of need like drought. The Qanut itself is necessary but what supplication is used is Sunna.
Repeating Witr If he misses Witr he makes it up. It is not permissible to perform sitting or riding without excuse. There is no specific supplication, according to Imam Muhammad, as reported in Al-Muheet. Jamia‟ Al-Usul20 has a recorded in it that Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) stated that the Prophet (may Allah bestow peace and blessings upon him), in Witr, used to say, “O‟Allah, I seek refuge in your contement from your anger; I seek refuge in your pardon from your punishment; I seek refuge from you, to you; I cannot praise you as you have praised yourself.”21
Where the person praying should look22 It is desired for the perform praying to look towards his feet up to place of prostration.23 Look at his fingers when bowing. Look to the sides of nose in prostration. Looking towards the lap when sitting. When giving the first greeting look to the right shoulder and then to the left shoulder (upon the second greeting.)
What is disliked for the praying person They cannot turn; play with their clothes or limbs. It is disliked to close the eyes. It is disliked to precede the Imam in his actions.24 Counting the Quranic passages or magnifications. Carrying something in the hand or mouth. For the Imam to extent the bowing time to allow someone to enter the prayer. It is disliked to begin prayer when they are need of the toilet. It is disliked to pray in line behind which there is a gap.
By Ibn Athir Al-Jazari 4/192. Muslim 476, Abu Dawood, At-Tirmidhi and Muwatta. 22 Moving the eyes in the prayer is minor disliked action and moving the head is highly disliked. 23 When standing. 24 When you are following an Imam in prayer it is disliked to move before he moves.
Places that is disliked to pray in To pray in a clean place in a sauna without a picture in it is not disliked. It is disliked to recite aloud in the sauna but not silently. It is disliked to have a picture containing a person/animal at any side of the person praying except if its head is erased or it is extremely small. To face an oven, fire or stove in which there is fire is disliked and not a candle, lamp, Quran or sword etc.
What actions break prayers? The major actions that break the prayer are those done with two hands. Or it was stated that if someone was to look at them then would say that were not praying. This is the choice opinion.25
Barrier in prayer Whoever prays in the desert places a barrier in front of him, it has to be more than a cubit and a finger in terms of thickness. It is placed close. He puts it opposite the level of the eyebrows and it does have to be in a line but it has to stand on its own.
Passing the praying Imam It is sinful to pass a place of prostration in the desert, in the small masjid and the Friday masjid. He should be stopped if there is no barrier in the way or indication should be given or a magnification but disliked to do both.
The first opinion is from Abu Yusuf and the second is from Abu Hanifa but the reliable position is three movements in one pillar breaks the prayer.
Sounds that break the prayer If he coughs without excuse and it makes two letters then it breaks the prayer. If it is with an excuse then it does not like sneezing and burping even if it resembles letters.
In Congregation The ruling of the congregation and their kinds It is an emphasised Sunna; moderated with an Imam is a proven Sunna. The least, in other than a masjid, is an imam and one follower; even if it is a woman or child.
Who shall lead the prayer? The most worthy person to lead the prayer is the one with the most: Jurisprudence, Best recitation, practicing of Islam, then the eldest, then the best in character, then the most noble in lineage then the one with the most beautiful complexion.
Where they stand One person stands next to the Imam on the right and if there are two of them then they stand behind him.
Preceding the Imam Whoever precedes the Imam when following him then his fellowship of the Imam is not valid. If he goes further after preceding the Imam then the prayer is corrupted.
Those who it is not valid to follow It is not valid for a man to follow the prayer and not a child. It is valid for a child to follow another child.
The order of rows The men, children, hermaphrodites then women.
The presence of women in the congregation It is disliked for young women to be present at the congregation and permissible for the elderly women to go for the two Eids, Jummah, Fajr, and Isha.
The repeat of the prayer by the follower If the Imam breaks his ablution then the follower repeats.
Barrier between the Imam When there is an obstacle between the Imam and the follower; he invalidates the prayer.26
Jummah Where is it valid to read Jummah? It is not valid except in large masjid or public arena. A city is every place with an Amir and judge who establishes rulings and carries out the penalties. It can be performed with a Sultan27 or his deputy.28
This when we cannot see or hear the Imam. Or Khalif.
The Jummah sermon Two short sermons are delivered before the prayer. If he mentions Allah, the exalted, instead of a sermon then it is valid.29
The condition of Jummah The condition is that there should be three people30 other than the Imam.31
Those who do not need to prayer Jummah It is not necessary for a traveller, women, the sick, the slave, the blind and if they pray it is valid. They can lead the prayer except the woman and the Jummah prayer is valid.
Zuhur prayer on the day of Jummah It is disliked to pray Zuhur prayer in the place that the Jummah prayer is held without excuse.
Zuhur prayer for those who do not have to pray Jummah It is disliked for those excused and those jailed to pray Zuhur in congregation on the day of Jummah.
Getting the prayer
These are definitions of places where it is valid to hold the Jummah prayer. The second definition is if the people come together then the masjid is not sufficient for all the people. The third definition of a city is a place that is self sufficient. If any of these definitions are met then the Jummah prayer in that community is valid. 29 The least he has to mention is Bismillah and one Quranic passage. 30 As a minimum. 31 Abu Hanifa stated this position which is the reliable position. Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad said that there should be at least two people. Also there is a condition that Jummah is open for everyone.
Whoever reaches the Imam during testification or during the forgetful prostration catches the Jummah prayer.32
When is trade prohibited? When the first call to prayer is made.33
To whom is it necessary? It is only necessary on those who hear it.
Time when speech should cease When the imam goes to deliver the sermon the people stop praying and talking until they (finish) the prayer.
The hearing of the sermon It is necessary for the hearer to listen to the sermon; those near and far must be silent. If he recites, “O‟ You who believe send blessing upon him...”34 then the listener prays in himself.35
Then he completes the rest of the prayer. You have catch the Imam in testification as this is the final pillar of prayer. If he catches after this then he needs to repeat pray four units and if he catches the testification then he prays two. 33 Imam Tahawi said the first call is innovation so he said it should be the second but Fatawa Hindiyyah states the first. 34 This is the response for this Quranic passage, “Allah and his angels send blessing upon the Prophet; O’ you who believe send you blessings and invocations.” The clans 33:56. 35 It is disliked for it to be recited out aloud.
To whom is the prayer of Eid necessary? The Eid prayer is necessary upon all those who pray Jummah.
What are the desired acts of the eid prayers? It is desired on the day of Eid for people to eid before the Eid prayer. For sacrificial eid or after. He washes, applies perfume, wears his best clothes then heads for prayer and he does not magnify aloud. On the sacrificial eid he does magnify aloud all the way there.
Description of the sacrificial eid prayer The sacrificial eid prayer is the same as the Ramadan eid prayer.36
Hasting the sacrificial eid prayer and delaying the Ramadan eid prayer It is desired to make haste to prayer the sacrificial eid prayer and to delay the Ramadan prayer.
Innovation about the day of Arafat Stopping on the day of Arafat in one place to make it seem that they are the people of Arafat is innovation.
Beginning and finishing magnifications The magnifications of Tashriq are after fajr on the day of Arafat and the last is on Asr of the 13th day.
Description of magnifications
The opening magnification, three magnifications, raising the hands – for the first unit and for the second three magnifications before the bowing.
Allah Akbar, Allah Akbar, La ilaha il-lullah, wallah akbar, wa lillah alhamd. To be said once after the obligatory prayers.
To whom is it necessary to make magnifications? It is necessary for every resident present in congregational prayer and no other.37
When to do magnifications of Tashriq There are no magnifications after Witr and Eid prayer. Magnifications are performed after congregation and if the imam does not do it then the followers magnify. It is also desired to use different ways to the eid prayer.38
The traveller’s prayer The dispensation of the traveller The traveller has a dispensation whether obedient or disobedient; for three days travel on a mount or on foot.39
Shortening the prayer The obligatory four unit prayer of the traveller becomes two units. If he prays four units, reads in the first two, sits in the second the length of the testification then the first two are considered the obligatory and whatever he prays after that is supererogatory; if he does not sit then the prayer is broken.
Can be done at home or other places but not aloud or necessary, in other than a masjid. When going there and coming back. 39 The distance that a person can shorten their prayers is eighty eight kilometres or about fifty five miles. The above is distance that could be covered during this time.
When is he considered a traveller? He shortens the prayer when he leaves the last building of his area (and remains a traveller) until he returns to it.
When does the traveller not shorten? If he intends to reside in a city or village more than fifteen days but not in the desert.40 If he enters a city and does not intend for more than fifteen days because his need to be there is extended he shortens. This is not valid intention for military personnel who are fighting disbelievers or rebels; opposite the constantly moving tribes. The following traveller completes when he is resident.
The leadership of the traveller over the resident If the traveller leads with those resident by two units and finishes with the greeting; they say, “Complete your prayer we are travellers.” They stand and complete the prayer without recitation.
The homeland changes by residency Whoever changes his homeland into another homeland then goes back shortens the prayer.
Missed prayers on the journey and stationary Missed prayers in a stationary place are repeated as four units and missed prayers on the journey are repeated as two units. This is confirmed by the last part of the prayer time.
There are three homelands or Watns. Original home/Watn Al-Asali – where a person has family. Residing home which is somewhere that someone intends to stay more than fifteen days. Living place/Watan Al-Sukana which is somewhere someone intends to live for less than fifteen days.
When does a traveller become resident or the opposite The traveller become resident with a firm intention and the resident does not become a traveller except if he makes an intention to leave.
Travelling on the day of Jummah It is allowed the travel on the day of Jummah before the zenith of the sun or after.
A traveller becomes resident Whoever seems to return to the direction of his city and there is not between him and the city the length of shortening becomes a resident in principle; only when he is a traveller until he arrives to a city. Whoever follows him becomes a resident with the intention of following his leadership; if they knew.
The Ill Prayer of the excused Whoever is unable to pray standing sits then bows; he prostrates if he is not strong enough to bow and prostrate; he indicates and sits. The prostration must be lower than the bowing. He does not raise anything to his head. If he has no power to sit then he lays on his side and puts his legs (not straight) towards the prayer direction then indicates the bowing and prostration. If his is laid down then he faces it direction or on his back.41
Then indicates the prayer.
If he has no power to indicate with his head; he delays the prayer; and its necessity is not removed whilst he is conscious. He does not indicate with anything after the head. The ill person repeats the missed prayers, according to his ability; the ill person repeats the prayer when healthy.
Missed prayers The time of the missed prayer Whoever misses a prayer repeats it when they remember before the time of the obligatory prayer of that time; except if he fears that he miss the obligatory prayer of that time or will arrive at a time in which the prayer is disliked or if the missed prayer is more than six, old ones or new ones, he repeats them the six prayers according to the order missed.
Leaving the masjid after the call to prayer is made Whoever enters a masjid and makes the call to prayer there; it is disliked for him to leave before prayer except if he is Imam or caller (in other masjid) for another congregation. Or if he prays the obligatory prayer then leaves then begins (elsewhere) and then he can follow in the supererogatory prayers in Zuhur and Isha then leave the remainder.
Two units of fajr when establishing prayer If a man and Imam come to Fajr prayer and they fear missing one unit with the Imam, they pray outside the masjid then join the congregation. If they fear missing the two units then they leave the Sunna; joins the congregation and does not repeat.42
Repeating the Sunnas of Zuhur
He does not repeat the two missed Sunna prayers after he has prayed the obligatory.
The Sunnas if left for two reasons43 are repeated in order of superiority.44
Attaining the reward of the congregation Whoever achieves one unit with the Imam attains the reward of the congregation.
Attaining the unit Whoever enters the prayer whilst the Imam is bowing, pronounces the magnification, pauses until the Imam raises his head does not attain that unit. If he joins when standing and does not bow until the Imam raises his head then bows, he joins then. If he bows before the Imam and joins the Imam during it then it is valid.
The description of the late comer missed prayer The late comer repeats what he has missed when the Imam finished, with recitation. If he recites with the Imam and he makes Qanut then he does not repeat Qanut. If he joins the Imam in the third unit of Maghrib then he repeats the first two with sittings.
Description of the repeat part of the prayer of the latecomer The late comer is not repeating the first part of the prayer by ruling. He joins the prayer then makes the testification with the imam and does not make the supplication.45
If someone finds the Imam about to lead the congregation or the prayer has already begin. Emphasised Sunna and then Non-Emphasised Sunna. 45 After the Imam gives the greeting on both sides then stands and prays what he has missed.
It is necessary to make two prostrations with a necessary action is left or delayed or a pillar is delayed or something extra of the prayer is added.47 Forgetful prostration concerning the Imam and the follower It is necessary for the follower to do the forgetful prostration when the Imam does it. If the imam does not do then the follower does not. The forgetful prostration of the follower does not make it necessary for the Imam.
Forgetful prostration with the first testification Whoever forgets the first sitting and testification then remembers moves to the nearest position.48 If he can sit then there is no prostrations necessary. If he is closer to standing then he does not sit and performs the two prostrations.
Forgetful prostrations during the second sitting Whoever forgets the last sitting sits back as long as he has not prostrated for the fifth unit then he performs the forgetful prostrations; if he prostrates for the fifth unit then the obligatory prayer becomes supererogatory then he adds a sixth unit to it. It is valid if he does not add. If he sits in the fourth unit then standing thinking, and he does greet, that he is in the first sitting; he returns as long as he has not prostrated for the fifth unit and performs the forgetful prostrations. If he prostrates for the fifth unit, he adds a sixth it completes the obligatory and the two are supererogatory without being a substitute for the Sunnas of Zuhur; then performs the prostrations.
This is two prostrations done in the last sitting of the prayer after the testification then the testification is repeated then the prayer finished. So he greets on one side, according to the sound opinion, then prostrated then repeats the testification and continues until he finishes. If the prayer is finished then he does two prostrations and finishes. 47 There are five instances when the forgetful prostration should be done in relation to leaving a necessary action: 1. Leaving a necessary action, 2. Repeating a necessary action, 3. Preceding a necessary action, 4. Delaying a necessary action and 5. Change a necessary action. If he leaves out a necessary action on purpose then he has to repeat the prayer in its time. 48 As long as his knees are on the floor then he is considered as sitting but as soon as his knees have lifted from the ground his is considered as standing. Qulubgha from Qadi Khan
Whoever greets wanting the leave prayer has to perform the prostrations; he does not leave it and performs the prostrations.
Doubt in the number of units Whoever doubts that he has prayed three or four units; if this is the first time this has happened he restarts the prayer with greeting; it is the first speech and this is the source of the intention. If doubt appears to him frequently then he goes for the highest unit number he thinks; if he has no opinion then he takes the least number and he sits until he is sure that he has completed the prayer.
The recitation prostrations49 They are fourteen known prostrations; the first is the passage called the Pilgrimage and another is in the passage Saad.50
Ruling of the prostrations It is necessary for the reciter and the hearer; it is necessary to perform once in a lifetime. It is not necessary on those who prayer is not necessary.51 It is not made up like those who have periods, post partum bleeding, children, insane and disbelievers. It is necessary for those who hear it. If it is heard from a parrot or a sleeper then it was said that it is not necessary. It is necessary for the hearer of the sleeper. If the follower recites behind the imam then does not prostrate as he in prayer and the prostrations cannot be made up after the prayer.
Recitation is part of prayer and is a pillar. ?? 51 The insane for example.
Whoever read a passage of prostration and does not prostate until the prayer, in one gathering, then performs both are completed. Even if the first prostration was before the prostration for the prayer in it. When is it considered one gathering and a passage is repeated, there are differences to the meaning of one gathering, the differences about the gatherings is not about standing but about one or two steps and one or two morsels.52
Prostration whilst on a boat and riding The travelling in boat is like a house;53 if he is on mount then it is better to move. If they are praying one prayer then they join and if they cannot then they pray separately. When reciting on a mount he does it by indication.
The description of the recitation prostration This is like the prostration of the prayer except there is no testification or greeting.
Deceased Condition of the nearly deceased The one about to pass away is turned towards the prayer direction on the right side.54 The testification of faith is mentioned near him but he is not ordered to do it. Prayer upon the deceased When someone dies they are washed then covered, prayed over and if he is not prayed over then he prayed for at his grave as long as the body has not disintegrated. If a baby dies shortly after birth, showing signs of
Three steps is one gathering. Anis Ibn Malik (may Allah bestow on him mercy) prayed on a ship seated. 54 If they are in great pain then it is better to leave them alone.
life, then it is washed and prayed over. If there are no signs it is wrapped in a cloth and not prayed over. Rebels and highway robbers are not prayed over.
Following the funeral procession Following the funeral procession is a virtue; he stays silent and it is disliked to raise his voice with invocation. If they praying at the grave then it is disliked to sit before removing the deceased from the shoulders.
Placing the deceased in the grave A grave is dug called Lahd. The deceased is brought in from the prayer direction side and placed on the right side facing the prayer direction. It is disliked to build on a grave. One person can be buried in one grave except in extreme cases. Placing women in a coffin is better.
The Martyr A martyr is any Muslim who is killed by a disbeliever or an oppressive Muslim ruler; he also has no debts. He is not washed unless he was killed in major ritual impurity or he is a child. The blood is not washed off and his clothes are not removed. Everything is removed from him except that which can be considered as a burial shroud; his shroud is completed and he is prayed over.
When is the deceased washed? All the wounded who drink, sleep, given treatment, or placed in under a roof or removed from the battlefield alive in fear of being trampled by
horses, or the time of prayer will elapse and he will live to realise, or make a will of a worldly issue is washed.
We pray that Allah accepts this translation, forgives our families, teachers and all the Muslims. May endless and countless blessings be showered upon the final Messenger (may Allah bestow upon him peace and blessings), always and forever, upon his family, the Awilyah and all the Prophets and Messengers. This translation was completed sometime in 1432/2011 by Arfan shah (Straight Translations and Sheikhy notes).
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