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THE

SIDDHANTA DEEPIKA
OR

THE LIGHT OF TRUTH

i
'!P-AGAMIC R E V I E W - t s r
A Monthly Journal devoted to the Search for Truth as revealed in the Ancient Hindu Mystic Philosophy known as the Saiva Siddhanta or Agamanta

T H E

LIGHT OF TRUTH
SIDDHANTA DIPIKA
AND

VOL. XIV

M A D R A S , J U L Y , 19/3.

No.

I.

TAMIL CLASSICS and TAMILAGM. By S. S. BHARATHJ, M,A.,B.L. W O R D 'Tamils' is used throuf^liout this p as a generic name for the people in South J or elsewhere, whose vernacular is Tamil any one of its dialects. I'he term ' l amil short, handy and expressive, and lias been i as a significant name by such eminent schc as Dr. Hodgson and Mr. Reinhold Rost. an appropriate name for the family of lat ages, hitherto called Turanian or Dravidian, as Tamil language is ' the oldest, rici est, and most hi^ organized ' t of them all, and, 'in its poctic form, n lished and exact than the Greek and more copious than the Latin.'J ise of 'Turanian ' is objectionable as the Tamilian race bears, according he most recent ethnologists, no resemblance to the Turanian peoples ;
This is the Thesis submitted for the M. A. Degree Exanniiation of tlie Ma
iDiversity. E4. S. D.

j- Dr. Caldwell's Comparative Dravidian C/uiuinut. Winslow's Dictionary, Prefacc.

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THE LIGHT

01'

TRUTH

Dravidian ' is not a proper word to use, for the Tamils were even in ancient times a civilised race, " the Greeks or Scots of the East,"* and are spoken of as such in Sanskrit writings, f and Sanskrit Scholars have denoted by it only the barbarians of the unexplored tracts of Central India. Dr. Oppert ^ would prefer the name ' Bharatas ' but it is nowhere used to denote the particular race that we are concerned with here. Mr. Kanagasabai Pi]lai calls ' T a m i l * and ' T a m i l s ' b y their right names, though his de'-ivation of them from Tamlitti (Sanskrit, Tamralipli, now l^amluk), once a great emporium of trade at the mouth of the Ganges, needs confirmation from the ancient Tamil classics. A s regards the original home of the Tamils or Tamilians, various theories have been proposed, of which but four calim respectable parentage and deserve consideration. The Scythian Theory, ably expounded by Dr. Caldwell, B has neither a philological nor an ethnological basis. T h e learned Bishop has, on a compaiison of the grammars (the cerebral letters in chief) and vocabularies of the Scythian and Tamilia languages, rushed to the conc' asion of a lelationship between thtm. T h a t the non-Aryan immigrants into India through the north-western passes had a Central Asian Home with the A r y a n s and were driven to the south by the later A r y a n inv.ader5 of India was the first and oldest theory that had a host ol Western supporters. Recent investigations go to prove that there are marked mental and physical differences between tlie two races and that the 1 amilians are more of the Caucasian or Indo European type than of any other.li Reinhold Rost, quoting Macleane, s a y s that the classification of tlie Tamilians as Turano Scythians is ' rejected by all the leading ethnolo* C.

D. G. p. 5.

t l^audhayana Ramayaiiam, VII, xiii, 12.

; Original Inhabitauis of India.


^ 'fhc Taiv.Hs : Erghticn Hundred Years Ago, p. 46. C./). G. pp. 34, 37, 42-3etc. l'..C. Ma/vi!r.dar,"The Diavidians," in the Mtdcri: liftiaj Icr July .-yia

TAMIL

CLASSICS

AND TAMILAKAM

gists'*. Prof. Julien Virtsonf condemns the theory as an " absurd and inadmissible hypoihesis". Mr. C. E. C o v e r examines the list of Dravidian words furnished by the revered auihor of the

Comparative Dravidian Grammar to be of Scythic o'igin, and


says that every word in the list is distinctly Aryan, as shown in Fick's Itido-Gtrmanochen Grundsprache and ar.ds that the Tiimilians 'are deserving of and entitled to the honour of omission from the Turanian family The truth of this observation becomes self evident when the Turanians who, according to Mr. Farraf, " a r e for the most part a people without a literature and without a history" J are placed side by side with the Tamils who owned fortifications ; had an organized political administration, built grand temples for divine worship, knew agriculture, cultivated astronom}', practised the arts of meti.llic work, weaving and dyeing, H and possessed a language remark' able for its polish, forcef and brevity of expression $ and a literature characterized by its devotional songs as well as by it philosophical and ethical wisdom. The next theory worthy of consideration is the Mongol Txbttan, whose' sponsor is M r Kanagasabai Pillai, and whose putative parents are Mr. Fergusson, Sir W. W. Hunter, and Mr. Marshman. This theory too is condemned by Ethnology and Ucks philologic?l support. That the Mongol.an blood runs in the veins of the Tamilians is said to be due to the domiciled Mongols in Bengal, the flat-nosed squatters wrongly identified with tne amiable Yakshas, who had come through the northeastern Himalayan passes as invaders of South India at different times by the sea from the once famous port ofTamlitti. O n r modern ethnologists have shown that the Tamilians are of

* Btcyclefadta Br.tannica, Vol. xxiii, p. t The SMkania Difila, Vol. v, p. 193. x Fazrar's Fanithes of Sfeeclus' p. 155.
$ C . ' D . G. 78.

41.

like Tam.ls: Eighteen Huidtea Years


H Catalogue Riaonne of Oriental Mss. Vol. p. Rev. P. Percival's The Lan4 of the Vtd^.

Chap. ii.

iS

THE LIGHT

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TRUTH

th.- Caucasian type in feature, form, contour and characteristics. Mr. Marshman in his History of India merely refers to the help rendered by the Chinese to the men of India. Mr. Fergusson,* of Indian architectural fame, points out the resemblance between the Mewars of Nepaul and the Nairs of Malabar in respect of their arc hitecture and sociology, but does not hazard any Kthnic theory. Speaking of the Tibeto-Burman tribes, Sir W . W . Hunter says, " t h e y had dwelt in Central Asia side by side with the forefatlicrs of the Mongolians and the Chinese".! The philological support for the theory rests on quicksands. T h e occurrence of the letters in the Tamil and Tibeto-mongolian languages, the euphonic resemblance between Tamil ar.d Tamlitti, and the likeness of clan'names (e g, the Kerala ' vanav a r ' and the Chinese ' celesiials')these are relied on for estabhsliing a Tibeto-Mongolian kinship for the Tamils. If will drive l amil off its Indian home, whither will English fly for keeping i t s Z V a n d occur in Sanskrit, and yet no philologer has made bcld to come forward with an ^ryanMongol theory ! A s regards the euphonic likeness in questioni^ it should be borne in mind that an etymology based merely on sound is always unsound. Among the ancient Chera kings were reputed Tamil authors, none of whom have even remotely hinted surh a kinship in their works. It is at present an inexplicable social phenomenon that the matriarchy of the Nairs has no trace of it among the "highly polished and refined " 1 amilians in spite of their contiguous existence for centuries together. It only leads us to infer that the Nairs must have been the waifs of some alien people that had drifted into t h j western coast of India and that they had nothing to do with the inhabitants of Tamilakam. The tliird is the new-fangled theory of Elamite origin for the Tamils, expounded in the ably conducted monthly' called the Siddanta Dipika ^ under the heading of The admixture ot the
* Hisfory cf h.diait Architccturc, p. 220. t Ei.ccyc: ByUauniia xv, p. 777. ; \ o L IV, pp. 1C4, 157, 21S, 241, C69 aiul Vol.V, pp. 72, 75.

TAMIL CLSSICS

AND

TAMILAKAM

A r y a n s al^d Tamilianb" According to it, India was originally occupied by two batches of Elaniite invaders, one taking the sea-roule by the Persian Gult and settling on the west coast of India and the other choosing the land-route throngii the Bolan pass and occupying North India. The theory is based on the puranic myths of the deluge and the Ark co.nmon to India and Elam, on the so-called " philological and sematoiogical identity of words " in Tamil and Accadian tongues, and on the fancied oneness of the Sanskrit in Mount Meru, Elmond of the Bible and Elam. It makes Manu a Chaldean viking, and Bharata an Elamite Chief. It makes tlie Aryans a later offshoot of the Tamilian or ' Elamite ' race, and the Aryan civilisation as a mere out-growth on the Tamilian! All these statements savour of the " MacedonMonmouth " analogy and are the offsprings of Christian zeal and earnestness carried to an extreme, l liey find no support or contirmation in an^' of the Tamilian classics. The theory is after all an ingenious variant of that of the Central Asian Home, and {^ives the Tainiiians a Mesopotainian abode in the hoary pa^t. Mr, V. J. Tamby Pillai * falls in with his friend, and buttresses his friend's hypothesis with references to the building structure, domestic as well as sacred (Sivite temples) in Madura and E g y p t or Jerusalem, to the lunar and solar dynasties found in E g y p t and Indi^, to the images of kurampasu (risliaba !) in the temples af Nineveh and South India, and to the supposed identity df Siva (Cr.iva) and Javeh of Chalde.i. These buttresses, cracked as most of them are, serve no purpose, inasmuch as the whole building is raised or; the shifting quicksands of fancied likenesses and imaginary myths. The Indo-Ajrican-Austral origin of the. Tamils has its supporters in Mr. Crooks, Mr. Keane, and Mr. Morris, wha worked up the fluid suggestion of Mr. Macleane's in the

Manual cf th^ administration of the Madr\is Presidency that


if the Taiv.i.ians had moved from outside India at all, it may, more reasonably be conjectured that they came from the South

"''^The

."^.JdU U n^i'M, Vol V, p. 30.

THE Lie in

or

ja'iit//

or Ea^t" Geological research has shown that the Indian ocean was once a continent and that the"siibmerged continent, sometimes called Lemuria, touched China, Africa, Australia, and Comorin on its four sides. This fact will only argue the vast extent of the ancient Tamilian country and account for certain linguistic and other likenesses now observed by such Western scholars as Mr. Curzon * and Prof. Simon in India, Africa, Aiistralia, and elsewhere. It cannot help to dogmatise that the Tamils came from any of these now far-off continents and Settled in South India. The truth may rather lie the other way. f l a v i n g briefly referred to the four current theories propounded by the Scholars of the West and the East about the Original home of the Tamilians being somewhere^ else thjn in India, and having pointed out how all of them have run more cr less in one groove and turned on one fixed idea o f a i o r e i i i n home, I turn to what I propo-ie lo call the Indigenous theor}' an 1 shall discuss it at sonit: length. According to this theory, the Tamils were not Aliens, but arc the "Indigene" whom no yEneasofthe Eastern Aryans cculd either vanquish or dislodge. The peopling of Tami'.akam with this chosen tribe transcends all history, all legends within the memory of man. The first Aryan stranger, who swam south across the trackle-^s jungles, was dazzled with the splendour of the Royal Pandiyan Courts, and he was not too proud to seek shelter in the hospitable l a i n i l land that smiled to a sunny clime. History finds tlie Tamils in their present abode long before the Romans conquered E g y p t or Christ was bcrn in Bethlehem; before Porus met the Greek or Darius lost hi.s crown; before Plato wrote his Dialogues and Solomon made his songs. Inhhort the Tamil people believe (and tradition supports their belief) that from tbe S t a n 6{ their existence they lived and thrived in the land watered by the P i l a r on the north and the sea-swallowed f^ahruli on the South. When European savants came to make investigations into
* Jo.:y..al of tin Royal Asiai.c Soc::ty, Vol. xvi.

TA\tlL

CLASSICS

AND TAMILAKAM

the origin of the West Aryan folk, they found Asia to have been their original home, and the Chrislian Cosn-ogony, with its story of Paradise and the First Parents in Eden, reinforced it. The discovery of Sinskrit as a member of the Indo-European family of languages made them believe that ever3' civilised nation on the face of the earth must be A r y a n s and must have come from the " great seed-plot of nations." For a long time this notion had possesed the minds of the most acute and critical minds of the West till assiduous ethnology and sociology hit upon certain non-Aryan races marked out by a high degree of civilisation and possessing highly developed literatures. Yet the fetish once entertained neither tolerated scepticism nor brooked scrutiny. Apart from this tdoiutth the Western men of research in general were utter strangers to the rii.ii resources of the Oriental non-Aryan literatures. The inw'U rate habit of assuming certain h^'polheses, and then going ttljoLit for facts and materials to prove them, dies a hard death, l lu |Liblicalion cf the ancient Tamil classics a few years a g o opi ncd the eyes of J amil Scholars like Dr. Pope to the fact that the hi^lori m of South India cannot ignore the rich mine of the cias>ic<tl Tamil literature if his history should be worth anything. I hat mine 1 shall stril;e to see if its contents will shed any lii^ht on the Inciigcnoua theory 1 have proposed to examine litre. Dr. Caldwell concedes, '-there is no proof nor is there even a tradition among the Dravidians that they had ever occupied the North of India." The italic is mine. If it is true, which 1 take it to be, and if the earliest records of all nations are preserved in their national poetry, the early Tamil poems must be counted on for sources of reliabl: imfoimation about the Original abode of the Tamils in the South and the extent of their civilisation. The dogmatic assertions of Drs. Burnell and Caldwell that 'i amil bo.tsted of no literature worth the name prior to the eighth o.' ninth century A.D., have been belied by the investigations made by Mr. Kanagasdbai Pillai and the Indian Epigra* C. I>. G. p 6 y - ]''r. l'>urnell's

So:Ah India i Pahrografhy.

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THE LIGHT

01'

TRUTH

pliisls, and Mr FiUai lias, from internal evicicncc corroborated by the statements of Plin3^ Strabo, Ptolemy, and tlie authors of the Periplus, shown conclusively that Ciiiiappadikaram dates from the first c e n t u r y A . D. Prof. Sundram Pillai, no mean scholar and critic of l a m i l literature, has come to a like conclusion, though on different lines, after an elaborate discussion of historical materials in his thoughtful and well-written paper on the Ten Tamil Idylls, t The antiquity of Tamil literature is, therefore, beyond question, and facts Iroin history bear it out. Apart from the oft-quoted allusions in the Sanskrit epics, there are less doubted and more authentic mateiials of the third and fourth century B.C., (in Patanjali's Mahabashya of the third, and in Katya^-ana of the Vaythika fame as well as in Asoka's inscriptions and Magasthenes' writings of the fourth century b. c.,) which refer to Pandiya's Capital and to his Tamil subje-ts m terms of eulogy. This squares exactly with the Tamil traditions about the po^t-diiuvian Pandiyan culture and civilization. I'he Ceylon histories like Mahavanso and Dipawanso also tell us that tne Maghadha ^ n e a s who led the first A r y a n Colony into Ceylon and founded the Lanka Dynasty sought the hands of a Paijdiyan Princess in the 6th century li. c. as worthy to be his " Dido ". Tholkdppiam and some at least of the [loems of Piirandniirn are older than these. It is a matter of common knowledge that the 2nd stanza of the latter " iOyo-v&y^&rrLji^aay -^suGond

So\fi^fisoiQittTeean Qujir^niji^i^jisau Qu(nf^CoJiT(Q LAIqujSIUI (Su^uiLinjS QAITli^Q^irL.^'


professes to have been composed by Mudinakarayar {(ipis^iftrK Btrun) a member of the first 1 amil Academy, in praise of his friend and patron Seraman Peruiichorru Uthiyan Cheralathan,
* 1 he lair.ih: Eighieen Hundred Years Ago. Cli;ip. i. t '1 he Aliidi'us Christ.a:: Ld'cgc Magazi:c, 1S90-1 ; icpiinted in the

Ttund.a i J liij Ai^y \'ol. v.

TA

r/.y}SS/rS

/JND TAMILAKAM

who livr>d af '' I' -'j ^ of the Mdhubiirata war, which, if true, should I;O IS ;,;R b , 1400 B C. T h a t this tradition about the Cheia King feeding the K a u r a v a armies in the great epic war is no new invention but was in v o g u e and believed in ev(-n about the (-arly Christian era is apparent from the folluwing lines of Chilappathikdram ^sa^Biir insaffih

Qpi^ifiQuirt'p juiaor Lc'Sev-'/j^, *

J0I '^un^near&fl^^Q^g^

Quirmip

I l u w c v e r this may be, there is more cogent reason to presume an a g e for some at least of the lyrics of/^//rar/ay/^rw far earlier than that of all the last Sangam works now cxtanl. It is a well-fbtablished custom with the early Tamil poets in their songs to wish tl^.eir kings more days of health and haui^ine.^s than the sands in liie bed> ot the chief rivers that glided by their capital towns, to wrt : (1) F o r C h o l a S < i n ^y-U^sr Ti'j.'sssrii^ii^.1, ui-y 'J^'

[Piiraiiani ru S i . 43.) (2) h ur CilclM ' ^ 'o w i w ^ CtdrsLir^. fi cOBty:^ Ci-Jl jl) > 3 1 u.eeBif {Ltiildp. x w i i i 126-12S.) (3) Ann vviicn we cohk; to the Pancl ^a king, we iind hi^ name coupled with that of the ri\ei- i'alinili ui a similar manne ;
"o/'&'vc^fr

^fr^LI, i^HL&l

^-'i.'vt.i.T-t

'jV.-i^ffLj uWLiji/Lj-foor AjV'A.'iCi.rA (j^ iir ^^ciS WoiTif.J Lffi-i 5f/fl_' L J JVS'f U.vQciJ.^' {/'l/f(I Hd II:. I II St. 9.) When we see tht'se lines stand addressed lo a king b^' a contemporary poet, it will bc far too gratuitous to presume that he should have requisitioned the name of an imaginary or nonexisting river in the case of this Paijdiyan king alone ; wl.iK- iu respect of the other two Tamil monarchs, poets h.ive had recoui >.; only to their respective living streams, it would be strange
* Lh:
2

.xxi.\

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THE LIGHT 01' TRUTH

to expect this poet to refer to the sands of^a dead river, rather than to those of the living Vaigai which has been associated by the later classical poets with the names cf the Pandyun monarchs, while his tuneful brethren attached to the other two Tamil Kings made use of the Kaviri and the Porunai for a like purpose. And the irresistable inference is that the stanza from Pur,ananTtru was composed by a poet, who had lived prior to the classic subsidence of the southern Tamil continent and while the river Pahruli was still watering the submerged southern Pandiyan provinces. That Pahru]i was the chief Pandiyan river,wiped off the Indian Map with a vast extent of Tamil territory, is borne testimony to not only by the great commentators, but also b}' the old poets of the Safigam era. W e learn from Adiyarkimallar who assures us that "<51(WOLJ.TI^J? (J6B7'0(OT)(75 anw^^ r-S/sjear^ {urT5muf.iva5r^i) O^sor

t^Qeor ^tDiflsQAnLL&ntiLjth * Sc again "j)/su0h- seShuoia QAffi.^r 6T'ii'Surr uirstari^njf^air p(T^susBr


eS/h iJffoBsrt^Ljr Qfin^anuiSiUth ^ismv^^

^suitisitlLQ^ Q^^i-iTofS (jfiiji^p^ WL-CoiAisv'^jJiiQiij L J o ^ o i r sif Qujoargra LDnpjBpc^tji ^trif Q i u ^ ^ Lcirjb^jrx^ LiQetri^Quj ern^.^p^dsneufsul^ih

^m^ ^iTjbu^Q^tT'irujp
QsneBarQt-rT^^6\^iTs\)" etc.

/S/TSLD

(^Lorfl Qa.neo^ u^Li>?e\iisirSu:,


^rr^u) si-.^

sn(Sii>, !B^iLji}>, u^iLji}-, ^iinii^LLifl euiOu0:Ej

t Nachinarkiniyar also tells us u'Zanrr.nil.QL-tr'ii X which receives corroboration from Ilampurugar, who urges

Qsn/^su^ar (Jpcttl/ LSprstrShx, e. 6 r o r 5 r o L o u i ? ^ Qpp^ua er^'Sev s^puuiLi


and from the lines of Nilakandanar who simply revises and edits Nakkirar's gloss upon the that " .^yia^o-v^^u

^ua^Vii) unemt^iur^nLLsiDL^s * Chilitf>. p. 265.

||

f Chlhip. p. iij7 198. 1 lulu{-apfia-t:, l-'oru] AthilvLiran!, p. btKj. ^ 1 hol.u'ip/iam, Ilainpui unar a LIullLililaituii;, p 4, liaiyLin-Lr A'^aHom] p.

TAMIL

CLASSICS

AND
Kalittogai.

TAMILAKAM

ii

W e have it also in the

(^ftjl^i^c'jT uiRvni_60 Gai^rraie^^r

QmeSiSar^ QiDpQs'^jDi QiDsuiririBa i^iuiut'i> i^eSQusirSi aSeaet^dSu ujsifiQun/S^^ fiarirOAcneni.


aisSuSfg^ o/eeardQu G^iresraiir

GiDaeo^S'iioif |Eilt_if.Cujii(S G^ftAfiiu

meoeSsr^ 0Biuir

"

T o g o back to our subject. T h e author of Chilappathikaram also refers to this Tamil tradition of the subsidence of land in the south along with the river Pahruli, and s a y s that the submerged land w a s a Tamil country. ^ijSjfianniu^^^^eiirLim-t^iiai" (Kathai VIII, lines 1-2, p. 194.) A n d again,

< < oiUf.Qai'^eofiif^ osnAueaaQutir^^ (giDifld Qsirarior


(Kathai xi, lines 18 to 22 p. 257). T h e gloss of A(^iyarkunallar on these lines makes the matter still more clear. He says, ^iitmearuin@>u ^ ^

Qfiii, trsirgpiuSl^pmp ^ipi^ie nil impairs ^eami^Qjsevtaraiear (Cht/afi.


p. 265266 ) T h i s shows that the tradition embalmed in the
* Mullai, Kali Stan. 104, p. 32?. Mr. Kanagasabai Pijlaihas taken only the portion '^Q^erarsuear miLi @/a.Ouff Q^tr^A^j meoeStar^fiiTujir," and trie^, to fit it in with his Tibetan hypothesis of the Tamil origin. He argues from this that the A y a r race should have come with the Papdiyas from the North, and attempts to dra v a connection for these Ayars of the South and the wild Ahirs of the northern India. He has quietly slurred over the inconvenient lines that open this stanza ; and the reason is not far to seek. They militate against his fond Mongolian theory ; for they directly support the Tamil tradition of the subsidence of the laud and the advent of these Ayars with their ki^g Pafl^iya from this submerged southern land.]

12

THE

LIGHl

OF

mUTH

Kali stanza quoted about the Pandiyan encroachment on the Chera and Chola territories after the loss of his southern provinces, was known to and believed in by all Tamil writers since the 3rd Sangam or the Augustan A g e of Tamil Literature. Thus it will be clear that some at least of the lyrics oi Purananuru, (like the one quoted, with a direct reference to Pahrut as a living river) should have been composed some time prior to the subsidence of the southern continent, and that some centuries should have again intervened between this submersion and the 3rd Sangam age for this story of the deluge to have crystalised itself into a tradition in their poems. If the first century of the Christian PIra be taken as the latest date of this 3rd Tamil Academy at Madura, it will not be far wrong if the earlier songs in Fitranaiuiyit are assigned to at least the 6th or /th century B.C. W e have also grounds to believe that Tholkappiyam should be as old, if not older. Kvery Tamil student is aware of the unbroken tradition that Tliolhappiyani is. of the first Sangam age, and was- one of tlie standard authorities on grammar for the second and third Tamil boards. If the tradition were worth anything, tiiis orthodox Tamil grammar should have been in existence long prior to the diluvial catastrophe that swallowed up Kapadapuram, the seat of tht; second Academy. Valm'iki also speaks of this lost city in his Iliad, as the fortilied seat of the Pandiyan Court, south of the river Trmibraparani, which Hanuman might have come across in his southward expedition in quest of SUa.* A s neither Madura nor the river Vaigai was of any importance in his time, the Aryan Homer evidently took no notice of them in his topography of the Tamil country. Valmiki is now believed by the European and Indian scholars alike to have flourished, at the latest, about the 6th century B.C. According to the tradition, Jholkappiyam was composed before the Pan(?iyan kings had moved their court to Kapadapuram ; and if this were
Kishkindaka^qain, 41 sarga, 19th sloka.

TAMIL

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AND

TAMILAKAM

13

true, we should take it at least some two centuries back. T h e fact that fewer A r y a n words are to be found in it than even in the extan^ Sangam writings, is another circumstance to find in favour of its great antiquity. Again, it is a known fact that in Tholkappiyar's a g e the Tamil writers were sufficiently conversant with Sanskrit and its literature. Tholkappiyar himself is believed on all hands to have been a Tamilised Aryan. Yet, we find his collegiate friend, who writes the preface to his classic grammar referring only to A'indhiram and not to Paniniyam as the source of Tholkappiyar s inspiration. Had Pacini's masterpiece been in existence at the time, it is impossible to explain how it could have been ignored by the great Tamil Aristotle or why it should have been less known in the South, than the less stuoied and less used Aindhiram. The only reasonable inference is that Tholkappi) ar liad wi itlcn his great treatise long before Pilnini wa^ born to cnricli the Aryiiti tongue wilh his grammar. And as-Panini's age has been fixed about the 4th century B.C , Tholkiippiyani MU^T have been written three cr four centuries prior to it. I concede that all thtse pieces of circumstantial e\ idence t^iken individually may not be enough warrant to give thia great age [or Tholkdppiyam. but I feel persuaded that it is hardly possible to escape the conviction forceci upon us by the cumulative effect of all the.%c links taken together, liut fortunately this is not all the pioof available on this issue. There 15 strong internal evidence in the great grammar itself, which irresistibly shifts its age back some centuries befoce that of ihe poems collected by the last Tamil board in Madura. Books like Pathirnipattu reveal their old age on their very face. That all the gems in these collections are not of the third Sangam age is beyond question. T h e y bear marks of having been carefully gathered and anxiously garnered in the course of some long decades by those master critics whose erudition and taste have won for their learned conclave an imperishable niche in the temple of iluTamil Muses. It is a matter of fact of history that tlii.^ Ki-^t Royal Academy had spent all its palmy diiys lon;^ b;.forL

T 4

the

LC.m

OF

7RUTH

Jesus was born, and their evening w a s almost sinking into dirkness at the end of the first century A.D. T h e earliest of these writings must, therefore, have been some three or four centuries before the gloom of night threw its pall on the tomb of the famous Madura Board. Nevertheless one comes across a host of words imbedded in these old poems, which would be guilty of a serious breach of the rules laid down in the illustrious code of the great grammarian. T o cite but a few illustrations {vom Tholkiippiyam, Lluttathikaram : " .^ajiS^iruiftty i) jy, S , Qp^jpicH'iEisemtQiu." 2g). " QpsifiiSiT (^sirg^^ifluj/' ( o ^ 31). '' ^i^Coa/ffL-ebsv^ iwE 32). If these rules of grammar had been made about the time of the early Simgam writings many of which are not available, they should have been strictly observed in them. But we find the contrary as a matter cf kict. The follcvvirg words, picked at random from tlie early Sangam poems, militate against the abov(^ rules. {(S/ti/ap. p. 31). fdiiirL.; {MathuraiL'ka^iChi, line 172). ^.^ssji [Miirukurruppadai, line 225). (Do.) fLDih (Do. line 99). {Mathuraikkcuichi 112). ssaiLu). {Perumpan. 217 and Pathirni. 84). [Malai. 39 j). iC/lUlti'i. 40). (Do. snis, 55). ,gLD59 (Pujananuru 74 and Patlaiiappalai 140). ^Uisar (Do. 6). (Do. 93). {Pathirrupattu. 30, Muritkarrup. 120). aja>r,T {Pathirru. 2nd ^'^dimal. 1. l o i ; Mullai. ^ULb [Pufajn. 15, 224, Pathirru. 67, Mafhnrai. 27}. [MiinikarrK. 302).

I. 61).

JAMIL

CLSSfCS

AND

TAMILAKAM

15

Even ?mong these '.vriting^s violations of this kind are less

frequent in PurananUru, AiftkurunUru, and Pathirruppattu


than in the comparatively later works like Pattuppa\lu and

Chilappathikaram., Manimekalai, one of the latest works of the


iige, errs most in this direction, as will be apparent to any one who takes a dip into it. Now if Tholkappiyar had lived at or about the time of these works, he could not have made rules to outcast these and similar words enshrined in them. A s he should have deduced his principles from the standard literary works held in honour in his time, he should have made provisions for the same in harmony with the tendencies of his time asd not traversed the sanction of Jhe great masters of literature. He could not, therefore, have lived anywhere near ihe third Sangam period, and much less after it. His book should have ruled the roast, only at a far anterior age of Tamil literature. For, words are not smuggled into a language in the teeth of its grammar in a single s(ason and in cartrucks and wagon loads. These prosci ibt d woi ds should have crept in by straltb, and must have lingered long in the shade before they could freely and openly mingle with their innocent fellows : and it should have taken them longer^till 10 muster into a colony sufficiently strong to extort for themselves a general amnesty, and to attract the notk:e of literary authorities to revise their systems of laws in order to make room for them. In this connection we have it in Naiciicliinarkiniyar, that

"^u.LS., -f-oBJic, asjr.ii^ ' ^nuiisrQ^ir rhj.^jf ^ f:o'n ^LDtf nSB>B siSsr^Q^' a y L T , B f f ^ i ? < '
sneevs. gjewa; ^'^rf: jn (Tholkappiyar) ^Q^fniP, S a y s he again in another place,

sjii^eufjt
. ^ian^yji

creora^ii), (^uSsar ersera^'j) Seif/D ^'etoeu


aiiraSeBT.',

TOTJ+^wia/rn^, ^id^iretif^s

^ g y a - ^infiujir (Tholkappiyar) ^ ^

evnaS^ir,

ijs^ fi irir -f irsus^ eSi^.v^iHouuS/!) uucli^s^d, Qfitraos

* Thoi. Choi. p. 273.


t Iho!. Poiul- Cheyyul. p. 637.

iS

THE

LIGHT

01'

TRUTH

The other grosser, Chenavarayar, says to the same purpose "ftLi^, ^LOjfiULi asir Q^rrearsv Q^ifuLdi^iii^ear aiiruSear, Qp^e\)if,it sear aipfixr Item eSeo4siT0irr!iftiu&. ^^^^iaoat iSpAtr wfifi Q^nAfB-u Qftr&iQeoiuK^KDvru^" ^fiufTu, Lf^iLiear uifiiuear Qs(Sajetsrafij) S-orQenara. ^iBM! jftfiKeor, Hffinmr, Qfi^etSujesrafd, Ljetwri^ Qjdsteo^fi ojifiisjsir^earafu/iru:).* The commentatv)r, IlampQranar, on the other hand, betraj-s his inability to appreciate these changes, which time had brought slowly even into Tamil literature. He always makes a pious attempt to reconcile these rust-worn rules in Tholkdppiyam with the usages in the later literature. And whenever foiled by the inveterate refusal of some recalcitrant words to be forced into harmony, he brands them straightaway with all the force his orthodox faith in the inviolability of Tholkappiyam rules could summon to his aid. Says he, p^^-ioiMsueBi^ sus^i ajQ^iMir^iovseflek^ ^wau ^^Sf^dQ'i.esij;// iLgiidi," 'jjsueain' *aeir (lyp Quai3\)aiS, aScvdSeatsi^u] ^^au ^ em/sQeL^^ m^si.*' (Thol. Eluttu. p. 18.) And he quietly lays unction to his soul, and feels satisfied that he had disposed of all the usages which had crept into the later literature, and vthith refused to be forced into accord with the rules of grammar of a literally ante-diluvian period. The inadequacy of his easy explanations will be patent to all who go over the rules Tholkappiyar himself had deliberately made with reference lo the possible Sanskrit accretions to the Tamil vocabulary. iTQ^^Q^aS Ljaariii^ Otf trJuevTi^Ceu}," and " ^aaiuis^earsuaagnjirn." | Ilampuraoar could not thus take shelter under the phrase and pretend that Tholkappiyar did not contemplate the assimilation of Sanskrit words like ^luoieaa* into l a m i l literature, nor avoid the difficulty by saying his rules, * Tliot. Choi. Cheniivarayan p. 246.
I ThoL Choi. Eclichaviyal. Sutrams 5 and 6.

JA MIL CLASSICS

AND TAMILAKAM

17

meant only for pure T miu I, would not rnilitatc against the use of the A r y a n words in the Tamil language. Tholkappiyar has used Sanskrit words himself, though stintingly, in his great treatise, and has made all provision for bringing more into Tamil, as far as his times c alled for. A number of non Sanskrit new words, are found in the later Safigam writings, which also do not square with particular rules of Tholkappiyam. Neither could Jlampuranar much improve his situation b^' plucking up courage enough to repudiate those usages in later poems that did not accord with all the Tliolkappiynm limitations, and to brush them off as 'jyyPaiyi N o rule of grammar could over-ride the honoured prerogatives of master-poets. T h e simple and natural truth is that Tholk a p p i y a r lived, and wrote his grammar, long prior to the Augustan A g e of the great Sangam bards; and the later usages that grew up since the d a y s of Tholkappi^'ar are not to be condemned for want ot harmony with his archaisms. L a n g u a g e like man, is organic ; and as long as ii preserves its vitality, it must continue to grow, and to change in its incessant g r o w t h ; for, change is of the essence of all life, even in the East. T h e cradle of the child, though be-jcArelled, should not cramp the g r o w i n g limbs of the boy. T o add but one moie instance. Tholkappiyar treats of prosody as a minor section of the Porul division, whereas by the third Sangam period, prosody has claimed enough importance to be co-ordinated with the threefold orthodox p.irts of grammar and to necessitate a new classification. In fact separate treatises came to be written on prosody alone, as Kakkaipadiniyam. It io, therefore, nothing wrong to assign Jholkappiyam to the 6th or 7th century B C. tentatively, with a chance of being shifted still farther back. And there is one other interesting circumstance about TholkS^ppiyain. It directly supports the tradition that there had been numerous literary writings, and more than one treatise on grammar, beforfc Tholkappiyar. For to make but a sing.e citation, his opening MUlr.in of C l i c y y u j i y j l cojicludcs with ih'.>se lines ;
3

18

ThlE LIGHT OF

TRUTH

These predicate the existence of numerous Tamii works furnishing him with the materials for the several parts of his grammar. This fact is also accentuated in the preface (uirjSs)ix>) to Tholkappiyam. ^vajfiana Munivar, the great leviathan of TamiUiterature, in commenting upon this payiram.also writes as

follows;"^uP^it-iP' OJ^^fiSswayii) Qs^djiLjofi^aira^ iLaainu ifi Quifliu Airffeaaifi^nCSenr, jtfOipjB^ aaareKaeuitSuj aq^^^goiAta (S,f-iTsu0SeSsesa(jfiii, QuaQ^efie^isoarQptjo ^struji^, Qfi^iBi^ (SD'uuQunQ^i^ 6-6001 (^tiiQuir0Ll(S, Sm^^QfipuJ.^ Q^ir ^jpix jreS^ar QiBirs@, jfi^eSpQii^ ^sosaeoBrij} QfeapaBU)Uuiis(^^ ^^^Qfin^^^^ Qfiu^^sar, [QfitrsosnuiSajeir).
The Tamils, therefore, should have made considerable progress before the 7th Century B.C. for them to develop a civilization, which is reflected to us in works like 1 holkdppiyam and PitrandttUru. Their civilization must thus be one of considerable antiquity. Even Dr. Caldwell, generally averse to admit any antiquity to the great Tamil writings, finds himself compeUed to say that " T h e civilization of the Tamil people together with the literary cultivation ox their language, coiumenced probably about the 6th or 7th Century B.C.* It remains to be seen what help this ancient Tamil civilization and the oldest extant Tamil classics can render in our search for the original Tamil home. There are no traditions, no indications, nor any hints in them, pointing to a home outside the Tamilakam. There are no passages in them that might be the remotest parallels of the R i g Vedic hymns or the Ionian legends, which unmistakably point to a pre-glacial foreign abode for the forefathers of the Aryan Tribes. These have Aryan idioms fossilised in their early vocabulary, words and phrases that betray themselves to be aliens to the countries iliey fondly loved and lived in these 2000 years and more. They indicate an atmosphere, a climate, a topography, a biology, or a mineralogy, that runs counter to wl at characterise their C D f o . p.

TAMIL

CLASSICS

AND

iAMlLAKAM

ig

European or Indian doiaiciles. T h e y silently beckon us to some primeval home for ie great nations, far off from the Sindhu and the Danube alike. And if any similar evidences about the T a m i l s can be found in their own l a n g u a g e and literature, there will be s.-m? justification for starting a search after their hidden l amil 'Chersonese' But as it is, the oldest Tamil works not merely lack such foreign indications, but are full of positive word-pictures of the blazing suu that burns, (Puram, S t . 6-43), the stalwart trees th^t shade, (AA/T 39-41-117 : AiukuruHuru, St. 189 and 219,)the ferocious or giant beasts that roam {Puram. 152, A W j . 38-43-46.)the bright plumed birds that fill, {Kalu 37-108. Puram. 13-50)in* the torrid Tamilian peninsula of the Indian continent. When there are words for d e w s and mist, there are none for snow or ice. T h e oldest Tamil classics speak Only of the vertical sun {Kali, 1 0 S 1 1 2 ) ; while they know nothing of the ' l o w sun that makes the colour,' which, according to all philologers, warmed the original A r y a n home of ice. Unlike the A r y a n idioms which have felicitous phrases for warmth, the earliest Tamil works always welcome coolness' e v e r y w h e r e ; and in alt conceptions of pleasure, comfort or luxury, they eschew everything that smacks of heat. There is nothing in Tamil to answer to the cold regions of the AsiJtic table lands, to the ice-bound polar plains, or to the vine growi'^g, fig-shadowed Chaldean regions. Animals like the elephant or the tiger {Puram. 151-152,103-9, Kali. 42-40)birds like the peacock or the parrot [Kali, DSAinkurutmru 260, 281, 290. Puram. 13-50)grains like ^Stw (Ttalicum panicum) and wij(5 (Paspalum frumentaceum) {Kali. 37-39; AiitkHrttHuru, 260, 207; 262, 263, 469 ; Puram 197, 215-392-34-28)and

trees like SatidaU Vengai (kino-tree) and Kongu {QAinh^) {Puram. 3, 58 ; Kali. 37 to 46 and 117). are characteristic of the
Tamil hills and plains, and not indigenous to any country outside India. The ancient Greece, the Hebrew Syria and even the oldest Babylonia echoed the fame of the Tamil India, and came to her for her teak?, and sandals, for her pearls and muslins, for her pe-icocks and pepper. T h e Pothia h^lls, in the

20

JtiL

LK.iri

oi-

TKrni

ghats which form ih.^ 'rami] Parna<^su5n are known to all the ancient Kuro|>ean nierchunls, as the home of all these Tamil rarities. Mr. Z. A. Ragozin writes, " Jn the ruins of Mugheir, the ancient Ur of Chaldea, built by Ur-ea, the first king of United Babylonia, who ruled not less than 3000 years B. C., was found a piece of Indian teak. This evidence is exceptionally conclusive ; because, as it happ'^ns, this particular tree is to be located with more th:in ordinary accuracy : it grows in southern India (DeccarO, whtre it idvances close to the Malabar coast, and nowhere else ; there is none to the north of the Vindhya." {redk India, p. 305). 'J'he oldest extant Tamil wt)rks describe thcr physical features of the semi-pastoral jH-ople and their life in Tamil India so accurately' and fondly that none can mistake their love for and their intimate acquaintance with the country ol tl^e patriot bards. The most antic|uc verse in Fnranamn ii has not even a faint trace of a colder clime, or of a foreign landscape. The Tamil continent is invariably divided by all the early p o d s into its five most natuial and real divisions (gs^fScar); and all the peculiarities and cnaracteristics in their features, temperatures, aniiT.al and vegetable life, in the habits and manners of the peoples arc pholograplied in their poems. The special features, idiosyncracies and peculiar genius of Tamil literature so much attracted the Aryan scholars and kings ; the almo.st primitive innocent ami natural morality- that characterised the Tamil people so far interested them, that they seriously set about Studying the Tamils and their country and their civilization so early as the last-sartgam-period. That Kapilar, a member of the Thicd Academy at Madura, composed, a wlioiept>em (r5/^'.^*LjuT/l^)toinstruci and acquaint the Aryan Prince, Brahadathaii, about the men and manners, and the fauna and flora of the Tamil land, is a matter of common knowledge. l he poem is still a storehouse of much interest to students v.^ho wouhl know anything .ibout the ancient Tamils. Further, th re is ni> mistaking in the truer and motr nvtiiral pre-Budilha Tamil poets, the consrious priilr ii> their mwlhcr eoLinlry Tiiolfiuypi^inn H^JCHT. -.vi'-lj the lines "

TAMIL

CLASSICS

AND

TAMILAKAM

21

jir n 6 v "

ChUappalhikdram

speaks of " aiansuLS^ ui^a.." * In Pathirrw pattn occurs " '^iB^Bi^wlas^^^-B^tM " f In prescribing the standard for Tamil usages, Tholkappiyar writes, " ayROTqs^ (yjoLff ^esarQun^so ^eaguiSm

infiQuajQtio'ieo^-B^^^n^ifiii^i}:,
luiruiSltkai^uj S^w-uj^gjir^oua'/f." J The Tamils always believed that from the outset they were the aboriginal inhabitants of the great territories bounded by the two seas on the east and west, by the Venkata hills on the north, and the submerged rivers Pahruli and Kuniari on the south.

(1) "

Q%-'Saj<sa>!r midr^ii; iQ^^gi suDnQun (^L^ir^^ QjSir^jfrjfiSff Qusircn/fj^ Sv /^L-^t^^ c." f

(2) " (3) " ajL^fi^f

a/i-Gu^js/iiV,
(^essr ^i'SL.'^^n

iMiA^i 1

OlcBiH iMQ^iSfT l-fSJBr r6nLLL^UJ6V ". > > !


It is interesting to note the difference in the southern boundary as given in these verses. Panamparaijar, who wrote tlie payiram to the Tholkapfiiyant, and Karikiiar and Kurun goliyQr Kilar, who m ide the Pnr-auatt:h rii songs just quoted, assigned the river Kumari for the southern boundary, as in their times the river was actually watering the southern Pandiyan territory; whereas the poets who camc after the
line 37. \ Pathikam for the and tens. X Thol. Porul. Sutiam 397. Puranuniifiu, st. 6. I I Pwananuju. si. 17. Chi/iik',ai/-ai1in:\'ar quoted by Sivajnana Munivar in his f'ayitavirihi, p. 3.

ArangexguUthai,

iS

THE LIGHT 01' TRUTH

dissolution of the second Tamil Academyj like Kakkaipadiniyar had to accept the Kuraari sea in its place, as a great deluge had reduced the Tamil land b}' swallowing up a large slice in the south and permanently altered the southern boundary of the Tamilakam before their times. The word " T a m i l " occurs in one and all the earliest l\iniil classics as the common or generic name for the people and their language in this part of India. The word seems to be as old as their language and there appears to be no more necessity to derive it from foreign words like 'Tenmoli,' or ' Dravida,' than there is to discover a foreign source for names like the Greeks, the Aryas, the Cimbri, and the Parthians. Mr. Celvakesavaro3'a Mudahyar, M.A. has come to the same conclusion in his valuable Essay OH Tamil: " gli/ Qiuatu^ Qun^^^ii,." *
also says ^ffiuQijiiTyS " ^uSti^uLS&r^, mirssar, ^esr^ fiiSlifi asSsr^u-Q^Teo

aiL^QiLit^ ^iremi^sSs^ Qp^eerQu ^ijlifi ereir^i ^eirsSl su^dsitjo^t


I hc l i l e Mr. Damodaram Pijlai
^ir Raonj Qujr)j)iaj(g^^u>, ^uff^LjuCTieuira RP, ^iSIifio. ahf esvi ei', ^uSifi

s^Jsfifi^iJljfi-f Q^irsusi^tr^sev upjSQiu trsar/p^^a," f

The only conclusion borne in upon us by a reading of the oldest of the old Tamil works is that the Tamils could not have come into southern India from elsewhere. T h e y were here in all the time past, as far as the keenest historic vision or the shrewdest ingenuity of man could pierce through. T h e y grew up on the sunny bosom of Tamilakam between the Mahanadi and the submerged Pahruli rivers, and, like the Swiss patriots, clung 'close and close to their mother's breast,' as the 'loud torrent and the whirlwinds roar but bound them to their native mountains more' Although occasionally their martial kings burst into the north, waged wars, levied tributes, and sometimes settled even colonies outside Tamilakam, they loved their home so well that the boldest and moat ambitious Tamil warrior a l w a y s returned from his expeditions to his country in the Tamilakam. However, their intense patriotism was not barren of enterprise. Their sea-faring adventurous sons had
Essaj> on lamil, p. 12.

\ Page 5, preface to Kalithokai.

TAMIL

CLSblCS

AND

TAMILAKAM

?3

founded tracing colcniies i n ( ! ) Chavakam (Javaj and in (2) Kadaram (Burma), and when they lost their southern " Lombard y " provinces by the inundation, their country reduced ilbelf to its present limitr,. That not only the Tamil country extended itself further south, but that there was a large southern continent inhabited by non-Tamil nations, receiver countenance from the Tamil tradition* which is entombed in Ilonnpttranam, and confirmed by evidences of Geologists. Prof. Haeckal assures us that the Indian ocean formed a continent, which extended from the Sunda Islands, along the coast of Asia, to the east coast of Africa, and which is of great importance as having been the probable cradle of the human race. Another scientist writes f that " the locality of the origin of the earliest race from recent n-rscarches ap|jears to have been on lands now submerged beneath the Indian Ocean." Sir Walter Raleigh's History oj the World strongly eupports this hypothesis legarding the first nurs>ery of man, and affirms that " India was the first pUinled and peopled country after the flood", f Some writer havt^ mistaken these geological facts pointing to a lost southern continent, and argued that this submerged continent was something unconnected with the present Tamil country. They have theorised therelrom that the ancestors of the Tamils should have come into their present settlements, from some far-off Pacific home, l i e best answer for them is that they are unable to adduce anry proofs either geological or traditional, in support cf ihdr fond conjectures. On the contrary, there arc unmistakable indications in the Tamil traditions that the land affected by the deluge was contiguous with the Tamilakam, and that, after the subsidence, the Tamils naturally betook themselves to their northern provinces. But of the other non-Tamil, races that inhabited the regions further south of the lost Tamil provinces, it would stand to reason to
f JhoUiiPP-iam, Elulhu, p. 4. \ 1 lu Science of ManAustraliaBee. 1900. Iliilvr' of tin H' p. ^'j, i]uoteJ at p.

1 od'i Riijdithct'i.

24

illL

LGin

OF

TRLTll

cxpcjt the survivors naturally lo have .dispersed in difRrent directions in order to find newer homes either in liurope, Asia or America. Of course there may hax'e been islands formed, and remnants of old nations stranded thereon even in the Pacific regions. But it is nothing unlikely that some brave and enterprising bianches voyaged long and far into newer seas and founded colwnies in stranger lands. May be some gallant sailors founded seHlements on the coasts washed by tht; waves of the Medikerranem and Arabian seas, e\'en prior to the deluge: and m i y b e the thuilla of tiie survivors, after the floods, drifted in quest of their brelhi en there. Whatever was the genesis of the Phoenician and Ionian settlements, if the submerged ' Lemuria ' had sent there even a single shipwrecked sailor after the great subsidence, he should have carried in ihe s.ime boat the history of the deluge. And imagination and time could not have long left such a fruitful thtm'i unutilised in tlxir ne w doniiiiie. l liis stcry of the Deluge prevalent among the Semitic and the loni.in tribes should he viewed rather as corroboiMlive e\ iclence in confirmjitiun of tiie trariilioiuil Tamil home than as an argument to givf' the Tamils a Chaldean hom^,. I'rom wliat has bjen stated and cited, it will he abundantly el<Mi- tlial, ap irt Irom the master passion of tlie Western scholars that gave the T;imiis loo a foreign home, there is nothing in the Tamil classics of undoubted antiquity that will countenancc such a fa 1, and that progressive geological research is ready and williiig to shake hands with the primeval poems of the Tan-i) country and establish that the ancestral home of the I'amils was in the far south of the Indian continent now under the sea and not above the snow-clad Himalayan heights, or in the land of the celestials, or in tlie country of the Jiebrcws before their dispersion. In short, the original abode of the Tamils was none other than the time-honoured Tamilakam in South India, part of which, with all its gems and gemlike treasures, the Indian Ocean has hidden in her vast bosom and which she is not willing to part with or reveal though ccnturies upon ccnturies have rolled silently away.

MENT01DS AND ELECTRONS.


BY E D G A R LUCIEN LARKIN,

LOWE OBSERVATORY, MOUNT LOWE, CAL.

i k e tread cast upon the waters there now return the responses of mentalists from many nations, kindreds and races of men. When writing my new book: " Within.the Mind Maze " in the stillness, silence and solitude of this mountain astronomical observatory up here on this summit of the Sierra Madre range, in California, U . S . A ; even in the midst of witching hours of night, apparently among the stars, an enchanting effect of perspective in pure mountain air, I used the wordmentoid. Since then I have published everywhere, that it was with misgivings and hesitation that I finally published the book containing ihis compound word made up of parts of two words in the Greek and Latin languages. The intention was to print a word having the meaning of thought-body, thought-form; mind-model, .m?ntal-image, thought-pattern, thought-design ; and in the language of architects, thoughtspecification. Now all of these forbodings, and fears that the word would not be well received have vanished. Letters from mentalists are now coming from many parts of the world praising the use of the expressive ard impressive word, mento<ds. All fears of its non-reception have been dissipated ; and now, as I write in the intense silence of a far and a w a y peak in the negative or night side of Nature, I here and now write, state and assert that only two entities exist, namely,
MIND AND ELECTRONS

The words are written in capital letters: tney go to the SiddhdntaDipika Magazine to be pnblished to the world, let the consequence be wh it they may. The entire Sidereal Universi does not contain ariy entities whatever but these two. Mind created Eleetrons, and from these formed all things in existence.
4

iS

THE LIGHT 01' TRUTH

Electrons are absolutely pure Electric itv ; and their di imeters are so excessively short that if a row of them side by side in contact could be made, then t' e row one in length, would contain 2,700,000,000,000. F'-jro^en at ms h lig:htest bodies of matter known chemists c j c o... of tl rare gas is 2000 times more'massive than ^.le electroii. row of electrons however cannot be forced into contact b}' n^ar;, as they repel each other. The isoUtion and weighing ot one electron by Professor Millikan of the University of Chicago, was an achievement so transcendently sublime, difficult and arduous, that it at once elicited the admiration of ihe entire scientific world, and ranked with the equally arduous and difficult work of measuring the distance of a star from the Earth. Electrons quiescent are not matter ; but when they revolve around each other, the motion, number of electrons revolving, the diameters of their orbits, and directions of revolution, with high out varying specific speeds, determine what atom of a chemical element shall form and appear in Cosmic space. All of the near 90 phases of matter, elements now known are composed in their var3ing atomic structures of rapidly revolving electrons. This motion is the life of all matter. And the very ancient philosophers of India, the A r y a n , scholars were aware of the existence of such ultimates and motions. These electrons and naught beside, were created by the Master Mind. Since their creation, they have been directed into myriads of forms b y the Master Positive Creative Mind. And they are negative to positive Mind. Mentoids are the only manifestations of primordial Creative Mind. No object whatever expressed in matter, anywhere in the Sidereal Universe, can appear without a preceding mentoid, or thought form. These models are filled out with electrons, atoms. Molecules. And this basic fact of all that exists is made exceeding clear in my new book. It is a rigid law of Nature ; and the sooner all mentalists adopt it itie better fgr theniseUes and mankind.

SAINT JNANA SAMBANDAK.


" L o n g live the Brahmins, Gods, and Itine, May rain pour down and monarch fare, Deep sink all ill, ring everywhere But Siva's name, and cease all pine."

"He who believing that the search for truth can never be offensive to the God of truth, pursues his way with an unswerving energy, may not unreasonably hope that he may assist otliers in their struggle towaids the light, and may in some small degree contribute to that consummation when the professed beli^-f shall have been adjusted to the requirements of the age, when the old tyranny shall have been broken, and the anarchy of transition shall have passed a w a y . " W . E. H. Lecky.
ST. JNANA SAMBANDHAR.

' Whom the Gods love die young' was said of yore. It was too true of St. J nana Samb.indar ; for he had hardly turned sixteen when he had a trans'at'on to the abode of bliss. In the third y e j r of his birth he began to lisp in numbers, for the.numbp-s came, and the highly imaginative and poetic mind of the tervid soutn gav: '.he l arly precocity a mythic or mythologic garb ihat the goddess Parvati fed the babe with her milk o^ devine wisdom. Thence-forward he came to be known the son of God, and the halo of divinity encircled him. His pious ^.:ther, Siva-piuflha-virudh-aiyar felt the divinity of bis OK^s'.ed son and ivti rn; i home with him. The child-prodigy, in ihe VP; y bvie. ^ps^i of his life, made tour holy journeys to fliiTr '. eiu -hriiic- in the peninsula, of which the third was the !cr-gest and iinost eventful and wrought many a miracle in each, the Divinity punctuating every act of his with its power and grace, its justice and mercy. At 1 iruUiiola^ka .which is less than a Sibbath day's trip sro..; ; tkc-Vviodom child was dowered with a pair of

iS

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01'

TRUTH

golden cymbals inscribed with the sacred pentagram, symbolic of the divine gift of melodious song to him. The Brahmin folk of Tirunanepalli, the home of Baghavatiyar, the saint's mother, hearing of the divine favours bestowed on the son of God, invited him to their village, 9 miles North East of the Mayavaram junction. S i n g i n g a hymn of his own in honor of the local deity, as it was his custom, he resumed his pilgrimage seated on the fond shoulders of his affectionate author, and returned home after visiting seven shrines ending with the one at I'iruk-kurukavur. A t Shiyali there was waiting for him Tiru Nilakaiita Yalp>anar, a famous lutist, accompanied b y Viraliyara celebiated girl-singer The two visitors were hospitably entertained by the saint, and when the latter listened to their performances he was so moved by them that he graciously accorded to Nilakanta the favour of his company whethersoever he went. T h u s the composer and the lutist were together, and the latter followed the former setting his divine words to music, as the shadow the substance. Prompted by his desire to pay homage and worship to the God at Chidambaram he set out on his second pilgrimage in company with the lutist and attended by a large retinue of admirers and disciples. A t the request of Tiru Nilakanta, Ihe saint paid a visit to Tiru-yerukkatthaniputhur, and composed a hymn in praise of the God of Nilakantan's hamlet. Passing through Tiru-muthukunram, Tunganaimatam, and Thu -Nelvoil, he halted at Maranpadi at sunset and lodged there for the night when he saw a vision of the ^eity of Tiru Aratburai announcing the gift of a pearl-white palanquin, a pearl-white fan, and a pearl-white flageolet iby the Brahmins of the village. These precious gifts were jnost opportune and afforded immense relief to the saint's .loving father. Henceforward the saint's journey was made in the palanquin, with the custonrkary paraphernalia, and after traversing T i r u Nel-Veimai, T i r u p palavur, Vijayamangai, \aUi;9, and Purambayam, he approached Cheyngalur, the iMtb pl^ce of Chaiadeswara Nayanv,^ and alighted from the

SA/IVT

MAN/1

SAMHANTHAR

20

palanquin and went on foot to the shrine, to do honour to the far-famed canonised saint. His second pilgrimage closed with his worship at Tiru Karuppariyalur, and when he w a s at Shiyali once more, his parents were most anxious that the child saint should wear the holy thread, and his voire was echoed by the chorus of the Brahmins of the village. The investiture was over, and the saint sang the virtues of the sacred pentagram in a memorable pathigam. A t this time the veteran singer of melting strains who prided himself on being a Servant of God, the Lord of the Tongue, proceeded to Shiyali, where the child prodigy and tlie miludious liymnist paid mutual adoration. The former -^iddrissed Ihc latlrr as Father,a very significant form of address, and the saint thenceforth bore the name of St. Appar. liiis t v t n t points a moral to the narrow clan-lovers of modern liinrs, and teat lies them that love, genuine love, transcends the conventioiis r,r caste and custom. After a brief sojourn, Saint Appar bailc farewell to the 'marvellous b o y ' and exchanged parting embraces with him at 'I"irukkola-ka. Shortly afterwards his third and most evrntful missionary journey com nericed. Go'ng from shrine to shrine on the north bank of the Can very and hymning in each of" them, he reached Tiru Pa- hi! Achramam where he effected a miraculous eure on the ivrinres of Kolli-Malavan afflicted with a dangerous palsy. Resuniing his pilgrinrage of grace, be crossed the Cauvery and visited the shrines on its southefn bank on the Kongu country. When he was at Tiru-Ko.Jimatam the burning frost set in and his retinue fell ill. Kevn was rampant in the whole village and all the afflicted turiud to him for redress. The saint sang the most toiu hing hymn, called Tiru-Nilakanta-pathigam, and thanks to the >:nmtdi.ar response of the Koly Being, all the affected goi up fresh anii vigorous as after a sleep and from a dream. Traversing many other places of sacred resort, he arrived at Karur, situated on the borderland L;nween the Kongu and Ghcla countiies. In the province oi Ghob he sang hymns in twentyftve shrinet

30

TUL

IJGlli

Oi

rkVTll

and pissed on to Tiru chatthe-Matam, when the sun was in a blaze and the midsummer was burning hot. The palanquin bearers and the retinue of disciples could not bear the heat and appealed to their master. The redress was instantaneous. A & v a d.Miion appeared, spfvfad his huge wings aloft, and carried a huge pearl-white umbrella w!iich sheltered the lioly followers from the scorching heat of the sun till they made for Patte-charam. Marching onward through fifteen more sacred places and arriving at Tiru vavaduthurai, the boysaint halted a few days there. A t that time his father, a Brahmin of Brahmins, who was intent on performing the Vedic Sacrifice or Yaga, applied to his son for the wherewithal, and the son prayed to the local deity for compliance. A gold parrot embodying a thousand gold coins was seen on the pedestal of the temple, and it was said that the treasure would prove inexhaustible and go to defray all the expenses of the sacrifice. The father took it and went homeward while the marvellous boy marched on. In his holy peregrinations he sang hyras and the hymn composed at Dharmapuram the place of nativity of the lutist's mother,composed at the request of the Yalpanar,was so hard to be set tojnpsic that it came to be known as Lute-Breaker or Yal muri. It is the only hymn in that pan in all the Devaram and testifies to the great skill of the i.ietri^t. The skilled lutist could not play the tune and was about to break the lute in his despair. The boy-saint hastened to spare it and said that a divinely inspired song could not be easily set to moral music. After this great feat, the saint and his followers were received with great eclat at Satthamangai by Saint Tiru-Nila-Nakkar, his hospitable home After p.irrakino-of the Siint's hospitality, St. Jfianasambandiir visited the lo:-al temple and Icfi for V'eloor east. A t this place he was met by the Saint Tirutthondar and invited to Tiru-Chengattam-k.udi. At Tiru-Marugalur another supernatural cure was efTected in a mo^t marvellous manner. In ihe mantapam of the local temple a virgin was seen c r y i n g most woefully at the death by cobra-bitc of her nierchant-ravishcr.

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SAMBANTIIAR

31

O u r precacious Saint took pity or, the agonised lad}' and sang a hymn. The result was that the dead man woke up and the Saint made the lovers man and wife. After visiting the home of Siruthon(far again, he went to Tiru-pugalur at the invitation of Saint MuruganSr. Tiruppugaiur is. remarkable as the trysting place of the saints. St. Appar, St. Nila Nakkar, St. Siru rhon(^er, St. Jiianasambandar and St. Murugar spent a few days together and each t h o j g h t that it was the most happy period of his life. L e a v i n g that place of holy Junction the Saints Appar and Jiianasambandar met at Tiru-Amljar .ind offered their prayers to Siva iu the temple built and dedicated >0 him by the king Kochengan-chola. Here we come upon a temple with a history of its own, and iht; pathegam composed in honour of it sinfjs the praises of its magnanimous author. The reign of tiie Red-eyed Chola King will furnish, on proper invesiigation, a landmark in the history of Tamilakain and may serve to fix the dates of temple-structure in South India. Both the saints were received at Tiruk-Uadaviir by tijeii contemporary Kungelia Kalaya Nayanar and cordially enlertamed by him in his house. Both iraveiled together to Akkur, Meycliur Pambur, and Veeliaiilalai. Heje in the last meiilioned locality the Brahmins of Shiyali waited upon the boy-saint and prayed for his homeward journey. The deputation was given a splendid reception by the local Brahnins, but did not succeed iu its mission. The deputation returned home. '1 he two saints were happy in each other's society at V^telimil .lai, when there fell upon the land a severe famine. The son and the servant of God wanted money for their maintenance, and the unfailing exchequer of biva gave each of tliem a gold coin every, day till there was plenty in the land once more. Each saint took his gold coin, wherewith he sumptuously fed his own devotees and adherents. Accoiding to the legend the gold coin intended for Jfianasambandar fetched less than that for St. Appar, and by this it was probably noeant to convey th-it service loomed larger in the eyes of God than kinship.

32

rilL

LIGHT OF

riWTU

The r.iiiis fell and the dearth rolled a ^ a y . The saints this memorable scene of the manifestation of divine grace to them and visited thirteen sacred shrines togttlier b^fo^e they reached V'edaranyam. This was probably a great seat ol V'edic learninjj; and had suffered an eclipse during the havoc made by the heretical rulers. The Siva temple seems to have been cU^sed for fear of the tyrants, a!id the inhabicants of the place seem to have been much concerned about it. They evidently longed for a time when the sable cloud should have a silver lining. I'he two saints must have had a hard time of it there {in their controversies with their opponents) before 'hey asserted and esiablislied the greater excellence and worth of their vedic knowledge. Their success in the ordi.tl might have led to the upenirg of the temple and to the performance of the puja, not to speak of the spread and diffusion of the old learning and worship. This is the only interpretation we are able to make of the miracle of tne temple door being opened and shut for the tirst time after a long period of its closure. Literally, the feat of opening a door, which has been shut up for a long time, is more trying and difhcult thin closing it when once opened. The task of opening it fMl to the lot" of the aged St. App.ir wliilt- St. jriana^-amb.indar easily dosed it. X't-rv likely tlie \clcr.in IKK! to Tu e tl e Drdi.il moit.- than the stripling. 'I lie i.ipt.-ning oi tin.' <lo.)r (jf k i i u N v l e d g e . h t l t i to be secret .r a t IcM- pri.srr\v' liT llu' Hiahinins, to llie other classes was a hrmii U\.l on the part ')f ihr X'ellala saint while the Brahmin prodigy, tru<' to hi^ inherited tendencies, wished to have it the e.\t lusive possession "f his own clansmen. Viewed in any way the mir.u le at l irumaraikadu, the nam^ for which Vedaranvam j j t i l t SanskiiL e(|uivaienl, i:, highly signifu ant even though i t wrre ili\eslcd ot I t s miraculous element. F u r t h u r , it w a s at 1 iru-marai kadu that )nrinsambandar recieved the emissMtiesof" the Queen Mangayarkarasi and her prime minister Kularhirai to put a stop to tl:e r^piu progress of (ainism in the Pandiya country. St. App.ir, who had suffered immensd3' at t i i c hands of these heretics, advis.-d his 3'ounger contempo-

SAIN7

jyJNASAMB^yDAR

33

rary not to make the venture, and added that his stars were not favorable at the tii.ie. These arguments from experience and astrology did not bear sway with the building youth bent on annil'.ilating heresy. Yet out of love for the boy saint, St. Appar offtred to accompany him, and the enthusiastic young saint took leave of the anxious St. Appar assuring him that the Lord would stand by his side. Thus they parted again. St. Jiianasambandar set out on his journey to the south. On his w a y to Madura, he visited about ten shrines and sang hymns. A t Madura ihe Saint had a magnificent reception, and the Queen and the Prime-minister left no stone unturned to make it as grand as possible. The Jains had an anxious time since the advent of the orthodox saint. T h e y induccd the Pandiya to arrest his progress. As anticipated by St. Appar chey set fire to the maijtapam where the saint of miracles had quartered. The outcome of it was thj't the Pan(^iyan King had something like typhoid fever and his whole body was abnormally hot. Orthodoxy and heterodoxy met, challenged each other, and tried the cflicacy of their man-trams on the patient.
If Buddha (Arha) be thy god, God to his temple, invocate his aid W ilh soleiiinest devotion, spread before him How highly it concerns his glory now T o frubtraic and dissolve these magic spells, Which 1 to be ihe iKJwer of Aryan God Avow, and challenge liuddha (.\rha) tc the test, ( t o combat thee, his champion bold. W ith the utmost of his godhead seconded ; Then thou shall sci, or rather to thy sorrow boon feel, whose God is strongest, thine or mine."

Singing the sacred hymn of the Holy Ashes Orthodoxy won the day, but heterodoxy called for two further trials. By the miracles of the water and the fire too the Jains were made to bite the dust,and eight thousand of them were pilloried by the king according to their vow. The hunch backed Panr!-

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THE LIGHT 01' TRUTH

yan was cured of his deformity and turned a true worshipper of Siva once again. The joy of the Queen wid Kuladiiraiyar knew no bounds at the triumph of J^ivaism and at the reconversion of their sovereign. Having estabhshed the worship of Siva beyond all doubt, St. Jfianasambanriar visited Rameswaram and Courtallum among other holy places and composed pathigams. Tinnevelly had its own share, and the hymn is popular, being sung by the Othuwars and Gurukkals in temples and on festive occasions. On his way back to the Chola country. Kulachiraiyir gave the saint a fitMng reception at Maiialmelkudi, his native village. Crossing the borders of the Pandiya country, he reached the bank of the MuUivoi and the ferrymen were unequal lo the washing flood. After offering his prayers to the god of Tiru-kollamputhur, at a distance of five miles from the Koradacheri station on the TanjoreNegapatam branch of the South Indian Railway, the Saint rowed across the flood and resumed his journey homeward. A t Bodhimangai, a Buddhist centre, the Saint's followers made such an uproar with their conches and their hallelujahs that Buddha Nandi came out with his congregation to intercept their triumphant march. The miracle of thunder and lightning was enacted and the Buddhist rival was dashed to the ground, his head cloven in twair. Tlie Buddhists embraced J^ivaism, This added to the glory of the boy saint, and the latter, in his solicitude to meet St. Appar and lepoi t his victories over the heretics, hastened to Tiru-Punthuruthi, eight miles northwest of Tanjore. Here the two sainis lived together for a time, each retaining his own triumphal progress ; and wh-:n St. Appar marched southward to the shrines in the Pandiya country, St. Jnanasambandar crosseu the C a u v e r y and arrived at Shiyali after paying the homage of his hymns to God in each sacred shrine on the way. After some stay at Shiyali the boy saint longed to visit the shrines already honoured by St. Appar in Thondinadu and bejjan his fourth pilgrimage. From Chidambaram he proceeded northward till he halted at Tiru-Aniiamalai where be

S/IJi\T

jSiA^ASAMBANDAR

35

sang hymns, and at Tiru-othur about fifteen miles from Conjeveram, where Ihe Jains were found in large numbers, the Saint made the barren palmyras yeild fruits. A t this miracle the local Jain population turned Saivites at once and thereby aug-mented the glory of the ^ i v a faith. Passing this Vhiru Alamkadu, immortalised in song by the fervour of Karaik.cal Ammai's devotion, he climbed the hill of Kalahasti and po'jred forth his veres in praise of St. Kannappa, Thence he left for Tiru Ottiyur and ^ after a short sojourn there, went to Mylapore, where an enthusiastic admirer of the saint, a merchant prince by name Siva Nesar, awaited his arrival with an urn of his only daughter's bones and ashes to be immediately transformed into Pum-pavai in ilie flesh. This was a miracle of miracles and dazzled the assemblage of all creeds and religions .that witnessed the miraculous performarice. The h3 mn of Muttitapunnii every native of Mylapore knows by heart, as it led to tiie reincarnation of the ccbra-bitten Virgin. Pumpavai having been dedicated by her father to St. Jnana S.unbandar, she could not be given in marriage to anybody else, and as by the miracle the saint assumed the role of a second father, she hud to be relegated to a nunnery. The saint then left Mylapore and wended his way to Chidambaram where he stayed, vv'orshipping the deity ever^- day and paying his tributary verses to his heart's content. The Brahmins ofShiynli headeil by the Saint's father invited him back to his birth place, and at Shiy^'H he passed his da\ ci in the company of his disripK-s. His lather proposed wedded life for him and cirrangod for the nurriage with the daughter of Nambianijar, Nambi of Tiru Nalkir On the bridal day, when the solemnisaiion was over, all those assembled to honour the occasion, together with the bride and bridegroom disappeared in the trailing clouds of the glory of Siva. Thus the life of the Saint ended as it began in a miracle. Having recounted the story of the Saint, I may dwell very briefly on three points connected with it, on the excellei.ce of his hymns, on the virtue of the mlraclej, and on the question

36

THF. LGIIT OF

IRC'fH

nf ifligious persecution. Firstly, I t^ke up the excellcnce ot his h3'mns. The extant hymns of St. Jfiana Sambanclar (Muttamilveeragir) number 384, of which 7 are general without reference to any locality. Shiyali claims 67 hj-mns under its duodenal nam?. X'ilimilalai 15, Alavoi 8, Tiruvai3-ar 5, and others on a descending scale. Each puthigam consists of II or 12 instead of 10 stanzas as the name signifies, and the last is alwa3's a benedictor}' one bearing the name and seal of the saint. A careful reader of the hyrfns will see that the 8th, 9th and loth stanzas refer invariably to Siva's grace to the melodious Ravana in agon3', to the par excellence of Siva over Brahma and X'ishnu, and to the malediction of the heretic Buddhists and Jains respectively'. In the first seven stanzas no definite arrangement of topics is discernible, and there seems to be ringing the changes on the nomenclature of Siva with special reference to the traditions and the scenery of the locality. All the hymns are said 10 contain the distilled essence of the Vedas, and what distinguishes them is their variet}^ of pans or tunes, {sandamparavti Jnanasambandan). Of the twent3'-four pans of the Devara hymns, our saint's hymns alone illustrate 22 of thsm, and none of the other Snivachary-as as exceeds or even equals him in their varities, and none of them ever attempted yal-niitri.' It is hardly to be seen in bis hymns that philosophy and humanity that rise the sweet strains of St. Appar, while the militant spirit is much in evidence in them. Further, almost every hymn of the boy saint is instinct with the supremacy and welfare of his own clan unlike the hymns of St. Appar in which he makes no distinction between man and man or c l r s and class, but applies the touchstone of sincere devotion to detect the pinchbeck and discriminate it from the true gold. In the second place let me examine the value of the miracles achieved by St. jnana Sambandar. About a dozen of them 1 have referred to in the course of the narrative of the saint's brief span of life. All of them imply the intervention of the supernatural. Whelh-r a dangerous disease is cured or a cobra

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JSANASAMBANDAR

37

bitten person is restored to life or the visitation of famine is averted or a deformity is removed, or a long shut door is opened, or the Yaga demand is met or the flooded stream is crossed or heterodoxy is put down or a sterile palmyra is made fruitful, or the bones and ashes are metamorphosed into a bashful virginin each of these cases the operator is God, the man of extraordinnry sanctity is the supplicating medium and the hallowed mantra uttered by the suppliant serves to move the operator to work out what the saint prays for. All this was possible in an age of absolute credulity, in an atmosphere surcharged with the bupernatural, in a region torpid and isolated, and among a people \\fho had just emerged from barbarism a>id whose education was at its lowest ebb. In the middle ages when our saint lived they (the miracles) were frequent incitements to piety, stimulating the devotions of the languid and rewarding tha patience of the fervent. But in this enlightened and ever advancing twentieth century no teacher of divine trutn f^eeds such a prop or crutch to establish it ; in this age of free enquiry, in this scientific age when every apparently extraordinary phenomenon is made to pass through the crucible of searching reason, the educated do not, like the ignorant, resort to the supernatural as the simplest explanation of every difficulty, but try to solve it by d'scovering the law or the general principle underlying it. " All history shows that in exact proportion to the intellectual progress of nations, the accounts of miianles talking place among them become rarer aud rarer until at last they entirely ctuse." On the progress ot civilisation and the diiTusion of knowledge de.pends the gradual cessation credibility and gullibility CI issed with legerdemain tricks as the miracles are by the scientific men ol tne age, however offensive to the nostrils of the conservative orthodox man such a classification might be, they at present do not at all command admiration or worship, but they infalliably and invariably provoke enquiry in thinking minds with a vFew to find out a rational explanation therefore. It is no disparagement to the deity or to the godhead, but all hunour

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to him, that the infinitesimal reason oi man can unfold the eternal law governing the apparent freaks of nature. Wireless telegraphy have become fait accompli like the gramaphone and cinematograph, the wonders of the age. Telepathy is attempted to be explained on some such principle. The phenomena of hypnotism and mesmerism are psychologically explained. Even the grave problem of human survival after death is tackled in right earnest. Who knows what else science cannot discover or invent ? The clear light of reason dispels tlie illusion of talisman or the amulet, and the magical powers of the h o i a s h e s and the rosary are displaced by their hygienic and medical virtues as purifiers and insulators. In these circumstances the miracle loses its value as miracle while it te>li!ies to the sincere devotional spirit of its performer. The third point is tiie question of religious persecution. St. jnana Simbandar is knov/n as the Hainmar of the Buddhists and Jains. W h y they were persecuted deserves passing notice. Both Buddhism and Jainism were the offspring of Brahminic bigotry and exilusiveness. The secrecy of the Vedas led to their rejection ; the indulgence in animal sacrihres led to the piiarisaical kindness even to fleas ; the arrogance of high caste led to the prevalence of the feeling of fraternity; the extravagant insistence on the transmigration of souls led to the denial of the soul and the e.\tin(^tion of desire or Nirvana. The ethics of these religions reacted on their parent and, as it were toned down its arro^;arice and super. iiiousness. 'Ihese are fiicts of history, and therefore stubbor.i. The.se two religions, which had their rise in Magaclha, spread in the South with the ascendency of the Pallava sovereigns. When they began to decay internilly and their b(-st thi:igs were absorbed and as-^imilaled by Hinduism, the}- fell, and Hinduism in its .noililicd form reared its head. The boy saint and the veteran s.iint appeared at this favourable turn of the tide. T o propagate religion by the sword w.us the pe uli.ir privilege of Islamism ; to do it by the intervention of he deity distinguished the nerveless llindui-m; to spread faith by conviction, by

SAINT JfiAN A SAME AN BAR

39

persuasion and argument was the w a y of the rationalistic Buddhism. In the dark a g e s persecution had a religious sanction , the service of the heretic was held a positive offence to the Deity ; and heresy was punished with death and damnation, "If men believe with an intense and realising faith that their own view of a disputed question is true beyond all possibility of mistake, if they further believe that those who adopt other views will be doomed by the Almighty to an eternity of misery which, with some moral disposition but with a different belief, they would have escaped, these men will sooner or later persecute to the full extent of power. If you speak to them of the physical and mental suffering which persecution produces or of the sincerity and unselfish heroism of its victims, they will reply that such arguments rest altogether on the inadequacy of your realisation of the doctrine they believe." Under some influence like this did our Saints act, and callous were they therefore to the agonies of their victims. A n open mind was none of theirs. My doxy is orthodoxy was the then prevailing temper of the religiously inclined. In the ov^erthrow of Buddhism and Jainism argument was not the weapon of either combatant; both trusted to their magic and witchcraft for it. The Brahminic hatrfd was more pointed against Jaini^m than Buddhism, as the abusive epithets as demons, vultures etc., applied to the Jains in the tenth stanza of each hymn by our boy Saint would amply show; and it was not without reason. More than Buddhists, the Jains were great temple builders and cultivators of Tamil leraning, The Jains were really great benefactors to the Tamil world. In the age of the Sangams and in subsequent times the work of the Jains in the several departments of Tamil literature was conspicuous. Give the devil his due is a proverbial saying. In the heat of his passion against

heresy, he {Nannia Keefthi Na/an^ol Kalvi Nan marrai


Juanasambandan) denied this m?rit of the Jains. Thruvalaviiyaranirkavai) {Artdiportiri-

nthariathodu Chentamil Payanarigila Amiagar ketliyanalaen


P.ission is not the watch-word of

40

THE LIGHT

OF

TRUTH

the twentieth century inquirer; cool, dispassionate judgment is his. Toleration is born of love, sympathy and conviction. With the advance of reason the barriers of country, caste, creed and colour will dwindle into insignificance and catholicity wili rule. That all men are equally free and brothers, is a fact realised only by the enlightened section of the civilized humanity. W e will not brook to be called the unenlightened and uncivilized. So long as we wish to carry that dignity about us, so long as we wish to be known as an enlightened and civilized nation among mankind, it is our bounden duty to sink sectarian prejudices, to admit, our failings and acknowledge our errors, and to look at Truth with a steadfast eye and embrace it fearless of favour or frown. In no era of the worW is reticence or cowardice more culpable than in the present when, under the aegis of Pax Britannica, there is peace at home and peace abroad, when the forces of consolidation are at work among the peoples of the land, and when.
" E a s t and W e s t , without a breath, Mix their dim lights, like life and death, T o broaden into boundless day.''
M. S. PURNALINGAM PILLAI, B.A., L.T.

"AGAMIC
-

BUREAU

NOTES.'

Life in Ancient India in the A g e of the Mantras by P. r .

Srinivasa lyt: gar B.A.


This is an excellent little w6rk ; I have read it with pleasure and surfHise; pleasure, beravise ',t is good ; surprise, to find an Indian gentlemen so throughly a master of the critical method, and so well acquainted wiih the works of modem anlhropoiogists. The author, who is Principal of a College at \'i/agapatam, found ed by the munificence of Mrs. A. V Narasingha KKO, starts with tre assumption that the sociological history of India can be best trc;ated by Indian students trained in the critical methods of the West, since they are in closer touch with the daily life of the peop'c than Kuropeans are. And the period which he has chosen i:^ social life in the Vedic age, or, as he prefers to call it, the age of the Mantras. He presents us w^th a picture, fully authenticated by references, of the life ttf a primitive people. The Aryas as they called lhemsf-!.cs. dwelt Detween the .Saic^ aci and th** I ipper f .an^ s. ThtrN vv; i i:Oi i:;nor:int of ui^i icuiture, uul their wealth f'i;'.'listed in ihfir [locks i.iul herds, i^a^turc lands aiul water, women and kine, were the occasion of their war.->. Ihe rich dwe lt in woode n liou .es, ihe poor in circular watlled huts daubed with mud, and ilie villages were defended by stockades. These Aryas had their Brahmans and priests, their exorcists, sorcerers, medicine men, their artisans and traders. 7 lie king was consccr.i'.ed and all powerful, he levied heavy contributions, and under him were various subordinate (hiefs, including the \ il age hcad:r,an. Hunting, chariot racing, and gambling were the diversions ot the nobles. Marriage alliances were formed by negotiaton, and some of the old Vedir marriaj;e rites survive to :he present day, but the Aryas did not hesitate to make captured women their concubines or slaves; and the widow of the elder often passed to the younger brother, bo far we have analogous 6

111 h LCI IT OF

TRUTH

practices and an analogous morle of life among prifflitive fo'k all the world over, as well as in modern India. 'J hree things, how ever, sharply distinguished these Ar>'as from the neighbouring D isyus; they were notable for the cult of Agni, the constitution of the family, and the immense development of the sacrificial system. 'J he fnst and last have always attracted attention, and are fully dealt with by our author But although our author ncjles the ])^.*culiar constitution of the Arya family system, he merely notes it with a passing remark, nor his it usually received the consideration it deserves. l or it is not only entirely unlike the 1 )ravidian and otlier aboriginal concejUions of the fimiily, it i-. the ( hi^'f criterion ;rt the present day of the stage of Hinduism any scction of the community has readied ; while in itself it has a wider interest as a special variety of the patriarchal system which received i t s m j s t characteristic expression among the Ro mans. It is that bequest of the anciait Aryas to India wl^ich time has least modified. S o m j c h for the general contents of t' e book. It will be seen th it the author is entirely free from any illusions about a golden age. He also protests again.st the pessimism of the lalcr I Iiilosophers. He shows by M;ile quotations thai the Rishis j'reely indulged in sensual plea^uies, even of a doubtful character^ and enjoyed life to the full. But the idea which under,ies the work, and gives it its ori.^inality, is the importance attached by the author to the aborigiual (which he practically assumes to be the Dravidian) c ements. The Dasyus, he says, ha i a civilization not inferior to tfic .^ryan ; tliey were equally rich in Jiorses and cattle; they had cities, ca.-^tles, chariots, arms; but tl-iey were enemies of Agni. According to hidian tradition Dasyu and A o a have been understood respecti\ely as enemies and advocates of the fire-cult. 'J he distinction indicated by Arya iind Dcibvu was purely a difference of cu t, and not of race cr culture." The influence of the Diavidian element is sensibly re.lected in the grammar as v.u'.l a^ i.i the \ ojcLbu ar\' of the language (p. 6.) On the other haiid l:e empha sizes and en argeb tii^ g'lir bciwec.i tlic Aryua on Ll;c Sa asvati a.iJ tlic Ijng heaJcJ

AGAMIC

BUREAU

NOTES

43

fair-skinned races of Europe. He allows only Indra, Agni, and Casyu to be of non-Indian origin; the other gods and goddesses were all evolved in India ; while not only Siva and Krishrja, but also VaruT^a, Rudra.Twashtia (a minor god after all), -<nd Aditi were originally Dravidian divinities (p. 123). Vishnu,, ^iva, and their mother Aditi " w e r e popular gods even before the Vedas were composed " (p. 126) Ke elsewere extols the antiquity and the greatness of the Dravidia:i civilization. Now, a.though I am far from aorieing with the author in some of his details, 1 consider his view true in the main for the latest stage of Aryo-Vedic culture The Aryas who live 1 between the harasv'ati and the Ganges were the creators of all that has ever sine e been accounted distinctive of India. And ihey were able to ao this work because they were a very mixed race, mixed not o.ily in b'.ood but ill fundamental beliefs ajid practices, 'I he who e history of India has ever since consisted in the gradual and progre5si\ e blending of the dissimilar elements, ihe Aryan genius conlT ibuting the guiding spirit and i h j form of this mi^ed civ ilization, while the aboriginal element has contributed its contents. VVhe.her the aboriginal folk of Northern India were ever Dravidians is of couise a muck disputed question. Hut the author is right in maintaining that the Dravidians had a grtai and distii-kctive civilization of their own. in no material respect inferior to the Aryan, and in touch wilh ti.e civilization of i3ai)ylonia at an early date, probably as early as the tigh:h century B. C. ' In tlie early centuries of thj: Christian era ihe LraviJiar.s werv; ihc (hief traders with Roman Kgypt, and the sea trade wilh ihe West has a.ways been in their hands. For more than a miLe.inium ihey have produced the great majority of notable Indian thinkers, reformers, and poets. Leas exposed than the: peopiCs of tlic
' The author would carry it back to immemorial antiquity ; but see my paper on the "F.arly Conunerce of Babylon with India", J R A S . 1819, pp. 241 ft". Mery and bi>eck do not allow that any nmilime commerce existed before the time of Dai ins Hystaspus. This, of course, has nothing to do with the question ol a pie lustoiic inigiaiion or other racial conne.vion.

44

TUK LK.HT Ot

TRl TH

North to war and foreign invasion, thcv have had greater oppni tu nities of developing their ov/n special genius. So for l a m in general agreement with the author. But his picture can be accepted only if we refer it to the latest stage of Vedic culture, the stage when it had already developed the germs of its future history. 1 he author admits that some Vedic hymns and mantras are older than others, but he argues that the bulk of them must belong to one and the same period, which he hypothetically puts at 1200 B.C. He therefore takes his materials indiscrimi nately from the Atharva as much as from the Rik. 1 his wealth of material gives the picture a fullness it could not otherwise have hut it robs it of all hi::torical [Jerspective ; There is no attempt to trace the process by which the intrusive Arj'as who crossed the Hindn Kush, driving out the earlier settlers before them, became the comparatively unwarlike Ar>as whor^ settlements extended along the foot of,the Himalayas. This transition stage occupied many centuriescenturies dunng which Northern India was, if nt)t in the stone, at least in the copper, age. I he ai t of smelting iron spread \ery slowcly eastwards from Mesopotamia and the Cau-r;. it came to India oniy in the latest Vedic period. The Vedic hymns whatever the date of their composition contain survivalsof thisedrlier period. How far there may be materials foi 4 picture of the transition 1 am not competem to say. ( he author dpes not make '.he attempt, and this defect I lake to be the chief pk>t upon the work. Both at the crtmmencomeni and in the course of his work the author has touched on some of the more general problems ofanthroI> He treats them judiciously, and his knowledge is fairiy up-to-date, with regard to some of then e.g. with regard to the Aryan kings of Mitani, I have given my own version elsewhere. But with regard to such q\jestions which are still sub lite general agreement cannot be expected; and I hail with pleasure the c^jnl. ibutions of a competent Indian anUiropologist to questions so tar^e and so important in the eyer> of students of f r mitive J. Kenkilh.Jrom j.I<. A.S.

" E S S E N T I A L S OF
A
BY R . R.

HINDUISM

REVIEW
GUNARATN^V.

"The

one vital duty incumbent on you, il you really !ove your

rdigion, if you really love your country, is that you must struggle har;l to be up and doing with this one great i>lea of bringing out the treasures from your closed books, and delivering them over to the rightf u l heirs." S o says Svami Vivskinanda in oue of his learned addressee dehvered in Ceylon, when he was on his way back to India after his Mission in the West Every enlightened son of India and Ceylon, who feels proud of the precious treasures buried in the hoary books of the Hindus, should take to heart t h e ^ words of earnest appeal, and act accordingly. E'se, his less enlightened brthrea, ^^ho cannot de-.ote their time to study the many voluminous treatiseb on Hindu Philosophy and Religion will be left to grope in the dark. But the task assigned here is indeed diffirult and enormous. It requires patient research, untiring perseverance, and keen intelligence to master the many subtle problems of Hindu Philosophy, to delve deep into its bettomless depths, and to bring to light its teachings and truths of inestiniable value. Nor is it in every one to a^hievr siu ess in ssi'h a laborious task. In a thousand, there can Ije but one Max Muller, one Pope, one Nallasvami PiUai or one hiimaniithan. .Xnd these dtferve the undying gratitiide of the wliole Hindu Coniniunity froirj Cape Comorin to the Himalayas. Nay, the whole humanity is indebte<l to them for all they have done to interpret the religious thoughts of the East to the West, and nfuse into the minds of the latter an admiration and love for the religious ideals of the Hindus. Except for writers like these, the Hindu sacred books with all their wealth of Philosophy and religion would have remained unknown not only to the Weste^iiei.s. but also to those of our own men, who, aping Wt-stcrii li.ethods ol thouL^ht and a(-tion. r e s i g n is blissful ignorance uf tlieir own inrllihuuus ton^Mit^. B y S. Sabaratna Muduliyai, Ueputy ri-c.il P i k e Rs. 3, Meykaodaa P i e - s .MuJiaK--, N C. j.\;liu i>;v jSo.

iO

T n r :

l i g h t

i)i'

n u n i i

antl ave flieiefore unabln to read and understaiid the lofty and inspiring \vords of the Indian sages in the original. Hence, it is the manifest duty of every learned Hindu, who is capable of expoanding religious thoufihts to lollow in the wake of these learned writers and contribute his mite to the unfolding of spiritual truths. i\[r. S. Sabaratna Mudaliyar, Deputy P'iscal, JafTna, is one of tho few Hindus in Ceylon, who devote their time to the. above causeHe does his nohie work ia more way;, than one. and contribute to the SiddhiVUa DlptUi It is a pleasure to hnd him, though in active (lovernmeiit Service, deliver public lectures, and other journals, learned And his articles worthy of his scholarship culture, and retineiuent.

recent publication of " The Essentials of tlinduism " stands as a laudmark of his religious activity, an<l pla; es him high in the list of Hiudu authors. This able work, written in elegant prcse leaves nothing to be desired, as regards the logical arrangement of the subjects, the lucid presentation of the various philosophical and religious doctrines, the fair and equitable discussion of intricate problems, the ; urr,ming of scattered tacts into illuminating essays, and the well-balanced composiiion of religious books, arranged, in addiliou up tabi-

lity of thought, earnestness of purpose, and sim erity requisite to the to being learned, wellwell-written, aud interesting, it contains in a nut-5hell ihe advanced

essentials of Hinduism, and presents them so clearly that it might serve as a text book not only to the beginners but also to the students of Hindu Religion. It would be dilficult to praise loo highly by a Hiridu Author.

the care, and ability bestowed by the author upon the preparation of this volume, which is the hrst of its kind published Sulhce it to say here that it deserves to be widely read and studied by every cue interested in the religion of one of the ani.ient and civilised races of mankind. J lie ^^ubjects dealt Hinduism (i ) Hindu with in this book are f i ) General aspect of Idea of God (3) Soul ( i j Evil and its Origin Tarnsmigration

(5) Salvation (6) Worship ^7) lieligious Conduct i8j System, and (14) Religious Investigation.

(6) Fate C :o) Sacred Books ( 1 1 ) Astrology ( T 2) Superstition (13) Caste Of the e the author has dcxoted three i;.v( ellent chapters to the discussion of the qiiestion ol I iansmigratiou, that question of questions, whi'. h is as old as the world Hbeir. Th '. reasons he has given in support of this theory and the a.:.,u n;;itshi h i s uurs'ialleJ 0:1': to iiie-'t t'.ie objections con:;nonly raised"

4G A MIC BUREAU

KOTE^

47

B^'ainst it, tonnot but be Hpprcciatetl by thcl lincius, to u liom tbis theory ib the SiUi qua-0 1 of their faith. Jusi to show the nature and force of the arguments presented by the author, I shall quote here a few lines from the book under review. " W e are all believers" he says in the existence of God, who, we further believe is just, merciful, and omnipotent " and again he pertinently asks," How are we then to account for the various differences which we abundantly see in the creation of the great God " .^nd having very lucidly pointed out the intellectual, temperamental, mectal, physical, social, and otHfer differences found among men, he says that " it would clearly follow that these differences were decreed by the f^reat God in retum for the.actions of the respe tive souls in a previous exiritenc e ; and that the actions in our present exislem e will lie rewarded in the same way in our next. He further adds that "when this ton</lu^ji'-r ii adn.itted the theory, of Transmigration may be said to have been well establislied." l i e then states the various explanations that have been ofTcred to reconcile the inequalities existing in this world with Divine Justice, and, havintr refuted them, one by one, says in the very beginuinj,' of the tenth chapter, " T h e inequality, whi^h we abundantly see in this world, is satisfactorily explained by the Hmdu Religion, \\hich maintains that all these differer.ces are the result of our Karma in a previous state, of existence." The whole of this chapter is devoted to the exposition of the dortrine of Karma, a subje t that is full of interest to Hindus as well as non-Hindus. The main objection, that is raised against this doctrine, is that it dispenses with the existence of a God. And here it will be instructive to note the view ot our learned author. He s a y s : " There are again certain Karmas, that bear immediate fruit, while there are others that take .1 long lime to produce their results. The san.e action when done by different peoph is found to produce its result at different intervals This difference is maiuiy due to the non-exhaustion of the force of the previous Karmas of the diCarent souls and it is theiefcre very clear that to regulate the counter action or the fruits of our Kanna, an intelligent sgent is required to be alwavb at work ; othirwibc ihcre ^vill be a regular coufusion by the force of one Karma clashing with thai of another. It is theielore \cry cleai that Karmas ot thc4nsci\e^ cannot be said to be capable of producing the rci.uU^ assigned 10 them , and the Hindu Siddh-mta School, therefore, very aptly lays it down thii'^ the great God icwarJs our Kirmas ur actions. Thit: i ui^ uf oi;r Ciod

4?

TriE

LlGin

OF

TRUTH
In fact this rule of souls.

is so fixed and inviolable in itself, that the agency is forgotten, and the rule is considertd the repulaioi of our destiny. God is what we call Nature, and Nature nothing but the design planned by the great God in His sublime wisdom for the salvation of This design, it must be understood, is the best possible means available for the purpose, in consideration of our nature and capacity, and God invented this design in his unlimited mercy towards us, with the sole object of delivering us from the bondage of Mala." T h e whole book is replete with such beautiful thoughts as contained in the above passage and bears ample evidence of the talented author being at once an earnest Hindu, clear thinker, and learned philosopher. In this review I have confined inyseif to Transmigration." But no Icbs interesting are the other subiects dealt with. author displays uniform skill, judgment and wisdom. minds of the readers a love lor the f u t h Valluvar, tht Sage Everywhere the He has in him Even men For says

the rare faculty of making iiis subjects so luniinous as to create in the in his book. of alien faith will do well to read and study this book.

" gruQu-T
In conclusion I should like to commend the book of the learned Mudaliyar to the earnest attention of those interested in the study of Saiva Sidcihiinta as the genuine production of one who has learnt the subject a; the lountain-heads. Bacon says : " Some books are to be tiistcd, others io be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.' J; is the writer's htm, opinion that "'J~he [Essentials of Hinduism" btloDf;: to thf ^ias'. of b o k i , that aic to be chc>\cd and digested."

%
I

I
& S

THE LIGHT OF TRUTH


OR

THE SIDDHANTA
jANDf

DIPIKA -

I t
I
t

AGAMIC REVIEW
as the Saiva Siddhanta or Agamanta

A Monthly Journal devoted to the Search for Truth as revealed in the Ancient Hindu Mystic Philosophy known

1
3 J^ ^ V o L XIV.

and in the Tamil Language.

MADRAS. AUGUST I9I3. VINA VENBA.


BY J. M. N A L L A S W A M I P I L L A I , B.A.,b.L.

N o . 2.

HIS is one of the Siddhanta Ashtakam composed b y Sai Umupali Sivacharya. The name means a Poem in V^tnba met containing queiies; and is in the nature of Irupi Irupuktu ' St. Arul Nafidi Sivacharya, and contains a number of Phil sophical paradoxes. The object is to bring more into prominen how ^ i v a Siddhanta reconciles our various difficulties in philosoph investigation. W e give the te>;t and translation with such notes . are necessary. #S3x(raflay Qt^nSi^fi^s ^ieoiH^ Q*ird^iBndiLiair - uni^fieirQfiar Q^n^ iLfujif^uouk^ir
The spreading Light and darkness deep in sam Place doth not join. In me great sinner 'fore In union. Oh Sanibantha of Maruthur h y lufty grovs ^irt round, Huw didat Thou s i v d .

50

THE, UGIIT

OF

TRUTH

KOTES.

The author speaks of his conditiofl before sighting his Guru, because his mala left him by the Satgurudarsana. But God dwelt in Him before, and yet he did not profit by it. His Pasa acted as a veil between him and God, as the cataract covering the eye prevents him from seeing the sun which shines all through. (i) ^(^mR QeOitafli^fitoffu^ QiniLfiit ae^nr^ ef)'i9HU(ifi^ lon^iw -^s(r^sSlaS0j>&i liiaiS efi(t^arn Sea>iDiD(i^fi^ a^uaui/fir ^iaQf6iirear(Tf6trn Oevear Oup.
In darkness doth light vanish, in Kala's Joined, evil doth persist. T h e organs rare Removed, the darkness fills again Oh Lord, Here then of what use is T h y divine grace. NOTES.

Even in all these conditions of the soul, the Divine Gracc is ever active and he creates, protects, resolves and obscures. He is ever with us, even in our worst acts and is giving us help and grace to get over our toils. When we can fully recognize His ever active Presence and submit our Will to His, then dp we reach the Suddha condition and God's Bliss. (2) L^Mao/Seti iseisnssaiirai junn Quir^^irear iDMOifieo jfi^arQ^eS eoiSuiuiri - Q^HISJ^USQ aritmuD'ieo lunaiir jfujirntQf^ .fuiuis^ir ^irarutfeo tuK&iitib istS^.
T h e small does not become the Perfect Mind, Is common sense. If Perfect Mind doln rise Anew, it can't be true ; Oh Sambanlha Of old faults free. Oh Rock of \V iadom, say. KOTES.

T h e intelligence of the soul by itself is neither smaiT nor impertect and it does not grow big nor perfect by evolution. It is perfect in a sense but its intelligence is covered, veiled

VLNBA

51

as a cr3'stzn cleansed of dirt. And then the Light which it b y Anava and when this is removed, it shines bright again, reflects is not its own but of the Lords, and It was passing through the crystal even when dirt covered, but is only ceflected after the cleansing. So this Sivajfianam is n .ither the Intelligence of the soul, nor did it arise anew, whea the soul recovered itself. These points have to be borne very clearly in mind in trying to understand the basic principles of ^ i v a Siddhanta; otherwise it is apt to be confused with other systems. (3)
Aoraf aearQajeatgt aireearuifi^Hii aaesfH^

iBearsJltMsiD^ isasar^^ - (^^esraiear(^sir fiiiresraipjB ^i^w^ft^ ^dui^n


The Dream cannot be seen as dream fn dream : If seen awake, it cannot be pursued ; Lord's Grace ? He doth not join the avastas. How then, Oh Lord, do I perceive the same? NOTES.

One cannot think thought but when he rises to the Highest Siidi^ha condition this is in a sense possible. (4) ^/fiai/fii^
(^jfitSjpifli Sm^eataiiSp

lo.Tiiildsr
- Quit/Si-^eiifi'sv

^itldh mi/Sujir
ojtTiLir afisLa ifiesB.

^dui^n

All that perceived by mind is Asat, so Thy Mind beyond all mark I can't perceive. Sense organs can't perceive by themselves, Lord Of Maruthur ; What then am I to see ? NOTES,

All that we can perceive can be objective only. The object cannot perceive the subject. If we can perceive God, He should become objective to us, but this cannot be, as He is the True subject, the very Thinker of our thoughts, as the

52

THL LICjHT OF

TRUTH

Upanishad {Brihad-W. 4 1 3 ) pertinently puis it, " How should he know Him by Whom he kncnvs all this How, Oh beloved, should he know the Knower ? " " T h o u couldst not see the seer of sight ; thou couldst not hear the hearer of hearing ; thou couldst not perceive the perceiver of perception; nor know the knower of knowledge. This is thy Atma (God) Who is within all. Every thing else is of evil (Asat)." {Brihad. ill, 4, 2). The Taitiriyopanishad declares (I!. 9). " From all words fall back, not reaching and mind as well." Man .an perceive God by His Grace alone. " A man who has left all grief behind sees tlie iNlajesty, I he J^ord, "1 he Passionless by the Grace of the Creator." [Svetas. 1/1, 20).
(jD/pSito^uf m Q-iirsLn-flsur

crf'/bSov^oir ii,6ar,'^6itTi - ^i^s^^Ssir iBiisrQAIfC^ I Qs-n'^iM /sor./i^.f^ j J^iLLjik^tT


if/pm^eufi Q all ear Q.1, n eaar'6 ar.eiiarQu asBu^udsr. If self is lost before, there is none to join ; If se'f remains in part, Grace will not tali, IJh Sanibantha of Mariithur, wi.li groves Cloud-capped, with what can I perceive Thy Self ? NOTES.

1 his states the same puzzle which St. Meikandan had stated before in XI, 2, 5. In mukti union, if s^ul perishes before union, then there is nothing to unite with God. if it does not perish, there will be duality. Losing one's mala, it sinks into God as the salt dissolved in water losing not its personality but its individuality, its sense of ' I-ness' and m3'-ness,' ' lEnehQAil-^ ' dedicating all its acts and Will to God, >t is then he becomes One with God, or God alone becomes Supreme " isnsnQ/tLlQff^LOirsBreu/r" , " O Q i J n j j i
f.eirsBrrfiii Sfir e^css! Ir su ^(tun fSjj A.n:n ^.Li^kfitr jr Os-iffjaif

fiit ji^f, - Qiom ssrfS^ iLiitafrjSau /Saa?.,

yhVA

VENBA

53

T h y grace past Thought when It did rise, the bright T a t t v a s can't apprehend. And my own JlLn Can't sense the same. O Lord of Maruthur B y large ponds girt, How then can I knowiThee ? (7)

Qix,ntir^p baDfian sasBgfIsi) (Luj/T'Si.ian^^ fiMui^g semi^afi/r>


If formless God can have no form, if with form, He can't be formless; both can't apply to one, O Sambantha of Tirukadanthai, How then does God assume His blessed Form ? N O l E5. (8)

Rupa and Arupa and Ruparupa are all terms applying to matter. God is not matter and is Pure Chit. And all His Forms are out of Chit, out of His Chit-?akti, of the Form of grace Divine, and He can assume any Form He likes and in which He is thought of by His Bhaktas. See verses 38 to 70 of Sutra I, of Siddliiyar and my notes thereon.

^(^LoevfifiiTfri Qs\)'Zeo tLji^^eS^Qiuar G-?=;L'tLfih ^(T^uteufifiners sn^? a^aouuQt-i^ fiifir


esiniLir /^(^ar.
Those with two Malas have not body sure How will Karma affect ? W h a t then of Those With one Mala ? The Three niala covered stand Alone, Oh Lord, if not, How then explain ? NOTES. (g)

There is often a misunderstanding that when Vijnanakalars, Pralayakalars, and Sakalars said respectively to have one mala, two and three respectively, the first two classes hare no corporeal bodies. The author tries to remove this misapprehension and we had long a g o tried to point this out in our table of Tattvas (\'ide Studies in Saiva Siddhanta page 35). The Third mala here means only Asuddha Maya and Pralaya-

iS

THE LIGHT

01'

TRUTH

kalars and VijTianakalars have their bcxiies in Suddha Maya T a t t v a such as Nadha, Vindu &c.

par^reifiniL .SAjfetmrif} QeotriraDUiiu^n Qiinan^s .HarjSsmiL^a QjnaiGuBffiaSit G.siin(^ij> ^irrr finEjQiu&iirififieearsL^ies)^^^liui^n luni^Q
QuniaSiusiir G^/ccL-a'ir jpiems. If Two, One doth If One did part in two and one become True One-ness won't result. Become, the soul will die. Oli Kadanthai's Lord

How then did I become raised as Sivam, NOTE.

The old puzzle is stated in another form. The relation between the two is Advaita or ananya and the soul's nature and connection is such that it becomes one with whatever it is attached to losing its own individuality. But for this peculiar nature of Jiva, postulated in Siddhanta this One ness is not possible.
a/reaarun aniL^ai^ui S^^esaraDm

Aasisrumsm m^Qp^^ si.^isar - sireaarun^l snemu^^ik tfihui^air &ntL<SQKjS aiitja ^aiir.


The seer, the sight and seen devoid one sees True Freedom wont result. With seer and seen (ii) And sight if they do see, they are those who Fell not in the burning path of my great Lord. NOTE.

This gives the true doctrine of jnathuru, Jnana and Jneya. It does not mean that all such perception of God's Power and Bliss and Presence is lost. If so, there can be no real mukti. W h a t is meant is there is no objective Perception of God by the soul or il6BW'ta/. It is when the soul loses this ^iKSeaairaf and sinks more and more into God, it can feel His Grace.

VINA

VLNBA

55

OtACvjv uffoD^itS Q^ifiiuti iSifiiLinaiir Qpii^n^

- Q-uaarfi^ ^liium^iT (Saiiif^fl

W h i l e one performs Karmic acts and eats fruits There's e'er no place of bis own self. Say how I can ne'er separate after. NOTE. O Lord (12) W h o present every whero dost shower Grace

It is God that secures the deserts of each according to his karma, in bhanda, as He is with them in all their acts and in all their enjoyments. W h e n freed also, though they perform karma it is God. That enjoys the fruits of karma and not the Jivanmukta. T h e y are not tainted b y the karma they do, as had dedicated all their acts to God. (^tasrifa/ff/fig ^seuir^ Qfiheomu QuirQ^arirx Sjr)(gu) Quir^i^ eS^^skiekruir ei/araDu> aS^^mCSa sjffldjar ^(^eSaruireo ruj^eSs(^isJ mneaof.
W i t h Grace one tries to kn jw, its lasting truth W i l l appear without doubt. If other wise (13) They do not care to know this Poem's Truth It will be like th*; fool in dream drinkrng middle.

Praise to Saint

Umapati^ivani.

T H E EVOLUTION OF TAMIL VIRUTTAMS


By B. N. TANIKACHALA MUDALIYAR, B.A.
I. INTRODUCTION .

In T a m i l Literature, works of great importance as Ramayaoam, Bharatam, Chintamani, Chulamapi, T e v a r a m , T i r u v a s a g a m , Nalayiraprabandam, T a y u m a n a v a r , etc., are almost wholly written in Taniil Viruttams, Viruttams form now no unimportant part of our poetic literature. A n y modern T a m i l poet, who is asked to compose a stanza on any subject, chooses to select one kind of viruttam or another, not because that he is unable to compose easily any other kind cf verse, but he prefers it to others, as it is v e r y musical or melodious. Though viruttams were being composed in our language for not less than fifteen centuries, we are disappointed to find that our ancient Tamil grammars speak nothing of viruttams, ?ind even our modern grammarians keep the prosody of T a m i l VirutCams in a classificatory stage. T h e appeal to the poet's trained ear for j u d g i n g the correctness or accuracy of metre of any given viruttam seems very arbitrary and is sometimes (naturally) unsuccessful. W h e n we peruse Ramayai;ia and more ancient works writtei: in viruttams, we do not find any ground for presuming that viruttams were written without their prosody. It w a s an unwritten prosody, so well known as the form of Shakespearean drama in our d a y . T h o u g h there is no book in T a m i l to show what a drama on the model of Shakespeare o u g h t to be, almost every modern Tamil student knows the general form of a Shakespearean drama, as he possesses an equal, if not a better, acquaintance with English than he has with his mother tongue. Similarly
* A lecture delivered at the annual meeting of the Tamilian Archs* logical Society in May 19 lo at Pachayappah's Hall.

EVOLUTION

OF TAMIL

VIRUTTAM

57

most of our Tamil poets from Tiruvalluvar * to Kaiiiban and to some extent his successors possessed a first hand and excellent knowledge of Sanskrit. It was then that the A r y a n language and literature had the best influence over the Dravidian minds.t It is a patent fact that some species o{ virnttarns^ noi all, were originally imitations of certiiin Sanskrit models, and Tamil scholars probably thought that it was unnecessary to write the prosody of viruttams that was well known to every one, and thus evaded their duty by calling viruttam a kind of Q-nfr^xui and so forth. Besides they never foresaw the difficulties that present themselves to us this day. And the- conservative I'amil Grammar will never allow the rules of Sanskrit Grammar tu be copied into it. When Tamil lost its patronage, the enthusiasm for the study of Tamil waned, and, ajorticri-, the interest of our countrymen in the simultaneous study of Tamil and Sanskrit, If poets of established fame should call Tamil a Saturn, at a time when Tamil was the language of some states, what its fate should have been after the dow^nfall of the T;imi1 Kingdo;ns may be easily imagined. Since the first year of the Madras University, Tamil began to get life again and it progressed indifferent ways. Y e t the prosody of Tamil viruttanis sunk into oblivion and would be so till tinw but for the energy of the late Mr. T . Virabadra Mudaliyur, b.A., B.L., whose genius and untiring patience gave fruit in the original grammar of Virutiapuviyal, in 1285. 'I hoiij^h it contains almost everything that relates to the structure of Tamil viruttams in a nutshell, the book is over-cow i ^e and too condensed to be assimilated into the head of an average
Tiruvajluvar is one of the landmarks in our Literature. f W e find the influence of Sanskrit even during the age of Sangam. The conflict between the Buddhism, the Shainanaui and the Hinduism in the Tamil country made the study ot S-iuikui a cnalter of necessity.

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THE LIGHT OF

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Tamil student, and during the twenty-five years of its publication, even twenty-five persons "do not seem to have read it completely. The present discourse follows to so.ne extent the theories of the said author, which will be quoted very freely in the words of Viruttapdviyal; but our subectmatter and purpose are different,
2. VIRUTTAMS AND ORTHODOX TAMIL GRAMMARS.

Though the Nanml, and other orthodox Tamil grammars postulate that Sound is prior to Symbol, and so indirectly admit the preference of sound to symbol, we do not find in thtrm even a single instance where this fundamental principle was openly adhered to by them. On the other hand, a directly opposite application was unconsciously propagated by them in the calculation of Mattirai* The number of mdttirais in a word, according to the orthodox grammarians, is the sum total of all the mdttirais of all its letters. In viruttam-po"etry where music invariably plays an important part, such a mechanical addition cannot hold good and a word ought to be viewed as an organic whole an not as an addition or sum total of isolated bits. It is impossible to make fractional calculations of mattirai in a musical foot, and the sub-divisions of the unit really serve no purpose. Half a mattirai (the value given to a consonant) being a v e r y inconvenient and abstract element, our Tamil-Sanskrit scholars found a convenient w a y of getting rid of the fractional figures, consistent with the real sound of melodious feet, and the meanings of symbols were thus understood by them : \^'hen a consonant follows a sh.^rt vov/el (^^jp.^ui'.z) in a s^'llable (or ^aof), both of tliem together have the value of two mdHirais. But ever, u'hen two consoriar.ts follow a long vowel ((3/5lL(J,t) all of thern together have only two mattirais in sound. Though it many appear paradoxical that if equals be added to uncquals they make their sums equal
* i.e., measure oi" a short vowel.

EVOLUTION

OF TAMIL

VIIWTTAM.

59

yet, in the musical pronunciation of words in a foot of a Sa'uia viruttam, apparent additions of consonantal sound are not to be treated as mere mechanical additions, but as indicating a pause or prolongation, as the case may be, of the preceding vowel sound. In all Sanda-viruttams, a solitary short vowel can therefore be the only syllable that can have one mattirai. This is the first deviation of the Tamil.firw/Zaw prosody from the orthodox Tamil grammar. Tfie second deviation is the dispensation of Nittal Vikdram* ^Stirtjo) in Sanda-viruttams. The reason for this is that the musical prolongation of the vibrations produced by the sound of a short vowel for double the usual period is not the same as the sound of a long vowel alrin to it. Instances of it are common in Kamban, Tevarams of Sambandar and Sundaramurtigal and other famous works in our literature. The third deviation by which the sound is- preferred to the symbohc form is the use of one kind of sir {9n) or foot for that of a different kind which is generally expected t ^uch a use not interfering with the harmony of the line as a whole. A common intance of such a substitution is the use of a LLitij-siriif^.T for a affarj?(f. Afi^ar/rJ)or a l o n g vildchir is being used by our poets in the place of a airL-ff.r'^, Never a aScirainirf^j as a correction,
tliere

Vikaram is a change either of hardening, softening, lengthening, shortening, inserting or omitting any letter in a word for the sake of metre. f Vide the use of the obsolete jtr Q^miri^eary, for Q^i^n-siseaft
or L4nf}^rTtiirL as was scan the first chapter of Sundaramurti Nayanai's Tevaram. I A ^^.TtTi is ahvays equivalent to a ^iriifffn Such a usage is revealed in modern poets like Mr. Arun-chaiam Pillai, the Tamil pandit of Mahboob College, Secundrabad. In his work ^(jiiaar^ffSsw, composed on the occasion of the marr^ge of a daughter of Rai Baliadur Visudeva iMudaliyar of Nagpur, a aJPow/rj as iui^istruT is used for a f t n L ^ i i in the Invocation or s j u ^ j Q ^ J j u j e r .

lOo
made in the unuj literature.

THE LIGHT OF
Matriculatinn l > x t

TRUTH
for 1907 in Samhanclyrs'

fi^stDsuujrr/b^uu^SLD " v^iiruniLjua Qp^'^^'^Qfneear

toi^,

Q^irjpi.i)" etc., i s used in any vinittam of our Even in a vcnbd where form is more cared for, a tiSarrr.hsiruj is seldom USed.

The fourth deviation is necessary consequence of the other three. It is the treatment of all kinds of sirs as identical when they have equal cumulative length of mdttirai in a Sanda-viruttam. In most of the Sanda-viruttanis from the small A'a/i-viruttam species to the Octa-metric ones and their multiples, feet of equal matlirai are the cause of the melody. In Manorama (a kind of Kali-sandaviruttam) 'we find, besides its peculiar characteristics, four feet each made up of three mutttirais. A similar sir added to it with a long vowel sound at the end, constitute a SandaKalitturai having the name Seni (Q^ssiB). A foot more in ^eni will enlarge it to a beautiful hexametric Sanda viruttam. Similarly the seven-footed Sugandi is formed. These grades of evolution are found not only ihevirnttam of three mattirai-slrs^ but also to some extent in four and five mattirai-feet. The famou.'- first stanza of Tayumanavar consists of six five-mattirai feet with a long vowel in the end in every half of its line. These will he dealt with later on. The fifth deviation of the 7vr7///fi7-prosody is the freedom given to musician. Consonants which do not get a high pitch in sound may be treated as absent when their presence interferes with the melody of the line. This is due to the reluctance to use the artific of Vikaro7n in viruttams. Instances are common in Kamban who is a radical revolutionist; without posing himself as one, he set at nought the tyranny of custom in Tamil viruttam prosod3^ and had gone to the extent of improving the existing models by omitting, adding or changing a foot in certain types of viruttams which puzzle us sometimes.

EVOLllllON

Oh TAMIL

VIRL'TTAM

6i

Though reformation was being carried on to a great extent in Tamil prosody during the middle ages, we find even in these reformers orthodox Tamil grammar expressing itself as an instinct. When a certain rule of a viruttam gives Vendalai (Oa/irt_&r) any deviation from the rule keeping up the same talai (>f2eir) is considered no deviation. The causes of all these would be evident if we care to know.
3. THE O R I G I N OF V I R U I T A M S .

Viruttams are not of inciigenous growth. They were mostly transplanted from the northern Aryan soil and they underwent complex modifications in the Tamil environment. T h e Tamil soil was not fit to receive the'm in the beginning. The soil itself had to be rectified before it could give any nutrition to the foreign plants. It is here proposed to trace out the various processes by which the Dravidian soil was broken and made fit for the novel cultivations. Every Tamil Student knows something ot three great Tamil Safigams, the Talaichaiigam (^^^siisih), 1 daichaitgam

and the Kada'chahgani

i. e., the

first, the middle and the last academies. Tradition relating to the first academy takes us back to the time of Agastiya, who is popularly known as the Indian i^Isculapius. The events of flood etc., ascribed to this pre-historic period-make us believe that the present southernmost limit of India, the Cape Comorin was no southern limit to all, and that India extended towards the south hundreds of miles off. The first and the second Sangams are alleged to have been washed away by floods. Anyhow the president of the first Sangam, the first grammarian in Tamil, is considered a Siranjm (an immortal) and is supposed to reside invisible in some cave of Podiyamamalai in Southern India. T o this immortal Indian i?:sculapius are ascribed the metrical treatise on medicine written in Tamil-viruttams. It is only an expert in meaicine that can enter into discussions regarding the prescriptions in these books, which would be irrelevent

94

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here. But if one should view the literary aspect of these works, one should come to the conclusion that they are either spurious or written by one named after the great genius. It is certain that Agastiya, the president of the first Tamil Sangam, knew nothing of Tamil Viruttamsthe four kinds of metre that were current during the time of Tolkappianar or the Middle Sangam being Q^esaun, ^Qifl iLJuu(T, %oSlui.ir and and no more. In those days the literary influence of Tamil Sangams was tyrannically paramount. Though they produced excellent works which may be preserved as valuable relics of our ancient literature, their narrow-mindedness retarded the free growth and development of our language. A n y work published by anybody to be made a part of our literature required the sanction of these 'sovereign organs of the highest literary authority' and there was no appeal against iheir judgment 'in matters of intellectual tone and taste.' Henre many a good work setms to have sunk into oblivion or was caused to be destroyed, because the Sangam did not approve of its m^rit. Tradition says that even Tiruvalluvar had much difficulty in convincing the Sangam pundits of the merit of his Kural and he could not successfully do sn, till he was able to upset them and mike the board give roum to his book only. This shows thiit his work was not recognised till the last academy was abolished. Tiruvalluvar is the first literary reformer of whom we have any historical account.^ It may be probable that for centuries before him m.iny unknown authors sar^k into oblivion owinsr to the conservatism of Sangam and this would have pav d the way for 1 iruvaUuvar. W e can also inlrr from thr story cif 'i'inivr. lluvar's life that his success and the merited downfall of the Saiigam was earnestly prayed for by the public ; and the S-inga:n Pundits in spite of their knowledge, ability, intellect, productiveness, beauty and grandeur of tlieir art were fast losing their popularity

EVOLUTION

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VIRUTTAM

63
and

o w i n g to their pride, arrogance, narrow-mindedness their tyranny in the literary world.

W e may infer from the iraditions that the Sangam considered Ktiral as an innovation not sanctioned by usage. T h e y doubted whether the "^(ja/eri^a/uuttjar "can be called poetry at all. T i r u v a l l u v a r contested that it is a species of Venbd. T i r u v a l j u v a r could not be defeated in logical arguments. The last testthe most fatal t e s t ' t o the S a f i g a m was applied vii., whether the Sangam's magical board could give any room for The board contracted and gave room only for the book, and the forry nine puijdits who were majestjcally occupying the ooard hitherto, were magically thrown down into the golden-lotus-tank, and with great difficulty they swam to the bank and saved their lives. T h u s ends the history or our mythology of the last Tami] Sangam. The muse that was wrongfully confined by them and was being squeezed beneath their seat, flew with all her vigour throughout the length and breadth of the Tamil world.

{To be continued)

WOMEN AND WHAT TO DO FOR THCM.


B v T . S. S O M A S U N D A R A M PILLAI.

The question will be asked how a contribution headed "Women and what to do for them" can be justified in such a religious Journal as the Siddhanta Dipika whose purpose to the world is solely to impart divine researches to the theistic humanity. The answer is quite plain. W e do not stop with the common reconciliation which will be oflfered to this question that women form a portion of human beings equally fit to receive religious training as men and as such every facility as available for man ought to be made available for women alike. W e go still further. Unlike other religions and philosophies, the Saiva Siddhanta s a practical religion which we live every day. No impracticable theories are propounded by this philosophy and the conduct of men towards women forms but a portion of the dictate of religion and a true Siddhanti is bound to give a religious aspect towards the treatment of the members of the fair sex, be the relation what it may. The most lamentable condition in which we find women in this land makes us pause for a moment and think if there is a parallel to such a state of things in any other clime. Students of the social history of the world clearly tell us that in other continents women are treated with greater respect, that they are very carefully educated and that every effort is made to make their life as smooth as possible chiefly with the view that it is they who make the future nation fthe world. Healthy and long lived children are required to constitute a powerful nation and this fact is not ignored by men, responsible citizens of the state and the rulers of countries offer their possible help towards the achievement of such objects. The Japanese continent exhibited to the world a few years ago the gallant bravery of woman-hood in the sincere and bold despatch to the '^tlefield of every male re'ation in the family, and still more, in the heartfelt rejoicing by women

WOMEN AND WHAT

TO DO FOR THEM

65

when they heard of the news of the death of their kith and kin in the battlefield. Surely such a spirit in womankind is not at all a make of yesterday. Time alone must manufacture this spirit and conditions prevalent in the country must smoothly yield space for such a development. What do we find in this land of whose ancestral civilisation much is being boasted by the present day men ? W e do not hesitate to admit that in the matter of privileges extended to women there were many in the past ages which, for reasons which need not be explained here, were curtailed in course of time. Though we find women of eminence in literature, women who led highly religious livestoo high to admit of even one birth more in this mundane worldmost painfully does it strike us to see around us our own sisters, wives and daughters immersed in ignorance, in matters material as well as spiritual. If we ourselves, who know our lineage, who have come to that stage of development whence we can try to know what God is and how to attain His grace, are instrumental in not aiding to uplift our women socially, morally, intellectually and above all religiously as far as lies in our power, we connot reasonably justify our existence. In our daily life we hear it stated, and we ourselves observe, that seldom a husband and wife have both attained the same stage of advancement < f thought, if this inequality exists in 90 cases out of every joo, the reason is plain that such a match h^s been ordained to raise the lower stage to a higher one. Such opportunities ought to be availed of instead of being neglected and that will be wisdom on the part of mankind. Our women are kept m ignorance. Though the population of men who objected to fjmale education two or three decades before is getting thinner, the number of girls who attend school is yet low. 1 he impression that education to women is fraui^ht with harnvhas almost been effaced and the substitution of leina e teachers in girl's schools has induced many a parent to send their daughters to schools. Yet there are many young girls in villages and even in towns who are not being educated. We do not advocate that our girls should necessarily have tnglish education jior 3

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THE LIGHT OF TRUTH

should they be compelled atte idance at school even after they attain puberty. By all means give English education if possible but before you do so, see that all the excellent books in the mother tougue whi^h preach morals, good womanhood, and other spiritual virtues are placed in their hands and studied to advantage. First make her an ideal of our home worthy of our ancient lineage and then, craving existing, give her the benefit of a foreign languajie and an i d e a . o f the civilisation of the people who speak that language. A s we said above, we do not insist on gins attending school after they come of age. It is rare that a girl is unmarried when she attains maturity. She soon after com s under the swa^ of her husband and it must be the duty of 'le husband to look to advance her knowledge from that time and St e that her early education bears fruit in course of time. Elevation of our ,^omen is also another item which should engage our attention. In matters affecting our family life, our womai are never given atj upperiiand, much less, consulted in matters of domestic interest. Every question, we know, has two important sides and similarly every household has two important personages, the husband and the wife. A free discussion of things is what is wanted. 1 he opinion, coming from an educated wife, must have some sanity about it and one cannot easily and totally reject it. Give all respect and due attention to it and come to a common understanding and you will have peace and harmony prevailing in your homes. Yet this is not what we find around us. How many instances do we unconsciously come across in which a wife is leading a separate life from her husband, not chaste very often ? How many suits for maintenance do we read of in newspapers almost everyday ? How many murders do we find investigated by the authorities in Law Courts ? Shall we not avoid all these by paying careful attention to our wom.^n ? W e agiiate for political reforms on the platform, we take pride in saying that we move in high circles when the head of a district or a province invites us to a garden party and shakes hands with us, we constantly write to newspapers advising this body and that to walk on the right lines, we at times go to the extent

WOMEN

AND

fVHAT

TO DO FOR THEM

07

of advising mature minds even when their acts show high states* manship, but of what use is all this when we ourselves do not know what our defects are both individually and collectively and set our homes rij^ht before we discuss of politics in Kamschatka and rebellion in Macedonia ? Civilisation is advancing by leaps and bounds ; wonders such as railway, telegraphy, wire and wireless, telephones, steamships and airships, have all come into existence; dumb men are made to read and write in schools, things impossible are now presented before our eyes as possible, and one cannot see how such common things as education, elevation and freedom to our youiig women cannot be made possible to our home girls only if we have the will to give these to them. Let Heaven grant us the courage and resource to raise our women to thnt stage which they really deserve as makers of the future generation. Good associations for ladies is an imywrtant factor which we must provide for. By bringing them into contact and by allowing them to express their opinions and discuss social questions, much good can result. Hundreds of men's meetings have been thorough failures; because the orators never had the co operation of their women when they went within their homes. Care should however be taken that, in Ladies' Associations, advantage is not taken to admire the make of a particular jewel or the weaving o f ' a laced sareethus resulting in ladies cultivating envy and avarice and become an every day burden to the husband or brother. Virtues and knowledge leading to improvement should be the chief aim of such associations and it would not be safe at this stage to leave such gatherings entirely in the hands of the members of the fair sex. Members and sympathisers of the Saiva Siddhanta Mahssamaja really admire at the yearly conference the two eloquent lady speakers, Srimati Achalambikai Ammal and Srim iti Anda|amm^l^ if these ladies have the enviable gift of a flowiiig talk, they have equally learnt to make a solid speech as well. Morals from Periya Pur&nam at everystage of a devotee's life and philosophy as expounded by the great sages of this school come pouring as if

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from-a reservoir and one cannot see why ladies of this kind should not be many. Given the training and culture and freedom of thought, we are sure to have m our midst ladies of the type of Ghandramati, Damayanti, and Savitri who represent typical wives and Karaikalammaiyar and Droupati who represent typical women-devotees of the Lord. The screw entirely rests in the hands of men alone and the future woman will be made according to how the screw is turned. If religiouslyby it is meant mentally, morally, intellectually and spirituallywe wish to keep our women at par with us, we will be only acting up to that chief dictate of religion that to love God is to love His children. Women are children of God as much as men and to find God in a woman as in a man would be quite in keeping with religion.

NAMMALVAR'S TIRUVIRUTTAM. l^erse 47. (Van Kurr. arai-y-a).


Heading.By her Ia)rd'9 glance overcome, the wondering Bride, Portrays the e)'es which her did conquer thus. TextTo mewho, rev'rent, grasped the feet of my Blest Lord. W h o swelled his frame so as to reach beyond the skies, Like one who doth address all, s a y ' n g "The wide expanse of earth and heaven, See ye, suffice not for my feet ! " M y Lord's wide eyes shined like a lake Whose soft stalked lotuses being, By strong wind, bent aside, thronged in a nook expand ! Explanation . W h e n our S e e r ' s thus grieved, God showing how he stoops to him, Casts on him his kind ghnce, seeing which our Seer exults, Intense thought having grown into a second sight. O u r Lord's armj, Hanuman erst praised, saying : "These longround arms, resembling as they do. Longroundwood-pieces wherewith gates i r e barred. T o jewel all, can beauty, O, impart ! W h y then are they decked with no ornaments ? " (Ramay a n a " A yatasrha"&c.)
* T h e following Christian expression, note : " Easy in words, thy s t y l e ' s in sense sablime. On its ble~t steps each age and sex may rise. 'Tis like the ladder in the patriarch's dream, (Gen., 28.12.) Its foot on earth, its height beyond the skies."Lines addres ed to William Sherlock, D. D., (Dean of St. Paul's), and prefixsd to his Prjut^cal Diiceuru co'jctr.iir.g Dt iih {Eiin.oi 1834.)

lOo Heading . T h e

THE LIGHT OF Verse

TRUTH

Bride describes the Beauty of, the Bridegroom's Form. [Phidias, when he formed his Jupiter, did not copy any object ever presented to his sight ; but contemplated only that image which he had conceived in his mind from Homer's description.Proclus, cited in Sir Joshua Reynolds's 5 m n on Art, opening of Discourse III. See ante^ *'Mottos and Testimonies," end of Head XXVII.]

{Kan-n-uw-jem-daivarai)

Text .Red-k)tus-like are His eyes, hands and feet ! My Lord's Fair Form's glow is like that Of a unique blue-mountain g r e a t ! Idea adequate of it Can e'en those wisest be'ngs have, who Res'dents are of the Highest Heav'n^Which is above the solar sphere. Raised though the latter sphere's itself Above the s k y of common gods ? Explanation .Pond ring the beauty of th' Lord's eye, our S e e r ' s led on T o ponder that of other limbs and body whole, And, wondering, exclaimsthat grasp complete hereof Isn't possible to him or e'en the highest Beings, T h u s was our Model lady Sltft led to think Ot Rama's body whole, when She did see His ring ! The ring, the finger did s u g g e s t , the last the hands, T h e hands the body ;-tbIs, in thought she straight embraced ! (RamSyapa 5.36.4.--" Grihltva Bhartaram iva samprftpta." Cp. too, id., 5.38,72, as to Hanuman's realisation of R2ma "Hridayena gato Ramam, artrena tu vi-shttitah ?")

Vtrst 4.4. (Niram uyar-kolam-um.)


Heading . ^ T h e Bride describes the greatness of her Lord. (1) Complexion Fair, (a) Adornment High, ( j ) Name, (4) Form, speak of as such and sucb

TIRRUVIRUXTAM

71

Those ^ h o Ve, through loiU grown wise. B y their high ken t h e y ' v e gained indeed Some light as to each of these points. Y e t , of this Being towers 'Thout equal or superior, Not one trait have they wholly grasped ! Their has n't sufficed for this ! Explanation.can you s a y G o d ' s qual'ties are inscrutable, While various system-founder's wise, do these detail ? " Thus, one may ask. T o this our Seer thus replies : " t ' e n they know not the whole t^uth on this Theme "Those Attributes B e n i g n - H i s Saints ascribe to Him, Those attributes God will clothe Himself in, in Hea'cn? The M a x i m ' A s we sow we reap', means nothing more. 'More things in Heav'n and earth than are' thought of by us, The 'foresaid maxim doesn't preclude our see'ng when free."Vedantacharya. = "Upasita-Gunacier y a " &c.)

Verse

(Per-umgezhaldr,)

Heading.-The Bride exults, remembering how Her Lord, all from the Deluge saved. Text.^oor heart I remember how, even when the Deluge swept. The Lordincarnate as boar-shaped Flood-diver huge, Saved us with steady glance of His wide lotus eye ! Is any one knit with him by such ties as we ? A t that old time, enjoyment too of him, we had !
Compare the following ancient anecdote : Four blindmen 'gan an el'pbant's ftnm to scan. Touching the ear, * * 'tic winnow-like" one cried. Touching the tail, the next said"broom-like 'tis." From th' trunk, the third held it is pestle-like. From th' leg, the fourth compared it with a palm. None mea>.t to lie ; all trrcd ; for, e-^ch 'gan s a y ' n g "/f"' instead of part of U I frobtd."

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THE LIGHT OF

TRUTH

Can whelming birth-griefs, say, e'en Jtear such as we are ? May'st thou, all perturbation ov'r, tfie blest state reach ! Exjjlanation.''^a.y't\g'God, His greatness made me see,' you do exult. Can bound souls e'er enjoy the bliss reserved for the free?" Thus, one may ask. T o this our Seer thus replies : T o uson whom His grace He hath in fulness show'red, Fear-cause there is none. Let us remember our Lord's words: ' W h o but once trusts Me, and prays s a y i n g " I am Thine," Him I, 'bove fear from all be'ngs, la se. Thus have I vowed." ( = "Sakrid eva prapannaya" &c. RamayaT:ia, 33-34 ) ["Theistic optimism's this" philosophers say. " The Doctrine of Saints' Final Perseverence," this By Christendom is tailed'. Ma}' all souls thus be blest!] I. (1) "From ripe Saints, none ; (3) from warriors, foes ; f = " K a s y a p y aghatako viprah," &c,) (3) From shopmen, tritstinJ atstomcrs\ ( i ) From mob-men, ail; have cause of fear. " II. " H e whom we cause fear, fear spring is to us." ( = "Bhayam biilraddhi j^yate ?") III. "T/iat creature whose flesh I eat here, c = "Mam sa khadayitamutra, yasya niamsam ihadmyaham." Manu 5,55.) Will me hereafter eat up too." IV. Rama alone eyeing, they, from mutual hurt abstained" (Ramayaiia, = "Kamam evanu-paSyantah." V "He who(i) grieves not the world, (2) hence, is not grieved by the world, Does not (3) Exult (4) hite, (5) fear, or (6) grieve, from his being (Gita i2-i5) = "Yasm4n no'dvijaie" Affected differently' by different souls, Is ;ilso ('mong thoie who are) dear to me.

TIRUVIRUTTAM
V I . 'Ladies (at bath,) straight clothed themselves Abashed, on see'ng Seer V y a s follevo Hw son of all-trscendent worth I S t r a n g e ! they had n't done so, see'ng the s o n ! Seer V y ^ see'ng this, the reason asked. *The sexes thou distinguishcst, This, ihy son doesn't, see'ng God atone! Such was the answer they vouchsafed,'* ("Drishtva yantarn," &c,) T h i s thought the Moslems t h u s express ; A r^-ximan and clod, my e y e May sec at once, but if, on that It dwells more than on this, it lusts. In diflf'rent iirst-sight's innocent ( = "halar). T h e second instant's sight is lust ( = "harAm''.) See'ing and trusting God, m a n ' s thus blest ! Vli.

73

'nu-

"Our provision for the moment of death, is the immediate abandonment of the thought'What shall we now provide against that evnt ?", s a y s our Good-Word Jewel, Sentence 79. ^'Whoever shrinks back on sue'ng a tiger come, !s not a full-blown Saint", the Moslem say. This text, Macaulaty says, brave William's faith well stood (See Macaulay's Hist, of Eng.) Fearless, who at a Hon stares, he is n't Hurt by the lion" lion-tamers say. "In African's v,?ilds 1 stood pray'ng. And lions tamely went ,past me Such is Livingstones test' mony ! (See th' Presbyterian, Edinburgh.) " W h o finds not Providence all good and Wise, Alike in what it gives and what denies?" Pope's

OH meiH.
**lf on thy right chcek one emites thee, Show him thy left cheek too" says Christ (Matt. " -= Luke, 6.2g.)

74

the

LGtiT

OF

TRUlIl

"Bless them that curse thee, Manu s^iys. The villain's maxim is " A s mine is mine, thine too is mine" The honest worlding O>YIIS"As mine is mine, thine too is thine." It is the saint who says.,As thine is thine, mine too is thine." For saintliness, w'len ripe, is Magnanimity Divine' vide, May Universal Religion.

Verse 46, {Mada' jicmjani tnr

ittji.)

Heading.The Bride cries : "I, my heart, as message bearer sent ; But it, without returning, hath staid with the Lord!" Ttvc/.Those who, thinking their heart's (i) an instrument and (2) theirs, Mean to send it on bus'ness as a messenger. Had better not do so. For I erst sent my heart, A s messenger from me to wait beneath the feet Of that Saviour v^'ho, v;ith His finger nails, did tear With ease, the heart of that bad soul who "Golden" 's r.amed ; My he.irt, departing from me, fleetly went, and, with Firm will, rejects all thoughl of me by whom 'twas sent A n d ' s owned, but, till now, 's roaming gaily with the lord; Explanation.Onv Seer, with inner eye enjoy'ng the Lord, to hug Him outwardly attempts. This not succeeding, cries : "My heiiri joined God, 'yond possibility of return ! Yet, ah I 1 roam, to touch of worldly things e.xposed !" [Compare the follow'ng lilies of Golds.nith's Traveller / Where'er 1 roam, whatever realms to see, M}' heart, untramelled, fondl}' turns to thee Ide.ils' fruition full, 's realised in heav'n alone. 1 ill H e a v ' n ' s rtachcd, let 's ideals fore our mind's eye keep ! 'I hus say'ng, Tennyson's son-in-law inscribes a work. 'M(.(lel ;'c)r i;nitation choosc " says Cicero (Kcynuld's ^cvm LJi^-cuini^cs un A i l , middle uf Dioc. Vl).

TiRUVIRUTTAM

/5

" T h e poe's, orator?;, and rhetoridans of antiquity, are continually enforcing this position, that all the arts receive their perfection from an ideal beauty, superior to what is to be found in individual nature. ' They are ever referring to the practice of the painters and sculptors of their times, particularly Phidi IS (the favourite artist of antiquity) to illustrate their assertions...says Prod us...'Phidias, when heformetj his Jupiter, did not copy any object ever presented to his sight ; but contemplated only that image which he had conceived in his mind from Homer's description.' And thus Cicero speaking of the same Phidias 'Neither did this artist,' says he, 'when he carved the image of Jupiter or Minerva, set before him any one human figure as a pattern, which he was to copy ; but having a more perfect idea of beauty fixed in his mind this he steadily contemplated, and to the imitation of this all his skill and labour were directed." This can only be acquired by him that enlarges the sphere of his understanding b y a variety o knowledge, and warms his imagination with the best productions of ancient and modern poetry...the object...is that one great idea which gives to painting its true dignity, that entitles it to the name of a Liberal Art and ranks it as a sister of poe t r y . " (Id, Discourse III.) *^VVe can easily, like ihs ancients, suppose a Jupiter to be possessed ol ail those powers and perfections wh'ch the subordinate Dtilies were endowed with separately," (Id., Discourse V.) "The effect of the capit.il works of Mischael Angelo perfectly correspond to what Bourchardon siii-i he ftlt from reading Homer. I lis whole frame appeared to himstif to be enlarged and all nature which surrounded him diminished to atom -^." (Id., middle.) "Poussin lived and conversed with the ancient statues so long that he may be said to be better acquainted with them ihaii with the people who were about l.im. ' (Kl.) ...we may be .=;ure that ihc present institution will at last contiibutc to advancc our knowle Ige of ihc arts, rnd brin.g^ us

lOo

THE LIGHT

OF

TRUTH

nearer to that ideal excellence wnich it rs the lot of genius always to contemplate and never [on earthj to attain." (Id. Discourse I, middle.)

Verse 4J {Tiri-kinr-a-thu vada m&ratham)


Heading.The Bride's pain of sep'ration grow'ng unbearable. Her Foster-mother, witnessing the scene laments. Text.(i) The (cool) moon gat!;ers and pours burning fire t (2) The north wind blows, doing the sanve great harm ? (3) Failure t' attain Krishna's Heaven And His unhindered worship there, Doth slip the bracelet from the hand ! (4) His c o o l - f i n e - T u l ' si not be'ng gained. Paleness o'erspweads the body whole 1 W h a t will become of my soft girl ? Exflattation:\. Outward enjoy'ng, in keeping with his ideal Being denied, outward fhii^s, him reminding grieve, [ R a m a y a ^ ' s "Beauteous Book," contains the following thought : ^See'ng fruit or flow'r or other thing,-exceeding fine, Say'ng'O my dear V the Lord oft sigh'ng doth thee address I'T See'ng this, our Seer's Friends, as follows do lament : " T o souls-who are not with the Lord, E'en gentle folks pain-causes g r o w , " IL "^(i) Pond'ring the Lord a s Sole Salvation Means, w e wait ; (2) Pond'ing Him as our Bliss-supreme, we restless stir Lokacharyas Good.Word Jewel, Sentence. "Upayatvanu-sandh^nam ravartakam &c, III. " W h a t will become" of our Sel, W h o is our Saviour unique

(Canto. 36, V. 45 Drishtva phalain

&c.)

PURANANURU.
XXV.

tl-^jSAj^

uirSq^ enaectnjn9^ p^eSiJso

sut^r^

^aoof^^si^

ui^iuQirm K ^irjfia jtiiUL9 QsuK^snjajumiBSQ^La upn^^Teoit^ssmttau uorniemflu iSssfitqjV (yijr^ia QsrsarL^ airSsv) iS^BO^fl Qujshu^ ^aaruemu- aso'^w^-f
iQsinQsap Q^i^-jj

QpSsoQuire^ lUiTA (ip(^uu


QiDiuiiiLopibjfil ULLI euani OJITU

Qaivasa^SB^dff Luawflr enaLDantt, aiL.ir mieQjrp^ <s<s(^ ldu^QLO^ (^fiB>aua9(5 QsiriUjsh <siar(Si^. A s if the sun forgetting not the power that attends his daily march; to chase darkness from the vast star-be-spangled heaven, had joined the moon, with milder lustre bright;two kings of mighty strength in '.var combined with oaths against thee O Paudiyan king ! But on the fearful battlefield thou didst cause them to flee defeated, and their well-bound warlike drum was taken ! Thea thy spear lost not its power, but surely saved our mighty hosts who stood by thee undaunted on the battleplain!There didst thou see the bright faced matrons bewail their widowhood with loud laments, as lost in grief they smote upon their beauteous glowing breasts. There too were seen the piles of tresses shorn i.way and gleaming dark as the ocean sand!
XXVI,

m&Hai eueSi^ani^^ ^eSjuQ^scR^

^eiildutfs^s iXjrrssrappsijW ^ e i i f n a p ^ j j eBajstiri/si

IIIF.

LIGHT

OF

IRIJTH

Q s^ofB^o'Bsinu Q.i>io\Q-nii^ luir-^i.iuQpa mQ jvzn JH (ipijf^-ixSso 'u^i'ii iirri't


L^SSTu^uRoiQ'^.ns,?(^i

Q^^ ITuf. iQ jX 1 LL SL/L^.n jQi^ i^x su^^ml 637-IBOJF/C QiajiLu- eu^Qun i^ Q^i^iu evTekr) C o 3 1 7 6 ^ 5 lUii^Suj QaiJin (^a
ffirssr/osoi o (ipswsvj si^hpn iLtra

iTioStfiST (S/rsvM Q^'-'uiu LDsirssB u QoUi'neQ Qpp^T&iu SUIT insiji in Qmtk'es QirpQ'^r LDi,irT)SaT /.jsDJsw/f issiQ^^ LOTjj^Vy Qj sirJ^LD Ql Itljh'aLir) G^r^Cy JriruSspt LnrsssrjSaiirip QsunQj, A s in the mighty depths of the vasty sea a ship moves driven by the raging winds, your elephants advanced and cleared the battlefield, and in the ground so cleared you lifted your conquering spear with glittering points. You waged your war so that kings fall. Right gloriously you seized their drum, and then with crowned head for cooking place, with flowing blood for boiling pan, with j e w d l e d a r m to stir the mess, you have made the food which you desired, and oflfered sacrifice upon the battle field, O mighty Pandi^'an k i n g ! Sages of learning rare and of pious life skilbd in the four Vedas were your attendant train. While kings do service, O King of conquering sword ! thou dost complete the sacred rite. Thine enemies in soothe have dread the penance son', yet though as thine enemies they failed, they gained the prize in the great world beyond.
NOTK.

The sacrifices offered by the kin;; were twofold. He offered to tlie malignant powers the mangled bodies of his enemies, making the "hellbroth thick and slab," like tlie witches in Macbeth. And then he performed the holy right which recompensed, his ene:iiie3, who had ihus been defeated and slain, by procuring '^r them the joys of paradise! And then tlie king displayed hii bravery, and ako Iiio kindly viitue.

HALTH AND HOW T O MAINTAIN IT


B y A PHYSICI.VN,

Of all the ble sings of lite, the greatest is considered to be health. Health is said to be Heavenly bliss. Health is even said to be wealth. Health consists in t+ie normal state and harmonious relations of the human constitutionMental and Physical. But how few know, rather, but few of us realise that this great blessing is not a mere accident or the free gift of nature, but the result of patient attention to small things and a great deal of care bestowed on niinutiae. The tendency for health might be inherited so also might be the tendency for disease. The greatest thing that parents could do for their progeny is to see that thsy do not communicate or transmit any diseased mental moral or physical propensity to it. I'his is a great responsibility and parents who are conscientious ought to remember it. Those that violnte the laws of h e a l t h might well ponder over the fact that the effects of their violation might be inherited by their children or their children's children. Environment makes or mars the inheiited tendencies. Human
effort must be d i r e c t e d yet v h o not only tu cre.iic a considi;r the he.-ilthy latter stock merely

but also to place it in a healthy environment.


t o be w e a l t h a n d would

Health is said

a gift from others and woulJ m t exert liim,c;lf toilet it l'J\ei y stone is patiently turned, every hardship cliecifull)' borne, every privation willingly undergone and exer}' e.iterpiise boldly undertaken when there is even a remote chance of getting a fortune. Kconomic success means scrupulour, attention to small things, taking care of pies and toiling hard day and niglit. But who t..kes buch trouble about health?

lOo

THE LIGHT OF

TRUTH

Yet, is it not tlie best form of wealth one could possess on earth ? l"be whole fabric of our health depends on the due attention we pa}' to several trifling things in life. Moderation in food and drink, regularity in rest and activity, work and play properly adjusted, mental, moral, and physical activities duly and carefully regulated, the avoidance of excesses, the faithful adoption of the rule of the golden mean, these are some of the man}'small things one has to pay scrupulous attention to if one should desire to enjoy good health in life. The span of human life depends on the health it enjoys during its pilgrimage on this planet of ours. If we are not healthy and strong We will be a burden-to our kiih and kin. " I f I am not well, strong and happy, I am thrice a debtor first to myself; Second to every human being, And third to the cosmos of the universe."

Sidney

A.

WtUmtr.

Our labours are of no avail if we cannot maintain a healthy life here. Health deserves careful considerationas an able writer remarks, " the first req^uisite to success in life is to be a good animal." An expression used by a Roman poet has been called the golden rule of educationa sound mind in a sound body. The ignorant suppose that health is beyond their control. It is true that we are yet unacquainted with the origin of some diseases, but undoubtedly more than half the sickness in the world is owing to the disregard of certain known laws of nature. The air we breathe, the water we drink* the food we eat, the raiment we put on our bodies, practically sum up all the most important conditions of our existence^ our health and our physical developmentLet me deal with them under their respective headings: The air breathe. This is the first requisite. W e can live several days without food, but we die in two or three minutes if kept without air. The evil effects of overcrowdirg are, to a considerable extent, due to foul air. Many are rendered

H E A L l I i AND

HOW TO MAINTAIN

IT 85

feeble and sickly lor want of fresh air. Every time we breathe we inhale a part of the air which supports life and give out a poisonous kind of gas. The air we breathe out should theretone be allowed to escape and fresh f i r should be admitted. Most Indian houses are badly ventilate J. Bed rooms are often small, frequently they have only one httle window. It is also a common practice to crowd bed rooms with boxes and other articles still further diminishing the capacity of the room and thus lessening the quantity of air. Many persons when they go to sleep wrap a cloth over their heads, which impedes breathing. If we wish to be vigorous we must secure a sufficient supply of fresh air. The average houfe in India, it is said is built cold proof, in fact more air-tight than the most air-tight house ever built in England. Free ventilation, large houses with wide open windows are most essential to get a tresh supply of air, Th^ water ice drink : A great deal of sickness is caused b y drinking impure water, people often bathe and wash ciothes in tanks, whose water is used for drinking purposes; even cattle are allowed to go into them. The water of tanks which dry up or get very low in the hot season is unwholesome. Decaying vegetation is a fruitful cause of fever. Trees and bamboos should not be allowed to overhang tanks and wells, a s their leaves fall into the water and render it unwholesome, ^ a t e r on which the sun does not shine is generally not good. Bist4h and its uses :The art of bathing is one of the precious assets for which modern civilization is indebted to antiquit3\ The desire for cleaning the body by washing seems to be the discovery of the human instinct. The more civilised the people are, the more alive t l e y become to the necessity of bathing in order to keep the body clean. So bathing, they say, might be considered a test of civilization in the modern world. In regard to baths one has to take into consideration the climate of the country also, because the cooler the climate is, the less inclined the peupie will be for

lOo

THE LIGHT OF

TRUTH

frequent baths. Cleaning of the sJcin is particularly necessary in hot climates when the amount of watery sweat and solid excretion and desquamation from it is considerable, the skin performing a part of the function A^hich belongs to the kidneys and lungs in colder climates. In hot climates a daily baih becomes a necessity, whereas, in a cold climate it might be a luxury. From the scientific point of view, baths could never become a luxury. For baths have a double function to perform. The first and the foremost of the two is to keep the body clean and the other to regulate the temperature of the body. Looked at from both points of view, a daily bath becomes a necessity In any climate, be it hot or cold. A great many p>eople, as for that, many educated and cultured people who should know better, take for granted that what is wanted for a bath is to get into water and come out of it with an occasional scrubbing of the skin. This might satisfy the conscience of a cereii.onious puritan, but the medical man is too scrupulous to reckon such a process under the category of bat^s. The human skin contains minute openings on its surfiace. Besides these the skin contains many glands which secrete oil or sweat into these pc^res. The sweat contains water, salt and many deleterious matters generated in the body. It is essential that the pores be open so that the sweat might easily pass out through them freeing the body of its poisonous substances. Frequently dust accumulates on the skin and blocks the pores. This blocking of the pores prevents the free exit of the sweat. The poisonous matter in ihe body, being prevented an escape through the skin, attempts to escape through the lungs and the kidneys thus throwing too much work on these organs. S o it would now appear how important it is to have the pores of the skin clean. Every effort should be made to remove the dusrt as soon as it gathers on the skin, to prevent its blocking the pon;s. Water has the property of dissolving dirt. Hot water is reputed to have better solvent prepertiea than cold water. But the oily substances on the surface of the

H E A L l I i AND

HOW TO MAINTAIN

IT

85

skin need also be dissolved and removed. Hence arises the necessity for using so.ip. Some good soaps contain an excess of alkaline s-ibstances, which possess a remarkable affinity for oily or fatty substances found in the body and elsewhere. So when soap solution is applied to the skin and the latter scrubbed thoroughly, there is every chance of the dirt and oil being removed completely from the skin, and the pores permit a free exit of copious perspiration, These baths that are not calciilated to remove the dust and fat from the skin do not deserve to be called baths from the scientific point of view. Business people who frequently get out must realise how important it is for their health that they should bathe frequently and efificiently. Mere pouring of water over the body serves no useful purpose. Some fat dissolving substances like soap must become a prerequisite of baths. The other most important function ot baths is to regulate the temperatur? of the body. In cold weather, bodily warmth might be preserved and even increased by having recourse to hot water baths. In hot weather nothing is more efficacious in cooling down the heat of the body than cold baths. " O u r life," it is said, " is a simple process constantly needing attention to simple things It may be a surprise to many to realise to what great extent their health and well being depend on the proper performance of a simple act, like their daily balh. The food we eat:The importance of food seems to be so obvious that any attention drawn to it might be considered needless. "But often the most important aspects of life are those that are most neglected and what is everybody's business is generally nobody's. Expectation often fails where most it promises and the simpler a thing is the more frequently it evades our grasp, because it is so simple." are the words of an eminent doctor. Cooked food has many advanta^as over raw food, the most important of tliem being that it is more palatable and is more easily digested. The great majority of fruits do not need cooking, for when they ripen, they usually

S4

THE LIGHT OF

TROTH
besides possessing

attain the" most digestive !lie most tempting flavour.

consistenc}^

Women seem to take to cooking instinctively all the virorld over, but man does so through sheer necessity. In the rush and haste of modem life there is the danger of underrating the importance of food and considering it only a necessary evil, Ignorance is not the only cause for the consumption of bad food. While the physical devolpment of the race depends on IxTih the quantity and quality of the food it consumes, still greater emphasis should be laid on the latter. There is no law more frequently ^broken in life than that of temperance as regards quantity of food we eat. W e generally forget that we eat to live, and behave as if we believe the converse proposition. Our digestive organs are very sensitive and tlieir functions have therefore to be studied and honoured. Particular attention must be paid to the quantity and quality of food we eat. It should neither be too little nor too much. In the former case emaciation and weakness ensue, whereas the danger in the latter case i'^ indigestion, dyspepsia and tire ultimate physical and mental break-down of the human

organism. The quality of the food should be neither too nrh nor too poor. It is difficult to say at the outset what the kind and the amount of food a man or a woman needs. I hey are relative to the ages, conditions and occupations of the people. Hard physical exertion needs rich food, food that is capable of giving flesn and bone; mental work needs easily assimilable food , food that increases energy and brain power. The fewer the meals taken and the longer the interval between the mealsy the better it is for health. The nx)st important thing in diet is to see that the diet allowed for each day contains the proper proportion of probids, fats and carbohydrates. Cereals, cheese, nuts, eggs and oat meal contain j)roportionately great quantities of proteids; butter and vlie^se of f a t s ; Rice, potatoes, etc., of carbo h3^drates. Fi Luit and aninvil food in three or four hours. One may

HEALlIi

AND HOW TO MAINTAIN

IT

85

construct a table of diet for oneself, according to one's age, sex, occupation, present condition of health and environment. It is strange that men should take to poisoning themselves with poisonous and crave forming foods and drugs which they know to be deadly, and in spite of this knowledge be <iuite unable to resist the temptations to take them. Health, wealth, position, fame and family happiness are all sacrificed one after another before the poison crave. Men who once were reasonable beings become in the course of years mere self-indulgent sots, furious wAd animals or finally dangerous and unrestrainable lunatics. This is the characteristic of all stimufcition either through food or drug. Meat the unnatural food is a stimulant and once having begun stimulation men were forced to go'on and to constantly increase the dose. After a meat diet one feels vigorous for some time. But a diet consisting of cereals, fruits, nuts, vegetables milk, honey and such natural and humane diet will give us a cleaner body, a healthier mentality and a higher morality. TTie use of the 3'F's i e., flesh, fish and fowl as food is unhygienic, unnatural. Purity, Humanitarianism, and Temperance in all things, make us sensible, right, decent, stronger, healthier, happier, and clear-headed. Adequate sleep:Sleep is defined as the process of resting with the voluntary excercise of the powers of mind suspended. The difference between a man who is sleeping and the man who is awake depends upon the fact that the former is bereft, for the time bemg, of all voluntary action. Sleep is intended to give both mental and physical rest. Those that do mental work need longer hours of sleep than those whose daily avocations of life involve merely physical strain. In sleeping one ought to study the posture of the body during sleep. Also one must try to give rest to as '-lany muscles of the body as possible by bringing them in contact with the bed. T o sleep on the right side is considered scientific and

86

THE LIGHT OF

IRUfH

on the left side - unscientific, as it embarrasses the action c>t the heart. I'he night is usually the best time for sleep. It is a popular conception that one ought to sleep before midnight. A s regirds the length of time one should sleep, it is needless to lay any definite rules. But it must be clearly understood that idle lying in bed is not sleep and therefore cannot do much good. The harder one's work is and the greater one's activities are, the longer should one sleep. In cold climate people usually sleep eight hours at one stretch. In hot climates >one needs longer sleep; at all events, not less than eight hours sleep should be the rule. After all sleep is a means but not an end, so it is best to keep it under control. This is the safest maxim to remember when one wishes to live a healthy life to sleep so long as to feel quite refreshed when waking up in the morning. It is better to sleep a little longer than not. Cutting short the hours of sleep, whether it be for work or pleasure, is a penny-wise and pound foolish policy. Clothing, its uses and purposes :Clothing has two objects in view, the one that it keeps in the body its own heat and the other being that it prevents the speedy conduction to it of external warmth or cold. Loosely flowing robes allow the free entrance of air between the skin -and the robes and therefore they wowld not let the air conduct a w a y the warmth from the body or communicate to it external heat or cold. The quality of clothing also influences its conductivity. Silk and wool are reputed as very bad conductors. The latter keeps the body warm in cold season, because it preserves the heat oT the body and does not conduct it a w a y rapidly. The former is very useful in summer because it is such a bad conductor, of external warmth to the body. Silk being a bad conductor, it would not conduct away rapidly the warmth of the body either. SJ even in cold season silk might serve the purpose of wool. It has again one greater advantage over wool, and that is the soft and agreeable feeling created when it co:n:5 in contact with the skin. It might

H E A L l I i AND HOW TO MAINTAIN

IT

85

not be o u t . of place h e r e t o remark that those who have to wear flannel next to the skin in hot weather might with great cornfort replace it with silk without much fear of serious consequences. Cold climates necessitate more clothing than warm climates. The object of clothing being protection, decency and ornament. Modern convention and dame Fashion often prescribe clothing which is neither beautiful nor hygicjiic. One ought, therefore, to get the courage to say nay to fashion, should its claim clash with those of science and one could get tlie courage to do it only when one understands the scientific basis of-clothing. Clothing must above all be clean and comfortable. Scrupulous cleanliness ot the undergarments is most essential to health. They must frequently be changed and washed particularly when they are wet with sweat. In wai-m climate under-clothing should not be so tight-fitting as to interfere to "any extent, with the ventilation of the body. The skin of the human beings needs light for its health, and clothing should not therefore interfere with either of them. The upper garments should be light and loose so as not to beuncomfortable in any posture of the body. Ir is best to protect the feet from venomous reptiles, like the snake and the scorpion, and also from- disease germs. Care must be taken not to injure or crush the feet or toes by tight-fitiing shoes or boots. T o keep the feet warm is most important to health in cold countries. A s regards head-dress, it should be such as not only to protect the head from the heat of the sun but also to shield the face, particularly the eyes, from the gUire. In fact, scientific clothing should be according to the needs of the age, sex, occupation etc., of the li:dividuals. Colour as regards raiment is certainly not an unimportant matter. There is hardly any one that does not show partiality to some one colour or other. The colour of clothing has also its significance. White colour is produced by the reflection of all the rays of light from the substance. So white clothing reflects all the Tzys of the sun's light that strike on it. Therefore there is rvey little absorption of heat and light by white clothing and

lOo

THE LIGHT OF

TRUTH

it is on that account safely rccommended as a scientific colour for all warm and sunny countries. Again black colour is produced by the substance which absorbs all the rays oflight shed on it from the sun. Thare is no reflection of light from a black substance. Therefore black clothing absorbs light and heat. Yellow colour has recently been noticed to be of great use in the tropics particularly for head-dress. Green coloured clothes are very useful to the eye in countries where the glare of the sunlight is very great. Red colour is reputed to have the power of producing excitement. It is needless to ay that climatic considerations ought to influence the choice of the colour of raiment, j f one wishes to make oneself comfortable-

Physical

Loccrcise,

1 he importance of physical exercise can never be overestimated. T o enjoy the conditions of modern civilization, a healthy body and a vigorous constitution arenecessary. Physical exercise is necessary to regulate the blood supply of the body and to expel the waste products accumulated in the blood. Those who have much mental work daily need physical exercise as a recreation. The best form of recreation is to take an interest in games and sports. Games and sports, while affording physical exercise, engrosses the mind and helps to forget itself. The .value of games is that not only are they trials of strength but, above all things, trials of skill. 1 need not mention here the moral and mental qualities one would acquire on the sporting field which would be of considerable individual value. Quickness of the eye, lightness of the step, nimbleness of the movement, calmness, patience and tact are developed to a wonderful degree on the sporting field. But there is always the danger of having too much of a good thing. Even physical exercise might be over done. Over expenditure of energy must inevitably end in a speedy collapse. So one ought to guard against overdoing physical exercise and against cultivating an inordinate love for sports and games. Jemptrance:This virtue in its widest sense denotes m delation in Ihf i r c u l g t r c e of cvciy apfctite, and it is cur

HEALTH

AND HOW TO MAINTAIN

IT

89

d u t y to be temperate in all things. Temperance is especially applied to moderation with regard to eating and drinking Intemperance now usually denotes drinking to excess. Intemperance is a vice that ruins the body, the intellect and the moral character. A large number of medical men entirely forbid the use of alcohol in health and sickness, while those who consider it to be occasionally beneficial v e r y strictly limit the quantity. W e scarcely require the verdict of science to tell us the evil effects produced on the health by intemperance. W e see those effects too often in the shaky hands and lack-lustre eyes of those who iudulge in habitual excess. Alcohol sliortens the lives of those who drink much, and insurance companies find that they can give policies for better terms to total abstainers than to those who are even moderate drinkers. T h e drunkard's brain becomes rapidly duller, his memor3' fails him and in extreme cases he is led by his favourite vice into the Lunatic A s y l u m . Nor does the general moral character remain unimpaired by the vicious indulger'^e that ruins the health and injures the intellect. Intemperance besides being a vice in itself, is the parent of other vices. Drunkards lose their se'f respect, and do not shrink from degrading themselves by falsehood and dishonesty. T h e y also lose the power of controlling their passions and so commit violent acts which they would never have done in their sober hours. It is scarcely necessary to add that intemperance is a great barrier to success in life. What impairs tl^ power of body and mind must of course prevent a man trom doing any work well. Charles Lamb thus describes the effects of intemperance T w e l v e years ago, I was possessed of a healthy frame of mind and body. I was never strong, but I think my constitution (lor a weak one) was as happily exempt from the tendency to any malady as it was possit)le to be. 1 scarce knew what it was to ail anything. Now except when l a m iosing myself in a sea of drink, I am never free from those uneasy sensations in l^iad and stomach, which are so jmjcIi

go

1 HE LIGHT OF

TRUTH

worse to bear than anythiijg definite pains or aches. A t that time I was seldom in bed after six in the morning, summer and winter. I awoke refreshed and seldom without some merry thoughts in my head, or some piece of song to welcome the new-born day. Now, the first feeling which besets me, after stretching out the hours of recumbence to their last possible extent, is a forecast of the wearisome duty that lies before me, with a secret wish that 1 could have laid on still, or never awakened. " Life itself, my waking life, has much of the confusion, the trouble and obscure perplexity of an ill dream, in the day time I stumble upon dark mountains. " Business, whrch, though never very particularly adapted to my nature, yet has something of necessity to be gone through, and therefore best undertaken with cheerfulness, I used to enter upon with some degree of alacrity ; it now wearies, affrights and perplexes me. I fancy all sorts of discouragements, and am ready to give up an occupatrtm, which gives me bread, from-a harrasing concei"; of incapacity. The slightest commission given me by a friend, or any small duty which 1 have to perform for myself, as giving orders to a tradesman etc., haunts me as a labour impossible to be got through. S o much the springs of action are broken." " T h e same cowardice attends me in all my intercourse with mankind. I dare not promise that a friend's honour, or his cause, could be safe in my keeping, if I were put to the expense of any manly resolution in defending il. So much the springs of moral action are deadened within me. " M y favourite occupations, in times past, now cease to entertain me. 1 can do nothing readily. Application for even so short a time kills me. The noble passages which formerly delighted me in history or poetic fiction now draw only a few weak tears allied to dotage. My broken and dispirited nature seems to sink before anything great and admirable. I perpeluirtlly catch myself in tears, for any cause or none. It is

HEALTH

AMD HOW TO MAINTAIN

IT

91

inexpressible how murh this infirmity adds to a sense of shame and a general feeling of deterioration." " T O T A L ABSTINENCE to strive to the utmost, to check the ravages of a vice, to which already some of the brightest intellects have fallen victims. Such a course is "demanded even by personal considerations. It has been well remarked " N o reputation, no wisdom, nor hardly any worth, will secure a man against drunkenness". Total abstinence from all intoxicating liquors is the wisest and safest course. Health, like happiness, comes not for the seeking. A great .Purposea mighty ambitiona divine longing only for such a motive is a clear brain and strong.bod'y worth the getting. When you are worn out, resort to the woods. When you are worried, ponder on the calmness of the sea. When you are nervous and uncertain, stretch yourself prone on the ground in the moonlight and watch the stars for hours. The frailness of man is more than reinforced by the fulness of nature. A good forgetter is health's rj^ht-hand man. The name of the best forgetter is Hope. Health, like heaven, is wiMiin. Realize the strength of your own bodythe power of yo'jr own mindthe beauty of your own spirit. Music is the quickest means of taking an invalid out of himself. Get a person inteiested in mastering an instrument or developing his voice, and you've done him a better ser\ice than doctor or nurse could muster. Man has no right to be ill. Man is made to be well and happy and useful. Ar.J if a person is happy, the probabilities are that he will be well; and in order to keep well he has to be useful. Health is the most natural thing in the world.Nature is on our side. Health is thi norm, and all nature tends thitherward. All that the wise and good doctors can do is to put th^ patient in toucli with nature. Nature heals, and all the healing forces of nature are perfectly natural.

'IHL " A G A M I C BURhAL

iNOILS,

Two Notable Books on Saiva Siddhanta.


Der Caiva Siddhanta eine Mystik Indians

by Rn>. H. W Seho'-.er^i', Lie. Theol. Puhlishcd by J. C. Hinrcch , .'jtuhhandlvng, Ltifzig.


TMo5t of our readers will remember this t?Iented Lutheran Conferen.e at Trichincpoly pro;eedings to the and who missionary f^entleman of Erode who attended the Saiva Siddhanta Mahasamaja contributed an account of its

Gps^el Wif iess

and which was extracted in our pages.

] I'e has been a most diligent and assiduous student of our Philosophy lor years and possessing as he does a good mastery of the Tamil language, he has mastered the original Siddhanta Works in Tamil and the present work is Ihe fruit of his labours in this fteid. He is at present in Leipzig University engaged for a year to lecture on Indian Philosophy and has been honoureil by the University with the title jjf Licentiate of Theology in recognition of his meritorious publication. While there, he is actively interesting himself in the cause of Tan;il and i'S trying to establish a Tamil and T-lugu Library and if his labours l->ear good fruit, we will soon see a Tamil Leipzig. i he book before us is the most valuable and systematic treatise on S a n a Philosophy and the author has gone fully into the Metaphysics and myslicisni of the Philosophy which even Mr. Nallaswami Piliai has avoided in his contributions on the subject as not necassary for the -eneial reader. The author has however followed the main lines and exposiiiun ol the subject by Mr. Nallaswami Pillai and his faniiliarity with all the Volumes of this Journal will be evident even to a cursory reader, liut he supports all his thesis, by translations of all appropriate so that the reader texts from one and all the fourteen Siddhanta Sastras, together with translations of i)orttons of the coinmentaries also t a n look for first hand information from our author. W e will briefly various chapters. indicate the subjects discussed by him in the After the foreword comes the introduction in which Professor installed ia

he di.-cu-ses S.iiva Philosophy in general its anti(iuity and geographical

THE AGAMIC

BUREAU

NOTES

93

extent, the various schools of S a i v i s m ,

the most important of which

is the Suddadvaita Siddhanta of South India, its relation to the Pratiabhijoa School, the T a m i l and Sanskrit authorities, the 28 agamas being of the highest authority with their best and those of the fourteen T a m i l Siddhanta Sastras, together with a brief account of the authors, and the commentators ; H e refers to the Sacred Kural and the T w e l v e Tirumurais, and he gracefully to the translations by Mr. Nallaswami Pillai and Rev. Dr. G . U. Pope und Hoisington. In the first chapter, he distinguishes Saiva advaita from other forms of advaita and gives a critique of Sri Sankara's Monism and the Parinamavadam following up

Siddhiar,

and finishes it up with

summing

the Tripadartha Doctrine of our Philosophy. His Oneness,

In the next chapter,

he discusses the nature of the Pathi, and separate sections are devoted to the elucidation of His Satchidanandatvani, and His or no Form, organs or being sraargenwOT, H i s being Nirguna and Personal, His relation to His 'Sakti, which is grace, His having Form no organs, God as Pure subject and his relation to the objective W o r l d in which is discussed the special interpretation of the word Advaita by Saint Meikandan. T h e 3rd chapter is devoted to the discussion of tha Sat-guru three Mala and Chapters 4, 5, and 6 deal with the nature of the soul and its avastas, and how in the Suddhavasta God appears as the and shows grace and frees one from sin. with the nature of the Mukti and Jivan Mukta. Then there is his final word about the system which we hope to translate soon and publish. T h e book closes with a table of T a t v a s which is the same as printed in the " Studies " and a table showing the inteiTelation of the three mala with the three classes of souls, Vijnanakalars &c., and two indexes. is priced 15 merks' T h e book is a big tome of 444 pages and It will be of the greatest use and help to Indian T h e seventh chapter deals

s t e n t s if it was in English, but as spreading a knowledge of a system described by R e v . Dr. G . U. Pope as "the most elaborait, inflvr hal ahd utidoubtedly the most intrinsically valttable of all the religions of ludta" to the most learned nation of Europe after a break of 50 years,* the author is deserving of our nation's warmest gratitude and love. W e urge every one of our Saiva Sabhas to buy a copy of it and keep it in their library. It Tn:iy be rt'iin.'inl.>'.Ti;il it Sidii/nar into (icriinn. ub<iui .^l.' vi-ai's sfo, Ur. Oiuul ti'anl:i<-rl

94

7"/y LIGHT OF

TRUTH
Press, 1913. author

" E s s e n t i a l s of Hinduism" In the L i g t ^ of Saiva Siddhanta


hy Mudalivar S. SabaratramMeykaidan has done in English. W h a t Rev. Mr. Schomeries has achieved in German, our

This is equa'ly an elaborate treatise, treating on corcerning 8 pages, but we may note the

every conceivable subject relating to Hindu Religion and Philosophy, the table of contents alone heads of the various chapters, ( i ) General aspect of Hinduism, (2) Hindu idea'of God, (3) Souls, (4) Evil and its origin, (5) Salvation, (6) Worship, (7) Religious conduct, (8), (9) and (10) Transmigration, (16) Religious investigation. It will be thus seen,how wide is the ground covered by the book but it sums up all that could be said for and against all the religious practices and beliefs of Hindus and the views are set forth in such a chaste style and homely way as to bring coBviction home to every reader. W e offer our hearty congratulations to the author for bringinif The out such a valuable work and we commend it all to our readers. is such as to delight the readers. (11) Fate, 12) Sacred books, (13) Astrology, (14) Superstitions, (15) Caste system,

book is printed in our own press in feather weigh paper and its gt up

II. W e also append the review of "Essencials of Hinduism" of Saiva Siddhanta" that appeared in the "Indian petriot" in its issueiof the 2gth August l a s t . " Essentials of Hinduism in tk^ Light is from the pen of Mr. S. Sabharatna Mudaliyar, Deputy Fiscal, name in connection with the Siddhanta School is too well Hindus of Southern India to require any introduction. is being gradually forgotten and neglected. Jaffna, whose known to the

This work which

covers over 350 pages is a most valuable addition to that literature which These are days when the Saiva Siddhantis begin to show to the world their existence as such by holding meetings and Conferences to rouse the spirit that lie a dead in many a heart and we heartily welcome this publication as being quite opportune to educate not only the English-educated masses of eastern religion and philosophy. W o r k s innumerable there are which keep latent the gems of this Siddhanta philosophy, but we have not come across one solid work which India, but also such members of the western birth and culture who crave for

7/y AGAMIC
humanity.

BUREAU

NOTES.

95
on

cleariy explains the b&sis of this philosophy and the bearing it has cally argues in the simplest English 'language

T h e admirable book before us very clearly and systematiwithout being intermin-

gled either with Sanskrit words Or technica'ities-which is the exceptional characteristic of this work-the necessity of establishing the three entities^ both from a scientiBc and philosophical standpoints. st}^teen chapters into which traverses over the most common fie'd, such as salvation, In the course of worship, conthe author has classified the subject, he

duct transmigration, fate, astrology, supersltition and caste-system and in every chapter he does not stop with the views held by the Hindus on these ticular subjects. He goes a step further, a step which most of the religious leadsrs honestlyaiid conveniently avoid, by quoting the adverse argument of other schools and meeting them, entirely shattering their convictions and criticiems. The headings of a few of the chapters to which we have So prachere made mention also clearly go to establish the fact that religion is an every-day necessity and that it is a thing that could be l i v ^ . cannot come to a conclusion other than this. In dealing with the theory of transmigration, a subject of great controversy between the Hindus and the Christians, the author very pertinently asks, as to how differences, such as intellectual, temperamental, mental, physical and social could exist between mankind. He also meets people who say that differences aie apparent and not real, that differences are equalized, that defects help religious devotion, that there is a so called scientific explanation for these differences ,that difference is our own seeking, that difference is a necessary evil, that it imparts a useful lesson, that it is intended as a test, that the difference in this, world will be made good in the next and that the difference is ? divine mystery. Karma and transmigration theory with consistent with nature anH common sense. the book is sure to be profited by it. W e strongly commend every-day life. this book to all who wish to know what religion is in tbe simplest language possible, and how to practise it in W e congratulate the Saiva Siddantis foi.having in tlieir in the will be midst such an excellent scholar who propounds this philosophy English language to the v. esterneis and we trust that this work very largely read by Hviropeans and Indians alike. These arguments he fells to the ground to the last piece and establishes the sound logic and philosophy Every one who goes through tical are his ways of exposition that a reasonable and rational argue^

94

7"/y

LIGHT OF

TRUTH

The book is very neatly printed and bound at the Meykandan Press, Madras, N. C., and is very moderately priced at Rupees Three per copy.

African Times and Orient Review.


This is a Journal edited by Mr Duse Mohamed. devoted to the interests ot the coloured races of with Politics, Literature, art and commerce. the It is a monthly and deals world

Indians ought to welcome

it as it gives a birds eye view of our sis'er continents which our brethren have colonised in the interest of commerce and Civilization. The range of its subjects are necessarily wide and its articles are short and sweet. The choice of subjects in the issue thay are so. This of mid-July 1913 will show why Journal is worthy of every

encouragement from our readers. In its issue of the 28th August 1913, the "Madras Mail" reviewing our Journal writes as under. while

"The Siddhanta Dipika or Tlie L i g h t of Truth, Madras, is


continuing to do excellent service for the propagation of the Saiva. Siddhanta Philosophy in particuar and of Tamil literature in general. It has on its roll of contributors several enthusiastic students of Tamil who have made scholarly study of the literature which they have been expounding in the pages of this monthly. exposition." T h e current issue fully keeps up its high standard of excellence, both as regards the subject matter and method of

Food and sleep are the best restoratives. With honest work and plenty of it, these suffice without the use of tonics and stimulants.

Man can achieve what man can conceive.

THE
L I G H T O F T R U T H

OR

THE SIDDHANTA DIPIKA


AND
A G A M I C R E V I E W .

Mouthly Journal devoted to the Search for Truth as rtvealed in the Ancient Hindu Mystic Philosophy known as the
V ^ _

Saiva StddhUnta or Agamanta Vol. XIV.

and in the Tamil

language. No. 3 .

MADRAS. SEPTEMBER 1913.

CAMEOS.
KALITTOGAI.
BY J . M . N ALLALVAMI P ILL,AI, B . A . , B.L;

INVOCATION.

u^ffid^ajti Quiuir^jpS QfirSQsftLLt^ ujfi >5 -50^ QsnSi-jeair^' ^uiS^^ GsltairL^^IT ^(^anQbrrn loeiriuir ueosii^ LDgmDsun a^psasHi^ ueirtn'ts unS^nrjb u2emQiL.i^eo ^SeiwOioeirG'jj^ar s^i^avnio fiteoiuiitnm Qsnaitirfiii
f^^eoxjioiii^
AifL-na)

icnSiiairm
fiQ^Q^Kat

lOo

THE LIGHT OF

TRUTH

^sr^:^

eiz^si.nik'-^, SQ^ QiLear^esisu


TU)LOFF (J^^SARUJTUL.

LcitsBBfiaDif uj'/fleroa/ arruu

i:fr6eBiLSe\) Qun

The Brahmans versed in angas six Were taught by Tiiee in V'edas rare ; T h y Braids.concealed the clear Ganges, T h y Fire did spread to Tripura. All words fall back from Thee, and Thou Transcendst all thoughts of human kind. W h o warrest e'er with grim Kali, Whose throat like blue gems shine with light And who dost the eight arms possess Oh Lord, deign to hear me now. With T h y hand-drum all music giving forth T h y Form containing forth all different forms, When Thou didst dance the fearful Kotti dance W a s it She with organs wide and waist like vine W h o gave the Sir of Tal tiioes knell did sound ; Victorious in various wars, Thou didst W e a r ashes of fallen foes, in T h y great might And Thou didst dance the Pandarangam Dance W a s it she with reed-like shoulders fine and lovely locks Over which bees hum, W h o gave the Tal's Tukku ? The furious T i g e r killed its skin wearing, The cassia garlands on T h y neck dangling, The skull of Brahma in T h y hands bearing, The Kabala dance Thou didst dance in glee. W a s it She with laughing teeth like Mullai buds W h o gave the first P'ani of the Tillam ? S o there at the end of time.

The Talam's PTini and Tukku and Sir


While Uma well-adorned did guard. Thou danced ; And now to mc, the loveless one, Thou didst Show T h y grnrc.

CAMEOS
NOTES.

99

The InvQcatiiHi's by the author, Nallantuvanar, and it brings out a series of pictures of the majesty and grandeur of the Lord's Dance, and of His;supreme Transcendent Nature. The first statement made is that He is the teacher of the Vedas to the Brahmans, Rishis ; by concealing the Ganges, K e is the Supreme Frctector; His burning the Tripura, the Human Triple mala is the 5hov;ing of Grace ; He is ever warring with the Princess of Darkness. p o s s e ^ n g hands everywhere. That Nothing ta" .its Him is shown by His Blue Throat and His omnipresence is shown by His He is also stated to be transcendent as In regard to the Nature of speeck and thought do not reach Him.

Siva's Dance, the reader is referred tothe learned article t of Dr. A . K . Coom^aswami and it contains nearly all the authorities collected by us from Tamil. The Dance symbolises in getieral God's energising all evolution and involution, His protesting and concealing Powers, and His act of Grace. These dances of God are of various kinds and the reader is referred for more detailed account to 9hapter III, (Arankerrukathai) tof Silappadikaram and notes thereon (Arumpadavurai pp. 5 and 6.) The dances referred to in the Poem bfore us are Kotti, Pandarangam and Kiibala and are Divine Dances intended for the destruction of the Demons (evil) and the salvation of man and Devas, The first was inteaded for the destruction of the Asuras in general, the second was at the time of the Tripura Samhara and the third when Brahmans head was nipped. The scenery is different in each case. See notes in Kalittogai. The author brings out in each of these cases that there was no seer but Una-Haimavati. A learned European Missionary asked us to explain in regard to Sabhiipati, (Sri Natarajah) as to wtiat was the sabha and who the assembly. W e ecplained in detail that the Sabha was the heart (Hrid Pundarikatlie guha) of man and there wa^ no assembly but God Himself and His " He is the author of all the Vidyas." " The Veda is the breath of the Mighty B e i n g " Of the eighteen Vidyas of various paths, the original author is the wiaesulapMi Himself." See original texts quoted at p. 274 ' Studies in Saiva Siddha .ta ' ^nd in S. D. Vol. Ill, No. 5. t Siddhanta Dtpika, Vol. XIII, No, i , p. 1.

lOo
Sakti.

THE LIGHT OF

TRUTH

God's L o v e and Light and Power vibrates in every pore of

Our Sonl, and in every leaf and blade of grass and budding flower^ and grain of sand and yet who can see It, the supreme sjrfqpdottr and Majesty of It ? Even if we can catch a glimpse our mortal eyes will be blinded thereby. If we are to know It, we can know It only with H i s snsisfiar&imMreoDevaram). Elye of grace ( " cSja/ar^Giw aezwrig^aa

T h e Thought frequently occurs in ihe V e d g s a s for instance.WherB God.'is'said to know alone and none else can know, which bas been incorrectly rendered by Oriental Scholars as meaningseven H e does not knowIn fact, the author puts it in the form of a question even in this poem, and the commentator explains it as meaning ^m(SuiSlpir @6v?6(?<u' There was none else/ "It is the same thought here Then there was neither day nor nighf nor light Nor darkness, only the self-existent one breathed without breadu self-contained Nought else but He there was, not else above, beyond " B u t His Sakti, His Half is said to see It, witness It; and guard It, and applaud It. Dr. Coomaraswumi notes the two pictures of Siva's Dance in one of which all the Gods are present but in another Uma Maheswari seated on a high throne is the Sole Witness, and for whose delectation, the Dance is performed. W e give in this number a copy of

this* picture.
Sir and Tn^Icu and Pani are said to- be variations of the steps io

Tdlam, (in
in Poesy.

song and dance) as Sir andTukJiu

Scc^ are

variations of metre

T h e author says shat it is a wonder (jy/DL/^xi) that though H i s Transcendent Nature cannot be seen by mortah man, and His Gracious Dance could alone be seen by the great Mother Uma, yet be had assumt^d a Form and appeaird before him to bestow His grace.

T H t TAMIL LANGUAGE.
BY

THrnisAiKii.AR A.

CHIDAMBAKANAR.

PART 1.
O R I G I N OF L A N G U A G E .

Max Muller says in his science of language, "when we see the history, or, as it is now the fashion to call it, the evolution of language, we cannot help admitting that there must have been some kind of beginning. A langua2:e, such as English, for instance, does itotiM;umble down from the sky ; and even if it did, it would have to be picked up ; and to pick up a language, as you know, is not a very easy task, particularly for a person supposed to be dumb and without any idea of what language is meant for. In former times, as it seemed to be impossible to account for language as a piece of human workmanship, it was readi^ly admitted that it was of Divine workmanship, that it really had tumbled down from the sky in some way or other, and that, curiously enough, man alone of all animals then living upon earth had been able to pick it up. But when languages began to be more carefully examined traces of human workmanship become more and more visible and at last the question could no longer be pushed aside, how language was made, and why man alone of all living beings should have ccme into posssssion of it. So, I am of opinion that all languages in the world are the work of human beings and not the work of Divinity. Language is a product of thought; that thought must always come first, language after ; that thought is independent of language, and that the Greeks were great bunglers when they denoted language and thought by one and the same terra "Logos." Before the language, the existence of human beings is necessary. Before ihc creUion of hum:in beings the existence

ro2

THE LIGHT OF I RUTH

of the world is necessary. I have fiiJly discussed in my "Tamil World" about the creation of the world. So, it is unnecessary to repeat the same again here. But, I have to say something about the creation of human beings here and then the history of Tamil language. "Blessed is the human birth, thrice blessed may it be ! For, only this great birth can confer Final Emancipation and Eternal Salvation on man. No other birth can do it,not even that of the Gods." Vide Jirujui^a^ani.

Quiruju lSJDSI'ITiB)U,llS ^'.fAi^iU'jjs QaiToir@airpsuiT Q/s^jn

uiBif S^oToarov/f.s^Ojjujss^Ssejr iiyti) sueeB'jSpi^i^ihQ^esiUi'LinLLQaiireiTar ffljbj5>i<rrJJ (^(TjuuerToffl^/u'/f,lo.) Such was the infinite love of the great good Mother for Her creation that Slie evolved out of Herself the i^rcat 7'aini/ian race, the perfect specimen of hurrianily, for the regeneration and salvation of all her creatures. Siie evol ved the men who set in the world the noble example of that liightst state of human life which is to be foliowecl and copied b3- all other human races;the men who pointed out to l.unianity the way to the l^ind of Ever Lasting Bliss. " Fearlessness, purity of licart, pcrscverence, knowledge self-restraint, uprightness, non-doing of injury, truthfulness^ compassion for all, absence from avarice and covctousniss, gentleness, goodness, modesty, absence of restlessness, \-ig(jur, forgiveness, firmness, cleanlincss, absence of iiarrelsonieiiess, freedom from vanitythese were the mental characteristics of the Tamilians. T h e y were men of thought and meditation, of goodness and devotion,they were the brains of the world. "Where were these noble Tamilians born ? Where was th:it blessed land in which all merciful Father and Mother of

THE TAMIL LANGUAGE

it>z

creation first commu-nicated to man that "knowledge" which resulted in civiliziition and religion ? On the highest valley of the w o r l d , t h e very ccntre oj the earth,in the most charming spot that imagination can ever permit,in that valley of peace and plenty, beauty and sublimity,in that ever famous Paradise over earth, airy, fairy "Kurinji Nadu" the noble Tamilians hrst appeared on earth. On all sides of ihcir sweet home rose, rows upon rows, the majestic Mount Meru. The descriptiun of "Kurinji Nadu" and "Mount Meru" are very dearly givtn in old Tamil books. Animals and birds, many and various, mild and wild, camc of their own acccrd and became gentle and good, domesticated and quiet before the kind and loving temperament of the noble Tamilians. Loving all and being loved by all, they lived in their happy home a simple lite on the diet of fruits and roots, making the animals of the forests and ttie birds of the sky tlieir friends and companions,lambs and lions playing together at their doors. The saying that Human creation was first made in Kurinji Nadu which is a part and parcel of the continent of Zcmiria, is affirmed by Professor llaikcl and Pandit Karthigeya Mudaliar who is the author of ''Mozhimd" After ihc crcalion of human beings, there was no language for some years. The people were communicating their ideas by means of si^ns and ^i>tii)cs. { 1 liis is called Nataka-Tamil later on). This is the iir.Tl sta-e ui man. Vide the Ixjok '-/ A'- KiU^^iou of the llimiits " page 19. "The first men werespcechk '.s (See alsol la;kers History of creatiou) But they were soon followed by men who could express their thoughts by gestures. Some again were al)!e to form a speech of imitation and some again of interjections, till at last rude languages eamc to be tunned, which could not and did not

lOo

THE LIGHT

OF

TRUTH

improve owing to the dull nature of rtie people who spoke Uic'in. Is there any chance to know when for the first time these rude human speeches were heard on the lace of the earth ? The science of language does not throw any light upou the age to which mny be assigned this eventful event. It cannot help us to answer the question of the antiquity of man. Neither can geolc^gy, biology, pre historic archaeojogy or ethnology do it. They can tell us nothing of the long periods of time that elapsed before the formation of articulate speech from the language of gestures and interjections. T h e y can onl}' prove that man, as a speaker, has existed from the very remotest time. A s it is not possible to say w,hen man was first born, so it is impossible to say when speech was first uttered by man. Dr. Sayce in his Science of language, pp, n o says : " T h e origiu of language is to be sought in gestures^ onomatopoeia and to a limited extent intcrjectioual cries. Like the rope bridges of the Himalayas and the Andes, they formed the first rude means 0i communicatiQn between man and man. Onomatopoeous words and interjections came to be metaphorically applied to devote other ideas than those for which they properly stood, while the relations of grammar were pointed out by the help of gesticulation. For some years the first stage i. e. signs and continued among people. gestures

Then, the people began to his, growl and scream after the models of wild animals and birds along with their signs and gestures. That certain vibrations of air which we produce by various emissions of our breath should represent to us and to others all that has ever passed through our mind, all we have ever seen or heard or felt, all that passes before us in the countless works of nature, and all that passes within us in our own endless feelings, our im.igiHings, and our thoughts, is marvellous indeed.

THE TAMIL

LANGUAGE

roj

If the people want to speak about crows, they will cry like the crow and thus reveal their idea. That they are speaking about the crowsv Hence the word

'a snsii,
So> also for the world oJ', the people called it siF^, iiPg) after the model of the sound of that bird. = ) So, also for cow &c., as the beasts sound like T h e people also used to call it after that sound. Hence the word "LOff From this way they revealed their^ideas and named it. ( I bis is called Isai Tamil later on.) This is Second stage. This stage continued for some years. I'he people grew in number and they began to grow mentally and physically also. T h e y acquired the power of observation and began to develop it to tlie highest degree. T h e y began to undsrstand the value of th language whichalom

distinguishes man from all other animnls, which alone makes man man, which has made him the lord of nature and which has rester-ed to him the consciouswss of his own true self.
So> they began to devo'.op their language (from hai into lyal-Tamil later on,) T h e y picked owt the natural s o u n d s : TumU

SI, s, m.
These are the only natural from nature and nothing else. S! from every x)bjer+s. from crows, sounds which we can hear

person, animal, mind, rain and natural

ti from owls '(emax-^dQairiLi-nsiry. When the people begin to speak, the instrunrent for speech is the tongne. Without tongue we cannot speak. A s soon as the tip of the tongue touches the front portion of Ann im [siaaesaii^) paUtes, llie sound o) forms. This is ^irtifreicU sound (O^tt.^* StsS).

lOo

THE LIGHT OF
ti.

TRUTH

T h e y took these four sounds The sound jy comes from below the throat. The sound comes from throat Do 6 u do the front portion of palate. The sound ii comes from joining the two lips. MenCe the order s, tw, li. Tiie philologists know fully well that from ^ all vowels in Tamil came. It is as follows :

the

I
CT

"1

epevJ

Qs'tupsDs spsiP.

^ ^
From follows:

iu ^ g en = 9feTr
It is a5'

6u, li), every other consonants cam^e. A' 1 1


IfD ed

I 1

ui

1 1
u

JI

1 # 1 1 1 1 1
IS

trr 1 1

1 ( 3 U

uJ

sfr err

+ + +

IE

cnsi p

IS

cjr

This we have in Tamil language three kinds of sounds :

Natural, artifncal and mixed sounds,

(^"u^sibs,

THE

TAMIL

LANGUAGE

toy

Thus, from natural three sounds j f , u > and from ^ht artifical one somul the people began to develop 12 vowels and 18 consonants which are still in Tamil language. T h u s the people were communicating J.heir ideas b y means of sounds. A t this stage, there were no characters to the Tamil language. In the second part, I shall deal with the origin of

ckaracters.
FINIS,

THE EVOLUTION OF TAMIL VIRUTTAMS.


BV E. N. TANIKACHALA MUDALIYAR.

This is the starting point or nucleus around which the organism of Tamil viruttam gradually evolved in our land. T o say that the birth of a work made up of a species of venba, the B>-ahmanical type of Tamil poetry, should pave way for the foreign viruttam, will appear ver3' [xiradoxical. But this starting point seems certain. T h e more w e study of Tiruvalluvar, the more w e are convinced that he is the greatest literary reformer, and had bis career at Madura proved a failure, the poetic sphere in Tamil wouki certainly have been .dwindled. He is the first person to teach the world that poetry is not a jnechanical art but a voluntary outburst of the really inspired, whose composition is not one, produced fcy the aid of any gianTn>ar, but grammar always sides it. Venba, the sacred genus of Tamil poetry was, during the lime of Singaio, showing life only through certain species. F;om the time of Tiruvalluvar, vcnba bloomed in different colours and we see the growth of QsnsxriSsBp, Qauem^n^ems^ which deviate from the rules of the standard uit, and yet have a collateral existence with it. W e similarly gei other kinds of g>as>p, and ^n^sD^. If we peruse our Tamil Veda (^(3ajff<FLo). which possesses the rniniscences of a transition period that commenced from the kath of Tiruvalluvar and gave birth to various kiods of Tamil viruttams, we find curious instances from which we can fairly infer the niethods by which the Orthodox Tamil prosody was set at nought, and ho-w the new cleruent, Viruttam, arose in onr literature. T h e first poem of Thiruvasagam like the first poem of some leading Tamil works exhibits a curious phenomenon. T h e long poem 9euL^oireaiinD is styled by the author as aeS Qatkrutr. But what a Kali venba ought to be, is nowhert,deftned in any granfimar. W e meet wiih poems of a similar

THE EVOLUTION

OF TAMIL

VIRUTTAI4S

though not of an equal kingth in Sangam literature. But this poem does not seem to be based upon any of those models. It is no tjff from the standpoint of view of Sangam grammar ; and this poem now remains a literary puzzle. T w o apparent splutions present themselves and on close scrutiny, they turn out to be useless : Can we say that Maijikkavasagar was ignorant of Tamil prosody as he w a s an inspired poet ? No. The internal and the external evidence are against such an assumption. In his works we ran trace facts showing that he was conversant with Tholkappiyam, and Sangam literature. Being a Dewan of a large Tamil state that was exercising its supermacy in nearly half-a-dozen districts of the present Madras Presidency, he must to have been a person possessing the highest literary attainments of his ageCan we say that he was a literary reformer, or one fond of cultivating a novel type of venba ? It cannot be, whatever might have been his function with the Saivite religion. There is nothing in oar Tamil Veda to show that he had a tendency to invent new models of f)oetry (like those that we find in Tirujnana Sanibandar's Tevaram). His philosophy and religious thoughts seem to have flowed easily through the beaten tracts of the then existing Tamil poetical models.

If the poemffmn^ir/ratnibe an imitation of Kalippa, it cares very little for ^err but like a veiiba preserves vendalai throughout. During the transition period that followed the collapse of the last Sangam, the hard and fast distinctions between the original four types of Tamil poetry (uir) were gradually melting out, and a sort of inter-relative mutual modiHcatioiis were going on slowly and unconsciously. In fact, it was rather a reaction against the formalities of the age of the last Sangam, with such a freedom as would be characterised in that age as undue license tn literature. The Kali veoba of the model of owes it origin here^ and it is highly probable that M^ikkavasagar adopted the Mcidel that wa subsequently washed sway by the tide of time.

lOo

THE LIGHT OF

TRUTH
which

The c h a p t e r oi
a venba became a viruttam. be presented iS&is^n e t c , "

disclones a method by If i t s first who stanza never before one read

^^mi^m^Qf,

Tiruva^again,* o n e m a y n a t u r a l l y err a n d s a y t h a t it is a n eraarffff ds^QfBi^^irQfiiu But it IS Styled as "^^t^uSQeyjir

Oir ituasLirh cTsarSffj s^^Qupgvuji^s

QeuiLii^ u,Q(i^se>i Qaisaarutt

The ^ a r or the hypermetrical foot 'with a prefixial {^eas^ or) syllable \yas slowly introduced at the end of venbas (some centuries before our' Tamil Saints' for the purpose of an emphatic vocative whose function waned in course of time, and certain types of modern viruttam thereby came into existence. A n examination of the structure of a kattalai-kalitturai (atlLJbsird seS^^emp) will also reveal the phenomena that occurred during the growth of viruttams. Kaliththufai aeS^^aap is the general name of a viruttam of five feet (or A s its name implies, it is a deviation of Kalippa. Kattalai Kalitturai is the name of a kalitturai which obeys certain rules (or the rules are well known to an average l amil Student. T h e peculiarity of this kind of poetry is that it is more akin to venba tban to a kalippa. T h e last foot of every line of the stanza being a ai-ear or a sort of hypcr-metrical prolongation converts the structure of a veijba, into a (five-footed) viruttam.
apart from all its other merits, is worthy of beiag studied as an important literary relic. T h r o u g h every portion of it, we get glimpses of the previous literary history. T h e book, as a whole, shows the influence of T a m i l viruttams in the minds of the Tamil poets of the middle ages. It begins with a Kali venba. In it there are specimens of Asiriyappa, Kalippa, Kalithizbisai, Venba etc., but the majonity of the poems are viruttams. T h e cause for that seems obvious, and it is nothing but the tendency of the age. T h e poet does not feel any difficulty in the non-virattam composition. In the first poem Kali venba in the Asiriyappahs that follow it and in the four chapters of venba, found in the book, the flow of the poet's thoughts, is something like a powerfully sweeping avalanche, and there is nowhere any show of hesitation. Yet this saint shows partiality towards viruttams, where his slow and steady expression of thoughts are harmonious \wth the pleasant melody.

* Thimvai^agam,

THE EVOLUTION

OF TAMIL

VIRUITAMS

in

T h i s krnd of stanza is also known by the name ^qt^'^Q^^^Cb Which liteially means " T h e Viruttam." It seeffirs to be the first t y p e that was recognised as viruttam. It was the most popular one from the beginning of viruttam literatufe, dnd this is evident from the fact that it is the only specifes whose -characterestics have been clearly defined by our grammarians. For the other specics of viruttams, w e ha;ve to construct a prosody from the data that may be gather'ed here S.nd there in ottr literal ore, the usage and models therein. IV. Is V i r u t t a m a MkchanicaL ADDfTiow OT 9TRS ?' It is a migc-iken no\ion (which has. played a highly deplor-" able mischief in the recent decades) that some pundits hold regardmg the composition of Tamil viruttams, that viruttams are not controlled by any-grammar, or pfosody. A combinationf of a number of cirs, according to their whims and fancies^ giving some music whose quality can be tested by (no definite standard) their own ears, is supposed to form a viruttam. It can be emphatically be asserted that no poetry worthy of the ilame can be composed in that way rn any language. A fortiori, iu our language, where the tests for the approval of a poem afe highly rigid and stiff. It is a notion of some pundrts that if a certain permatation" of 9ir3 is found rn any li^ne of a virut'tam, and if Che same or similar permutations be found in the succeeding lines of the stanza, the viruttam will pass muster. Even then the question remains unsolved, what kinds of permutation of 9irs in any particular kind of viruttam are, or are not sanctioned by th^ established usage which is the proper test for finding out the. propriety of any piece of viruttam composition. In this connection there is an unpleasant duty in criticising the work of a modern Tamil poet. In 1902 a pamphlet w a s published in Bangalore styled as ^(^a/^cl l9/7/tj: a/aw-srBi.ff/r u ^ P ^ u u^jgi^siT^"Poems in praise of ihe kite Ramatinga Swamigal by Maha Vidvan Siddhanta Ratnakaram Mr. A. Venkatasubba Pillay A v a r g a l . He is a pundit of some fame

lOo

THE

LIGHT

OF

TRUTH

in Bangalore and is a popular Saiva Sidahanti and some portions of his work are admirable tor his enthusiasm for his guru swamigal. T h e following is the unfortifnate 2nd Stanza of invocation (astuL/) which is scarined below : Qftuesf^ SnMsSiim Q^&smQui^ Q^aii^ uiii'Zeo s^f^Qfip^ Q^dSifipes^iLjtji uifG^ear^Q^i ^iJlifiQiDit^iutrp [^ji^dfajbjfih u^^Teir u^p^'uu^ uxh^^ sA^dr ^icssrujits AoanaS ai.t^a/inb The metre that was adopted in this, and in its previous and succeeding stanza-s, is the type defined as " iS'saiearaa&iu.it Q^-fiLir&iruj Qfi^iqirmQiD." I'he three Other lincs of this stanza are in conformity with this principle, but the first foot of the f^rst line being a aenfiJ^ff^ cannot easily find a room there. If the n be blotted out, the stanza will become perfect from the metrical point of view. W e may g l a d l y believe the introduction of the consonant is a printer's devi| but for some more blunders in page 3 stanza FO, of the pamphlet where an ignorance or carelessness of the same type is again exhibited : L|aua'iTL/<s^ Qg^QiinS tsneoaiiu^ih QuttpjS njm^fm iSeoiifQu^ej s^'Htm^fOrd tas^-^eSt^ ^waisooQiu Sevd^tS ututuaeg9ir iSmi^i^ mii^mfi^^itiu ^enp^eSkji^ihl. adr^ii ii^^i lltQ^

iiSrtt:u<eSiis ^(^wadlQiu

T h e first and the fourth foot of the first line " and " " being Kanicheer c^nnot be allowed in this species of hexametric Viruttams. Some other similar errors are found in the above work which need not be considered. T * Virutapaviyal of the late /Jr. T. Viiabadra Mudaliyar. f I do not like to ntention fill the errors found ia the. work as I am likely to l>e misunderstood, owing to the present Uatnalinga sw<iinii{al controversy. 1 am one who is neut: ' and so 1 side neither party who fi^tit out f'.>r ix a^ainbt the propriety 01 the name ( ^ ^ t l u v ) Arutpu

THE EVOLUTION

OF TAMIL

VJRUTTAMS

115

But these are mentioned only for the purpose of showing thit even learned pundits err in their viruttam composition by n(>t examining the principles of prosody that underlie the models which they wish to imitate. A s one who composes a venba has an eye on the Thajai ( f i ^ ) so one who composes a viruttam ought to see wliether one's -stanza is based upon an}' model that is available in any recognised work of our literature and whether the principles thut underlie the structure of the model, are properly applied to Ihe stanza th it is attempted to be composed, if not, there will be no safety from glaring errors in the attempted virut* tam composition. The next question will naturally be,
V. WHAT ARE THE VARIOUS MODELS OF TAM!L VIRUTTAMS SANCTIONED BY USACE ?

All Tamil V'iruttams may be classified under two distinct heads:Non-Sanda or ordinary viruttams and Sanda Viruttams. The fonner is simple and easier than the latter and shall now be dealt with. Of these the important species are lho<^e that contain four, five, six and seven feet in each line of the Stanza. Those that contain eight feet or even numbers above eight in a line b^ing practically multiples of the above sprcit s are subject to the same rules.. Those in nine feet, or in odd numbers above nine are very rarely found in our literature, and their characterestics may be understood by tlie suggestions herein. Those which are made up of three feet were originally Vanjippa (ai^^uuir.) chopped off to form avirut* ttam. Subsequently such models became common in Tafr.ll. Even with two feet a vanchi-viruttam may be composed.

Illustrations of vanchi
jiasffBirrfi^y (f

Viruttam.

Q fiM
3

114

t h e tS! gt ClcOIUIS

l i g h t

o f

J R U f H

J^jpi^LO

effjjr QahsSiB QsiiB)fiajrrL G^jpi QfHseaff aawGiff^J) SMffl QILQUJUS j^nrgj.Q'C. c^eirnu>s!si^. But vanchi-viruttams play a very insignificant part in our literature and hence there is no necessity to dwell upon them in detail. In Kali Viruttam there are innuirerable species. Practically any permutation an^ combination of four sirs or feet can be made to from one line of a stanza regard being had that the selection doss not produce a jarring sensation in the melody of the stanza as a whole. This is the only kind of viruttam in which a poet is almost licensed to compose a stanza according to his whims and fancies. Yet there is one species in which his freedom is checked, which was very popular with all our famour poets and whose structure requires a careful study : (l) e.sii) ivrrsDsuu^uifiitQfieireunds^uo S'ieoQu iSssgii itiisevn ^stS suir^'Setr lurrSeai iLiraa'ir ^'bwsu ganesrejas eetsnasQai (2) e-OSBrQiif 0!ririijr0u(T(5 OairearjrsDBriT Qi(r(TQ6\)ffL> Quessris^ jirremeS Qnjsarp/S QtuirssarSl'^ Q^iressTL- Qesi/b'^ekeir eLtrsui^ Q^aarfS^'ii aem'Siki seciift^CSeo Qeareirearsesgr ii>ituj(oix>. (3) eeirQpeagiriB ifliusu^ iSeos^ soireSuj ^friLf^ Q&jemiliujair ^SMQIX Qffir^iu Gsnhu&i)^ ^ irQeifirsar ineoiT^ eoiiiuiSL aun j^^^ets emiki^eunu,,
(4) (JLD?SO O-'IREBTSU (J^LDLC/S TUTI^Q^IIRR

Ca/Tsu QllQIU^EBT lutriLQaneaBn^* ^^^Qear (^irev QjieSsrii QuaSsaetJ aim^Quiriej <5ffeu QiDiLj^eBr QiueorjpiQsrr^ aTeiaruQ^. These familiar musical quotations are made u v of a macheer [mtrJ^^ff) as the first foot and the remaining three bting eSar o mostly koovilam {^sSewh). The peculiarity of ihe stanzas does not consist merely in the arrangement of feet. If the Instances of a a/ri/Z^ff being used in the place of a aSaTii.

THE Ei^OLUTION

Ot

TAMIL

VIRU'ITAMS

117

rumber oE letters or rather the distinct independant sounds (discarding the number of symbols) in a line be counted as we count in Kattalai Kalitturai the rule that is invariably applicable in the above species would be Q ^ ^ Q p Segp uenftQirasaQi-"; and there is no exception to this rule anywhere in our literature. ~ W h a t can we infer from the existence of th.s peculiar species? Let us pl^fce in a row, a venba, a veiiba with a terminating prolongation, a Kattalai Kalitturai, a KaTiviruttam of this species, (where you find a partial Vtndalai) and an ordinary irregulaf Kali Viruttam respectively, can we believe that they are isolated and unconnected in their history ? Do we not see a gradual evolution from the firs't to the l a s t ? Whatever it may be, a poet who composes a stanza of the type quoted above, ought to bear in mind that his freedom is restrained in this species by a rule (or sih-^jar) which was plainly understood by Kamban and his predecessors. Kalitturai is the next species larger in size. A s its name implies it i^ a deviation from the structure of a Kalippa and it probably owes its origin to it. The name Kalitturai is the proper name of viruttams of five feet. There are only four models of them in our modern literature, excluding the Kattalai Kalithurai. They may be grouped under two heads. (a) This is made up of a Mackeer terminating in a short vowel (not followed by a consonant) as its first foot, and a and two yilacheers as the second, the third, and the fourth feet respectively, the last foot being a Macheer. {h) This is.the same as (a) but has an additional long vowel or Qibn^j^ at the end of every line thus making the last foot a Sfiij-^ir.

IVnstratiovs. uSeeraBreaBiLD Q^inirsioiDQuiT Qe\}it(2siruirev eSsfS QuitrearQLLir qpeisrsarQg eSppsirujdr


mtT^suiTti a^sSar

fijfi^

mQaja'S LLK^QfA

"

94

7"/y

LIGHT

OF

TRUTH

Qfi^QuiTt^ ULLI^ sednrL^earir ^(^.JS /sajrja'SBOTiT ^sts).T(t/nsisr (T/i^eHiu ^sQ Uiwevtriji. Remove the last of every line of this stanza, this model (b) will be converted into a nrvodel of (a) 2. The sub-divisions of this group is due to two methods of scanning the same stanza. So is (a) a combination of ixin^B^enfl, s^eSen-u)^ s^eSeirui, Q^ujK, and a respectively or is (2) iLirJ'&ir, LjoftuiiT, L^sffltijiTiEiserfi, Q^loit and a iDiff&ir respectively in every line of the stanza Of these two groups, the second is the more important for our purpose. In one way it may be viewed as a connecting link between Kattalai Kalitturai and an ordinary Kalitturai of the nature of the first group. In the second group the peculiarity of the stanza consists in the formula that ought to be applied as "Quifu^^eiBQaiB eajiu^imiQ^." So this class isdicates the organic unity that exists between venba, Kalippa and Viruttara and the slow assimilation of the principles of the orthodox s p e e i into those of the liberal and foreign growth. W e have, accordingly, only five recognised species of common (non sanda) A'a////Mra?, including the Kattallai Kalithurai whose structure was long ago defined by our gramniarians, and we find no more models of non-Sanda Kalitturai current in our modern viruttam literature t si^Qi5i^6\)ir9fftuj has only seven recognised species. T h e y are as follows : t (i) Twice repeated combination of a vilam,. macheer, and T e m a in each line of a stanza. Example. ^(fliSCcovar /ru atn^aeas a^ei^on Qun^/S aiirear eSi(ir)^^Qear QutrjbjS Gujisia^ aSL-'Se\Quj QutipjB Gu-ffiltS ffiru>'ria*eaf^ati-fflVerru) ^tn-eilea-LC) QsnppQ^ixft
QitiTcon eHrean^p paftQj. Qi^dp^^

^iruia LjoRQujir S/jpf xiri^afl aSjOT u>^eardQsni^ (?^rTgai>a/(?(u Ibid. X 'ibis begins ftoiii Sekkil^ar, ihe autlioc of Periyapuranam.

THE Ei^OLUTION

Ot

TAMIL

VIRU'ITAMS

117

Osff(5^^(?6Br Quit^;S luti-j/r fiaiSstiar Quitr:^^

/ S / iissl)eiriDu\)iT Q^irjb^ Quif/t^.


(2) T w i c e repeated combination of t w o niilchecTS Example, combind with a kaicheer.

s/rsyiii ^oi^lduj^ mipunii) Ooj^fi^ei,-3,'San^srreaarLjirsr u6Lor Qfi6aBa.iT iseoR^aiu uasS Qiu^aeru ueBafiQ-njeiaiL-iTiU waiLDiis ^giimu uS^^LLiriiids waiLQ^^ was^Qu u^lai:^n IT areoa/ir ^p^ LoaiiSleoQeo Qatrear Qitneia GIQ^QS Gmuiu.
t (3) T h e first four feet being Kaicheer, the fifth a maclieer and the last a Tema.

Example.
(&(geBsuiiJirfijpuu^sw of Samba ndar already quoted) X (4) A short Machc?er followed by a Koovilam, three vilams and a Kacheer completing the line.

Example. Qem'/S'ieo s^^^eou- luadrsi^p stanS'^eo QiuesLK^Qu, (-//rSfifiar;z9Beuuea^uu^u) Q<fiuSteo uesifiSteo uir^Loei^ir (5 Se^/S'iev ^tl' m^iSlso ^hsssrvSieS dleairQiB(^(Sf (SjAQ Bear/S'iev /seoifi^ Q^iL^Q^neir p;SQujQeBr.
A combination of three ma and three vila cheers in the 3rd, 6th and the 2nd, 4th and 5th feet respectively. T h e stanza of the type (^cWSul- (^S), utasSs/rut cSpsHi is likely to be mistaken for a Kalitturai of group 1. (6) Five macheers and a Kaicheer at the end of each line. Example. (5)

uiTQiTiri eSeirQ^^ir
amairub atn bit ofs^a i

unQear
sui^niL Q.no-irsun^i3Br

Qusr vSsQfiii) uaeS^ ^ifimQ^ih QaHborQsu^^ aiiTsa aiQfiQ^ tun^fu aaaeii^n jjubuiirlear. "^(^Lcaan djf Sjemguuf-isa uiaffl;(2iu mpiaip u(,iojaiutf.d(^iii "
V'iruttapaviyal

^ *'(Tfi^^air(^isisirujtrS L S c a T B r s o a u L D t T Q^toirajaiL Qfii^iLfiLearCip " ibid. + '(j^iij sff^^toffj&.oJw/ .ir,^^ Ibid. \ ^ nu Q^^irirj^ susun^g'rc^tfisrwnQ^."Il'i.i.

I IS

Tilt

LIGHT

OF

TRUTH

* (7) A combination of viLacheer and macheer and every half o{ the line terminating in a macheer and preserving vendalai within itself. Example ^nnsuesoi^ Qtnec^ QsL'eear&sar^ iijpi uflffaeosr to/Tau^ Sxf i-ii^su ldj^UU^ MJSJ fiirnsueear icrrsu^ /^gn LD!TAI^ i au[[n suetmriij QiDesff ujfs^sun iSQ/p. The last specimen is interesting to us as it shows that even in the highly evolved viruttams, we still have some savour of the orthodox vendalai. The excessive love for vendalai is probably the cawse of there being only one species of the ordinary hepta-metric viruttam. Its formula is four vilacheers and three Macheers in each line of course Kaicheer happens to come in place of vilam, but such a substitution is one allowable not only in this specips, but in any kind of viruttam. Therefore we have only a limite/d number of models in the pentametric, bexametric, and heptametric, viruttams. And it is only on these models new poems may be composed. Anything done beyond this scope may never be a viruttam at all. For instance y o u cannot construct a Kalitturai by Kaicheers only. Still less is there a charce of composing a stanza, in the viruttams of longer metre, by Kaicheers only. There are many such combinations which are not permissible in the ordinary viruttams which the rising poet should carefully avoid. T h e octa-metric {ersesi^ifss^^iEis^&nrThfiuj) viruttam is composed by repeating the metrical arrangement of a Kali-viruttam twice in a line. Wnatever model that is in vogue in Kaliviruttam, may be treated as a model o{ ILnscer viruttam. The characterestics of viruttams of longer length may be understood by mere scansion. But mere scansion will not solve all difficulties in Sanda viruttams,.
* T h e rule in v i r u t a p a v i a i : QeueasrL^'Seir Qiueeru

^saiiLi^un ^iiS aessrdi QuaaSu QuiflQairuf-uasmrh,^*

FESTIVAL OF GANESA
BY R. KLLASEKARAM, D.A.,LT.

~ It has been aptly said that no country in the world rejoices n a longer list of holidays, festivals (utsava), and seasons of rejoicing, qualified by fasts (uptivasa, vrata), vigils (jagarana,) and seasons of mortification than India. Several cf these fasts and festivals take place on certain lunar days. Each period of lunation consists of about twenty seven solar days and is divided into tliirty lunar days. Fifteen of which during the moon's increase constitute the sukla paksha or the bright half and the remaning fifteen the Krishna paksha or the dark half of the month. Some festivals are however regulated by the supposed motions of the sun through the different signs of the Zodiac. The first of the festivals observed this morfth was Ganesachatuithi. It usually falls on the 4th day of the bright half of the month Bhadra (August-September). This is the popular feast per excellence. On the nwrning of this day, the bazaar streets and thorough fares are crowded to suffocatiou. A s one sees the large number of people of different grades and varying ages carrying home the clay image of the God and the variegated flowers and leaves for his woi ship, one cannot but feel moved by the religious earnestness with which the votaries are filled. Vinayaka or Pillayar as the God is known in southern India is no respecter of caste or wealth. Even as the earthly emblem of the great God be of either gold or clay, so are his votaries drawn from all ranks of life. Vinayaka is neither a fastidious God. All the flowers and leaves of forest and even the blades of lowly grass are acceptable unto him if they are but offered with devotion. Rice puddings, beaten rice, gram boiled, or fried things eaten by the common people are his favourite dishes. Great is the return that lie makes for these

USE

immr

OF

nmm

l ^ f g ^ v f f l s f l s ^ m dnvtiBm. Bie gdffik SSl olfac b n ^ g ^ i ^ i s f t f i c vuttttfTS'*^ hemlL H e spwes weumh. gSe aBt& dffi d i ^ ^ i a L . Tlte off f^orasii B pr^tiiat^ic.. inter B Q ^ e i k ^^ifodts BfaahnfflBB ffwfli ^ Shrilua^fatiK. caf tifar tinirftir c^ mri^^Mit a o d tfaretBrooIki^r uhs [SIHIE lytaflftg^tisfe diis jpsms Sioiir Qirs amcinnaitnins df lireDir^rai^ Gaaummmm Ganofpttiim,, ^Bftimt ggiiuir ma BS^ Vatfa M 23.0 ir^RS tdhs ffiiahmonu^iHliii wfto) gs ttfhf; Genis^ (sr t s m p s ^ (jSomacitfi^. wee o u u d C fee a i o e tfiad: G s n s a a a s fte K wan^i^^igig^ afi t^ts ^n^SBtfr. Gnire w a s (laiiadiayflnwwtf n tdte V e f i e BhjJHHHamH=illB.. "SHc ^iQiy ii^^^nii anm. w Gtuitt^Bn msHiiuig ttlio^Baid ^ ftn^s i s h b u k (A ^ocew^io fe aoHWHwaferf fey MPunHata^t^awMg car ftg^s. "Eftcffi^seinisnte and ttv^tti&gfluiiasuig,, gimflCT IHIe (unfia caRiry <3ult diK fcrit^SEB Ghis K ITS aapeedi of Ruxfiia. i3ir (fifftailiiii]^ fflantoTQiilhig dfearibtiniii <Muil dfaaCtii. TUif a n e s am tztte attimr liuiiil] aesrus lliiiii im itis s ^^ srh ofi Sivcx ( Z B * SmdUluiu Hsi^iuiig^ iir^ dn^tDcmi ami] HTHnttngataiim. SIAS i s 6ite ssetem^iii (mnr fllissuL ItuStr;, Ikili citeaEt&utti oumiiiiiiuii i s disik^itistf His CwiD s m s ^ G a a & m anil Stanthv. dte: ^RierajiisBiTns) alP. tdie ^rauss. G o n e i s airiikE" ^ a n i u i is> nut! Qtm (sninmuii&ir ant! Ikudten;, thiH nrdJTmrtttettanisamhiibmdiaiitlis Wiuioi jroBtas; lioCtt) ^ ^ ^^ ^ cmiltKiik tite:^ cnsi iGBitr sgiciits \witir jxk. evter ^UfSiii^ anil <musmg; ftimthaafiE wi, Wliffili CiHTBsa dtr FHlffiy^crfi lite ppCTnit; dagij- nsdlljg- nelliwawictj- ^ a cgmffikx; (^itrsiiriifimduni cdT s i ^ o i k ^ sttnasndhess gabitinite' und^ dttose qifialititsiiT.fkiti wtticit imUfae fbe a u m f s e im liJl-^. IHe^iT^ i s ttiofK^antr nmzkcai: Hefmie mni^BttukiiTs aijitiiing ItOs ^won^iiff ig amiiiiiiiefc w t i t Qt^cifainni^ otiirarCiIafiiaTfii^naBBts^ i u ^ ftiin] a s Utiiir owm irreii^s a m attem ftnunh aaaoKiatBEii vwitt^ Olmse affrrtireir dfeiiaus anii nTe (iftiar flmiK^; im tite- a p f r m w h i s * {li^ans ^;niilsUaun ZT't/'r/j^Z/fiuiAis aiil< thtsir (^naUvtcs tcHwii tttaa^. wnitertttecaiinQi^ aantnill al; ttte: aM^fam^. acti itJjMiafcfiifci

WORSHIP

OF VANES A

Tid vestibules (prakaras) of large temples. ' O f t e n howevoIhey stand alone and are then to be found outside villages, under trees or in cross w a y s ' or indeed in any kind of locality fcut a l w a y s smeared with saffron powder in token of good-luck nd auspiciousiress. A t the present time there arc few people who worship Ganesa exclusively. In former times there was such a class of people known as the Ganapatyas. These were divided into six sub-sects who worshipped six different forms of the God named respectively Mahf-Ganapati, Haridra-Ganapati, Ucchishta-Ganapati (also called Heramba), Navanita-Ganapati, SvArna-Gnapati and Santana Ganapati.

NAMMALVAR'S TIRUVIRUTTAM.
BY A. G O V I N D A C H A R Y A

SVAMIN,

C.E., M.R.A.S.

yerse HeadingGrbvjn

(Mel-l-iyal

akkai).

solaced at the sight of omen good,

The Bride "dotli tell her Female Friend the fact. Text.The soft-framed worm, sprung from a sore, sinks there again; Knows it aught of the world? So, what know I of the verse On th' Lord of Blisswho, skilful, made e'en w i s i n g Him? But, taking e'en a lizard's chirp as propliecy's A custom t h a t ' s of very great antiquity !
* Compare the corresponding thought in the following passa;?e ; " I date t h i s " says the Rev. G . U. Pope, M.A., D D. in the preface to his English translation of the ' Tiru va9agani' (Oxford, 1900, p. xivj, " on my eightieth birthday. I find, by reference, that my first Tamil lesson was in 1S37. This ends as 1 suppose, a long life of devotion to Tamil studies. It is not without deep emotioa. that I thus bring to a close my life's literary work. " Some years ago, when this publication was hardly projected, one evening, after prayeis, the writer was walking with the late Master of Balliol College in the qradrangle. T h e conversation turned upon Tamil legends, poetry and philosophy. A t length, during a pause in the conversation, the Master said ia a quick way peculiar to him, ' You must print it.' T o this the natural answer was, ' Master! I have no patent of immortality, and the work would take very long.' I can see him now, as he turned round,while the moon light fell upon his white hair and kindly face,and laid his hand upon my shoulder, saying, T o have a great work in progress is the way to live long. You will live till you finish it.' 1 certainly did not think so then, though the words have oftem corne to my mind as a prophecy, encouraging me, when weary ; [Cp. our Cuta, 10-9. = " bodhayantah parasparani"^" Exhorting each other."] and tkey have been fulfilled, while he has passed out of sight."

TIRUVIRUTTAM

123

Exf>laiiation.See'ng our Seer's grief unbearable grew e'en to Friends, Bystanders him console in manner following : Do not be in a hurry thou to reach Heaven, T o make thee sing Him Psalms so as to mend the world, The Lord, a little while, is pleased to keep thee here ! " To this, in all humility, our Seer replies " The Lord, magnanimous, minds not my lowliness ; A s an obedient dependent of Himself, H e ' s pleased t' enable me, by word of mouth to s e r v e ! " T o God prayed Milton in the following words : " A n d chiefly Thou, O Spirit, that dost prefer Before all temples the upright heart and pure, Instruct me, for Thou know'st; Thou from the first Wast present, and, with might3' wings outspread. Dove-like sat'st brooding on the vast abyss. And mildest it pregnant: what in me is dark, Illumine ; what is low, raise and support; That to the height of this great argument I may assert eternal Providence, And justify the ways of God to m e n . " P a r . Lost^ open ing lines.] Folks' evils th' world engraves on brass; Their virtues it in water writes. Great Souls' rule is th' reverse of this ' Be'ng self possessed, He 's with the slightest servic pleased ; Offended 'gainst a hundred times. He minds it not! ' Thus is our Lord Sri Rama, by His Bard described ( Ramayana Kaiham cliid upakarena &c.) (i) The Lord's existenee and His nature he ng revealed T o them, good souls (2) Him meditate ; (3) this pond'ring grows Continuous and (4) into vision is matured ; (5) The vision, love inspires " ; (6; thence, service higi? results,
\eilantacliarya.

1.V

1HE

LIGHT

OF

TRUTH

Accomp'nied by obedience unqualrfi^ Such as that wherewith Milton's Blindness-Sonnet ends. By these six traits doth sarntliness become complete,* Versi ^g. [Pand'-zim-bala-pala vtng'-irul.) Heading.Finding the flight unbearable, The Bride, to her Friend, it describes. Text.O bright-bowed fair onebeauteous as the Gcddess Earth Whom, swallowing (at involution time) And bringing out (at evolution time), The blue-huedBee-sucked-Tul'si-wreathedLord saves, and thence Receives the names" Foe-eurber " and " Wbrld-swallower " ! Before this time too, we have many a long night seen ; But nought like this gloom-spreading night Have we ever (i) seen or (2) heard of! Explanation.I. While grateful (or the boon the Lord was pleased to grant, Our seer grieves still that h e ' s denied tlie Lord's embrace^ He cries : " T h e present gloom is such that th' like of it. Ne'er seen, heard of, or e'en iinagined, erst hath been ! " II. (i) " One in hundreds as brave will shine ; (2) One in thousands hath wisdome fine ; (3) Tens of thousinds, oh^ speaker give ; (4) Breathes he who would for others live ? " [ = " Sateshu jiyate sQrah ", &c/ One Fellow creatures' Lover True, Is more than all the world besides !'
* T h e follow'ngis th*"expression, Sam-skrit, of this thought : = ( i ) Vedanam (2) dhyana-visrantam, dhyanam srantam (3) dhruvasmritaa ; Smritih, (4) pratyak-sha-tam eti, drishjih (5) priti-tvam richchhati"; Priti-paktih (6) paiam -Sntan^a-Gadya. dasyam, para-tantrya-sam-anvitam smritah = '' Tavanu^bhtitii iri-shat-parva-sampurnah sarubhuta," Paramaikantinas

TIRUVIRUTTAM
Mark-perpendictfiar, * with white earth, o'er the brow, ( T i s also hinted here) doth beautify the face.t
' Urdhva pundra/ t A s y m b o l like the Tamil letter " ya " (iu>,

123

Placed o'er a centric pedestal below, Vaishpavas TTen-kalai) as face-mark use Lines one and threewhich are white, show the Lord's Feet both; L i n e t w o t h a t ' s yellow, shows our Goddess lightning-bued ; T h e pedestal's the Model Son 'neath th' Feet of both. Three lettersA, U and M m a k e Our Holiest Monosyllable, And constitute a Sentence G r e a t W h e n c e ev'ry other truth's (=Om-kara-prabha^ra (h>

Vedah" &c.) A n d which, Sti-Vaish^avas thus construe : F o r ( i ) th* All-wise A and (2) th' Universal Mother U, Exists each (3.) M c m - Man or Be'ng t h a t ' s Rational, (t^ide the derivation of the word ' man ' in the preface to Dr. Ogilvie's Student's English Die., and the lessons Dr. Ogilvie there draws from this and similar facts.) Our Trinity, as in Ramayan manifest, A s modelSire, Mother and Son, did walk on earth. In Rama-shape A went before ; l o Srta-shape U went in th' midst; In Lakshman-shape, M,followed A And U, as body-guard of both, Ramayana: .= "Agratah prayayau Ramah " <S:G. Cp t h j Rev. Griffith's essay on the Bhagavad-Gitd, where this rational explanation of the Trinitarian Doctrine is accepted by the reverend author and held to agree wi<^h the meaning of the thiee significant letters in the word Jehovah.) This Mot^el Son and Liege, in h e a v e n ' s As Adi-Sesha ever installed. (Vide sage Yamunachiitya's Hymn of Hymns, v. 40, the commentaries thereon). On him God leans, as he on God ; He, liege-like humble, leans on God, W h o , like a kind lord, stoops to him, (Cp. the closing couplet of Milton's Comns.) This- niodel Son antl Liege of God,

126

THE LIGhU OF

TRUTH

III. Touching the Lord, (i) His Beluteous Form, (2) His other Charnias, (3) His l.ordship over al!, (4) His Curbing e v V y foe, His (5} Condescension and (6) Protecting E v ' r y W a y , Our Seer, in all gratitud?, doth here recount.

Verse 50.
TIeadinsiBride-groom Bride,

(On-nnthal-Mcimai)
being bent on returning to the

Enjoins His Charioteer t o - ^ all ooss'bie speed. make ^ ^ [Here too, Souls Godly have, as Bidegroom been conceivt^d.] I'lwt.Before the fine-brovved fair-one's bod'ly bloom grows pale, Our car must Great A s Lakshmana and Bala-Rama came on earth, And as Ranianuja and Vara-Yogi too The pedestal in VaishnaA s' forehead-mark, ever since Rumiinuja came, hath " Ramanuja " been called. Our Temple Worship-Codes or A g a m a s Named Pancha-Ratra and Vaighunasa, W i t h Sruti, Smriti, Bharat, ei cct'ra, ( i ) Our Doctrine and (2) our Discipline explain In th' Rev'rend Griflith's Essay on the Gita, 'Tis said some ancient Jews too used to wear Phylacteries which bore a sim'lar mark. Th' Encyclopaedia Britannica, Edition Nine, gives in its Index-tome A mass ol' ref'rences touchfng this theme The Cath'lic ChristianThumboo Chettyar, Dangalore, Told me that like phylacteries deck Catii'lics' hands, In th' way of bracelets e'en in our own times, (As Kamba-Ramayan and th' like works show,) " Tiru-Naniam ", Vaishnavs' forehead-mark is n?med, Because, in wearing it, God's Name 's pronounced. And th' wearer's thence reminder---he God's temple is. Moslems devout at llyd'rabad, Deccan, ad.nire, Says A'chvar-svumi, our thoughtto th' foreliead-inark.

speedly

reach

Mountain

TIRUVIRUTTAM

123

Ci) Where bees sing and (2) which pours streams that, fronf peak to vale, Descend, bright as the white pearl-necklace on th' spacious head Of th' Lord Supreme of Heaven. So, driver! drive to-day, ExplanationHearinghow keenly our S e e r ' s pained Because of his non-reach of th' Lord, Kind Saints, to see him, cnme in haste This fact, our Seer, here sets forth II. (i) Rememb'ringhow our Seer's face Glowed with mark-perpendicular,* (2) Rememb'ring loohow, parted from The Lord and His Saints, our Seer grieves, Friends, riding in their mind-car called " mano-ratha " Dr ve fast this vehicleapt as 'tis to achieve Their aim, the aim, namely, of solacing our Seer. [" If y e " , says Christ, " h a v e faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye sliall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place ; and it shall remove ; and nothing shall be impossible unto you. (Math. 17, 20) " And all things whatsoever ye shall ask in praytr, believing, ye shall receive." (/t/., 21, 22)]

Verse 5/.

Malai-kondiimatta.)

Heading.The lonely Bride laments, saying, " The ocean's roar 1 cannot bear! " i^Cp. v. 62.) Text.Th'ocean, pow'rless to take back that ambrosia which. Stirring it with the Mount (used as a churning rod Round which was twisted as a churning-rope a snake, t The Lord of Wonders took from it, secures th' aid of Tul'si, and, like a lit'gant parcener challenging, Doth roar, as if intent on taking back from me The conchshell-bracelets which the dwellers on its beach, Sold me after receiving from me their full price !
See the dagger note to the last verse, t Named " Vubuki."

THE U<3Hr OF
'That fire which
assists ;

TRUTH
wind as friend

forests burns,,the

While It destroys the small fire which as lamp flame serves ! Is there a soul who, t'wards the weak, doth good-will bear ? " V a n a n i " &c.Subhashita-Ratna-Bhandagaram " or " T h e Treasury of Good-Word Geniis," p. 251 V. 122.] Explmiation. I. Arrived at such extremet}' of grief as lo Make e'en friends at a distance haste to solace him, O u r Seer, by th' sight of strayers* bustle's further pained II. ( j ) The strayers' host> as roaring ocean is conceived ; {2) Faith, as the steady churning-iod fixt in its midst; (3) Goal-seeking eagerness is taken as the fdpfe Wherewith faith o'er is churned and probed b y th' Gracious Lord. (4) Whoe'er hath such faith as hath stood Such a test> Will censured be by worldling kin as being mad, (5) NectarEternal and Immutable, 's the soul, T h u s saved ; tlietice, " Amritaksharam harah ", h e ' s called ( = S v . Up. 1 , 1 0 . ) That such a soul cannot be into straying Ever brought back, is, in this verse, implied. HI. By " dwellers on its beach " are meant those Teachefs Blest, Who, having crossed stray'ng-sea, have terra firma reached. IV. " The...bracelets " they for " full price " " sold," Stand for the pureness they impart, When they 're by pupils' conduct charmed. V. The Tulasi-wreath of the Lord, 'tis said, Even, as strayers' ocean, gives our seer pain For, God's charms all, in parted lovers breed but pain, And make them cry, s a y ' n g " Lord ! haste Thou to lift me hence; I can't bear any longer in this world to s t a y ! " (Psalm 24, Decad 39.)

rinWlRUtTAM

t^

Uirsi {Azhai-k-kum kar'um-kadal), Heading.The: Current (Winter) Season otherwise explained


7 / . T h e White-Seagrown blue by th' Lord's hue, Having, with loving sire's voice, called And, with his white wave-hands, Conveyed, His lotus-dwelHngcoOl-eyed girl, Blest with all lovely female traits. Ascended She the Lord's Snake-bed! {Vidt the teHt.-" Pasyatatn deVa^devanani) yayaU vakshas-'stlialam. Hareh.") B y jealousy stirred on see'ng this, The Goddess Earth, through thundef, c f y i n g , Rains, down her mount breast, streamy tears, Which as they flow, proclaim the news-^ Of cruel heart's the Lord of Bliss ! " Explanation." 1 Ve been denied enjoyment though enjoy'Wg t i m e ' s come; Souls who have reached the Lord, enjdymeiit ceaseless have, ( " S a d a paSyarti SQrayah "Vishtju-sukta.) Like them, I ' m His son ; vain's e'en my kinship unique!'t Judgingour S e e r ' s pained by reflections such thi Of God's will absolute, Friends, our Seer remind, "Show'ng him a preccdent^where such will absolute It hath pleased God to eiercise^ T h u s they, our Seer seek to soothe. They say . " E'en Goddess Earth, priv'leged A s S h e ' s , like other goddesses. Eternally t' enjoy the Lord, Is made, with parting's pain to siiiart, Enjoy'ng barred but a trice, e'en She T h u s smarts! Thus " absolute's God's will, And thus transcendent t o o ' s His charm J 'Tis hence fit, thou in patience wait! "

Professor Larkins " Mentoids and Electrons


B y C . V . SWAMINATHA IVAR, K.S.S. A.

Professor Edgar Lucien Larkin's article on " Mentoids and Electrons " has caused me to think and reflect a good deal. The learned Professor's book " Within the Mind Maze " I have not yet read for the simple reason I have not seen it. But his new creation " mentoid " like another invention of a President of the Psychic Research Society " Meta psychic / or super-psychic shows how the inquiring and investigating genius ot the West is slowly but surely climbing up the steed and inaccessible heights of thought and sense perceptions into the ethereal atmosphere of pure thought. The W e s t has for long been wedded to the idea of chemical atom as the simplest and irreducible element of matter. The discovery of electrons, and the further discovery oltrions clean dislodged the Western scientific world from tiie apparently impregnable position H has taken behind the chemical atom. A French Professor, who was President of the Psychic Research Society found the necessity of inventing a word like " Meta-psychic " to commeniorate " the crossing of the rubicon " of thought-perccption like that of sense-j>erception which was described b y the term meta-physical. The meta-psychical transcended thought-perceptions as the meta-psychical transcended sense-perceptions. Now Professor Larkin has found the necessity of inventing the word " mentoid'' to describe the first " and only manifestations of primordial Creative Mind." One has to perform *Nama-dharana' i. e., fix the appercetving power of " the Original Creative Mind " on the nanse or Nama^ to perceive what the thing is, which it is intended to denote or indicate. A t first it was a little confusing to follow the learned Professor because of the conventiona4 meaning which has come to be attached to the words thought-form, thought-body etcetra by the new vocabulary of the Theosophits. But the words " Mind-model" "thoughc designs " a n d tho.ught specification " gave me a clue to

MENTOIDS

AND

ELECTRONS

131

get at what Professor Larkin was aiming to express and m}' fixing the attentions on his idea and performing ydgasamyama on that idea led me to an understanding of the truth which he was endeavouring to convey to his readers. This is my exposition of what I have been able to apperceive in the process adopted by me to fix at what he means by mentoids " I take it that " Mentoids " are nothing more nor less than the first operations of the priniordial Creative Mind. W e call it Tejo-maims and UnmanasXh^ first being the negative, and the second, the positive aspect of the Original Creative Mind. T h e Sruti indicates it very well. In the cavity of the heart known as Anahata is a sound, sabdha^ the vibrant viraves of which form the AkHsa or ethereal space which pervades all-through, including electrons, trions and what not. The sum-total of its variations in octave is 21,600 in one O n e ' stands for the unit of primordial sound or sabdah. Within this unit of primordial sound known ^s AnHhata sjbdah (the eternal non-passive or creative sound), is the tow of the sound called Dhvanih. This dhvanih represents the motif ox the Unit of Dynamic force which sets the vibrant particles of the primordial self-creative sound in motion.
W i t h i n this dhvanih is c a l l c d Jyotih'' trions and o r t h e u n i t of D y n a m i c f o r c e is w h a t p r i m o r d i a l form of stars. that the L i g h t " t h e

c r e a t i v e l i g h t w h i c h is the c a u s e of all m a t e r i a l c r e a t i o n from e l e c t r o n s to sun, moon and Even thoughtAM f o r m s a r e coni[)osed of this l i g h t . original Creative It is fn-m this " light " the

iMind m t k e s all t h i n g s that a r e made.

f o r m s , be t h e y s u b t l e t h o u g h t - f o r m s o r g r o s s e r forms of m a t t e r a r e m a d e of v a r i e d a n d v a r y i n g v i b r a t i o n s of this " l i g h t a n d are u l t i m a t e l y rcdurihle t o i l s primordial origin. or " t h e Knergy c r e a t i v e li^lu which performs air it all wonders. Tl)e

Th\9,JyotiU
inexhaustible inexhaustible as the

is the/^f/ri/AV^-.vr/-or secret s t o r e of

e n e r g y of the S u n a s w e l l a s the torn para t i v e l y l i g h t of the n i d i m n L'liivtrsal Knorgy. is the ui.ii of vital

botli dr.iwii from this s t o r e h o u s e of h'nergy

1.V

1HE LIGHT

OF

TRUTH

" h o r s e " is used as the unii of mechnnicril energy. It is a combination of the positive and negative aspect of the Orifiinal Creative Mind, as the potter's clay is the combination in due proportion of the hardening substance ' clay ' and the softening substance ' w a t e r ' C l a y ' is symbolical of matter and water' symbolical of the original creative Positive Mind which reduces all to a state of fluidity before impressing the hardening substance with its name and form. The Positive aspect of the Original Creative Mind is Spirit. Its negative aspect is Matter. And the latest definition of matter according to Advanced Science in the West is. "Matter is mode of motion" And all rhythmic, regulated motions are spiral in form, Otherwire we cannot have that infinitude in the modes of motion which we find actually exists and is necessary for the onward progress of the World through evolution and involution. Within this creative light or Jyotih is the original Selfcreative Mind which is the origin and cause of this Universe and all there is on it. The Sruti says that this original mind is capable of all the three-fold acts of creation viz., that of creating, sustaining and destroying all forms. And yet what is this all powerful Mind ? It is only a Name! It is Anirvachane^aa thing of which nothing definite, such as it exists or its exists not can be positively asserted. For if one comes to perceive it by the Higher Intelligence which merely uses it as the potter uses his wheel to fashion pots of various forms it is realised as nothing more than the Law of Polarity which sets the opposite poles in action to move towards each other and rushing into one another's arms as the lover and the beloved rush to realise the light of joy ; and causes repulsion when they are not oppositely mated. It is the unmanifest cause of attraction and repulsion and as a consequence, of the Law of Attunement. But this Original Creative Mind, this divinity which manifests itself as the Law of Polarity and Law of Attunement is not eternal though comparatively so and ong lasting. For, it merges in its own cause " the Magnetic

MENTOIDS

AND ELECTRONS

133

Centre of infinitude" which is the Magic Circle of My Holy Mother whose centre is everywhere and circumference nowhere." The Sruti says : " Tan mano vilayam yate tat Vishtw Paramam Padham. "' T h a t in which this self-active, selfcreative mind merges that is Vishnu (the All-pervasive), the Supreme State. It will thus be seen that the first operations of the Original Creative Mind are three-fold in action, as all things perfect are three-fold. It creates, sustains and destroys and itself merges in a cause indicating that it is both producer and product. While it produces the universe it is itself the product of something which is higher, greater and more powerful than it is. W h a t Professor Larkin designates 'mentoids ' therefore are but single aspect of the Original Creative Mind whose first operation are three-fold. And all creative acts are three-fold in action. Professor Larkins ' mentoids and electrons ' it would appear are confined to what \3 called three dimensioned space. But there is a fourth dimension of space which pervades all through its other dimensions, length, breadth and depth, which I would here take leave to describe as the magnetic centre of space whose magic circle is all centre without a delimiting circumference. The first operations of the Original Creative Mind (which abides and works within ' the creative light ' or Jyotih as the potter lives and works in the midst of the clay which he fashions into all shapes and forms,) is in the four dimensioned space and notthe three-dimensioned space. The comparison of the original creative mind to the potter is in one respect misleading for the Original Creative Mind is not the efficient cause as the conceiving potter is. It is only the co-efficient cause as the hands of the potter and the wheel which he uses to fashion his wares are. This distinction must be carefully borne in mind if Professor Larkin's " mentoid" is not to lead one to further confusion.

PURANANURU.
L5Y D K. G . U. P O P E , M.A , D.D.

L.

eSiLLUji QuToQtu LC^SSh^ Q:U!I sQQ.Tjd^LC iSeQ QlUiTSiaiQuT^l9 LnSTjfl^^^JfT.T Qu!rei)a(^sin^ itfi^sn^Qtuif ^uTsQiU'f (^LLI^S ^suilenm iLiQ^Qa'tf) L:sarssS suTj-ir sustrensu QiussaQoSsnu
^snJTQjiSnh ^siaeat Qlcsot^,^

Si^ujp ujiiiG-^ soxQi^^


ir^enL^

Qiuiri^^^sn^ ^^^ LtjenunuT ^"S^^iis eui^i^a^


auTJTiay.r

^^^ay^s^^T

^snrQ^TSsr

.iJ^jiwi iS8sO j^empiLj ST/J^WSJJLC ai!3.TrB(S< (O<3;LLL- tLTj^Q^ir^sO susdtlu^ (^ T^^oir US'EJS^ Q.fiulso.
T H E DRUM.

An interesting song has been preserved (See Pura Nanurii 50) composed by the bard .Mdcikirau'tr. One day he had wandered into the courtyard of tlie palace,perhaps the palm wine, or the richer ju lies that the Ydvanar had brought from over the sea, had proved too strong for him;at any rate, he saw the richly ornamented and cushioned couch on which the royal drums were usually placed. These had been removed to be cleansed ?nd anointed, and he threw himself on the unoccupied bed, and fell fast asleep, in wiiich state he was discovered by the king. Now the courtiers, wiio were j o l o u s

PURANANURU

135

of the Ioyal favour he enjoyed, gathered around, antici|)ating the condign punishment of the intruder, who had transgressed so sorely the rules of palace etiquette. But the kindly-hearted king standing over the sleeper took up a fan with which he smilingly cooled his brow, and watched over him till he awoke This is commemorated in the following very natural liille lyric :
STOLEN SLUMBERS.

T h e y took the drum to wash, and I meanwhile Resigned myself to slumber on the couch, With peacock feathers and with gems adorned, And with the glorious wreath men "set on brow W h o go to storm the strongholds of a foe.' The couch was softer than the sea-foam p u r e , On which unwitting I had cast myself. I slept, and when I woke above me stood And awful form before whom fsemen flee. I trembled, but he gently waved the fan A b o v e mebade me sweetly slumber on. Surely 'twas not to mm applause from earthly bards\ But that the deed might echo loud in higher worlds\ There was a curious mixture of ferocity and coarseness, with gentleness and chivalric courtesy, in the deportment (rf some erf these rugged old worthies of the Tamil lands !
LI.

litTLBS/i) SsnfiiLj iEen&o^ ^iBS^ LDsariuu9ir Si^fijn rStfi^l cBsidso eustfliB^ear easSiLj LDSMSSO Qiune^ir'i jrsarea: ^saruluirr eu i^^ ^asatiB^ QuT^Qsusaru QuTQt^jtim lurQ/r^jrjj^ OiXTsari^ Qsa,iS!n(blsL Qair^fQ^eari QsirQ^^ ijasarssrir oj&fiojQjrir ausifiu^si/ sarsSii9ipi ^aaiusi) QmiQ^u^M lUiP^Qpiudr suifi^ien3.3i (S ami jr. '^^sirljr

Hfi

THE

LIGHT

OF

TRUTH

To the Pandiyan king, \Marnn-VirTithi\' who died at Kudagaram, by the ' Lame poet of Aiyur.' If waters surging rise in floods, t h e r e ' s no defence! If fire shall rage, no power can guard the life of man ! If winds grow fierce, no strength resists their m i g h t ! If Pandyan King, in glory great as these, should say In wrath, " 1 share no more the pleasant Tamil land With other kings ", and going forth to war, should claim The spoils as tribute due, those who submissive yield And give what he demands shall live devoid of fear ; But woeful, woeful, is thfir lot who lose his grace. Like ants emerging from their mound of ruddy clay Wherein in . swarms minute and mighty they toiled long, One single day th?y giddy whirl, then perish quite. LII. QpsiafiB(^SLir euiuu-irek Qp'-ipeueB Qiuir^^^ JSHrsaran^ iLjshsnii ^jruu ^enjf^^^^^ ^ireia'^ausaj mn^isjSsir
euii^&i LCimestiT euri^ ^sii^ QsuilQui iFIiu'S/dit

^uj(r/fO<s/r sosfPiuir fliQm^iiQ^ir^ iSear3r(d L/amaixS^ Lj&SsijiBirjji QifiQiaQjiiri^ aiiuilas>ifi LDQ^P^ ajiTiBf^QSssr eusodi^db
iUJessf!

usQaemLtir^tu

uitpu'^

Quir^iiS

' He i3 also sung of by Maruthan J\anayanar.


^ Also called Aiyur Kirar and the ' Lame one of Uraiyuf. See 228, 314, 399. He sang of Killi-va\avam, the Coran, who fell at KULA MOTTAM nd ol TAMAN chief of TONW: a dependant of the former.

PURANANURV mtttrQp ^ir6ftf iSsopiuu iS^isi


umQuit/Ss

137

aiMeS^airiieCs

^rsar ernrtsm

rt_irQ S'af^iLi m^ean Couj/r^sj-* Addressed to the same king as the proceeding, by MaruthaH' _//a Naganar. {the following verses Very vigorously depict the Horrors of war and the desolation it causes-} A s wheu a tiger, dwelling on the mountain crest That rises o'er the abodes of dreaded Gods, Lusting to taste the flesh of herds that roam the plains, W a k e s from slumber in his dusky den, and straight W i t h smoothered roar, collecting all his powers, Selects his prey, and siezes where he lists, S o thou, O Paij^yan king, didst rush to slay the kings Of Northern lands, and desolate their plains On mighty chariots borne. If such the war thou 'rt bent on w a g i n g now, Oh ! who In all this migrity world are in such piteous case! Once in eaoh village fragrance of the food prepared Breathed over every fertile field girt by the laurels green And shrines, where sound of praise was heard, with worshippers Were filled ;But now the Gods have fled their ruined homes. And in those old abandoned halls the speckled fowl From out the forest lay their eggs in pits, wherein The hoary f.thers of the hamlet played their rustic games. Llll.
Qp^jojir sPtLjiB euiririnssurp

LX^SsSaSfi .SSaTQuiTQ^ LLtTL^fl


UI3IO>T^/R

Q^tpj^l UJTdfLC

Q&tiB(^Pir sQoir^^si) ^ ^iub'hj Qm^/a


6

138

THE

LIGHT

OF

7RU/H

6TrQds/roTT luirBosrs sQu^rear Quirem^Mj eQ.flui9 Qssr^s^ LLUiLDir Q^UiLoQi^ird QsrQ^^deo peoiQ^ LydsC?^ ^(ueisTjji QiLiT'sSQiij/rir iSlpm^'sSLa uysnir^dso tijeos^^ sifirQ^ QLcearjD,^ Loff^Q^ ^ri^rr^ G'9'IU'lilL Qo^iuQa^ih (Tj/r^ear
eafleir^stT ^)u3earsarjj>LD QsarsarpS^
^"SQairdr suiflea^m Q^sitljulj

LjirQei/ssT Lbssri^p

uoassuetnrr^

To the Cerattf Mantharam-Ceral-irum-porrai by Porunthil Ham Kirandr. This short poem is remarkable for the very noteworthy appreciation of Kabilar's verses. [Cp. 174, 10 QuiriLtuirmeSp
SLSeoear.

Upon the pearls that glisten amid the sands of the shore, On the lofty terraces whence gleam Of gems is reflected Where damsels with shining bracelets dance Thou who didst remove the distress of Vijangil, res plendcnt in beauty, O Porraiyan, lord of elephants that hold the field, and of swift steeds, If on thy Glory we dwell, the song shall never end ; If it be curtailed, thy praise can ever worthily be shewn. By those like us of bewildered mind, Y e t , in this flower-crowned wond where sons of light and glory havfe been born, It is hard not to take our place. T h y victory shall be sung even by me who say : " ' Twere well if K A B I L A R were here. T h e bard, who sang in verse condensed yet beautiful, With learning filled, with glory crowned ! "

AGAMIC BUREAU NOTES 143 A comparative Prosody of the Dravidian Languages hy


J/r. Fajagot^ul Rat, B.A.
W e are greatly indebted to the South Indian Literary lustitute for the publication of the first part of the original work above-named dealing with what had hitherto been neglected by our Tamilian scholars a comparative study of the prosody of the Ta\}iilian languages. is worthy of the veneration all those who love our vernaculars. The We author's labour in this unexplored and (marketably) unprofitable region hope that his spirit of self-sacrifice in this matter will continue for ever to prompt him to publish the other parts of this work at an early date and stir up our scholars to Co-operate with him and conduct similar searches in this sfield. We have to thank this learned author for writing this dissertation rn English and affording opportunities even to those who never read Telugu or Canarese for understanding the essentials in those prosodies which correspond with Tamil formulae of prosody. The Malayalam grammar being of very recent origin, the author seems to have omitted to make any mention of the same in his tr^tise, Apart from the introduction and the concluding remarks we have three sections in the book which deal with I'Ganams and metres', the i Prasam ' and the vadi. W e ought to congratulate the author for his statements that these elements of Telugu prosody tbrongh they may retain sanskrit nanies are but the evolved specimens which were originally Dravidian. But what were their original Telugu names and how Had the Tamil, Telugu and Canerese languages cannot be far the sanskrit influence was excrcised over them are points which are left untouched by the author. had all one commcn source for their respective metric elements ? I think the application of the analogy of the source of safely done here. With due deference to the learned author, we have to differ from him in some of the points regarding the Tamil prosody dealts with by him. Some of the errors seem to have been due to the author's not realising

Hfi

THE LIGHT OF

TRUTH
the

ilie two distinct stages of the Tamil prosody," tne orthodox and liberal views of metrical calculations.

Dining the Sangani ages when ths Tamil poetry had no influence of the sanakrit metrics the symbolic forms of the metrical formulae, were paramount. After the abolition of the third Sangam, we have the musical school of the Tamil metrics gradually evolving till we have in our religious literature an open preference of sound to symbols, e. g.

" eiiLi QSLLIisS t 6 3 s r Qeoiaf ITJQLD^


ulLI un-iLi(ili)u zr^zui^^'sroj."

Herein ^ Qicem' is not a ' Lj^-c^n ' as the form appears to be but only a .^zSlotnL as per the sound. In the orthodox prosody, the almost only test to look into the correctness of the metrical composition is the but in the liberal poetry of Tamil metrics, the musical balance of each foot in its relation to the others in that line and those corresponding to it in the following lines have to be carefully observed. The above illustration guruvu in sound. from Appar's Devaram will show that We a laguvu in the beginning of a foot though symbolically is such is a It is only in excellent viruttam poetry in Tamil. can trace regular accents and scan the lines as we would in English. But in Sangam works like Naladiyar such a task would he futile. Again we have to differ from the learned author in his expression that Nirai is dissyllable. Like it is also a single syllable xsf another variety and in Tamil (not even in Hnglis^ j there is no criprion that a syllable should contain a single letter or a single vowel. Be the

Prasams and Vad/, the Ethu^ai

and

Mo :ai

of Tamil or the

rLvme and alliteration, we have to say that in the orthodox Tamil piosody, their signiliuan' e was practically little. In some San'^am works you can lind some poetry here and there which p;iy little regard to the rhyme or alliteration. In conclusion we have to state that the treatise is on the ^vhole admirable and the tables given 'n pages 4 and 11 of the book are really splendid.
*

L e c t u r e s by S w a m i Vedachalam.After leaving Calcutta on


the 7th of May, Svami \'edacha!;uii visited many important places of Konhern India. On ac ount of his short stay in each of these places, he toukl not de)i\ev lony lectuies, but was only able to see some

ACAMIC

BUREAU

NOTES

i4i

prominent men of those cities and hold with them long or short convet' sations as time and circunistam'es permitted GQ the antiquity of Saiva
religion, its history, and its peculiar philosophic aspect. It is very gratifying to note that his conversations with the learned men of the north proved very friutful, as most of them were convinced of the truths (rf Saiva religion and began to feel a real interest in the study of its -philosophical works. Conversations of this character were held at In Benares, Haridwar, Dehra Dun, Muttra, Brindaban and Bombay.

one of his conversations with Mr. Balamukhunda, B.A. and others of the

Arya S a n u j

at Brindaban. he went right into the subject of Siva L i n g a

and its worship, and how it had been preceded in the times of Rig Veda by the worship of sacrificial firethe natural linga or iiymbol of God, the all blissful Sivam. Mr. Balamukhunda said at the end of the svami's discourse that his eyes had been opened just then to see the real meaning of Sivalinga and that he could say nothing against the worskip of the sacred symbol. At the earnest request and kind inviiation of Mr. C . Ekambara Mudaliar and his learned wife Panditha Sriniathi Andal Ammal, the svami went to Secunderabad and delivered there and at Bolarum a series of five lectures which were all attended on every occasion by a large audience and listened to with much inteiest which are as follows : O n the 27th June he delivered a lecture on ' Devotion to God.' O n the 29th of June, on ' T h e nature of Individual Soul.' On the ist of July, on ' The worshipping of God through symbols.' On the 3rd of July, on ' Saint Sundaramurthi and Manickavacagar.' On the 6th of July, on 'Saint Tirujnaoasambandha and Appar." Besides these lectures, two very interesting and long conversatios were held on the 4th and 5th of July, when a numlier of learned men assembled, put many intricate questions on most of the vital problems of philosophy and received from the svami apt, briet ana illuminating answers and in the end expresssed their entire satisfaction at pertinent answers most intelligently given by the svami. And on bis returi? to Madras on the nth July, he was most gratefully received by the members of the Koyapet Subramania Saiva Sabha and a lecture was arranged by the latter at Ranade Hall. Mylapore on the aoth July, when the Sva:iii gave to the large audience in lh form The details of

142
Northern India.

THE LiriHT OF

TRUTH

of a Ions impressive lecture the interesting details of his travels in


*

The

Tamil

Language.Under

the auspices of the Triplicane Mr. P. Sambanda Mudaliar on Language. T h e Hon'ble Mr.

Hindu High School Tamil Sangam a lecture was delivered on ist Septr. 19 3 at 6 p m. in the School Hall, by the means of improving The Tamil Justice T . Sadasiva

Iyer presided. T h e lecturer in the course of his

address said that in ancient days it was the language of the country and of the ruling power and authors were richly rewarded by the kings. A t present it was not so. the language. They were neglecting the langtiage even in the new course in schools and c o leges helped the students to neglect In conclusion he said that they must improve the langustories and extracts from classics. The age by the publication of rare books such as dramas novels and school readers containing moral chairman in concluding the proceedings observes the Tamil was a language current even before the Aryans entered India and was not derived from Sanskrit but it derived and assimilated Sanskrit words. T h e language, no doubt, was insufficient in its alphabets but he would suggest the introduction of Raman script to remove the defect. He deplored the actions of sonje of the muts who would not give men access to their books and thus bring about the destruction of some of the most important literary books. In conclusion he approved the W i t h the lecturer the' meeting methods suggested by the lecturer to improve the language. usual vote of thanks to the chairman and the terminated.
* *

T h e iSaivite E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l . W e are glad to hear that the Chennai Sivanadiar Thirukkuttam, which is one of the famous and largest Saivite societies of Southern India and has travelled over 200 sacred shrines, is now diverting its attention entirely towards imparting raltgious and secular education to children. Besides having established T h e school was a Tamil Library it has started an Elementary school.

started a year ago with only 10 boys and it now consists of 60 boys and has been placed under the management of a Sub committee with M. R. Ry., C. Vengu Pillai, Avargal, Retired Deputy Collector and Hony. Magistrate as its President and M. R. Ry., R. ChinnasawmX

AGAMIC

BUREAU

NOTES

143

P i l k i Avargal, B. A:, as its Secretary. school is expected.


*

A very

rapid progress of the

W h e n the sword is rusty, the pJow bright, the prisons empty, the granaries full, the steps of the temple worn and those of the law courts grass-grown ; when doctors go afoot, the bakers on horseback and the men of letters drive in their own carriages, then the empire is well govo-ned. Chinese Proverb.
* #

GLIMPSES OF TRUTH from various sources.


Restlessness and discontent cannot change your lot.
* *

Never allow your energies to stagnate if you won Id be happy.

* *

Conscience is the heait's secrct Court of Justice.


G o out into God's world and live your life for others.
* *

' A man caunot speak to his ton, but as a father ; to his wife, but as a husband ; to his enemy, bnt upon terms ; whereas a friend Bacon.
* *

may

speak a s the casa requires, and not as it sorteth with the person

Merriages are made ia Heaven, yes ; a true marriage is made in Heaventhe Heaven witnin the hearts of the man &.nd the woman. L o v e is the god that unites the man and the woman, Love is the only God that conjoins them in True Marriage.

I have learned to seek my happiness by limiting my desires rather them in attempting to satisfy them./a/iu Siuart Mill.
*
*

144

THE LIGHT

OF

TRUTH

" The 30th anniversary of the Tuticorin Saiva Siddhanta Sabha will be (D.V.) celebrated on the 2nth, 21st and 22Dd December 1913. Srinian S. Sabaratna Mudaliar, D y . Fiscal, Jaflfna, and the author of The Essentials of Hinduism in the light of Saiva Siddhanta " has Many profound scholars A lady's Confereuce will also kindly consented to preside on the o:casion. in our Philosophy will deliver lectures. be held. All interested in our philosophy and in the comparative study of religions are cordially invited to bs 4)resent on the above dates.
*
*

A REVIEW.
W e have to acknowledge with thanks the receipt of a beautifully got up album of the Atank Nigrah Pharmacy of Jamnngar Kathiawar. This notable institution is well-known and has always been doing splendid service to humanity in general. A s an indigenous institution, The album gives one The Album leads with it occupies the foremost / a n k in our Ayurvedic world and it is a pleasure to see the institution thriving so well. an exact idea of the working of The Pharmacy.
* * *

the potraits of our most gracious Imperial Majesties.

THE

LIGHT OF TRUTH
OR THE

Siddhanta Dipika & Agamic Review


A Monthly Jonrnol in the Ancient Saiva Siddhanta Vol. AlV. devoted to the Search for Truth os revealed Hindu Mystic Philosophy known as the or Agamdiita and in the Tamil language. '^PR'L 1914. No. 4.

KODIKKAVF
O F

ST. U M A P A T H I

blVACHARlYAR.

[This is another short treatise forming one of the fourteen Siddhanta Sastras in Tamil. Our Saint was put out of caste b y the Chidambaram Dikshitars of whom he was one, for partaking of the remnants of food eaten by his guru, MaraiJnana Sambanthar, whom he addresses in his Vina Venha. The time for performing the Brahma Utsavam oi ih^ Temple appi-oached, and the Tillai priests tried tc hoist the flag on ti e Dvajastambha ; but it eould not be tied. God appeared to the Dikshitars in their dream and they were told ihat the fl^g will go up only if th-^y brought back our Saint. Our Saint lived in a hamlet of Chidambaram, which is on.the other side of Ihe Railway Station where his Samadhi can be seen even to day, callcd Korravflnku4iThe priests repaired to him brought him back on their shoulders and prayed to him that he m i ^ be pleased to hoist the flag. These verses were then composed.]

Hfi

THE

LIGHT

OF

TRUTH

SnJdihui^ QsiTi^SLLi^jearQajr. Light dvveUs with darkness in same place One does coneeal the other when strong. And yet darkness can't prevail. The Light (rf light of souls though shines The soul is plunged in Trimala, So that the soul may Grace attain 1 hoist aloft the holy flag.
NOTES Man's light rs veiled by Aatum and he cant see- the LsjjhJ of God shining in hhn on acccnint of this- veil. rub out the dirt. finish. fcrst. But he need not despair. By undergoing Dikshri, and becoming stead-fast in the four patll, he cart T h e hoisting of the ^ g , ^ajfihatL'S^i^ means in common parlance, niaking up one's mind to do a thing and do it to the T h e aspirant after spirituality should have this determination Otherwise all his efforts will be fruitless. The light of God and

{i)

evil inhering in man together ib compared to the heat and nioisluse present in green wood.

Gun(^strfrQuitQ^^i^g^Qe-p^f(^wtTu>Qei:eifiQiv ^inQsi^ijiK^'strirmrrr iiLiirajiTeiDQjujQu6\)iTu> iiLj^ivisLLi^Qatr^ 7 cf.^qirajrr^p Qsiri^. Which is the Sat of Sat, which Bloom^ Who is the seer ? Which is light In darkness sure, which night. Oh Grace I In all the earth that owns your sw y, 1 hat TFiou mayst know, in Tower's fFontr I hoist aloft the holy flag.
NOTES This sums np the PadStthas. Sat is God,, the Moonr Siva2&frti,
conAtiQa of

(2)

the Seer is soul, the light in darkness is the SakaJs

the

s'jui, after evolution of the w w l d , whete 1iioehi plunged in dailinessy

KODIKKAVl
roused wtay proceed onward. T h e night is the Icevala condition.

147
God

the soul gains a fittle Ught by its will, action and inlelligence being is ever present in all through. His grace is invoked so ihat tlie s*ul

HJITSSITSliluSds UieSTfi^lT^ ^rrd-frr^eearirsnBuj ,ffDrfflijoaS26ir'QisiriSij


Sifl^^/S^^ihiJilfl iSifiuu^TaaLD ^aQm-

W i t h speech and mindt any time His nature rare is hard to find. When seen too close, He dost appear A s Ananya, His grace to get 1 hoist aloft the holy flag.
NOTES. I b i s brings out God's advaita relation to man.

(j)

^^QfQ^it^

iciirG/^^^^ mQsiQf^^ QLD'i/SOuQu^QaiQp^^ QufirQaiQf^^l'Saniiiia s^s^nwp irriLi^aQstn^.

T h e letters five and ejght and six T h e letters four and ' va ' and ' si ' These-in the heart well impressed. T h e soundless one and that with sound T o manifest them without doubt 1 hoist aloft the holy fliig.
NOTES

(4)

T h e five syllabled mantra is ' ^ivayanama ^; the eight syllabled is Om, aum Sivayanama ,* the six syllabled is Om Namasivaya ' ; the four syllabled is Om Siviiya and the uaspeken syllable ' si \ The spoken syllable is said to be va* All these mantras have reference to

the passage of the Yogi from the grosser to the more subtle of th favaStas, which can be only understood by actual experience.

U8

t h e

l i g h t

o f

t r u t h

THE EVOLUTION OF TAMIL VIRUTTAMS


B v E . N. T A X I K A C H A L A M U D A L I Y A R , b . a . VI.
SANDA VIRUTTAMS.

(t)

Their Origin and our Tamil Religious works-

Sanda Virattams seem to have a later f>rowth in Tamil tliati the ordinary viruttums. The analogy of a man learningmusic will hold good in the case of the growth of musical poetry in any language. S o it is highly probable that Sanda Viruttams crowned the progress of ordinary Viruttams. Unfortunately we have no historic literature in Tamil, and it is extremely dangerous to rely upon any of Ihe traditions for fixing dates, or for drawing inferences useful for our purpose. It is in vain that we look for a clue, into our i^ivaite and Vaishnavite religious works. Tirumalisai Alvar (^(^Lc^aa^ ujjifieuniT), the disciple ot P^yalvar may be treated as a contemporary of Poigai Alvar, the first Vaishnavite Saint. A comparative study shows that Tir^weifagam cannot be earlier in composition than Nammulvdr's Tiruviruttam. So all our saints belong to an age in which viruttams considerably advanced and progressed. The very name ^a^^a^i^sSfi^^^ih implies that it was the first kind of sanda-viruttam introduced in our literature, and it WCHS subsequently occupying the cHiinence which Ratt^ilai-Kaiitturai possessed over ordinary viruttams. There seems to be a sort of dark gap between the death of Ttruvalluvar, and the literary and religious renaissance during the time of our Tamil s-iints. It m a y b e due to the state of unrest of the Tamil country, owing to the conflict of religk. ns, the Hinduism, the Buddhism and theShamanam. The Shamanas, who ake not exactly our Jains, se^ b> to have had supremacy in the language and the state after the downfall of Saftgam. By the influence of Sambandamurti Nayanar and kis l^ivites^ Shamaijas seem to have been persecuted witr

THE EVOLUTION

OF TAMIL

VIRUTTAMS

149

undue severity, and anything Shamana w a s condemned. If you look into the tenth stanza of every chapter of Sambandar's verses, y o u will find some criticism, allusion, caricature, abuse, curse, or caution against or prayer for the destruction of Shamaiiias. If any important Shamaqa literature existed in our country prior to Sambandar, which may throw light on the problem of the origin of sanda-viruttams, the ^ i v a i t c movement would have surely tried to destroy it owing to the religious fanaticism. S o it is impossible to guess the exact period when and by whom Sanda viruttams were first introduced in our language. The period of Tamil Saints seem to be a highly creative period for virultam compositions. In Tevdram {Qfisurrua), the forms of the poetry of Appar seem to tread on beaten tracts. In this respect, Sambandar's poetry is radically the opposite. There is some original musical artifice or other in almost all his j)oems, and his inventions are mostly puzzling. If there be any aesthetic ideal in poetry it is realised in Sambandar's. In Sundaramdrti Nayanar, we find rather an excessive fondness and partiality for sanda-viruttams, and the percentage of nonSanda-Viruttams in his work is very small. He seems to have followed Sambandar's foot steps in inventing new models of Sanda-viruttams suitable to his new models of music.

(ii) The Popular

idea of Sandamits

real spirit.

We

have heard Pundits talking arbitrarily of ^TSDr, ^ssrear, ^^ser, fiuiL^etc. So far as we hear of them, these categories do not appear to have been based upon any s3'stematic scientific foundation, whatever might have been the fact at the time of their original introduction. These names- simply mislead us, and at best they appear to be classifications of certain sounds vaguely suggesting nameless parodies. This mechod rather displays the ignorance of the real secret of Sandam, than throwing any clear light on it. Instead of facii.g the difficult problem, this method of denomination merely beats about the bush.

tsa

7 HE UGlir

OF

TRC7H

Sandam is the oatcome of the harrnonious rhythm, produced by a regular arrangement of regularly measured feet. But what is the standard of measure is the real crux of the problem. The rules for the measure of mattirai in our orthodox grammars will be applicable here only with necessary modifications. T h e music of Sanda-viruttams tolerates a g r a t e r measure than that which is allowed at ordinary times. A fraction ot the unit (Mattirgi) is one too keen to be distinguished in Sandam. Fractions of the unit get a sort of stress after short vowel sounds and thus they are enlarged in sound and get the value of an additiwial unit; but after long vowels which have a higher pitch in sound, they get no stress and their sound wanes almost to a zero, and so they are rejected in our calculation of mattirai in a given foot. The following example from Tiruehanda Virnttam will show that the regular peasure of each foot depends upon this criterion and not upon that of our orthodox grammarians. Each foot but the last in a line of the following stanza containing three mattirai's and the mattirai of each letter is marked in the first and the last line of the stanza: 2+1 2+1 I+I+I 2+0+0+I I+I+I I+I+I

eianj

eoi&iis^

i^mLuLj

' mfls

oAmp

2+0+1+2+0

3 = 2 + 1 2 + 1 I + I + I I + I + X 2 + 0-HI i - h i - h i

eoiriu oieireat

/fiajr2ssr uj/rmfi

Ssfti

eui^oiQ s

The last QiaBm* or the long vowel sound in the end of every line is a sort of musical stroke without which the end will be blunt, in all Sanda viruttams this long vowel ending is found in its purest state or in a slightly modified lorm. It will be evident when we analyse.

THE

EVOLUTION

OF

TAMIL

VIRUITAMS

I5l

VII.
THE VARIOJS K I N D S OF S A N D A VIRUTTAMS.

W h e n the numbers of models in each type of non-Sanda Viruttams of five or more feet are small, one may naturally think that the numbers in the corresponding ^ n d a - V i r u t t a m s muat be smaller. But the fact seems just the opposite. The rules of Sandam never acted as a restraint on our poets and the models herein are comparatively larger. A s the author Viruttappaviyal says. jw^a;^ /TUj IA'LLI^ iniiuni^ (t^djuu oi^jSire^ ea>/Di^ QuiftQujrTiT Glditi^^q^ fii^ Qfip3)s uliliLieSl^eer G^earss QiDiT^uiT QearQfi^ &>iBQ SL^QU^ euiTifliiir ^^up/S uS/a(^ s t f i f f i p p f i p eS^emiu eS^Qhueor ao&j^^ uipp QunTi^iurr^ ^e/i eS^^ii&DiD Qujiriris^ QairarQeo. The metre of the above stanza found in Qaiu^^Q^sirafluiasear of Sambandar, seems to be the only one in Octa-metric Sanda Viruttam which is not formed by doubling any model of a Sanda-Kali-Viruttam. Remove the second or the third foot (Q^Lotr) of this stanza and put it side by side with an heptametric Sanda Viruttams (an iniitation from Sanskrit) known by the name of (ix^wn-evii) Manimalam, and the necessary inference would be, that the former evoWed from the latter. From Viruttapaviyal may be quoted here the rule for the structure of the latter which by itself forms an illustration of the rule ^(^meerS aeearQiT i^Q^Qp^jS ujSiDffSiEirs Lcpp Qfi^'^m^ opm^t L^LDireSI 'SesariBfi Q^sir QiL:ir(r^fSiT^^ Qp^^ LjeiflinirQi Ssr/i^ ^(^eunifl 60(5 ! OjiflQegruS ojiGfirps Lce^Lcneo OLCCBTJJ/ '-^firgjlisiiTii.

152

THE

LIGHT

OF

TRUTH

The beauty of the above model is partly due to thearrangement of feet; it is one which preserves vendalai throughout. This is the reason w h y Kamban uses also as the first foot for it does not interfere with the fi'^ in a line, but on the other hand giv^s a better melody in the following aeizfiuiaei ^^^fisaau) Gujdj^ LDareSears easfl^fi eSeai^QujiriTS oraS^Qutnu T^fienreBiu> Qtudj^ (tpt^ii^Qsir Qeoesr^t Q&i^'iso uS^meuiT oj^^eareBitD sem(S LjaDU^Searp eueAtaar^ sggtfii^p eBteaiiSleat uS^fuJir&t Q^^IBS eoiii^ lAl^^a Qujsrror aiis^ Q^e^ain^* It is Kamban who studied best, the artifice of Sandam music, so much so, that he was able to invent successfully some models in his Ramayaoam which seem to be unknown to other authors; we find also a spirit of criticism reigning behind the veil of his creations. According to the musical calculation of wJ//trat (rejecting the consonantal sounds, which lose their pitch for want of stress whether they come after long or short vowels), Manimalam is a stanza containing seven feet having 5, 3, 5, 3, 5, 3, and 4 mattirai's respectively. An inverted arrangement with a little longer sound in the end, one of Kamban s inventions, puzzles even the author of Viruttapaviyal. The stanza quoted below seems to be based upon a converse of the Matximalam principle and its metrical arrangement consists of feet of 3, 5, 3, 5, 3, 5, 5 mattirais respectively in a l i n e ; ^ei Searir)Q^tr0 Seo tDir^aiemirQiB (Sifi L^iestsuSear (SuiQeo opifitReS ii>L/ Qeuuyeau) QujirQajff ^<fg)iiu>
t ^ * T h e arrangement of Nasals in the above stanza, gives rise to an aural illusion of a change of metre when, for the first time, w-read the last l u e of the stanza,though the line is really as perfect as the previous

three*

THE

EVOLUTION

OF

TAMIL

VIRUTTAMS

149

LDK^sQesr j9is ^drear^^ eaifiifi ^i^aSsmi QfMgju^'m srrso Ga-fTssr^'Lu/S ILIITU) ei^i^LfOs/rQ s&taS i^Geort^iu eSe^sS^/or. Including this converse (if it may be so termed) of mammalam within the manimdlam species we have three other main divisions of the heptametric Sanda viruttams. Of them akin to this species is Mattakokilam {iDp^Q^irSenh) which is worthy of its name. The metrical arrangement is of feet containing 3, 4, 3, 4 3, 4 and 5 matiirais respectively. Kxample uteap^ eiriEjQ^ LD^^ ariejQ^uj* eufT^ LLirjfiSieii estojuJQpua Saop^ eniLQ^ S'ieo^ etrisiS^ (SSsvano) S^euuS e e f f l c i t i t
aris^-ai a^esruj QuGnuS

^saiUJ QuaDfiiniT* Qu(^saLaSA ^ supgi '-/O' Oixear^&u tSsati^ eriB2(^p eSem-s^iLiQLDiT, The third is the species immortalised by Tirumazhisai Alvar (^(T^tD^aofiuiTtfieuiTiT). Thiruchanda viruttam, (or The Sanda viruttam) is the first species of Sanda viruttam in our literature. It is known by the name of Suganthi, and its chaiacterestics are very simple. It consists ol seven feet of three inattirais with a long vowel sound, at the end of the line, super-added, i e. the last foot is one which contains five mattirais. With it may be associated many groups of Sanda viruttams in six, five and four f f e t . So we have six footed Suganthi. The five ooted Suganthi is known by the name Sent. T h e Manorama which contains an alternate arrangement of short and long
An Example of consonants not getting a stress, and -thus losing

their pitch even after short vowels. This is a rare phenomenon which occurs when a like consonantal sound preceeds or follows one of the same or similar ^esrti. The Sandam being a patent music which 6xes the length of each foot in a line (i.e. the length of sound in it) the artifice of omission of consonants for poetical purposes, ^ras thought by our authors to be unnecessary.
2

154

THE

LIGHT

OF

IRVfH

vowel sounds in the second, third and the fourth fe#t is one form of the Suganthi 'm Kali-viruttams. In the heptametric Sanda viruttams, we have akin to the Suganthi, three sub-divisions of one species of viruttams which contain four mattirais in each foot with an additional long vowel sound at the end of the last foot. T h e y are known by the names Manini, Kaviracha virachitham and Sattuvi which are defined thus by Viruttapftviyal: " oi^eSar QLDQp(^&)ir&j Qisisf-psenii Qsneirai^ iftil<af]i' QifnaofQf aireSar ir/r^isiuu^ QuiTAeS aiS^eS f QiD^pearn/Tsi) ^sSar ojiriraSeir QiluSodsu
"

Of the hexametrk Sanda-viruttams, only one species is of a very complex structure. The illustrious specimen, the first chapter of Sambandamf rthi Nayanar's Ttvaram has misled even the careful author of Virutapaviyal. He erred in thinking that it was of a very simple metre and framing its rule thus: ^ ^ euiri^lQisi^ &)ssa Qps^fS 6\W(5(e5 SI^sitQIU
S^ojitit eSstrQujeerQP

Quju^ (tp^p^ii

^sars^ QLLITIEJSIUJ

Q^LDIT LIStFlLDITiaSITiL

9 s Qsusaaruj^Qp (faireiP^/ lAhasrQearn ^(J^lt.itQ This is the rule which serves also the purpose of an illustration Forgetting the first chapter of Tirujnanasambandar's for a moment, if we begin to scan this stanza itself, the fifth foot and the sixth are not exactly Q^u:rr and ns^Lcatismu respectively but (J^louiejsgS and Q^u^n. There is no pause after until we pass on to one more syllable. It is only this kind of scansion that is consistent with the reality in the first chapter of Sambandar, where pauses are consistent with the harmony of metre-, ir.usic, and meaning.

THE EVOLUTION

OF TAMIL

VIRUTTAMS

149

T h e second errcy in the above rule is that which the author commits with reference to the second foot of the stanza. T h o u g h it is apparently made up of a ^^Qistsfjeaisuw & Qfia(Sj3ei** it is really a and is equivalent to the fifth foot. T h i s fact is made plain in the reading of the exceptional stanza quoted by the author " ^QfiL^emp snesSuj mnQeon ^emin tMDff ojirgnii " * in which the second foot is a clear Q^unriasaiB, In the first line of the fourth stanza of Sambandar, the fifth foot is a s^ariaaiTiL similar to that which we expect in its second foot, and in the second foot is a Q^lditisis6bR which is expected at the fifth foot. Throughout the chapter wherever the appears it has the total sound of six mattirais whatever may be the indication of the symbols therein. T h e ^^eSareisiriL is not one made up of a long vowel with three short vowel sounds, but of two long vowel sounds and two short vowel sounds. T h e third error in the rule is the statement " (SP^uSf p j S ^ AjajiTireSair QiDmCSp, Qiuirgi " The very first line of the (Q^nCdaat-'jjQfsSujm) first illustration shows that it is not a f a c t ; and it is doubtful whether the two Kavilams are ot equal length in mattirai- Their lengths vary between four and five mattirais, and it is impossible to enunciate what musical law governs their variation. Even with reference to the first foot the rule does not seem to be accurate. " ^^eutr^ " is interpreted by the author himself as ( s p s n ^ ^ Nearly fifty per cent of the first chapter of Sambandar seem to be exceptions. The first foot seems to be only a LDir^^a and the last foot a Q^llit. The second and the fifth foot seem to be practically the same in the length of sound- Either of them may be (^/SLoniasafi or x^ariEisiTtLj, but when a susSsiriasiTuj appears, its second vowel gets a prolonged vibration of sounds and thus possesses the value of a long vowel (though not its sound in pronounciation). T h e third and the fourth feet are a^eSstnja for which Q^LcireisinL
* The ninth stanza, of Sambandar's first chapter on "^.T^iSjui-jJii"

156

THE UGH

Or

TRUH

sometimes occurs. The number of mattirais in the respective feet can't be stated in the species with certainty. But we can give the probable arrangement to be t h u s : 3, 6, (4 or 5), (4 or 5), 6, (3 or 4) mattirais repectively n the six feet of the stanza- It h i s not yet been traced out which variations can occur, when and by what musical laws. Other species of the hexametric Sanda Viruttam have a very simple structure. One of them is similar to the suganthi, or the Tiruchanda-viruttam type. It consists of six feet of three mattirais, with a long vowel sound superadded to the last foot in the line i. e., the sixth foot contains five mattirais. There are three sub-divisions in the viruttams of four mattirai feet. One of them is Manini of six feet p "). Another is its converse (" ^fS^tutrmQp "). T h e third is of the intermediate class containing a mixture of

vilam and macheers.


The last species is of the metre of " " ^miQiiQsi^^uu^ " of Tayumanavar, and of various familiar (long) quotations in our literature. It consists of six l e e t o f f i v e mattirai length with a long vowel sound in the end thus making the last foot one of seven mattirais. Jn Sanda Kalithurai, we have four species corresponding to the last class of c i r hexametric Sanda-viruttams. In the language of Viruttapaviyal they are as follows : (i) *'(y}i(giSaS aSpparof u^fiaisujfiirSeuQ^QpmiSg)!L-alF

iSSlTQp
( iiy *'iS(diL{iTS

stT^Qpsai

U'lrdjii^jSsdsj''^ "

sdj^iiSiaf^ ififti^ Qtserni^sipaapu

1 iiT^a'aivBru Qi mp/jSi^ii

(iii) '* iietrit^ aiuSf p/S Q^eanik^ uniisndjuiS&f tisr^

^lartr^ ^^^lLl-

utnasttiias eSsAiriu ^i^^s^emp"

(iv) " Si^uS'^d /r(eujr(d GKUiij^iT eSan^QflnOi eaui^^^Q^

THE

El'OLUTlON

Of

TAMIL

VIRVlTAMS

157

There are four kinds nf Sanda Kalithurai which consists of feet of four mattirais, and they are in the language of Virutapaviyal: (i) " undamn^ oQiojani u^Bftuni ssmi^i (^^(Sld
^a)6BrLDiT^ ^snBLciT isoRpf Qtumajtr (daiaso ''

(ii)

" (SPP^ sum^ smemaj Qujir(T^?,T Qpjbjui ssaiQujir.T (iii) " (gp^xuS eOTsS^ ^eS'ar erooj/sO^/r j^iuQisIr Gup^iD ^uQuiu y^S^pmrr Cu(/?uj<2'gJ/r/f." (iv) tsirQ&3tT(r^ tLnfi^eau H M m z S p isireSI^SiT Uiiei)/D eS^jesarujiTU uiri^sariT ^TGIT'SBT Asoanoi^ psmpSpuirib L/snzT-i/LO undjuear Lohaai^uD u^Gurr^Quj.

There is only one kind of Sanda Kalithurai which consists of feet of three mSttirais with a long vowel sound in the end. It is known by the name of It is suganthi mimts its first and the second foot. Three other species are given by the author of Virutapaviyal and their structures may be examined. OP^Qesr Q^ldit iS^ar^ Gwn^QfmjSeo
9Q a ofueSar isir^Sp ^^Q^ldit

GuirearQeer luis^jb i-ieoeSliu SQu LfoRLLiriiiainij G^rsifr^iT QuQ/r ir^fiin j^n^ G^iru^/rGurnQp. This seems to be one variety of aeo&oaifs^k^^fiayp. Probably its popularity with our famous poets demanded a special rule in X'irutapaviyal. Here form seems to be more important than the length of feet, or the number of mattirais therein, which is not however discorded. Example ; Gftu^n Qu-i^ii ^eS'^esT QtunQth ui^Qu.&)eoirih G/fL<sir j^.Tflfr rnrtrdr ^'^i^sWi^T^ GiTU^.T ^air2/r) GsnpPOP l^^^isar (^QpsSLSi\)TUt>. The two remaining species of Sanda Kalithurai are connnerted w i i h Maiiiniulam and MattakokUam (models of avo^^i,). Their rules * are respectively,
All rules in virutapavial are themselves illustrations lor the i ul.

152 (i)

THE

LIGHT

OF

TRUTH

QisQair^gn siTi^ lileBipQ'jjirm^ QfifisS OL^tTsar/S sSsnpQujiT^^ 'smu^uj^ji QisQan-cBT^ QisiB Si^sutr sSi^Qu,

(ii) " Qfi^SH L D f T s S I fipearQ/!)(i^fi 900 asarQ msirQsQpji ^^^ a^sSlsir eaixi^) Q&itriaSluj ^eSl^truj If we keep the focniir side by side with Kamban's staiiza in Nagapasa Padalam "^^^jarcmio QiuiL^ LosireiSsars esefi^/r) eSaaLoQujnir uS^lunoj etc. we find the same form in it devoid of the last syllable (Jf^n^) of the fifth foot and the sixth and the seventh foot. It is rather a manimdlam wherein we miss a LiaflicnisisiTiL and a (^^ldi. Delate the first and the second foot of Mattakokilam and you will get the Sanda Kalithurai defined by the latter rule. S o we find that almost all the characterestics of species of Sanda Kalithurai, and those of the lower ones Sanda Kali Viruttams may be expressed in terms of the higher. It will be unnecessary to dwell upon the twenty five kinds of Sanda Kali Viruttams in detail Of them eighteen models are open imitations of Sankrit viruttams which possess different names. For seven models, no names were traced. These are neither logical divisions nor do they s^rve our purpose. Five species of Sanda viruttams depend upon the arrangement of vowels in certain places. There are only four models in which the forms of the first and the second foot are repeated respectively in the third and the fourth. In six models, the nature of the first three feet are the same. T h e Manorama and another model represent the spirit of Seni and Suganthi. The largest number of Sanda Kali Viruttams in our literature, is of the species which contains four-mattirai feet ; and the peculiarity in most of them, is that they preserve vendalai * ibtteoi sDQpp (j^inaaaj (^^etfrriu SiQ^do ueosundj meos aiTuin iesSeo'\jieueiir i^enuSs^ fneou uarrsurr fii^ifittr a/s\)(?JViruttappaviyal.

THE EVOLUTION

OF TAMIL

VlRllTTAMS

1^9

tliroughout the line. A l l tlr^se Sanda-Viruttams were recognised as establishod models during the age of Kamban. Vlil
C E R T A I N E L E M E N T S IN TAMIL SANDAM.

Even though the Wi>rd Sandam is of Sanskrit origin, its connotation in 1 amil is not the same as that ^ Sanskrit. O u r l a n g u a g e is an independant language, and does not belong to the A r y a n g r o u p of languages. O u r grammar was crystallized long before the A r y a n invasion of Southern India. W e had our own music and other arts which were all then systematized (simple, though they may be). Then the introduction of the Sanskrit music, or Sandam in Tamil means not its translation or repetition, but a gradual assimilation. Hence in T a m i l Sandam we find a preponderance of indigenous elements. T h e pre-eminence which Venba had in our language is due to its (a"^) tha^ai which gave the best music that was not available in other k'nds of (u/r) poetry. A n imitation means an indirect admission of the superiority of that which is imitated. S o when our Tamil poets wanted to imitate Sanskrit Viruttams, they ought to have felt their superiority to venba, and so the best material in their possession vendalai w a s much used, and w e find in nearly in eighty percent of Sanda viruttams, the thalai of veoba is maintained wholly, or in part. The same is the cause of there being a predominant use of ^uj^SiT and stnLfSn in Sanda viruttams. ill Veijba we have to look merely to the form of a foot ; where as in viruttams, the sound of a foot is essentially cared for. There is some meaning in the popular saying " Appeal to the e a r t o determine the propriety of any virultam composition. It clearly suggests that, in viruttams, preferenct

should be given to sounds and not to symbols.


T h e diflficulty in the w a y is twofold. The Sanskrit words that crept into our language cannot properly be represented

i6o

THE LIGHT OF

TRUIH

by the Tamil alphabet. And the tendency in the beginning of the introduction of the Sanskrit words, is pronounce them in the w a y in which it ought to be done in Sanskrit and not in its Tamilised form. It is during this staj^e that viruttams began to evolve. Then the standard, in Tamil for measuring sounds, was too primitive and simple to be used for the complex Sanskrit sounds, and their different effects in music when they are eombined with the Tamil Sounds. Even the theories of Viruttappaviyal have to be considerably enlarged and its exceptio probat regulam. The following seem to be the principles that underlie our mediaeval poets' calculation in testing the regularity of sound ; I. A long vowel sonnd, or a short vowel-sound whose vibrations are prolonged b y musical laws, has the value of two mattirais. II. A long vowel followed by one or more consonants has the same length of sound as if no consonant followed it. III. A short vowel followed by one or more consonants that take a stress on them in the course of the pronunciation of the foot, is equal in its length of soand to a long vowel. IV. A short vowel standing b y itself, as a syllable or Otherwise, and not being lengthened in the vibrations of its sound, or followed by a consonant which gets no stress (owing the adjacent arrangement of letters) is of one mattirai length. V . T w o short vowel symbols that represent in Tamil only one short vowel sound of a Sanskrit or a foreign word have only one mattirai. Example : " l A j " in "eria^u) iSasnf u>iriL" should be treated as if it is a symbol of a single short vowel. T h e Tamil Sandam has also much to do with the arrangements of feet. The rythmic arrangement of regularly measured feet is one of its characterestics. W e can't get a Sanda-viruttam at all, unless the arrangement of its feet is fit to be tuned to any pleasant music. T h i s is the reason why certain arrangements of feet found in certain species are not to be found in others. When we find twenty five models

THE EVOLUTION

OF TAMIL

VIRUTTAMS

149

Sanda-kali-viruttam, we do not find half the number in the kalithurai and a fourth in the hexametric Sanda-Vii utams. A s w e Sjo on increasing the length of the stanza, the restrictions imposed hy musical laws naturally increase, and herce there is a decrease in. the number of models in stanzas r f longer Jimit. In the period of^r^wth of the Tamii-V^iruttani , masters of music like Sambandar, were able to invent any number of models as they please, without violating any musical law. T h e {lua^Qpfi) vloi-breaking poems seem t l be of the following-

metre :
Qp^GSf^ Sf^aS^QLD-uj^^-iSesrsar^i .iff3eb7 ^^earaoaifiijuiSpQs-'-iSlQ^-^irs'^ut<SL.e?isrru)

Q^irAeBraaeu mei)iiOfuJir-LLmeiiS(iy Qear&ja^ eSesreer^ tuirifiQfi/^LJuam-'-aemei!r-:^sarffU) ui^iTu ^(^u)'fieaB-i5Ga)L--a^3ai-seiSG)ujearu usQj.


If we believe in any such thing as ^^/^a^iSir the above stanza would be a and its metre was partly adapted, modified or improved in Sundaramoorthi Nayanar's famous iBili-irfT/sf^fw. Sambandar's poems on puzzles us as it represents a combination of two kinds oi kalUturai neither of which are to be iound any where else in our literature. Probably they belong to the period of birth of Tamil viruttams, and they became extinct in their period of g r o w t h ;

Q^iDmsjsiriu QjSLcirisjsiriL i^iaPLLir Qfiicir ^eSstrui i^ifeafiQs uS^rffi^ iSleia^ii^ eadl.i^ Gi&iaiinQ: fri^ Q^LLtr Q^lcit (c^u-iiiasiTuj s(^siS<striji iSlltH SITL^iriT L/PtJ(i^L> lS^PJP^ oo/S sidzl(u L fr
6
4 4 6

'i

6
4

3
6

Qpfffijurio is^flijCeuii Q^L^irifi esfii^ QeiiiibQeaar ji^ttiT


3

HAfS^u LMiS^QiojirQ Qu,ir&S(oifuSsas

ueier-tSiUTjfiisi^S^^.

I62
2+ 2+ 2 2+2 2+2
eunnn QisQu

THE LIGiir
2+ 2+ 2 2+2+2

OF

TRLTH
2+ 1 2 + ! + ,2

1+ 1+ 2
I+C+I+l

a j f f f ^ i f n earf^^Q^ir ajLEjQsirm QSITIEIODS LDihaasLctrir


i+!+I+r+2 wrrev/r^u) ai^ej6\)

afffi^irenr Qm^^u^d

seoi^

a/'ssbri.g.ssr'j,

siTJiTiT sirairir

scLpLDe\) eusfris-frdu

The general metre of the stanza, and the respective lengths of feet in terms of the liberal mattirai measure are noted above. The first stanza that precedes the one quoted above in Sambandar's Tevaram generally confuses the readers, but it be found easy if it is read in the light of the above scansion. The reason w h y we do not find a large percentage of such original inventions in the modern period of our literature is due to the fact that, after the age of our Tamil Saints, the musical Tamil (^eaa^^^uSifi) was getting itself more and more dissociated from -the (^ti^ppiS^) literary Tamil, and the rules of music were all gradually absorbed in the province of prosody. IX
THE DIFFERENT PERIODS IN T H E EVOLUTION OF TAMIL VIRUTTAMS.

The Tamil viruttam literature up to the death of Kamban may roughly be divided into three periods, viz : (1) The period of birth of the Tamil viruttams. (2) The period of their growth. (3) The period of their perfection Unfortunately, in the history of our literature, it is extremely difficult to fix the dates. T o determine the age of any author, our old scholars would drag us even to the last yugam while our Christian missionary friends would make it as late as possible, and will try to prove that every good literature of ours came out of the teachings of the Bible in India. A modern Tamil Pundit is of the opinion that there was a change of three pole stars (i.e. three thousand years have

THE EVOLUTION

OF TAMIL

VIRUTTAMS

149

elapsed) since the time of Sambandar and supports his statement by the second^stanza of the famous " QfinaFi uiosdr'' in his Tevaram. It is the opinion of some that Sambandar belongs to the early part of the eighth century A.D. Leaving these controversial points of fixing dates to the experts in the ancient history of our literature, we may take the undisputed serial order of authors, and the periods of the evolution of viruttams may be divided by the aid of facts that we are able to trace, in their works. T h e first period may be stated to begin with the death of Tiruvalluvar, or two generations after the abolition of the last Sangam, and ends with the birth of Tiruniazhisai Alvdr (^(^uoL^ea^ This period extends for over four centuries, W e have no direct evidence of anything that belongs to this period. Yet we have facts in the succeeding period from which we can infer almost fully the tendencies of this period, and the nature of its dead literature. The second period includes ail the ages of all our Tamil saints the authors of Tevaram, Tiruvasagam, Nalayiraprabandam etc. and ends with Sekkizhar. This is the longest period extending over six centuries. It may even be called the Religious period of our literature, and includes in it almost all the '^Q^Qfieap^'' The third period may be stated to begin from the birth of Sekkizhar and end with the death of Kamban. Kanda Puraoam belongs to this period which is the shortest of all and does not extend over one century. The First Period, as was observed, was one of reaction against the liierary formalities of Sangam, The prosody o< the Sangam grammar was slowly set at nought, and unlimited freedom was given to the poetic pen. Besides it was an age of confusion owing to the religieus struggles which played an important part in the political careers of some of the states in Southern India. The study of Sanskrit was becoming a matter of necessity during this period, and the comparative study of Sanskrit, made our scholars to scrutinize the structures of the standard foc;iHs (u^r). To an

104

THE light

OF

TRVfH

eye which favours more the regular musical Sanskrit viruttams, all the four standard t^ pes of poems may naturally appear irregular. T o such a rcndency we ma}' tni'-e the popularity of G^/r^^ri,, which ultimately means re<?ularity of arrangement which played an important part in the development of the various kinds of viruttams. It is very probable that ^-sir or the hyper-metrical proIon,j^ation was added to V'enba to make it a regular figure. Su. b. an introduction is an indirect condemnation of the r.' posed irregularitic^s. T o us it may appear as an art of eccentricity ; and as we proceed from Sangam to this p c i o d we pass on from a cosmos to a chaos and from four recognised standards of Lin to innumerable heterogenous mass of poetic compositions. Tl^e cultivation of music which w j s given preference to prosod}', gjTve bii th to poems ot five lines, the last line being the burden of th'^ song. W e find some such poems even in Tirunavukkarasu Nayanar's Tevaram. Many of our saints have carefully evaded the giving of names to such poems. Merely the ue^r, or the mode of singing is indicated. These forms of poetry may be traced in tl.e works of the Sangam, but the metre seems different there. If we compare any specimen of Sangam Kalippa with one which appears to be such in any work of a Tamil Saint, we find in the former a polished workmanship and in the latter a wild luxuriant growth. Such growtlis were common during the period that preceded the birth of our early Tamil sainls. In our religious literature we have the reminiscences of the tendencies of this period. It appears that various attempts were then made to compose various kinds of poems which will appear very irregular to a modern cyt\ .Some are such that we are quite puzzled in fietermiiiiiig what class they strictly belong to. Some potms appear to he viruttams though they are not really so. In some which appear to be viruttams, we are able to scan cne or Iwo lines in a certain mode, but in a subsequent line the same alten>pt fails. Soni

THE EVOLUTION

OF TAMIL V I R U T T A M S 149

stanzas admit two modes of scansion. Some seem to be Sanda Virutt.-.ms, yet we find no Saitdam in them. It is from the various decomposing and dying irregularities of the standard un that the rocts of viruttam have absorbed materials for building up of its structure. The Second Period is that in which the various- chaotic models of poems that were growing into viruttams, were tested, tried or improved. It is a period of probation for Tamil viruttams. Unfortunately our Tamil Saints, though they were generally well versed in Tamil and Sanskrit, never cared for our literature per sr. Their eyes were mainly ^lirected toward philosophy and religious reform. They cared more for the morals of their fellow men than for their language. T h e purity of man and not the purity of language was their ideal. Their literary reform, if any, was incidental to their religious preachings. O u r Tamil Saints had a sacred duty in hand. Their sentiments were lofty vedic sentiments which naturally demanded proper corresponding modes of expression. T h e y had much facility in expressing their thoughts through viruttams which are based on Sanskrit models. Old thoughts may be expressed in old forms of poetry, but new progressive thoughts required new vehicles of p o e t r y ; and so these circumstances were conducive to the growth of viruttams. A s a devotee who prepares a garland for his favourite idol, selects the best of the available flowers, trimming them and tying them in grand wreaths, so every Tamil Saint seems to have ielt that his poetic garland ("uirMrtsa") that was prepared for dedication to God, ought be' one made up of the best forms of poetry available. Then, the standards of Sanskrit music, not those of Tamil orthodox prosody, were applied in testing the rhythm, melody or harmony of a poem. Hence in the hands of our Saints who seem to be invariably experts in music, the viruttams that were born in the last period underwent many changes, and the changes were generally improvements. Some that could not be im-

166

i:hf. l i g h t

o f

t r u t h

proved and were found useless for their purpose, were rejected by them, and were thus doomed to perish? It is the popularity of the Sanskrit music in the Tamil country, and its blending with the then existing pure but simple Tamil music, that aided the Sanskrit models of virutlams to creep into our literature unnoticed. When once a model of Sanskrit V'iruttam enters our literature, it multiplies itself there like a bacteria in its favourite soil. Each of the models (originally imitated viruttams) underwent innumerable complex modifications, by the advantages of the environment here. W e can easily trace connections between many apparently dissimilar models of viruttams in our language. This period may also be called the Religious period of the Tamil Literature. It rs here that we find the grandest works of .the Jains or Shamanas. Chintumoni belongs to the early part of ^his period. The poetic diction of Choolamoni bing in some parts similar to Kamban's, cannot, even by a century be earlier than Sekkizhar. Probably it belongs to the later part of this period. Between these two Jain monuments, we can arrange in a row our Saivaite and Vaishnavite Saints if that is not considered a piece of heresy. The Hindu religious movements that characterised the early parts of this period unconsciously imported models from Sanskrit, or so altered the then existing chaotic forms of poetry to a regular rythmic stanza form. The art of perfecting the models belongs to the later centuries in this period, though we find many perfect models even in Tirtt" vasagam and the earlier works. T o invent original poems like " luirifiQpi^l " of SUmbandar was not the general tendeticy of the age. When we leave our Tamil Saints to the later part of this period and the " Elizabethan d a w n " of our literature, we find the same tendency exhibiting itself in a different form. Various schools of religion or philosophy have sprung up, and they were mostly A s y l u m s of religious brotherhood. These which subsequently became mutts, were started with

THE EVOLVTIOS

OF TAMIL

VIRUTTAMS

167

noble ideals. The' lineal disciples of different saints propagated the doctrines'of their original guru. T o continue the traditions of their masters, they imitated their models in praising the God A l m i g h t y . In so doing they knew that their matter would be inferier to those of our saints and so there was a tendency for a good selection and improvement of the forms of poetry available in the " Tamil vedas This is the reason w h y when we read Peria Puranam, the viruttams in it appear with a colour different from those ot our Nayanars or Alvars. Every stanza of Peria Puraijam discloses an extrelne care to balance the metre of a stanza with the thoughts thetein. None but Kamban excels Sekkizhar in that respect. The artifice of Sldit'^, cT^ana, are applied so beautifully in Peria Puraijam that we do not find even in a single stanza any savour of artificiality. It is this work that determined the course of modern Tamil Viruttams, for which Viruttappaviyal was intended to be applied by its author. Chalamani and Peria Puranam, lead us to our Golden age of viruttams. The Third P ^ r W . D u r i n g this period there was peace in the Tamil states ; and from the traditions we may infer that they were friendly with one another and even intermarriages were taking place between their princes. The Tamil poets were patronised in a large scale. Their number in each durbar was so large that every princess iiad one Vithwan as a part of her dower. The encouragement given to the Tamil Poets during this period was rather excessive. Any man who composes a few stanzas in praise of a baron or king, will become rich in a day. Partly to prevent such abuses, and partly to raise the pundit standard, the poet Offaikuttan, who was a very clever statesman, put all the Vithwans who came for rewards, in the state prison, and sacrificed them once a year after their failure to answer his interrogatories. During this age more attention was devoted to the

168

THE. LIGHT OF

TRUTH

literary aspec< of every work. Music was fast 'osing its bold. Poetry w a j not sung, as of old, but was calmly composed at borne within a prescribed period. The Jsn kavi was only one kind of poet, and not the only kind of poet. Hence mucb attention was paid to the prosody, and even tbe rules of music were understood it. its terms. It is ov/ing to this tendency tbe regularity of form of every model was scrutinised and attempts were made to make each kind of Viruttam perfectly regular, and analogy was playing an important part. When we read the stanzas of Kanda Puranam we find their forms to be almost the same as those in Kamba Ramayanam. T b e authors had to guard themselves against tbe critics. [In tbe place of one Sangam, there were a large number of religious academies whose common purpose was to improve the Tamil knowledge]. Hence tbe authors' course w a s always on the undisputed beaten tracts of Tamil Viruttams that gave the best melody possible. The two great epics of this period are Kanda Puranam and Ramayanam. A s Sekkizhar paved the w a y for the perfection of non-Sanda Viruttams, the author of Kanda Puranam paved the w a y for the perfection Sanda-Viruttams. In jt, the melody of the S.inHa Viruttams happens to be a necessary concomitant of l!ie simplest arrangement of feet. There is much grandeur in its si.nplicity. I b i s leads us to Kamba Ramayaijam which crowns the progress of Viruttams.
KAMBAN AND VlUUTTAMS.

Much had been written by eminent pundits on this EpicShakespeare of our language. " ^eeauneS^luit S'iuem " is a fame which he is every respect worthy of. His mind and art may be compared only with those of any world-wide poet. When we read him after reading other authors, his verses are tinged with unspoken criticism of his predecessors and their models. Like a bee he gathered bits of sweet essence from all previous works of our language and constructed a magnificent honey-comb the Ramayanam. Take any V'iruttam or Sanda-viruttam of any author and

THE EVOLUTION

OF TAMIL VlRllTTAMS

1^9

place it side b^'sid^with that of the same kind of his. and you will find a vast guU between their ways of handling the same Itind of s t a r z i . Leaving aside the differenc- in thoughts, and such other things that relates to the substance of the poem, we find in Kamban a striking excellence in his manner of expression as he knows what form will just suit the expression of what sentiment. Besides, hi- use of cunning artifices which delude our ears produce a splendid harmonious effect in music. Kamban handled all the best models of Sanda virutt;ims. Whatever he failed to use in Ramaj'anam may be stitted with a great certainty to be inferior types of Sandam, and they may be presumed to have been rejected by l.iin as useless for any lofty expression of feeling. It may e\en be stated that the sphere of modem Viruttams, lies almost within his RamSyaijam, and the prosody of Viruttams will riimost be identical with the prosody of the Viruttams of Kamban. For the modern Tamil student or a person who will heieafier attempt to compose any Viruttam, the choice of a model can find a place only in one that belongs to the third period referred to. T o attempt a-poetic composition on the model of Viruttams that, became extinct during this period, will be as mad a task as that of writing a work in the chaucerian language. If Kamban modified the lorm of any Viruttam which \v:is current during the third period, it may be presumed that it was a change for the better. Unlike Venba, the connection between the last foot of one line and the first foot of the next, is not quite strong in a Viruttam. From a musician s point of view, each line is a distinct member of the organic whole. Hence the main alterations that Kamban did in the form of Viruttams, were with reference to the first and the last foot of a line. Thus he indirectly curbed the function of rr/ziYa/q? which played an important part even beyond its jarisdiccion.

THE SAYINGS OF AUVAI.


(MUTHURAI,
B Y R , R

QPJP'^TN'').
R. A.

G U N A R A T N A M .

{Continued from

Vol. XIII,

No. j).

^iir^^Q^iijQsiT Q6\)sarQsi;eaaniTSi.isr,ov
jfistT'TiT'SiiTmirQ^ih^ A n a c t of l o v e once clone, the g o o d R e t u r n s unaskerl w i t h promptitude, A s f r o m its head the pajiTj a s f r u i t s R e t u r n s the w a t e r s u c k e d b y roots.

msosiin-Q.TrT(r^sjiT9= Q^-iL^^a^i utir'nh QL iirpiiT^iiQIL fFTiAliive^rr (Sih.^a^: j^iT'fii, Qm.


A n a c t of l o v e ti.e g o o d w i l l k e e p A s w r i t o n s t o n e in m e m ' r } ' d e e p T h e b a d f o r g e r it i n s i n c e r e A s c) liiMv a s m u lcs f)n w a t e r cleai".

f^ssr^eus/rehl eSsnft^eijii^^^^ aasfrGOsyjirmiT^y,^^ msanjj6O0(LQuiTi c


Youtli g i v e s no j o y s in p o v e r t y

N o r w e a l t h in life's f^xtremity. A s f l o w e r s b l o o m , their s e a s o n g o n e , O r b e a u t y vnnved s i t s alone. klLc-it^ud

isesBTueo&inirtsemu&)&)ir QuSLLifTS^ubQiL^ifiss^ Q'.s.driC'iitQ'sn


STLLL^ITSIIUJ (aiaUCm.'mLLSQ^Ih.

THE SAYINGS

OF AVVAI

171

The milk is sweet, tho' boiled hot, The bad, tho' loved, as friends meet not, Tho' burnt to dust, the conch is white, The good, tho' poor, are honest right. umi^isiTeir^fS
er (T5 iDiiisigiriTsiTQ^ir ^ ^

m-d^ai^^fTG^eean^ ojuJiTLDinEiaQareoeiiTijo u^ai^^freodrjSu uifiir. A man may work with ceaseless stress, But till God wills there's no success ; A tree tho' growing high and strong Its fruits gives not in seasons wrong.
fi^esiLDQuJirn upp^aanssemitTp uaSaiQ ansp^jffeir

iSark^^Qi^eOeiHTp Ou(^ij>uiTiTm^iE/Q^
fiorirts^&^eniLfQ LDiT ^irdr.

Who honour guard at risk of life Will they bend knee to foes in strife ; A pillar stone may split off straight, Will it bend under pressing weight. i/TarQajujiT(^LCifn}) SfinijauQ^isispp jSn&)eirCeajujiT(^ujiT ^edBreaiir/Soj ^ai^^arQaiuir^iDrrif ^irihQuppG^eoojiii
(^ed^^arQoiJJiT^isi (j^eeurti).

As As As As

high as water lilies rise. wide as studies knowledge lies, great as penance past our weal good as birth one's bent you feel. isiieiireaasstTemu^a^ili omQp ise^iSis miie^rrnQ^npQsiLu^ofU) tsAQpiseoeoirir (^eaaias^eiairLju^em isasrQp luaiQirn tif.esafiB8uS0uu^ef ismgv. T o seek the good, and wisdom gain From words that glowing grace contain T o praise their life, and live in peace At one with thenr will bliss increase.

152

THE LIGHT OF ^ujireanssn-earu^afui


^ajirirQ^irpQsilu^afLb
(^6BBris/Si^sD!ruu^afLD

TRUTH

^Q^^(^aipp
^tumr
luoiQntr

T o seek the bad, and li<;t with care T o words that are of virtue bare, T o speak of them, and friendship keep With such will bring corruption deep

Qm^gHsSeap^^^ir eutTuj,isiTe02u^QuurTUf.u QuiT&iLiujiru>Q^ireogilleoS^ iB^eoirQ!T!T(t^ai(T^eirQn ujeuir'^un(^LLuf.iEi


The water led to paddy fields T o plants and grass nutrition yields Where but one good man lives will fall Refreshing show'rs on one and all,

eS&krQijSQuiri^io Qp'SBtruuir^iTUiQaiKorL^

T h o ' seeds, it is, that germ contain. Bereft of husk will sprout no grain ; A man, tho' strong, succeeds but rare, Of help without if he stands bare.
Lcte\)QLiifi^afT(SB)if

v^u.^&fSujGfr6arr6l(^d<s Qeiiemu.iTau.6oQ: ifi^


p^edarcis^Q^LcirS eSKSii.

" Thalai " is big, hut " makil " sweet By form judge not of men you meet; There bathe but few, tho' sea is wide While springs near by one's thirst subside.

nassTLDuS&iiTid seiiri^Q^iaaiiTiirQ/iiT^
LD^ennsu unsS^^^^n^i^iosr

seoeofr^ir(^spp ssSI.

THE

SAYINGS

OF AUVAI

173

A s turkey "struts in foolish pride, And spreads its tail like peacock wide, Do they that lack in knowledge clear T h e poet's garb presume to wear.

v^iSI^QajfrQim'juiiQurrpi3<mQQinQL^iTuun(i^i}) Quir&oainQ T. e^piSi^^^ SnQ^iuGojih^ euuQuirei3LDiT^QLD &QTiTQ>^firBrQr^iT ^eerub.


Like broken stone, or parted gold T h e bad their angry splits uphold, The goo i man's wrath as smooth subsides A s water split by arrow glides.

U)(T^eefluj0hppQp (SLtT^QutTQ^^meOM
QixeoeoiTiB

^ihQuir^aQenir tiT(^LcaiarLSliflii^ (SuiTw(eurTjfeuQeinTth (Suirih.


A l l things of value, beauty, wealth, With kindred sweet, and glowing health Accrue to one by D e / y ' s grace And part when off she turns her face.

The Relation of Samkhya and Saiva Siddhanta


B Y SWAMI V E D A C H A L A M

While a widespread interest and a great attention animate the study of modern V e d a n t a - t h e Vedanta of Sankararharya and other recent scholars and not the Vedanta r>f am ient Indian Sages and philosophersmuch indifference and l;irk of real interest beset the study either of Samkhya or of Saiva Siddhanta. This has been mainly due to the dangerous dogmatism and intolerant bigotry of certain class of people in our country. Whatever might be the attitude of our sectarian philosophers towards Samkhya and Saiva Siddbanta. learned European scholars were not to be deterred from their endeavouis to seek after truth but having made an immense sacrifice of their time and comforts the}' have brought to light the complete system of Samkhya and a ])ortinn of Saivii Siddhanta by producing faithful translations of works on these philosophies and editing their original texts Thanks to their unrequitable services in this direction, for our eyes are now opened to see the hidden knowledge that had been jealously guarded for many centuries by our own ( ountrvmen for fear of losing their prestige and feigned supremacy in all that concerns our life. It is an acknowledged fact to day that, of all the existing systems of thought, Samkhya is the earliest and the deepest fountain of philosophy from which all tiie numerous streams of ki^.owledge took their rise and flowed continuously up to the present time acquiring in their long course additional supplies of newer ideas from other sources. From Samkhya arose tl-.e grandest and the sublimest teachings of Bhagavan Gautl-ama Buddhati e very essence of the Buddhist religion. From .S.imkhva was developed the peculiar mystic system
A Lecture delivered at Calcutta.

RELATION

OF SAMKHYA

& S. SIDDHANTA

175

of Soul-culture, afterwards elaborated by Patanjali into a perfect treatise on yoga. From Samkhya came into existence such physical and metaphysical discussions as are seen in the Upanishads like Kena, Svetaswatara and Chandogya And it was from Samkhya that the very teachinsrs of Sri Krishna -comprised in Bhagavad Gita, the widely read and hisrhlv venerated work, came into being. Not to say of the inniimerable otber cults that derived their fundamental from Samkhya in the medieval and modem periods, almost all the philosophic knowledge of ancient times drew their sustenance from the fertile source of SSmkhya. Not alone in the ancient times but even at the present day a study of the Samkhya philosophy is considered to be of the utmost importance to a profound scholarship in the critical leaminp; of Vedic Sanskrit, A s for the great regard in which it was held by the sages of the remote past would suffice to point out that " i n the first book of Mahabharata, Narada is said to have taught the thousand sons of Daksha the d'^ctrine of final deliverance from n.atter, the surpassing knowledge of the Samkhja, and he is reckoned as one of the Prajapatis, or first progenitors of mankind." And of the rationalistic value cf this philosophy no one can better speak than Mr. john Da vies, M.A., the able translator of the Samkhya KSrika. who. touching on this point, sa^ s : " The system of Kapib, called the Samkhya or Rationalistic, in its original form, and in its theistic development by Patanjali, contains nearly all that India has produced in the department of pure philosophj'. Other systems, though classed as philosophic, are mainly devoted to logi': and physical science, or to an exposition of the Vedas. It is th<^ earliest attempt on record to give an answer from reason alone, to the mysterious questions which a r i s e in every thoughtful mind about the origin of the world, t! e nattire and relations of man and his future destiny." In addition to such opinions of impartial oriental scholars, 1 venture to lay before you subsequently certain facts and arguments for taking Samkhya as the only true philosophy

I/.",

t h e

l i g h t

o f

t r u t h

amongst the other five systemsthe Nyaya, the Vaiseshika, the Mimansa, the Y o g i and the Vedanta, In the meanwhile, I wisli to dwell a little upon a fact of great historical importance. Samkhya is the oldrst philosoph}- in existence which records the nature and tendency of the people in the midst of whom it arose. T o those of you who are acquainted with the critical works of such eminent critics as Prof. Dowden, Prof. Minto, Dr. Stopford Brooke and others, 1 need hardl3' say tl at the work of a great man is like a veritable mirror in which is reflected the nature and tendency of its times. In the same way Samkhya is the work of its times. Though the genius of Kapila gave an admirable setting and a definite shape to the Philosophic tenets that were current in his time, yet it cannot be said that they were freshly originated and given to the world exclusively hy him. Many centuries before the time of Kapila learned men were occupied in investigating the nature and destiny of the universe and the mysterious relation in which the human beings stand to each other and to the world. Many centuries before, men of extensive knowledge and profound reflection were giving currency to the thoughts which they had matured in their secret dwellings in forests and mountain caves concerning the misery of humanityand the vva}' in which to bring about an eternal deliverance of the soul from evil, l^hese doctrines that were lyi ~g scattered here and there were brought into one coherent whole and made up into a complete system of thought by the great intt'llertual capacity of Sage Kapila. The old proverb 'that Rome was not'built in a d a y ' indicates the long and slowprocess through which a system must pass before it will reach its final completion. The philosophy of Samkbya must, likewine be considered as a typical mark of its time, as a monument constructed out of the crude materials supplied by the intellects of bygone ages. Professor Max Muller has, with great exactness of detail, spoken of the philosophic activity of the ancient day Indians in hi? last great work, ' The Six Systems

f^hLAnON

OF SAMKHYA

& S. SIDDHANTA

177

of Indian Philosophy' and 1 request you all to refer to it for an elaborate account of this point. Suflfice it for my present purpose to say thfit Samkhya is tlit only system of philosophy which as a flaming torch throws a flood of light On the earliest mental condition of our forefathers and opens to our view the hitherto concealed secret of their head and heart. And to a right understanding of the anci-nt Indian thought nothing can help us better than the system of Samkhya. But many of usnay even all of usare prone to attach ^reat importance to a particular religion or to a particular form of philosophy to which we have closely adhered from our y o u n g days and to view everything else from our own stand point in face of all difference and disagreement that exists between ours and that of others. Recently there has arisen a tendency in the modern Vedantists to n diice everything they come across in the realm of philosophy to the system of SankafacharTa or to treat them in utter disregard if they do not agree with their modern Vedantic tliought. This spirit of antagonism or dire prejudice on the part of our Indians is sure to lead us into errors of an irremediable cliaracter and impede the progress and onward growth of our intellectual faculty. T o accomplish what other nations have achieved in the social, moral and intellectual conditions of life, it is absolutely necessary that we should cultivate that openness of mind to receive truth wherever it is found and that unbiassed state of reasoning to carry on an interesting inquiry into subjects other than that we own. Now, as regards the tenets of Samkhya, it may briefly be stated that an inquiry of the world and an inquiry of tiie Self constitute its two important elements of study. The object of this study is to deliver the Soul from the clutch of misery, pain and evil, which arise as a natural consequence of its contact with matter.
THE WORLD.

T o take up first its interesting study of the nature and condition of the world or cosmos. This world which is an 5

152

THE LIGHT OF TRUTH

immediate object of our knowledge is in our experience perceptibly distinguished from soul by its being "built up by panicles, of a substance that has not got in ii t i m particular kind of action called intellectuality On an experimental study, this world, this entire phenomenon of tht; universe, reveals to our intellect two of its phases, of which, one is perceived by our five senses and the other is inferred to exist from correct methods of reasoning. Of ihese two phases, one that is perceived by the senses is called as Vyakta or manifested and the other that is inferred to exist as Avyakta or unmanifested state of Prakriti. And again, the one state forms the fundame tal cause of the other. W e know that this world both organic and inorganic is a conglomerated body of the five primary elements; ether, air fire, water and earth. W e know also by chemical analysis that every fragment of this material world is ultimately resolvable into substances of a much finer character. These finer substances are so minute in size that it is extremely difficult for our physical eyes to see them except with the help of a microscope. Sometimes these are not perceivable even with the aid of a microscope, since they attain to gaseous state. Unseen though they be, yet we arrive at correct conclusions with regard to their real existence- When a piece of sulpher is pulverised into the finest particles of dust and bkiwn up into a large glass vessel, these particles do not become visible to our naked eyes unless we resort to the aid of a microscope. Again when the same sulphuric atoms are converted into an invisible gas, they are not seen even through the means of a magnifying glass; yet we are confident of their existence in the glass since we can know them by other means of ascertainment, namely, by weighing the whole in a balance before and after the experiment. There are still subtler and subtler slates of sulphur than the gaseous one, which cannot be cogiiised even in this expe.imental way but of which we are certain from the aw of indestructibility of matter, proved beyond doubt by the methods of exj.eriment-

HLLA/IONOF SAMKH YA & S. SIDDHANTA

179

)n. It would, therefore, be manifest that Sage Kapila was fully justified in attributing: to mntter two kinds of state of which one is ultimately subtlest, and the other a perceptibly grossest. A v y a k t a or the unmanifested stite constitutes the primordial or first cause of this whole manifested universe. Both these A v y a k t a and V y a k t a conditions are incidental to matter. I see much truth in the nebular hypothesis of western astro"nomers, and it is not difficult to see a nearer approach of it to the oldest conception of our S a g e Kapila regarding the primitive condition of this world. Such a grand conception of the reality of the world whether manifested or unmanifested is as old as the civilisation of our torefithers and we as their rightful descendants are bound to take it as the basic principle of all our succeeding processes ol thought, especially when we find it corroborated by modern chemical experiments and scientific researches. But sadly we are not permitted to follow in their footsteps. In the medieval period, that is, in the eighth or the ninth century of the Christian era, when the Buddhist and the Iain religions had fallen into decay, a new reaction set in in the atmosphere of our Indian thought, and a newer and quite incorrect notion about the nature of the world sprang up upsetting the traditional accounts of our old philosophers. What is that new and fantastic notion ? It is nothing but that which you are much acquainted with ; nothing but the notion that this visible and tangible universe is purely of an illusory character; nothing but what we all s?e, heir, taste, touch and smell is a mere zero, a sheer phantasmagoria. 1 he greit Sankaracharya great indeed he iswas the first, 1 presume the very first originator of this notion of illusion, this nothingness of the world and if I may he permitted to say, was the first to stop the wholesome current of ancient teachings at its middle and give them a new turn to run into a stagnant pool of muddled thought. S o far as my knowledge is concerned, I could confidently Say that there is not a single word, phrase, or sentence either

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in the whole range of the Vedas and the prmcipal Upanrshads or in the six systems of philosopliy which represents the unreality of the world as has been ta j g h t by Sank..ra. Oi> the other hand, they plainly note the eternal existence of matter as is seen in the Svetasvatara Upanishad " Jna Jnaou dva aja Ia anisa aja hyeka bhokthru bhogarta yukta " wh.ere Prakriti is sp>oken of as unborn and ever-existent. And 1 can show you innumerable other passages from other Upanishads in support of my statement, but I leave them for fear of taxing your patience unnecessarily. As for the view which the other five systems take of the nature of the world, a mere cursory glance into them will be sufificient to convince you that they all take it as a substance of tangible reality, and that the very idea of illusion or falsity is quite foreign to them. Here, of course, it might be argued that the VedSnta Sutras of Badarayana do not accept the reality of matter but deny its v e r y existence as is clearly eUicidated in the commentary of Sankara. But when once the commentary of Sankara has been upheld as the highest and the only undisputed authority on the interpretation of the Vedanta Sutras, it becomes v e r y difficult for us to know the real meaning of the Text, to conceive that it ts susceptible of being interpreted in an other w a y . Most of the older commentaries wriiten by Bhagavan Bodhayana, Tanlca, Dravida, Kapardin and Guhadeva have not come to light, nor are the other commentaries of Nilakanta^ Raminuja, Madhva, and Somanatha studied critically side b y side with the commentary of Sankara. So great is the prejur dice on the part of our people that it is even deemed as a dire abuse to call in question the claim of Sankara as the only right interpreter of the Vedanta Sutras. Wh3' one commentator should be chosen in preference to others without a proper and comparative study of all, does not seem to strike most of us in this country. But see how an European scholar Dr. Thibaut in the critical essay prefixed to his able and accurate translation of baukani's commentary on the Vedanta S u t r a s shows the incorrectness of Sankara's gloss and its inadequacy

RELA rrON OF SAMKH YA S. STDDHANTA


t a bring out the real meaning of t h e T e x t , See how he declares that Sank.ira not only does not trace the meaning of the Sutras link alter link in harmonious sequence in which the author's ideas connect themselves but mangles the texts and twists their meanings in such a mariner as to make them suit his own views. See also how this conclusion to which Dr. Thibaut was driven by his critical deliberation had been openly embraced by Prof. Max Muller in his 'Life of Ramakrishija' and * Six systems of Indian Philosophy.' Again, some of you will be surprised to learn that Svami Vivekananda the able exponent of modern Vedanta, expressed in his ' Inspired Talks ' a similar opinion that Sankara instead of following the meaning of the Sutras, had made the sutras fallow his meaning, his owr> views. W h y , any impartialman who makes a profound study of the ordinal, uninfluenced, of course, by any sectarian prejudice, will find in the Vedanta Sutras the doctrines of Sankhya assimilated and expounded, not based upon reason alone as had been done by Kapila but based upon the various pass^ ages of the upanishads. The diflFerence between Sankhya and Vedanta is that, while the one attempting to investigate everything from a purely rationalistic point of view stops with matter and individual self, the other goes a step forward venturing to treat upon tbe plane of a Supreme Self which is beyond the reach of all our limited reasoning powers and defective individual experience. But for this difference both Sankhya and Vedanta are identical, inasmuch as the inquiries into the nature of matter and individual soul form the common property of the two. S o far, it is as clear as day light that my position in maintaining a continual flow of liveliness for the oldest doctrines of Sankhya in all the posterior systems of thought that arose in succession one after the other up to the time of Sankara when it was sadly and suddenly stemmed in but for a temporary period, is not one of an untenable character. And from the time of Saint Meikandadeva and Ramanuja of the Tamil country that mighty current of Sankhya has commenced aeain to run on with a redoubled force.

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Now it miglit be aske 1 what led Sankara to invent such a fanciful theory of illusion deviating farther and farther away from the plain and distinct track of the ancient !ndi m thought. I cannot venture to say anything definitely on wh^t his real motive was, in the absence of any valid evidence to support it. Various explanations have been attempted to solve this problem, but unfortunately none of them gives satisfaction to my mind. It is possible that gross misconceptions might arise as a natural consequence of one's inability to apprehend certain finer shades of n-eaning which certain terms in the Vcdas and Upanishads possess- Need we wonder that these finer meanings escape at times even the Searching intellects of eminent scholars while they reveal themselves to others, when we consider of the imperfect and limited condition of the human mind ? There are a few wordsthough a few yet very important to a correct apprehension of the root-principles of ancient philosophyrepeatedly used in the Vedas, Upanishads and six systems, which puzzle even the highly cultured minds. Some of them I shall now explain to the best of my ability and leave others to your careful s t a d y . From this, it is by no means to be construed that I think myself abler than our able commentators and philosophers. Far from it, without possessing as much scholarship and keen intellect as our old commentators and philosophers had, we are nevertheless enabled to detect their errors and defects by the easy resources of knowledge which are made accessible to us by the niture of the a g e in which we live. I believe you will not misunderstand me. With your kind permission 1 proceed to explain some of the few words just alluded to.
SAT AND AS AT.

A t the outset 1 wish to take Sat and Asatthe two terms frequently used by Kapila to denote two different conditions of matterbecause they gave rise to many misconceptions in after ages. Prjor to the time of Kapila, these words had been UhK^l by the Vedic poets in the same sense in which Kapila used them. In the tenth mandala of the R i g Veda there is a

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& S. SIDDHAN

IA

tSj

verse which relates: " I n the earliest age ot the Gods Sat sprang from Asat." And in the tenth part of the Atha va Veda it is said that " both As.it and Sat exi^t within the ^ od Skamba." The Tnittiriya upanisli^.d also quntes a verse to the effect that " this was at first Asat ; from that sprang S;it." With Kapila and his exponents, Sat denotes the existence of things in the manifold forms of the external world, the Daseyn of Hagel, the Natura Nafurata of Spinoza, and Asat is the opposite of this, or the formlesi Frakiiti." It is now plain to you from these that Sat means the manifested ezist K e of this world and all material things and Asat the unmanifested existence of Prakri'i or primordial matter. When the existence of an object is perceptibly known, we are certain of its being and entertain no doubt about it But, when it disappears from our view, we become uncertain of what its real situation would be, although we may have no inclination to say that it has been reduced to nothing, to a state of annihilation, All our modern scientific knowledge tends to show that matter Is indestructible. Although an attribution of this scientific knowledge to our Sages in the prehistoric past may seem thoroughly unwarrantable and incredible, yet somehow or other, perhaps quite intuitively, they came to apprehend of this invariable law as is evident from the philosophy of Sankhya. It is only in the primitive savage life that man can understand little of the disappearance of an object. His reasoning faculties were then in a latent condition and he was, therefore, not able to account for its disappearance nor had any means to guide him in the inferential process concerning its existence in an invisible form. So he knew nothing about it and probably believed that there was nothing beyond what he immediately perceived. There was no past nor future for him. Everything with which he was concerntd was most intimately connected with his immediate needs and present rec|uirements. This inability to comprehend what lies beyond was a necessary consequence of iiis undevdjpcd mental condition. But is

ThE

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(t not strange that this form of savage life should repeat it?elf in the circlos of materialistic and idealistic school of thinkers who assert that all except the present is a mere nonsense and that this world and all its contents are nothing but an outcome of pure illusion and idle fantasy ? But our Vedic poets and philosophers were not as our present day materialists and Wealists are. They were so far advanced in mental culture and correct methods of reasoning that with the help of the present they extended their vision of intellect far into the past and into the future and believed as the result of their careful observation as well in the unmanifested state of matter as in in its manifested state. T h e one they called A s a t , because of its invisible form and subtle character, and the other they called Sat on account of its visible shape and palpable condition. While such were the meanings of the two terms as conceived by the Vedic poets and subsequent thinkers, Sankara and his followers mistook them in a sense quite contradictory to all received traditions. Evidently Sankara took the term Asat to mean non-existence in contradistinction to Sat which means existence, and concluded as a matter of course that all the visible phenomenon of the uniyerse was an illusive outcome of a principle which had not got an independent existence of its own but was a simple nothing as it were. According to him that which is the product of a nothing is also nothing, and it follows from that that the complete system of cosmos is a falsely woven fabric of wrong thought. How anything can come out of nothing does not seem to strike him even for a moment, and he is swept away afar from truth by the torrent of his imagination. If before creation everything were null and void, which is quite inconccivable to a scientific mind, how are we to account for the vedic line " t h a t both nonentity and entity exist within the God Skamba"? How are we to account for the line in the Satapatha Brahmana that " in the beginning this universe was as it were and was not as it were" ? Do not these sentences represent the mainfested and the unmanifested states of

HLLA /ION OF SAMKH YA & S. SIDDHANTA

185

matte; h o not these show that both cause and its effect are idenfical in scT lar as the existence of the one implies the existence of the other ? This universe which is an effect of Prakriti and Prakriti which is the cause of this universe are so closely bound up together that the one necessarily and invariably involves the presence of the other. Hence the saying that " in the beginning this universe was as it were and was not as it were" 'This universe was' indicates that, before creation this entire system of cosmos existed in its primordial cause mulaprakriti. 'This universe was not' indicates that it did not exist then in the same orderly form in which it is seen at present. That this passage and the foregoing ones are not susceptible of being interpreted in any other way so as to suit the illusion theory of Sankara is now quite apparent to you ; and 1, therefore, need not dwell upon this point any longer. From all these ir. should have been clear to you that the sense in which S a g e Kapila used Sat and Asat in his thoroughly scientific system of philosophy is much in consonance with the usage of these terms by the Vedic poets and old philosophers and that the new significance which had been attributed to them by Sankara is in ever3' way not in harmony with their oldest meanings and usages.
ADVITIYAM.

Now let us turn our att^-ntion for a while to another word of great philosophic significance the word Advitiyam of the VcHic literature. In such passages as "Ekam Evadvitiyam Brahma" ' Ekam eva Rudro nadvitiyayatdaste" this word has been taken by Sankara to mean the definite number one. The tirst of these two sentences as interpreted by him means that 'Brahman is one, one only.' In the Sanskrit language there is the ATord Ekam to denote the definite number one- And in almost all the languages of the world only one word is there to denote Mie single number and this law is not violated in the case of Sanskrit, for we havt seen in it only one word Ekam for one, Dvitam for two, IVitham for three, Chatujrtam for four and so 6

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on. But if we have to accept the meaning of Sankara, for the number one we shall have two words Ekam and Advitiyam instead of one quite contrary to the philological principle 1 have just pointed out to you. The term advitiyam is a compound word; and how Sankara takes this term to mean ne by the process of splitting it into t wo parts and tracing out the sense of the two ingredients is very amusing to note. Advitiyam is divided into na and dvitiyam and the prefix na is made to mean no and dvitiyam two. If by its parts it would mean no two, the term advitiyam must necessarily mean the denial of the existence of two objects. After coming to this skilful conclusion it is easier for him to argue that if the sacred scriptures deny the existence of two objects by making a frequent use of the term Advitiyam, it becomes our bounden duty to believe in the existence and reality of one only Brahman and the non-existence and unreality of all othero But as tt seems to me that this exposition of his contradicts the sense and spirit of all Vedic and upanishad teachings I find it difficult to bring myself to Delieve in the correctness of his teaching and explanation. With all due deference to his greatness, we must, for the cause of truth, submit his meanings and arguments to a searching and critical examination- In the first place let us see whether he is correct in his etymological study of the term advitiyam. I think he is not right in taking the prefix na in the sense of no, especially when it stands in union with numerals; because though that prefix may convey that meaning when it combines with other words denoting objects, it never signifies that sense when it stands in combination with numerals, but it clearly expresses another meaning of not. For example, when the perfix na is joined to the numeral Ekam which means one, the two become the compound word Anekam; t nd this term anekam does not mean no one, but it means not one an equivalent of many. Similary when the prefix na is united to th' numeral Dvitham, the two must necessarily mean nol

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& S. SIDDHANTA

187

no two but not two. But sadly this fact escaped th notice of Sankara. Does it not show the imperfect nature of the human mind that this simple fact of Sanskrit etymok.gy elud.dthe intellectual grasp of so great a scholar as Sankaracharya P\irther Dvitham and Dvithiyam are not identical in meaning. Dvitham means two and Dvitiyam a two-fold state. It follows from this that nadvitiyam ought to mean a not-two-fold state. The peculiar function of this term advitiyam is to express the exact relation in which the Supreme Being stands with the Universe. God is an omnipresent Being. And this nature in Him makes Him one with the world and the individual minds. Without his imnjediate presence not even a single atom can move of its own accord; without his simultaneous help no living thing can stimulate itself into activity; and without His inmost advice no human being can live even for a moment. Hence to endue each and al! with l i f ? and activity He pervades the entire system of cosmos and ndividual minds. Though He thus exists one with the universe I yet is He essentially different from it. And therefore this peculiar relation of His with mind and matter cannot be called either one or two. If He were not,different from them how could there be either mind or matter ? or if He were different from them how could they move, think or have their very being ^ If He alone existed the Vedic poet would have said omitting the word a d v i t i y a m ' Ekam eva B r a h m a ' ' B r a h m a is one only.' Or if He existed farthest away from mind and matter then would he have said putting the word Dvitham ' Dvitam eva Brahma' that Brahma and the rest are two only But he rias clearly stated 'Ekam evadvittyam Brahma' Kkani eva Rudrn nadvitiyaya daste' thus adding the term advitiyam and meaning there by that Brahman is one only in a kind of not-two-state, that Rudra is one only and is in a kind of not-two condition. W h y The relation of God is neither one nor two buta kind of not-two state. T o

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express ;iccurately this ipterrelation, neither the wqrd ekam meaninji e nor the word dvitham meaning ivjo woqld serve I he purpose of the Vedic poet; and so ihe resorted to the aid of a third word advitiyam in order to bring into 11 clearer light what he conceived of the relation that subsists between God and the universe, Now you see what those lines " Ekam evadvitiyam Brahma" " E k a m eva Rud,ro na d vitiyaya taste.' indicated in the minds of the Vedic poets t!iat Br-nhinan or Rudra who is one only without having a second beina to be compared with it in any respect always exists with the universe irt a kind of not-tworeleation is the real meanigof these Vedic texts. That this is the real meaning of the term advitiyam will be fuify borne out by the etymological and philosophical expositions given of this wdrd by saint Meykanda Deva of the Taniil country some six hundred years ago in his unique Tamil work of metaphysicsthe Sivajiianabodha. That this pajisage and similar ones in which the word advitiyam occurs instead of lending any countenance to the illusion-theooy of Sankara glitter like sharp sickles that cut down the v e f y stalk of his doctrine at its root will be apparent to any one who makes even a superficial study of the works of saint Meykandadeva ana his disciples o[ the Saiva Siddhanta School. N a y anyone who enters upon a critical and comparative study of the oldest systems of philosophy, Opanishads and Vedas will see for himself that the term advitiyam itself establishes beyond all dispute the reality of matter and individual selves as was upheld by S a g e Kapila in his thoroughly scientific system of Sankhya.

[7b becdntinued

AGAMIC BUREAUNOTES.19I
With much regret we inform our readers that our D i p i ^ did not come out for the last six months owing to the most unforeseen circumstances which have sprung up by the kindness and good graces of our most de^r fiiends. Y e t we cannot know His ways. .3immrtirfS(StLiinrg^afu)m^ujit^. W e will have'toabide by ihe tinres. T h e sage TiruvaUuvar proclaims t h a t " Qu^oitSiuaa^ etc" and at once he says that " Qpujp9 and so our strenuousiefforts have at last borne fruit and the Dipika comes out with all its colours once more with the advent of the happy and prosperous New Year killing all the old dear foe's and embracing all the more new and worthy fnends and admirers. W e sing forth a happy cheer in mirthful tones of joy and rejoicing. ' L e t hencefprth the path of righteousness be not bedimmed with hesitation and doubt. W e are ever grateful to the Supreme that our Di^ika h^s been doing immense service in bringing to light the bidden treasures of our ancient literature and religion. W.e. need not dwell much on this, and blow our own trumpet. Now the No- 4 issue of Vol. XIV starts with. April 1914 and hence this volume will, run till the end of December 1914 and not as before till the end of June of the year. January to December shall be one year in future. W e thank one and all of our subscribers who have paid their subscription in advance for their kindness and indulgence and thankfully hope the rest to accept the ajid remit their dues 4t once; as all know that "without money this worid is not tor us" as the same sage declares. Wit afje glad to extract the following reviews about hbr

'90 'StUiiifs*'

THE LIGHT OF and "Siddhiyar'*

TRUTH (April

from the ^'Theosophisf'

Stuii$s ill Saiv Hiidkdnta, by J. M. Nallasv4mi HHai B. A. B. L. With an Introduction by V. V. Raman^ Sistrin, Pb. D. (Meykand&n Mr. Nallasvami Pillai has long been known to readers of ihei^amM Rtvim called The Ughi of Twth or tit SiiihanU Dipiha, He has aboured for many years to maka the Saiva Siddhatita known to the! world ; and that at last western scholars have turned their attention to this mystic philosophical system of the south of India is no doubt due to a great extent, to his endeavours. The volume befwe us contains twenty-four papers which appeared first in the Siiikinta Dipiki and several otlier magazines. They embrace almost the whole field of the Saiva Siddhanta, so that one who goes through them will get a fairly complete idea of this system. And nobody, we are sure, who peruses this book with some attention will be able to put it aside without confessing to himself that he has learned a good Nallasvami Pillai is a sympathetic and thoughtful writer : there is no tinge of sectarian^m in bis papers, and the wealth of ideas they contain is astonishing Moreover, his style is free from that tedious prdixity so common in ?ndia, contrasting favourably in this respect even with DtfCaiva Sidihinta by the Rev, H. W. Schomerus, who, by the way, has not sufficiently acknowledged his mdebtedness to Nallasviimi Pillai. The following srtjcles may be specially mentiop^ : 'flower anfl Frkgrance* fNo. r), a vwitribution to the science of metaphors; 'The Light of the Truth or Unmai Vijakkani' rNo. 2), % translation pf stanzas forming one of the Fourteen Siddhanta Sa^tras; \nothpr side^ (No. 4), with pertinent remarks on Samkhya a.jd Vedanto; 'The Tattvas Md Beyond' (No 5), being an explanation of the. 36 Tattvas and the Tattvfitita ; 'The Nature of the Divine Personality^ (No. 6), being a criticism of the equation i/tt^^una-impersonal; 'Vowels and Consonants' fNo. 7). 01) a simile used in Saiva Siddhanta to explain the aivaita relation of mind and body ; 'Some Aspects of the Godhead* (No. 10); The SvetisYatara Upanushaf (No. 13);'The Union of Indian Philoso

AGAMIC

BUREAU

NOTES.

19I

phies' (Na 16); 'The Pbraonality of God according to the 5alva Siddhinta'(No. 19); -Advaita according to Saiva Siddhinta' (No. 20); ^ v a i s m in its Relation to other Systems' (No. 24), We have also read with pleasuae the description of 'Sri Parvatam' (No. 23), the most sacred hill for the Saiva pilgrim. Among the things with which we cannot quite agree is the criticism on pages 160flF.,of Prof. Deussen's "false analogy". Similes like that of the stream entering the ocean are never meant to be taken literally. Siw^riana Siddhiyar of Arunandi Siviehary*. Translated with Introduction, Notes, Glossary, etc., by J. M, Nallasv^i Pillai, B.A. B.L (Meykapdan Press, Madras). This is anoiher fruit of the endeavours of Mr. Nallasvimi PlJiai, that indefatigable expounder of the Saiva Philosophy of South India. This translaticni from the Tamil original appeared during the years 1897 to X902 in the SidikSnta Dipiha, and it has now been repuMished in book form, enriched by many Notes and a most valuable Introduction as well as a useful Glossary and Index. S'lvAjTiann Siddhiyar is the second of the fourteen basic works of the & i v a Siddhanta, the first being the well-known SivofJiom^odJiatit of Meykarc^eva who appears to have fk)urished in about the 12th century. The thoroughly philosophical character of the work is evident from its very arrangement, the first Book (called A}avai or Logic) dealing with the means of knowledge recognised by the author, while the remaining: chapters fall into a controversial and a constructive part called, respectively, Paraf>a\sha ot Foreign Standpoints and Sutah'a or The correct Standpoint. The controversial part, again deals succes sively with the Materialists, the four schools of Buddhism, two sects of the Jains, three forms of the Purva-Mimamsa, Mayavda, BhSskaricharya's Parinimavada, the Atheistic Samkhya, and, finally, the doctrine of the Paficaratras, each chapter containing first a concise statement and then the refutation of the view in question. Then there fellows the tliir.l Book oo the ' Correct Standpoint,' i.e.' an exposition of the aiva Siddhanta, consisting of twelve 'Sutras' with several Adhikara^ifts (para{,'raphs 1 each definition of God {Pati), of th. kind of monism (advaita) to be recognised, of the individual (Pasu) (two Sutras), of the relation of God, soul, and Body, of the nature of the Supreme, of Atma Darshana?

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OF

TRUTH

of the WAY j'Tuina is imparted to the soul, of thi purification of the sou of f'asakskaya ''the vanishing of bondage), of the recognition of Gcd and the nature ot bhaHi, and of the nature of the sanctified. From the Introduction we notice the rejection of Dr. Barnett's view viz , that the Tamil Saiva Siddantam was derived from the Pratyabhijfia school of Kashmir in the beginning of the thirteenth century Mr. Nalasvami Pillai is of opinion, and his arguments are weighty indeed, that ' the development in the North and South and West were independent of each other, though the authorities (the Saivagamas) they followed were the same". The long 'Note on Nirvapa' (pp 57 ff,) contains some good remarks e.g., that "there is always a danger in proclaiming and emphasising a half truth, however wholesome it may be at times," but misses altogether the meaning of the Buddhist idea by comparing the Buddhist who has obtained Niivana with the blind man successfully-operated on in a dark room but unable to leave the latter The man operated on from the Samsaia has reached a condition so utterly different from anything intelligible to us that none of our categories (existence, etc.), can be applied to it / he does see the Light, but it is a something of which ordinary mortals can have no positivte idpa, but only the n^ative one that the three characteristics, of what we call existence, viz., amcca, dukkha, anatta (transitoriness sorrow, not self) have nothing to db with it. We ought to say much more on this book, of which every page is interesting, but our space and time are unfortunately limited. So we add only the hearty wish that the book may find the large number of readers it deserves.

THE

LIGHT OF TRUTH
OR THE

Siddhanta Dipika& Agamic Revcw


A Monthly ^aiva Journal devoted to the Search Hindu Mystic or Agamdnta for Truth as revealed in the Ancient Sitldhanta Philosophy known as the language. No. .5

and in the Tamil

Vol. XIV.

M A Y 1914. TIRUVUNTIYAR.
BY R. S. SUBRAMANIYAM.

Disp ASSIGN

OR NON-ATTACHMENT OF THE S I V A YOGI.

^tfian ^smirQdsrp QajtrSs QainjmQ(i^<Si ^iTifiices^ itirCSo/QuiT ggi^un). Unwhirling discerning Yogis, to nothing Stand attachdRise and fly Like the bell of (too) short tongue. Rise and fly.
NOTES.

T o the Sivayogi who is now firmly established in Siva Bhoga, no sense enjoyment can be alluring enough. The body and the Karanas have been transformed into vehicles of Sivajnana; u,ntil the body lasts, objects presented through Prarabhda Karma will be experienced through Tiruvaruljnana and will not have the power to attract them or cause attach-

194

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ment. They may rule as kings, be householders and deck themselves with silk, flower and rubies, yet, these have no hold on them as they have their hold on the Sivanubhavam of Unspeakable Bliss. Like the bell, the tongue of which is too short to strike the cup, yet in form like other bells, the Jflanis are like other men among them and yet they are free from attachment to sense obj^'cls. The bell cannot ring, it is dumb; the Jnani cannot sin. He is free. The process of Enlightenment is four-fold, FirstHearing {QstLi-do) Truths from the Guru, secondlyPondering over what was heard, thirdlyUnderstanding (Q^OB^M) the true import, and fourthlyRealising ('fiilswi-) in one's self t!ie Unity of Bliss. The Enlightened Jnani will be in the fourth stage of Communion or Kealisation (ISLL^H-). The lower p.ocesses are steps already trod by the Jfiani, who now h;is no ignorance to be removed by Qath-eo, no opposing influences to be counteracted by and no doubts.to be cleared by Q^^eo. The passirig beyond these three stages is difiicult indeed. But how many souls, have not yet entered the threshold of this path being drawn away by the wiles of the world ! Comparing ihe worldly tendem ies of tl e.m.'iny with ll e godly tendencies of the few aspirants, one can safely say that the Jnani who has passed into the fourth stage is the Great Victor. He will no more have to fight the old battles. The unenlightened soul cannot know except in union with the faculties of the body. The faculties are tliree-fold, the ouier, the senses, the innerjjf/B^itf/ranrti),manas etc, and the inmost, -or etc. See notes on Verse lo. And according as it joins one or other, or all of these groups of faculties, the soul is said to be in t ertain avastasstate or condition of knowledge (see sections 4 and 9 of the Digest). When the soul is dissociated from the k-iraiiais it will be in the darkness of Kevala while it is associated with them, it will be in the lamp light of SakaKn. While it is dissociated again after Enlightenment, it is in the Sun-shine of Ninmala. While in

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195

the Sakala state, the soul has its leaking (jagrat), dreaming fswapna), sleeping (sushupti), foui th fTuriya) and beyond the fourth (TurlyatUa) states.

The Enligfhtened soul, the Jnani, will not fall back into these avastas, as he will ever be in the Ninmala Tui )ya titam that is why we find in the text they are refer ed to as, ^IFITUNFIEAAKO^P QIUTRSSEIR. They will neither whirl aga'n thro the Processes of Enlightenment nor toil through the various states of knowledge, they have reached the zenith of Enlighten ment, no more bondage or attachment srsni^ii^
T H E SIGNS ON THE W A Y

Qurrem^ QujireSla/^Qiu Q^mgi/ Qmuu- ajtsjCesSai ^i^up.


ID the wake of the resonance of the anklets, press forward. And the Dancer adoreRife and fly. Directly there stantUngRise and fly.
NOTES.

Those who, b y the Grace of the Lord, have succeeded in subduing the turbulent senses, are free from the tumult and the row of the passions. There will be a calm and quietness which Is in itself a relief and plearure. If in this calm, the soul trained in cihyana and dharana (meditation and concentration) pauses and listens, it will hear the Nadhaand Vindhu of the Lord (the primal vibrations in the Suddha Maya region) which have been ever sounding their sweet music on the deaf ears of the soul. The soul was deaf to iheir music, because, it was in the midst of the noisy senses ; just as children fully engaged in their plays in the court-yard are deaf to the sweet call of the parents from inside the house; these children of God fully occupied in the plays of the senses heard not the inviting music of the O e a t Fat! er. Once the play is over, they rise and go, direct into the house in the wake of the music which proceeds from the inner apartments where their parents are. Once in, tney are in the embraces of their Mother, who presents them to

10

THE LIGHT OF

TRUIH

the watchful eyes of the Father. The deaa ones seated on the Jap of the father, look up to him with h^pes to receive his favour and bounty, his rar^eses and I{i=!se5, entirely resigning themselves to the sweet will of th? Father, and forgetting their actions and activities in which they were erstwhile eng iged. In this attitude of the child is the salvation of souls. It is the great surrender, the atma-suddhi. T o realise the eternal Dancer, Natarajah, as the source of all power and action, the spring of life and joys, the controller of all worlds and regions, t i e director and the dispenser of souls, mundane and celestial, is the way of peace; to adore hi n, as such, is to keep oneself constantly in his ptes^nce; and to enjoy experience of the highest BlissPjrriman.mdham, even S(, as th? child on the lap of the Father, enjoys the sight and the bounty < " > f its Graceful p.irent. This experience is disturbe^d, s'lould the child cease to li ok up to him, and cast its looks C M I the plav grouiid and its p'AV mates. Delusion and mis-conception are two of th? deadliest diseases of the soul, hard to cure and frequently rel ipsing. T o subdue them and keep them awuv one should unswervingly strait away, fix his whole attention and heart on the doctor of all diseases, Vaidya Nathan. As the effect of the delusion and mis-conception Mnynkka Vihatpan}, the soul will be driven to prize that which is unworthy, perishable and deceitful, as praiseworthy, permanent and charming. One requires a strong will power, proper guidance and right understanding to rise above the bewildering and enchanting advances of the power of Maya. That is why the soul is enjoined not to fall back into the oldlgroovesof sense-en joyment, but to go directly to the fact of wisdom, with all mind and heart, and straight away, without distractions and delusions, doubt and delay. Adepts in yoga dec'.are ihat while seated in firm concentration, as the result of constant efforts is raising the latent powen^of kundalini and forcing it through the centres of energy in the sushumna canal, the music of Natha and Vindhu is quite perceptib'e, and that it is the fore-runner of the subsequent calm

T/RUVUNTHIAR.

197

and quietude in the region of the s ikti. There too, they see a light effulgent and beaming, as if it were artificially lighted with myriads of moons. These stages of yoga are not to be talked about or preached. "1 hey have to be attained by diligent application. Above this music and light is the seat of the eternal Dancer, which is to be seen through Samadhi,

iBtr^npi^eSQa) KtT^yiUf.'sSQei iS(^.9^siBrtseiiriQear


Y o g a is a training to the physical and mental vestiges of the "^ou! enabling ihem to prepare the way to the direct \i'^ion of the dancer. In fact, all training is a form of yoga whether in tl e nursery or in the academy. The higher staije^ for the control and ihe purification of oneself, are not taught in col.ege^ or universities. They are to be learnt at the feet of masters who ha\ e seen and can %how the hold of samadhi, the Ashtanga yoga (the eight steps of unification) should be practised by the soul before it can attain the final Bliss. The music in temples, the sounding of the conch, and the gong, the ringing of the bell are but the outward emblems of the inner Nadha, which is to be heard, while in the worship of the inner Svamin.
T H E KEY OK DELIVERANCE

enBT^'^LD/^SijirQ^iLjii^ up
QJ^QSU up. Delusion and (^mis) understanding will die away His Grace (you) forget not Rise and fly That's the secret here. Rise and fly
NOTES.

The knowledge of and attachment to the things of the world, comm inly referred to as {unf linearui) Pasajnanam is one of the and perhaps the first of hindrances to the realisation of Sivajnanam. The pleasures of Maya present themselves in regular array and

198

rHE LlGtlT

OF

TRUTH

keep the soul captive within their walls and the soul naturally untutored as it is thinks that the highest ambition of life is the enjoyments it has been wont to seek. It loses itself so much in the pursviits of this pleasure, that it knows nothing but the dazzle of the bewitching world, father, mother, wife and child, brothers and sisters, relations and friends, power and glory, king^'om and crown, these are too great to die from its memory: the long ties of kinship and friendship, with the powers of maya are too strong to break off from its hold. But the -truth of it all is knowii to the truth-s.ekers who ask the less advanced in plain, unequivocal words " muJ^aiirifien QsirsarGi^A Q^iL^it, isireBsHe^ir" "O ye, shame'ess creatures, what have you profited by the false show of life"! T o prize the fleeting pleasures of the world, and to hanker after thern is indeed the great delusion of souls. It is the Moyakkam {LOU^J.*^^ Marul ("3(53n-). While in this delusion, the soul does get glimpses of itself, in the light of which it distinguishes the perishing from tbe everlasting. This is certainly knowledge or understanding as opposed to ignorance and delusion. But this understanding leads one into ihe belief that he, the knower is a self-sufficient entity existing as if by its own powers; in short, that he is the centre and pivot of all thingsaround. T his sort of understanding is referred to eSs^udi} Theru\ vikalpnm and is really mis-understanding, in view of the correct understanding of the truths. Neither maru] nor theru] will lead one to the blipsful goal. This hindrance of PaSu Jnanam is as equally harmful as that of Pasa JFianam. These two must disappear without the least trace of their existence before one can be said to be in the complete realisation of the bliss of Pati Jnanam o r A r u l Jfiaram. But the two are formidable enemies of right understanding, a most invincible and over-powering ; very few ran withstand their weapons of attack, it is a case of cannon to the risht of them, cannon to the k f t of them, cannon in front of them and what is more, these enemies lurk within in the inner chambers ot the heajt and mind and the rendezvous of the soul. Their subtlety and treachery are such that

T/RUVUNTHIAR.

199

one more often surrenders after winning many a battle which is disconcerting and painful. The victoiy is soon won if cme is in posses sion of the key of deliverance, which is true Jfianam. One can defy the powers of mya by throwint; over them the veil of j4rui. They come in the forms of women, wine and wealth, position, pomp and power; by distingui^ing the perishable from the imperishable, the evanescent from the everlasting, by the light of wisdom, and by firm resolution to be attached to the imperishable and the everlasting one, weans himself from old habits. Add to this that in all beiijgs the Lord is immanent, as he, she and it,, see him in all things presented to your view as he, she and it, as there is no power besides His Sakti, Arul, see all things with this conviction as Arulsvarupa forms of his Grace. Every object preserUed to you will then be naught but Arul, forms for worship and reverance- God whom you saw in the temple as spirit everpresent there, is seen within you, is also seen witliout you aiid by a further step in Bhavana is seen as you and you realize 'I am that' Abam Brahmah asmithat full and lasting BlissParipurana f)aram4nandham the consumm:ition of Bhavana. Descend not from this experience to the lower stages of Bhavana and let in forces of maya ; The higher you ascend in Bhavana, the lesser the forces of M?ya ; reach the higest stage of Sivohambhavana, the forces of maya cannot reach you,.you are blissful but the tendency will be to descend down again and again, yield to this, you are again in the clutches of maya. A s a preventive against this tendency to desceiid.down, hold fast to the vision of Arul and be firmly seated in the experience of ^voham, that is, ever be in the light of Brahmajfiana- .i^svwpaiirQ^. That is the way and the secretthe goal is reached and 'you are that Tat tvam asi. This is the fruit of Bhavana. These maximsMahavakyas should not be mistaken to be postulates against the existence of the Tripadhartha, the three entities. They are ever existing, and you be lost in that through the way of Bhavana, they do ttot exist for you in your vision except as that

152

THE

LIGHT OF

TRUTH

T H E QUICKNESS OF S I V A N U B H A V A M G O D - R E A L I Z A T I O N .

QILITQ^-DSA QsmoiQear^svii^ up fiy irearajiftiuGfBr^ jpii ^ up


Rre you think, He flows, ego-melting The Unique dame's lord, rise, and fly A rarity for thought, rise and fly.
NOTES.

The one, who has trained himsef to see the forms of grace all around, Arulmayam need not labour long at Sivohambhavana. The moment he wishes to see and realize Sivam through this eye of Gra"eTiruvaruljnanamHe, the lord of Arujsakti, overflows and engulfs the last vestige of self -consciousneis whicli melts and dissolves instantly in his expanse of wisdom, a'^ he has been near ever heating the hardtMied soul thro igh th^ rays of Grace. Henceforth what is there except the Being, ihe Will and the Act of the Lord. Thus do you see ihe Lord and be with him in the great experience of Siva-Bhogaunalloyed, evei lasting, serene and blissful existence. Yc u cannot know him through the senses and the mind; nor can you sec as long as you are wkhin ihe folds of'I' hood, however light'Through the contemplation of the forms of the Deity, one attains that stage in which he assumes'. 'lam that'it is a b'lavana assumptionthat, Aham '1' am, SivaSivam, SivaAhambhavana Sivohambhavaiia. The assumption of the unity of self with the one unchanging existencesat.
THE NECESSITY FOR CONSTANT REALIZATION.

g) aaiuseSsosojeSl^uQ&jsfR^C^L^ iSaeSsS neSS'^ up


eSm ^rujeSanmuSair^is^L >p. Within the space of Bliss, devoid of nit;ht and day Mix and permeate, Rise and fly Fast and Fast Rise and fly.

TIRVVllNTHIAR.
NOTES.

201

The night and day are the night of Keva^a and the day of sakala. The soul in conjunction with Anava is under the veil of darknessdarkness of Ignorance, absolute ignorance. It cannot know the surroundings nor can it perceive itself as an existing entityit is in a state of unconscious aioneness. This kevala state is the night of the soul, in which it is utterly without the powers of knowing or willing or acting, like the toper in his slumber, stupefied by liquor, unable to know his state or whereabouts. This kevala state is not the assumption of Theology but a fact to be infered and experienced. W e see. we hear, wet ouch, we smell, we taste, we think, we infer, we conclude, we remembpr, we reflect; we are tried of these exercises we are at fase, thoughts loosen themselves from us, there is a hlnnk. slumber c e e p s in, we cease to will or know, we know not that we are, we rise again, and know that we did not know anything in that sleep over night, we need not labour long to convince those who accept the existence of a soul within, that in these various ex[)eriences the soul functions with some or aU of the senses outer and inner ; now with the sense of sight again, with the sense of hearing and so on. now with the mind fmanas) and again with the intellect (Buddhi' &c., now with the thoughtless sphere of chitta, and again beyond the folds of the mental plane. Thus recedes the Atma from the outer to the inner, and as it ceases to be active in the mental plane, it is in the darkness of slumber, just as the lord of the house is seated in the blazing light of the verandah and the drawing room and finally in the darkness or dim light of the bed-room. Thus the Atma knows when it is in conjunction with ti.e instruments of knowledge, and when it recedes, it is in the darkness of ignorance. This ignorance cannot be its essential quality or lakshana, for then, it can, NEVER KNOW, but it knows it is ABI.E TO KNOW, therefore it is in conjunction with something which enshrouds its conscious quality. TTjat something is called .\nava It may be argued that if Atma's consciousness is enshrouded it should r.ot know anything during the

210

THE LIGIIJ OF

TRUTH.

recession from the mental plane nor can it kgow anything about it afterwards. It is correct. The fact that it does know afterwards about.the experience of deep sleep and its ignorance of things, shows that there must be other subt'er faculties round the soul and that it is not absolutely alone wiih Apava. 1 he soul's jnana' Ichcha and Kriya s^ktis are not absolutely under veil is evident from this, experience ; therefore it is postulated that the soul is with the subtler ficulties which, to some extent, keep the dormant saktis of the soul awake. These faculties are termed Kal li (Kriyai Viddhai (Jnana) and Raga (will These with Kala (time) and Niyati (Dispenser) form the five coats of the soul which i.i that state is callei the five-coated or Panchakanchukan or Purushan, inclined towards the pursuit of pleasure through the outgoing energies: It is why the purusha knows that he slept well aild knows that it did not know anything in that state. A s the soul recedes in war ! from the various faculties, darkness overtakes it and it is not diflficult to infer the absolute darkness in which ih- soul will find itself, should it recede from the five tatvas above mentioned, the Panchakanchukans Which are facUrties or instruments of inner-most Ka'anasshaped out of maya. This darkness is the veritable night of the-soul, the causal state of bondagethe unconscious alonenessKevala-avasta, the original condition of the bound soul, Pasu, before each cycle of projection, shrishti. The misery of this kevala-avasta can be imagined by comparison to the condition of the eyes in .utter darkness , the next condition as Purusha is like the eyes wide open, in utter darkness, and helped with a candle light; the former is the night and the latter the dawn or day of the soul. A s kalai etc. areicoated "over the soul, the latter is called s-a-kala (with kalai)'state In kevala-avasta the soul is lost in ignorance or darkness of Anava In sakala-avasta the soul has but limited knowledgevery meagre indeedi.i comparision to what it can attain if not for its imperfection. Both the states are malaAvastas in which the soul is under the s\'ay of Anava in a more or less degree and mark ihe whirl ofsamsara, the rotation of the night and d t y o f the soul. There is still a higher state of Purity, a state ot freedom and Bliss where the mala is absent, hence called ninmala-avasta or suddha-avasta (see section 9 of the Digest).

T/RUVUNTHIAR.

211

A clear prasp of Jhc group of nir.mala-avastas, which are aid to be the effects of suddha avasta is essential for a'l aspirants after Freedom and Bliss, for hrre is the culture of the spirit or spiritual enlightenmentfive mile-stones in the P^th. Many are ihe causes of sorrow. W e are attached to wealth, woman and wine, friends and relations and a host of other things. A merchant jfets news of his ship sinking. He cries ' I am lost, I am done up; the house is on fire, then again rises the ciy ' I am lost,' I am done up; ' wife diesj I am lost' I am gone'; 'the son isnomore,' 'a friend is dr nvned,''a pet horse is injured,' 'still the same cry of-woe. T o come still nearer, my silk gown is stolen,' gold watch is lost Poor me I am done up,' ' l a m getting lean,' ' I am getting? old". ' my hair turns grey, ' my teeth are shaky,' ' I ranrmt now Hi -e^it a rich meal', ' my sight is dim' and so on. * I am sick' 'I am dying' ' dying,' ' oh my wife and child,' ' my estates and lands and a thousand and more attachments. Have the cries of millions ever stopped the course of events ? Can sorrow cease by many more adding to the cries and wails ? If I he merchant is sensible he ought to know that his ship is ever under the mercy of the sea and the wind. If it escapes from these risks only, it is his. so to say, then why wail over it, when it sinks, there was the risk and the ship succumbed. My wife dies I ought to know that she is mortal as anybody else ; the same will happen to me ; when a mortal dies, why wail over him or her, the time was up ; e ch man, woman or child, beast or bird must hive the end sooner or later, just as t'-e clock chimes t^e hours, quarters and halves, so time and the great Dispenser regulate nil things. While r.n the beach, we laugh with the children when the bubbles rise, we laugh with them too when the bubbles burst. But we come home and sigh when similar bubbles burst. We know not that we are in the midst of bubbles, ourselves, bubbles, only of a harder texture than those on the waters This awakening must come to all someday, the discrimination b t w e e n the perishing products o f m a y a a n d the imperishable soul, Atm I. One must know that the soul is not to be

TUL Lir.HT OF

TRIJIH

tied down to one's own possessiVins or bodji (which are jada) and that it undergoes exp- Hence wich the aid of the instruments of knowledge given it by the Grace of God, that pleasure and sorrow is not iji the things ihemselves but in the attitude of one's mind, that freedom ironi sorrow is to be gained by right understanding and detachment of the soul from its old grooves of lijnorance and passions ; that all instruments of the soul are for the service of God ; and that the soul is the master and not the slave of the senses, outer and inner. This right understanding is the first step in th spiritual path. It is termed Ninmala Jagrat

ti e SpiriUtnl nzval^emng.
Between this.awakening and the actual realisation in one's experience o[ his separateness from the products of mfiya. there is the unsettl -d state of running jnro the old groov^^s once and withdrawing again, a state of si'mber and awaker.ing of ihe understanding, hence called dream state of Jnilna -ninma'a swapna, now witli understanding .md ag in with igno-ance, now with light and again with darkness osci 1 ting lik; tl e pendulum I>ut even in this slate thert- is a distinct advance from the former step, of shutting ihedoor against th objects of sense's ai d examining the inmr apartments of the manas, Bhuddi. &c. Now a thought arises, desires propel it, all the antakara^as give it form and shape and it knocks at the door to pass out ir.to the p'aneo^ the senses ; the door is locked, it presses forward on all sidt s impatient of its captivity ; it knqws its usual path of' egress ; kicks at the door with all vehemence lo, ! the do )r gives way, and it is at once in the sense plane in o'd company. But if one is watchful and holds the reins with understanding, and at thf same time keeps the d'lor well bolted, the thought must die of exhaustion within the closed apartment.. This is ti e great struggle for masler>'. T o be or not to be' asks each thought as it jumps forward from the garrison of the chit a, the! .same struggle goes on, the same warfare, tl ey dieorrun out pccording to the more or less the strength and watclifulne.ss with wtiich th doors ar^' kept closed. The soul must be ever on li e alert m d cry 'enrni\

TfRUVU.NTHMR.

205

abroad, bolt the door' but if the soul should act in collusion with the enemy (forgetting that in this way it gives up its mastery or kingdom) the citadel is lost and the enemy passes in and out as before. T h e one who has seen this warfare and fought these battles only can realise the immensity of the kingdom within a '.d the forces required to guard it from the lurking enemies idw nr<' also within. That man who subjugates his thoughts and desires is victor indeed, the great conqueror of the forces of maya. This is the next higher step in the Path called the Ninmala-swapna, the

Spiritual

watch.

Watching alone will not bring Peace of mind. A child watches from the beach the rising wave in the sea and clings to the father's Hand in ter-ible fright and runs up to him as if the wave will devour it in his ab'^ence. The father shows the child a rocket through the sky an1 the latter jumps about in joy and anxiously looks for the next. Even so are the children of larger growth watrhi^g the ji^ys and - sorrows of the world, whether concerning themselves or others. They are drawn away by these experiences and are fallen or bent in that direction. T o them spiritual sifiht is hard to attain. They can neither under stand th'> true nature of the soul nor keep vivid in their consciousness the ever present Grace of God. T o go further forward they must withdraw from that attiude and stand firm and un'ttovei by joys or sorro^vs like the grand papa on the lounge watc'iing children at p'ay, with toys. Children get up a wedding party of toys an 1 invite grand p i p i too for the feast. He joins them : the next moment it is a funeral march among them with all the paraphernalia of a military band ; the grand papa has to join in this ^oo. He does, but in all these actions he \s dispassionate or unmoveH. This frame of mind should be attained by those aspirants who wish to take leave of the toys of the world, wife and c nld, friends and relatio is. pomp and power, joys and sorrows. And in addition they sh juld see themselves as chitrup i shining with th light of Grace and stand aloof from all products of maya Tiiis state is named the Ninmala sushupti. It is rrally sushupti, di^ad slumber to the fascinations of the w o r l d

152

THE LIGHT OF

TRUTH

outside as an unconcerned witness but wideawake to the G r a c e of Godand himself as the Ruler withi n it, can therefore he said to be the Spiritual witnessing. T h e curtain is now well drawn against th i world and the back turned towards it. T h e only two subjects for consideration are himself and th- Grace of God, one's inability to act, will or know without the rays of Grace are cleirly seen and therefore one's dependence on the latter. The evil of self assertion is weU brought home and the aspirant sees that in vain has he been boasting himself as the ruler within but that in reality he is the helpless blind man, led by t'le staff of Grace. ' D r o p the staff' drops the man' He ice will he'"eel the power of Grace and resign him?elf to it. a^ his Guide and shelter. No more is he present in his ow.i consciousness b it all is ami, arul and nothing elsewhere is the aspirant m w ; he h is retreated into the bosom of Grace. And he is siiH to be in the Ninmala-Thuriya state which had better be called the Spiritual Retreat. One step m ire and th it is the Fin il. T h e cow that has bee grazing amidst th^ d ingers of the jungle is now on the guarded farms of her'n isterle 1 by t'le mistress of the house. She must be drive 1 h im to re^t. Thsn is th ?re Peace and plenty. Grace or A r u l a s the bickgroiind of all creation, mother of all activities, should be understood as involvel in the Existence, Consciousness and Bliss of that w'lich alone p rsists through all time and change. A l l activities cease and there is an expanse of Bliss, undisturbed and unruRled. A s o le has b e e i dropping off things of the world on his m irch onward, he h is b^en picking up bliss of the spirit at the s i m e time the farther from the W)rld, the nearer G o d , the nearer the light, the farther from darkness, and now the summum bonum is attained and there is only the chitaklsa of Bliss, me vast expanse with nothing else to disturb or limit thi consciousness.

The soul is in the great expanse of SivUmbhavam

or Siva-

nandham. This is the g)sBru2a/srf? referred to in the Text. It is called the Ninmala-Turiyatitam, the Spiritual beautitude. This is thei np^rfect description of the state of Vimala Mauns. J nana by a venturesome writer; gt^d^ adepts will pardon the pre-

TIRUVUNTHfAR.

207

sumption, as. from one point of view leading one at least from the nooks of boniag? to th > free air of the iraQsj^, even by an 'mperfect de^criptio 1 of the path and the destinatio is more desirable than leaving all to shift for themselves How brief the text S^iireiiuseSleoeoiT eS^uQ&iafl'LiQi and how expansive is the significance, the whole teachings of the shastras, are there in a nutshell and also the experiences of Ions and Ions of time. Can any one fail to note the toil of climbing up and also the danger of falling down. A moment of weakness will send you down many a mile of weary journey ; therefore the masters w'lo kno^ the pitfa lis, say eSaeS. eSaeSiSmgtii^up Hold ' fast, be fi m press forward and inward into the Being of the ' Father (who is y i u r shelter) to be^afe from the attacks of your < enemy. I)Q not hesiyate or lose time and opportuni/y ; every ' moment lost leeps you in the cold ; therefore hasten hasten eS^iruj ^es>triLiG^ariiiB^,LjjD. Will JtiC the ssnctified, out of love cry alQud to thei I- erring brothren, ' hasten,, hasten, dangep all around, come Iwme to k-est "" R. S. S .

Th Kltioh ^f Samkhya

S^va S i i d U h U of Vol. XIV).

B Y SWAMI VBDACHALVM

{Concluded from page i88, No.


THE

WDIVIDUAF, S E L V E S -

The meagre and very brief explanations that I have been able to lay before you regarding the Vedic terms Sat, A s a t Advitiyatn would, I hope, be sufficient to call y o u r attention to the highly iinportant fact of .fixing the real meanings of certain puzzh'ng terms in the Vedas and Upanishads before proeeeling to construct a system ^f philosophy out of them. Now l proceed to take up a much more important d.H:tn,ae of Kapilathe doctrine of Individti il Selves. According to KapiU the individual Self is an etern il and integral entity distiiKt from primordiil matter or Mulaprakriti and its effects. It is not a thing created out of nothing nor is it a hewn out fragment of Braliman or its reflection as is asserted by our modern Vedanlln. W h y is it not so ? Simply because nothing can bcr created out of nothing nor can the Omnipreeiuunit of pure intelligence be cut off into limited parts of impure selves nor can it be made to reflect as so many miserable souls. But by some it is argued that the creatjve energy of the Supreme Being is so tremendously powerful that it c^n at will create anything out of nothing. But such an argum:nt reveals on their part a want of clear notion concerning the nature of creative function. Creation as we understand it in our daily experience is the action of an intelligent agent ben^ upon moulding an already existent object in accordance with the requirements of his earthly life. For instance, the lilV of a schoolmaster requires some such furniture as black-bpards, benches, tables, chairs and so on and he, therefore, asks a carpenter to have them done for him. W h a t does the carpenter

{RELATION

OF SAMA'HYA&

S.SIDDHATNA

209

do^ He fetches a big teak-wood, cuts it up into several planks and different kinds of pieces and does all the necessary works of chiseling, smoDthing, boring and uniting and creates in the end ali that is required by the school master. Here without the fundamental part of teakwood the carpenter cannot proceed with his work however skilful may he be in executing -that which he was required to d o ; but when o n c e t e obtains the teakwood, he immediately proceeds to change it into difTerent size and shape and brings out all the required furniture n good time. Now appl3'^ this to the process of world-creation. The individual Selves require the creation of bodies and the worlds. And the all gracefull and all-merciful God acting upon the co-existing primary cause of matter mulaprakriti evolves from it an infinite variety of corporal bodies and worlds and gives them to souls as temporary tenements. A s with the carpenter so with the Lord- He cannot create this entire system of cosmos without its primordial cause tlie mulaprakriti ; for creation means the law of causation, a continued succession of causes and effects. W e can speak of creation with reference to matter, since every material effect has a substratum of its own material cause. But in the same sense we cannot speak of the creation of Souls as it is not possible to trace them to a common basic element of inmaterial cause. I'he Selves are not blind, dead and unintelligent principles like matter, but they are distinctley different from it in being constituted of the essence of intelligence. You knew perfectly well that intelligente is not a thing limited by space or time and that it is, therefore, not capable of being divided into parts and torn out into pieces. When it is assuredly impossible to limit intelligence and tear and divide it as if it were a bit of tangible matter how can you speak of the creation of souls as if they came out from a conraon source of intelligence? And it has been alredy shown that God could not have created the Souls out of nothing, for every effect necessarily requires an antecedent cause. But some may'deem it as attributing <lfect to God to say that he is utterly unable to create S

210

THE LIGIIJ OF

TRUTH.

anything out of nothing. But I suppose that this mistaken notion arises by not distinguisliing between the human power and the divine power. The difference between them is not one of quality but is simply of quantity, because qualitatively all forces whether human or diVine must be alike in acting upon an object and producing in it a perceptible change. A s regards the extent of difference between them in quantity it may be said that the Divine power is immeasurably and inconceivably greater than the other. If human power can only exert upon the litUe objects confined within this globe, the Divine power works upon the millions and billions of visible and invisible stellar worlds of which many are by countless degrees bigger than this earththe Divine power the magnitude and illimitable extent of which man only imagine but cannot describe. No scientific mind can conceive of the difference between the two powers in any other w a y than that in which I have just explained. N o intellect trained in the methods of correct reasoning can assent to the evidenceless assertion that God made the individual Souls out of nothing. Again, one of the different classes of idealists might come forward to assure us that the souls are not several things created out of nothing but they are so many phases of one and the same unit of intelligence, the Supreme Being. But Sage Kapila meets this ingenious argument by bringing into our deep consideration certain undeniable facts of our life as 'the separate alloment of birth, death and the organs, the diversity of occupations at the same time, and the different conditions of the three Gunas'- Do we not see before our eyes every d;iy, nay every minute and moment that while one soul is given to birth another soul passes away from this mortal l i f e ; while one is born with all organs p>erfectly symmetrical in shape another is sent with defective organs such as the blind, the deaf, the dumb, the lame and so on? Do we not see that while one is a master another is a slave, while one is a father another is a son, while one is rich another is poor, while one is a king another is a subject ^ And do we not also see that while one

RELATION

OF SAMKHYA

& 5, SIDDHANTA

211

is notorious for heinous crimes, hardness of fellings and a cruel heart, another is remarkable for his sublime virtues, tend erness of feelings and a benevolent hearth If God be the only unitary principle of life that manifests itself as the whole of the animal and vegetable kingdoms, such an infinite variety as is seen in them t annpt be expected to exist but all must be of one nature and of one kind. Such being not the truth, Kapila lays It down as a fact of indisputable and undeniable character the existence of numerous individual Souls each and every one of them retaining a distinct self-consciousness eternally different from Molaprakriti, the primordial cause of matter. Great as is the opposition of the modern Vedantin against this philosophy of reason and experience, still we cannot afford to forego the truth for the sake of others the truth that lay imbedded in the Vedas and earliest upanishads the truth that had been brought to light b y S a g e Kapila of Sankya and by Saint Meykaijdatieva of Saiva Siddhanta. 1 think that it is our bounden duty to preserve the oldest traditions and doctrines about the actual conditions of our life especially when they are seen corroborated and maintained by our modem scientific knowledge. I think that it is f a i r n a y even an uprightness of characterto have every thing old freely discussed in our educated circles without stealthily sliding away our convictions about grand truths, for fear of our stern and just behaviour affecting the reputation of a certain individual philosopher as Sankara. I think that it would be our greatness of mind and high sense of duty to show our gratitude and admiraUon towards such of our old phUosophers as Kapila, Patanjali and Meykaindadeva who did their utmost to represent to us things in their true light and open our mental vision. And 1 think that it is absolutely necessary that we should always be on our guard so that our appreciation of certain great thinkers may not distract us from a strict pursuance of truth.
POSITION OF SANKHVA AMONGST THE RELIGIONS.

So far i

considered only tlie main doctrines of Sankhya

152

THE LIGHT OF

TRUTH

leaving out of account its minuter ones for fear of tiring 3-onr patience with a long discourse. Now let n-e proceed to state briefly the position of Sankhya amongst the other ancient systems of thought and the close relation wliich it bears towards S a i v a S i d d h ^ t a and bring this lecture to a close. W e know it for certain that in the whole range of his system of thought not even once did Kapila allude to the existence of a Supreme Being. This remarkable absence of any allusion to God led many an European Scholar to make Kiipila an atheist. In the absence of any positive evidence, it is quite unfair on their part to have assumed that Kapila w a s an atheist. Y o u remember I said in the preceding part of this lecture that the system ot Kapila was based upon [Xire reason alone. O u r faculty of reason performs its functions only upon the physical and intellectual planes wliicb are within the reach of our experieiKe; it can distinguish one from the other or liken oneobject to another object either in the sphere of mind or in the sphere of matter. And all beyond the limits of these regions of mind and matter do not come easy to the grasp of the reasoning faculty. Since the essential n a t u v e o f G o d transcends aU mind and matter and consequently all the reasoning powers of man, S a g e Kapila left that question out of consideration dwelling simply on facts derivable from exprience and solvable b y reason. That God is beyond the comprehension of aU finite intelligence is also of universal acceptance and even religions contradicting amongst themselves invariably admit this. Laid therefore under the difiicult and impossibility of proving the existence and nature of God from reason alone, as Kapila went silently away without even tfiurhing on tnis extremely intricate problem, it is quite unsafe to advance any theory regarding his attitude towards that ultimate question- Further it would be an unwarranted assertion to say anything definitely on the religious inclination of Kapila, while we are in the dark having no means of ascertaining it. However it setms to me that Kapila maintained a position bordering on Agnosticism similai i o that which Ls beiiig held by some agnostics of recent times.

RELATION

OF SAMKHYA

& 5, SIDDHANTA

213

Unlike the authors cf other systems who based most of their arguments on thfe Vedic and Upanishad passages and wove their fabnc of thought in strict union with their teachings, Kapila never recognised anything as authoritative except that which w a s conformable to reason, never accepted the Vedas and Upanishads except in so lar as they were in thorough agreement with reason. That is why his system alone is considered by the European scholars to be the true representative of the ancient Indian thought- That ^s why he alone is considered to be the true exponent of ancient Indian beliefs and a valuable repository of old traditional accounts. Now as regards the relation of Sankhya to Saiva Siddhanta 1 venture to say that in all and every important respect they are identical. In accordance with the correct methods of reasoning Sankhys states that this world of multifarious forms and shapes is for that very reason evanescent and transitory and after a long and indefinite period of constant change it will dissolve again into a formless and shapeless state of matter called Prakriti. And the Saiva Siddhanta too upholds the same view about the present condition of this tangible world and of the intangible condition of its primal cause. Then again the Sankhya maintains that t h e A v y a k t a o r the unmanifested state of this primal cause is as much true as its V y a k t a or manifested state. And the Saiva S i d d h ^ t a too speaks of these two states in rauch the same manner. A g a i n the Sankhya dwells upon the twenty three tattvas or entities which evolve from Prakriti one after another in close succession with increasing coarseness of form. And the Saiva Siddhanta too deals with the evolution of twenty three tattvas in the same remarkabiC manner. Again the Sankhya reasons out a twenty-fifth principle as necessarily distrinct from Prakriti and designates it as an intelligent Self possessing of clear individual consciousness. And the Saiva Siddhanta too closely argues the existence of an ir.dividual Soul different from m?iler and possessing of an eternal consciousncss all its own.

214

THE LIGHT OF

TRUTH

And lastly the S'mkhya argues tlie ever existence of not one such individul Scul but innurrerr,ble ones. And the Saiva Siddhanta too maintains the same view of countless individual egoes that have a perpetual existence. S o far you see that Sankhya and Saiva Siddhanta are one in taking a correct view of the world manifest and unmanifest and in making a profound psychological study of numerous individual egoes each of which having an eternal, integral and indestructible self-consciousne^ all its own. And you also see from this identity of these two systems, that the doctrines of Saiva Siddhanta entitle it to a claim of as great an antiquity as the system of Sankhya has. Now the question would naturally occur to you what constitutes the difference between Sankhya and Siva Siddhanta. Y o u remember 1 have already told you that Kapila makes no mention of a Supreme Being in his Sank hya. But Saval Siddhanta like the so called theistic SankhyS or yoga of Patafijali goes a step upward and maintain? the existence of an all intelligent power from certain actual experiences of our inward life. T o this great power it ascribes an invisible as well as a visible form of grace assumed by it not for its own sake but for the sake of sin-bound souls. By making his otherwise ircomprehenbible nature quite comprehensible to the souls through these forms of grace, the all-mercilul Sivam delivers the souls from the bondage of ignorance, evil and mjsery and sets them for ever in his unlimited bliss of supreme Love. Such are the main outlines that I have been able to draw of Sankhya and Saiva Siddhantathe two most ancient cults of this vast continent of sages. It is my earnest hope that irrespective of all class and creed prejudices you would make a criticial and comprative study of these two systems and bring more light from them than I have been able to do now. It is my earnest hope t)iat being imbued with the knowledge of modern scientific cuUijre you would be able to recognise and appreciate more than our orthodox scholars do the remarkable quest after tri.th which the two s3^stems strenuously pursue in stringent logical

RELA TION OF SA MKH YA & S. ^IDDtlANTA

215

and scientific methodp, and that having recognised it you would stand against all temptations to lean on certain unscientific systems of thought that are current amongst the bigoted class of people. And it is my earnest hope that you would spread everywhere the principles of love and brotherhood, teach people to love God our eternal 'alher on a correct understanding of human life-ideals and actual experiences and illumine the darkest corner of the minds of our fellow countrymen by making them realise the glory of moral prfection and helping tliem to raise themselves to a level with the foremost nations of this globe, Om Sivam.

Light on the True Path


OF

ST. UMAPATHI
BY J. M .

SIVACHARIAR
B.L.,

NALLASWAMI PILLAI B.A.,

[This is also one of the fourteen Siddhanta ^ s t r a s , and it deals with the subject of Dasakarya or the Ten spiritual bonquests of the soul. There are learned treatises on the subject in Sanscrit but none of them have been translated into Tamil, nor are the original treatises available even in print. Sriman P. M. Muttiah Pillai avergal of Tuticorln brought out a small brochure on the same subject in Tamil prose, over which a sharp controversy has raged. With all its faults it is ho^vever valuable. Dr. V . V . Ramaijan's contribution to this Journal in Vol X pp. 4347 and 113117 will be also of the utmost use to the student. Dasa-Karyam means ten kinds of actions or Karma and is not to be confounded with the thiee-fold karma which binds the soul and gives rise to birth and death and suffering. On the other hand these are steps taken by the aspirant for ccnquering birth and death. Though some of them have been set forth in the upanishads it is in the Saiva Agamas they have been clearly analysed and systemised and a full and complete code of action Is given. These are actual psychical and spiritual processes and unless they are practised and realised one cannot possibly understand them. W e do not lay claim to any such knowledge or practice, but in pursuance of a certain duty, we place the letter of the law before the public, so that those who may have the grace, and the guidance of A true teacher may be profited b y it. These Dasakarya are Tattva Rupa^ Tattua Darsana or

Katchi, Tattva suddhi, Atma-Rupa, Atma Darsana, Atma Suddhi, ^iva-Rupa, ^iva-Darsann Siva-yoga, and Siva-Bhoga,
W e may also mention that Kachchiappa Munivar, disciple of the

U(JH7

ON THE TRUE PATH

217

famous Sivajnana j\!univar, gives a paraphrase of St. UmapatiSivam's verses in his learned TaHikai^purHnam Nandiupadesapmdalam verses, 121 to 125.] insitQp^p ai'^Q^siTsiir u^Qoi^uth utOBrQfi^p Qaiic^tyii u)0(Qri Qu>^piisirLL9 xneisQpfiP eusmsuj^p (n^eeffeoir^ sein^fisa ^;i^anr6oim}seo Sr^^iuiriud a(^&>rrQu>,

(l)

From Earth to Sivam each its form to see is Tattva Rupa; From Elarth to Sivam, is each mala inert. Perceiving tliis is Tattva Darsanam PVom E-irth to Sivam, not established in them. Through Siva's grace, one doth sunder oneself Is Tattva Suddhi. so the wise declare.
NOTES,

The word Tmttva is defined by Professor Macdonnel as (that ness), very essence, true nature, truth reality, principle(especially one of the 25 in the Sankhjyan philosophy). So that it really was synonymous with the word 5 a / a n d we have elsewhere shown how the "Compound Sa/and originally meant Prakriti or maya whose compcnents wf^re the 25 principles from earth to Prakriti of the Sinkhyan^ and Vedantins. According to the Agamanta these tattvas a r t 36, 11 over and above the 25, the autliorities for which see Sri K^ivasi Senthinaihier's Tattva catechism. Man is other than 36 tattvas though bound in their toils. God is above the 36 tattvas. And the Svetdsvalara Upanxshokd declares " A s a metiil disk (mirror) tarnished by dust shines bright again after it ha^ been cleaned so is the one incarnate person satisfied and free fr^m grief after fee has seen the real nature of his Atnia (II. 14). And when by the real nature of his Atma, be sees as by a lamp the re.il nature of Brahmin, then havvng known the Unborn, Kternal Deva Who is beyond all 7a //ya5,(sarvatattvair) he is freed frotn all Pasa," (11, 15,) These two mantras by the way con-tain by the way the gist of the Dasakilrya, and the several steps iu Salvaiion,
4

2i8

THE LIGHT

OF

TRU'LH

T h e nature of each tattva|that binds one has to be seen, and that this in its nature is only matter and unintellig-ent and that it is impure, and after thus distinguishing the tattvas for himself, and knowing how he gets bound by identifying himself with them, he must get out of their hold, by holding to the Lord, and thus purify himself. This is tattva suddhi as shown in this verse and in the 14th. Mantra. This does not involve, as we have repeatedly shown that we should regard these tattvas themselves as false or the bondage as false. These tattvas * as their very root meaning shows' are a truth in themselves, as also the bondage. W e know how the bondage came about by identifying oneself with them, and the first step in cleansing oneself of this impurity, in getting freed of their fetters, (Pasa) is to detach oneself from them. {'euoDsiu^ihQTfesB&irT^'') In this heroic effort of the soul in its battle against all passion and the flesh, its true help is the unseen Helper, Whose grace is ever and a l w a y s with us to forcraui as the Devara Hymn puts it. Without its firm hold on God, this freedom is only a name, we have shown in our notes to Sivajudna Siddtiiyar uiTuS0^iaQ (^nearls^'^s siTvmieonmLO ^uii iriLjSssr Qg^njQ&m^j^/asTfS SppQ^y) ^ifls^esri^iriisT QurruS^idr paireBirnQsLLQu Qun0byRp(JuiT jfJTu.'iusf.eoueiinD eS^^jSsurrQp. Great gloom removed, one sees his knowing self, This is dt//ia Rttpa, It is Darsan W h e n you alone do st;ind, of actions shorn, While losing self in Truthj one That becomes, This is Atma Suddhi, Agamas s a y .
N O T E S .

In the chain of Salvation herein sketched one ring is attached to the other. One in a sense overlaps the other. The mom e n t o n e detaches oneself from the Trt/Zi/rts ( l a t t v a Suddhi) one * In the same w a y as the word 'saf has come to n^ean God, the word T a t t v a has also come to mean God. {p^^si^).

LIGHT

ON THE

TRUE

PATH

219

stands apart, an,d knows that he is not dead, inert afid impure body, and that he is an intelligent being. This is Atma-rQpa. Then he knows that all the afflictions he has been suflFering from, from the enduring taint of dnava, like hate and love, are no more his, as he is Jnana svarupa, and the afflictions were begotten of his identifying himself with the Tattvas. But though he can differentiate between non-intelligent Tatvas and his own intelligent and thus form an idea of his self, can he see his own form ? This will be thinking thought an impossibility, like the eye trying to see i't^elf. But still it is declared he could cognise himself even though it be for a moment, before he plunges his self in the supreme self and becomes lost to view (Tattvd suddhi). This sight of self is possible when after absolute detachment, ox\it stands still without thought or action, like a flame undisturbed by wind in a sheltered spot. This is only for a moment as the next stage (atma suddhi) supervenes atonce. His momentary individuality is lost, and he indentifies himself with the supreme as he had just a few moments before he had been identifying himself with the TVi/Zi/as. The latter condition is '^^SUJU^TQ and the former is ' Gt^uj^j ^^^eS^ih'. So that except at the point of Atma Darsana, the soul never retains its individuality, but identities itself with the Tattvas on God. Hence as I have elsewhere shown the fallacy of the Buddhists and Prachchamia Buddhisis who deny the reality and individuality of the soul. (j^eui^eiiSi^iB ^n^iL Qj^i^fluaaa eut^eu^rrS^ ssualiiLiuDsi)^ ^rreanDiToiDQjs Qujir(SdSiiJiisS) u^aiiji>eSsisr tseouuemeaS uniBuurrQ^e^ai Qearear^ Qf^saajQaj itjuSifipsrresiru-so Qsi^u ,LCIIT(^LC>^Qfo. Becoming all forms, of the Form of the beautiful Parai, Whirling the Soul in birth and death in mala's noose, There is One who doth remove the sins and show great grace, T o see this One in one's soul bright is ^iva Rupa.

220

THE

LIGHT

OF

TRVlH

NOTES,

Th^ soul regained its true form, when it detncl ed itself from the Taitvas. It stood still for a moment and plunged itself in ivam. Just at the moment of the plunge, the soul gains a knowledge of the Form of God. but where is to be seen? Like his own, it is not individualised. The soul tould however distinguish itself from God. He is not the sinning and mala bound soul. He is one who joining it to the wheel of Samsara by giving it Tanu, Karana, Bhuvana and Bhoga from maya, lifted it out of the deep darkness and caused malaparipuka and appeared in Person as the Parama Guru and showed its grace, and entered its heart, of the size of the Thumb. And yet He was everywhere and everything. And all this He became as He is Pure chit, Parasakti. This perception of God as all, all is ^ivatnayam, is Siva Rupa. The importance of the word Stvamayam which evtry one prefixes to his writing will thus be apparent, It is an experience, and a great experience of the soul, which w e should try to realize in all our actions, in all our thoughts. With this idea to guide us throughout, oh, how well our actions will be transformed from being Ahankara into Siva Akara, Ti?en no evil will flow from our word and act and thought, but peace and ?ood will, kindness and charity, love and Ananda. ueaOii^uSSeo lutrOeeresr QfOirpp iSehrm^t^urri}) utTiTUL9iQLDii/(^(^ &ajix,iidj^ Q^iT^Sfifi eo^QpsiLtr'n, m-eanuS/D-i^ a-siD^Ceai Qptsf-iuir^ Quieir/^a afekresiLDoSiesr i^if^Q^aSk^ QimcT^'^ QojQr^asrS^'S^ ^enaQp^eSp Quirsir^ S'ieouSieaHeaff^&HT^i ^PUSDUUS ESFIMP^I^TT^ ^PI-F^QU) UJITS^, Q^ifleuifl^ LJ(ruiirsBTik^^^&> Q^j^et T h e Parai's stand in soul, of I-ness and my ness freed is Siva's Foot, Where one sees God in all and every where that is Siva's Face, The Bliss that is past speech, that alone is Siva's crown,

UGHl

ON THE

TRUE

PATH

221

This truth perceiving well and seeing naught else than God, Not sliding back to earth aud like, not standing still, Not plunging in the thought that he is God but sure becoming That, T o unite with that Paraminanda so unspeakable, This the Vedas say is Siva Darsanam.
NOTES.

T h e experience gained in the sevoith of the Dasakarya is carried further.and a closer realization is reached in this eighth conquest of the soul. There are also certain dangers to be safeguarded in this experience. When one matures in the Sadana there is naught else but God, he is likely to regard himself as God, which Aham Brahma Jnanam. This will not only stop his progress further but will lead him back into the wheel of Samsara ; and thus all the up-hill work achieved till now will end in nothing. On the other hand he is absolutely enjoined to sink his individuality into the supreme getting cleansed of his Ahankara and mamakara, and then God's grace enters his soul which is SattinipHda. This is Parai or Sakti and The Foot usually symbolises God's sakti or grace. The author follows the description of the crown as given in 7VrMc'(if//a/t'fl/ (rS i) Qsnios^mik^ S ^ p Q^/rdreBitD " wouldst hear of his bright jewelled crown ^ It is glory old that passeth speech." eiuQund^msji LcuGij.Td^feiru unn^fii: Qs'j-i^uSrr ^^ESTsseiri^i ^^a/uS/Tsr^ Quecfr, GLC,tTuSeii(7^'^ ssm^S^s.'^ ^'ewrissic sesrisf-i:
^LJL9?cir C-i ut^ic jS' siQ^

Uf.gn'fSij^iQai SisiQum GiD^iuilicSj/DSJiir QuC'ir^Gu. Whatever befalleth one, he sees its truth His self who doth it sense, and what transcends, The grace beyond compare, The Lord Siva,

(j)

222

THE

UGIIJ

OF

TRl'TH.

A vi^ws all rh;\r hefell from that standpoint And sees that from same grace flow fjood and bad A s do all sense and sense-experience, And knows that naught can move except through Grace, And unites self to Grace that is Siva-3'oga
NOTES.
V*

All the published texts give the reading Siva Boga in the last line, but it is to be taken as meaning Siva-yoga, the ninth Dasakarya, both words meaning the same ; and it has to be distinguished from the tenth, Parabhoga. When one reaches this condition, he is not affected by like and dislike nor afflicted by pain and pleasure. He knows how they are caused, they are of the flesh and caused by his attachment to the flesh and he is not the body. Further becomes to look upon them from a higher stand point, from the stand point of Spirit. The}' have no power in themselves to affect souls, nor the souls to be affected unless this Chetana and Achetana Prapancha is willed to move by the supreme Power of God. All good and bad ultimately flow to him. He is the Final cause and cause of causes. And the final surrender is made ' not as I will but as thou willst ' This is the arf>ana, Sivdrpana, set forth in the loth Sutra of Sivajnanaboda " siiscji )eis)/DuessfiiSjbs" Laeounr of)uj eij^S2eBruSmQ/o,'" when the oneness, advaita union is reached and all the mala, maya and karma lose their power and the final conquest over the flesh is reached Pasqtchaya. And the soul is landed in the bliss of the Parabhoga or SivaBhoga, the last of the Dasakarya. " utrf .wsi^ear(n^<b u^ojiQi^ii
LJ^iiJ/rii."

O^iii^t^^LD

Qsfr'2s\}ssfreif s^^u

uiiflsar^^Lgj QiBfiSiueoeoiT QisfSuaSpiS euifl^th

fn^QisfS pui3isf.^(5 psuguseir euii^Lp-^u) ^ssrdGs<ssr QsuirirQjFUJaiib^^ ^msar^suatlj S/bSlear m^esroje^i ^uSnijiLfaBT pihQ fsii^ mi^Quir sisjs'SeniLii QU^LD/O iSesr^eu 'Sgst^^IT QuiTsQiL'saru Qus^Q^ffi JS^QSJ.

(6)

UGin

ON THE TRUE PATH

^23

Hven though one commits heinous sins, 111 murdf.'r, theft, and drink indulj^es. Treads paths which he ought no^. to tread, Caste rules defies and makes mistakes Atones with God, self action lost. O u r Lord doth convert sure his soul into His EJody and own soul And then.it's He who eats and sleeps And walks and transmutes all Bhoga Into His own, all differance lost He sure doth make the soul Divine This is the path called great Siva Bhoga.
NOTES.

When the soul is finally cleansed of its sin, He dwells in God. and God dwells in Him. He has absolutely no perception of any difference, between himself" and God and other things. He enjoys the Bliss Supre.ne, and he is not even conscious he is so enjoying. In this condition, while he still retains the body, he is called a Jivan-mukta. A s a result of this physical covering and environment, he comes into contact with other physical objects and things. Actions neces-ary follovv and whatever they m.'.y be, the jivan-mukta is not responsible. No taint can attach to him, as all his T&nn, karana, Bhiivana and Bhoga had all b e e n c o n v e r t e d into SivaTanu, S i v a karana, S i v a Bhuv.ina a n d Siva-Bhoga. Tiie only condition is t h e soul m u s t lose all sense of self and t h e l e r l i n g that he is the actor. l h(Mi a l l his acts and b u r d e n s become those of t h e Lord. 1 his s God's g r e a t Atonement so wrongly u n d e r s t o o d i Christian teaching. Saint Chandesvara N a y a n a r s act infelling his father, .uid St. ALiniekavachak-i's s|)ei.ding the treasure of his so\ereign ai e mentioned as instances of his principle herein enunciated, liaii All Hail l o b i i n l Lniiipati,

Sivajnana Stddhiyar of Aruna&ii Sivachary*.


A REVIEW.

W e have been privileged to see an advance copy of the English translation of Sivajnana Sicldhiyar by that talented exponent of Saiva Siddhanta, Nallaswami. The translation originally appeared in the pages of the Dipika and is now published in book form, royal octavo of 280 pages, with an introduction of 40 pages, notes and glossary. The introduction gives a succinct of the antiquity account of the Saiva Religion, with apt quotations from the Vedas and the Upanrshads, and establishes beyond doubt that the prevaiiitjg Religion of ancient India was the Saiva c u l t ; thus setting at rest all opinions as to the recency of the Saiva Siddhanta Philosophy. The erroneous notions of some who would identify Paramasiva, the God head of the Saiva Religion with the Rudra of the Trinity, and with Sankara's Saguna Brahman are ably exposed and the universality of the Saiva Siddhanta, which conprehends all phases of th )ug!u from the lowest to the highest, and shows the ladder way of the gradual unfuklment of the Spirit is clearly pointed out therein. The note on the author is exceedingly interesting and instructive and is followed by a list of the Agamas and the Upigamas. The book itself comprises 3 sections. Book the f.rst, deals with Alavai or Logic, which is essential for the establishment ol truths and the exposure of fallacies. Book the second, is devoted to the Para Pakshathe foreign sideto the statement and refutation of all schools of thought joreign to the principles of the Saiva Siddhanta. Book the third, contains the one's o'wn si(ietht Supakshathe statement of the truths of'the Sid.ihanta according to the division oi the subject adopted in the principal treatise of Sivajnana Bhodam. Sivajnana Siddhi is, no doubt,a popular treatise in Tarn*', owing to its lucid exprcsbioii and expoiilioii of the varied suojccti. A n y carcful student

SiyAjf^ANA

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will after the study of this book, be sufficiently well informed of all the shades and phases of thought in the ancient and modem Religion of India and what is more beneficial to himself, be trained gradually and unconsciously to reason out e v e r y t h i n g for himself. The present translation into English, it is noteworthy, does not lack that attractiveness, but possesses in a marked degree, the clearness of diction, rythm and style, characteristic of the translator. One without the least idea of the Indian Religion will find himself quite at home on the very first reading ; even the technical terms are well explained in a copious Glossary. T h e indispensability of this book to the modern student of Religions is evident from another feature of it, namely from the valuable notes added at the foot of each page and at the end of each chapter or book. One cannot fail to come across the contrast drawn between the Eastern and the Western thoughts, ancient and modem, and the beaLitiful exegsis on the Pauranic episodes, such as Tiripura Dakana, Durga Puja or Navaratri, Daksha^ajni, Tanikavana incident, bringing out the inner meaning hidden from the popular notions of the uninitiated. It is our humble opinion that this part of the work is invaluable in view of tha lasting benefits it will shower on the nation or nations shaping the thoughts and aspirations nearer the Truth. Tiie notes on the misunderstanding of Western scholars as regards the Quietism or Fatalism of Indian thought, on the errors of the Sabda Brahma Vadin and on the definition of S a l and Asat, are deserving of careful study. There is interesting reading to the Buddhists and the Christians too- The chapter on Nirvana, the ideal of Buddha, shows the true import of the teaching in the light of the Hiixlu doctrines ; that on the Teachings of Christ confirms the oft expressed opinion that the Hindu alone can truly appreciate and undei-btaud the lofty ideals of Christ, i h c greatest principle

22$

THE L/GHTOF

TRUTH

of the Advaita J nana is certainly involveil in the utterances of that Mahatma, whose teachings are misread and mis-understood by those who profess to follow him. The recent advance of Religious Thought in the West falls more in line with the Eastern principles and it will certainly take a long time before it is adopted and assimilated by the Christian brethren on this hemisphere. 'Christ was the Son of God' the Christian brother says and the Hindu says ' yes.' He was more, he was a great jnani and Mukta and accordingly God Himself, as all Muktas are so to say and all must attain that state of Christhood which is the complete surrender to the will of the Father, so that they m a y be one with the Father even as Jesus was one with Him.' There are ample quotations on the subject from Western writers. Another point should not be overlooked. The incompetency of the Western scholars to read the Vedic and Upanishadic text in the true light is aptly pointed out in several places and now is so interesting as the notes on the characteristics of Rudra, which are well compared and contrasted with various texts. The notes on the Paiichamantras, on the other Saktis, Diksha and on the soul are equally based on Agamic and Upanishadic texts. No adequate compliment can be p^iid to the great worker Nallaswami who has been ceaselessly working for the Siddhanta for more than two decades. What is surprising is that he is not yet tired. He holds out the hope of soon giving the world all the 14 Siddhanta Sastras in English, It will not be out of place to observe that the present trend of modern thought is towards the Advaita doctrine and it will require many a worker in this field not workers who will be tired by exertion and exhausted by hunger, but workers of adamantine strength, born of unselfish love towards the suffering humanity, workers who will sacrificc all comforts for the uplifting of the fallen and t!ie depraved souls fallen from

SIVAJt^ANA

SIDDHIYAR

226

the Ti'Lie Advaita Ajiubhava of the Blissful Lord, depraved by self-seeking thoughts and desires, workers who will toil on for the world regardless of the fruits of their labour. The Saivites themselves have to be roused to a sense of the present situation. A large ma jority are biting at the husk, not knowing that it is only a covering for the kernel inside. The inside is now more open to the view of the non-S.^ivites than for the Sa" vites themselves and when attempts are made to misrepresent the inside, the man at the husk believes too, instead of trying to know the truth himself. It has become the fashion now for preachers from pulpits and platforms to quote largely from Sivajnanabodam, Siddhiyar, Tayumanavar etc., with approval and bring up the rear by a statement that the completeness of the teachings is found only in the pages of the Bible. The days when tha other religions were looked upon as Satan's, are gone and we have now the_refreshing advance of thought that there is Truth in each Religion, but the complete^Truth is in the Bible. It is a good sign of development, but it behoves each inheritor of the Agamanta, and follower of the universal principles of the Saiva Siddhanta, to understand the highest aspect of the Truth himself, and to enlighten the Saivites of their great inheritance If all or most of the Saivites understand their religion the rest will understand it too. And then each will begin to laugh in his sleeve when it is said to him ' the day dawns because my cock crows.' W e have no quarrel or dispute with any other religionist. Our teachings have expressly stated that all religions are essential for the development of man, and that the one aiming to be universal should be comprehensive enough to provide the ladder w a y of spiritual evolution from the lowest to the highest of thinkers. Then why quarrel with each other being on different rungs; ' Come on brother, come, you will see the next rung soon when you stand firm on that' should be the word of each sensible Saivite and if possible and needed, assist in discrimiuQting

227

THE LIGHT OF

TRUTH

between the rungs, out of love, in loving words. This is the work before us and sensible, patient, forgiving, humbJe and persevering workers are needed by hundreds and thousands at the present day. It was surprising to hear that the truths of the Paiichakshara were preached, for the sake of curiosity and criticism, to the Christians by their Preacher, with quotations from ths Sanscrit. Will not this alone rouse my brethren to a sense of tbe present trend of activity. Whi4e the Christian Preacher is doing our work (although in a caviling spirit) of spread i n g Truths, we sleep and lounge biting at the husk when it pleases us. W e have known long enough that the sun rises and sets ; there are many who would not be disturbed from this belief. Let them abide by time. There are others who will begin to see that the sum does not rise and set if truths are put before them. The truths are imbedded in the Agamas and the Siddhanta Sastras'and the true import and character of the teachings are not understood or practised by the n.ajority of our own people. W h a t are the characteristics of a Saiva, ask a passer by. He says " W h y sir, rise early, have bath, perform Sandhyvandana, wear ashes and Rudraksha, if you please and if available, some silk clothes, witness Puja in the Temple, and be a vegetarian, if j'^ou can ; it is only for the few, you see, and if convenient take vegetable diet on Friday. But of course it is bad to take fish or flesh on fasting days. Your marriages etc. must be celebrated by the Priests according to custom-. Observe the rites usually followed for he use-warming, Shraddha etc., and listen to the reading and the expositions of Puranas> attend the important festivals, say the Car festival Suranpor etc., don't you know." This in a nut shell is the life of a good membergreater fe the number of those who arc ignorant of even this much. Can one be seated with folded hands, as an unconcerned witness oi

SiyAjflAHA

SIDDHIYAR

228

this degeneration. Have the noble teachings of our Lord through His Servants been buried so deep that they are now only the pas*^ times of pundits and pastors. This shall not be O ye, men. women and children, the noble inheritors of the sacred treasures of the A g a m a n t a ! A Saiva is one who owes allegiance to Siva, the Bountiful, the Graceful and the Blissful. A s is the God so is the worshipper and therefore a Saiva is one who is bountilul. Graceful and Blissful. His bounty and grace is to be evident io his thought feelings and actions towards all beings and his bliss in the satisfaction that he is unswerving in his allegiance to the Lord who is his Guardian and Guide. " Let no thought go forth from me to the injury or prejudice of all my fraternity on earth much less a word or deed to harm anotherinstead, let me extend to all the fellowship of my hand, to raise the fallen, to assist the raised, and to enlighten and enrich the less favoured. I care not for praise or reward, abuse or ingratitude. I can bear the offences of the less enlightened as does a mother bear the kicks of her own child. All I call ' mine" I owe to my Lord, I watch for him until He sends His servants to take charge. Ail my powers I owe to him ; let me know Him and love Him making my body and myself, His Temple, so that all hate and love, good and evil on the differential plane may have no charms for me. 1 shall be all Love and A l l Good in the Unified plane. There, no wind blows, no tempest rages, no darkness or light, all serene and calm, over following in Grace and Wisdom with complete surrender to the will and being of my Lord. 1 will be one with Him, lost in the ocean of bounty, Grace and Bliss, Such is the ideal of a S a i v a " He is not the selfseekirg quarrelsome neighbour, not the land grabber, not the flesh eating beast, nor the fish eating whale, not the proud high caste Prabhu nor the down trodden low caste Pariah, not the wearer of ashes and Rudraksha nor the worshipper at shrines. A Saiva is God on Earth, clothed in flesh to be loving atui loveable. His eyes are not of erring flesh but of enlightening Grace. His mind is not of bewitching

2?9

THE

UGHl

OF

TRUTH

Maya but of liberating Light.

His body is not the Store of

vice and wickedness but the mirror of the Light Within. What a gap between this state which must be sooner or later^ and the one in which we are. Reader! attained Ponder

well now you can improve yourself day by day, your improvement and culture is your nation's, and when you are sufficiently introSf)ective see what you can do towards the attainment of this ideal. cause. rest. Be wherever There is not one who cannot do something in this true to yourself and to Lord, you will see light Siddhi. Brothers Siddhi. ou set foot and in that light keep your self and the

The task is done and that is ^ivajnana

and sisters, come and sing the praises of Siva, know His Grace* and dwell in that G r a c e a n d that in i^ivajndna

R. S. Subramaniyan,

NAMMALVAR*S TIRUVIRUTTAM.
BV A. GOVINDACHARYA SVAMIN. c. E., U. R. A. S.

Verse ^J. {Vdr


Heading.The

dy-in-a-mtUai-y-al.)
suffers from, is

Counsel of the Prophetess.

W h a t this fair one o f b r e a s t T h e holy Traits. pain of love for

th' Lord of Heav'n's Blest

[To heal this pain,] procure and wave ye [over her] (i) His coolfineTuTsi-Wreath Divine, Or, of it, e'en (2) a single leaf, or (3) cool-green-twig, Or (4) under-root, or (5) e'en the earth wherein it stood I Explanation.I. Friendsbent on healing our Seer's pain, Wrong rem'dies seek and go astray. Soulsknow'ng the true cause of this pain, Advise, saying"Pain, sprung from Godly source, Can healed be only by what is of God." [Compare Gamaliel's like* remark 35, And (He) said unto them, ye men of Israel, take heed to yourselves what ye intend to do as touching these men ** 38 Refrain from these men, and let them alone; for if this counsel or this work be of men, it will come to nought.' " 39 But if it be of God, ye cannot onertbrow it ; lest haply ye be found eve^i to fight against God. " 40 And to him they agreed ..."...Acts, Ch. V.] II. By bandaged breast " is meant the fact that our seer's love of Gr>d, by touch of wordly things is clogged III. By "th' Lord-of-Heav'n's Blest Traits," Ihe hint 's conveyed. l h a t in heav'n and on earth, these Truits, souls' love

152
inflame.

THE LIGHT OF

TRUTH

IV. The phrase*" the holy pain of love,"' implies That this love, holy though it be, breeds pain, When th' souls who bear it enjoyment aren t ^ giv n V. " ( i ) His cool-fine-Tul'si-Wreath Divine " et cetera^ Show th' least in God's Liege-line can heal this lovebrought pain, VI. " His....Tulsi Wreath," VII. The word " wreath" hints That's, souls whom He loves, we should love, ( i ) these souls, by mutual love are twined. And ( 2) them God honours by placing them on his head. VIII. The Tul'si's " leaf" means those whom th'good souls have trained, IX. While c o o l g r e e n t w i ' g " means their kinmade green by their touch. X . The " under-root" are those who' re th' root of all this growth, That is, by standing 'neath the rest, support the whole, Seeking to minister, and not T o be ministered into, e'er [Cp. our Psalm 24, Decade 27 and 80 ; Mukunda-mala v. Matt., 20 28 etc., Mark, 10-4-5.^ This being good souls' essential trait. [Note too the say ' n g ' " Many that are First shall be last, and the last first" (Matt., 19.30 ; 20.16; Mark., 10.31 ; Luke, 13.30.) '' Knights of the Broom" 's a work which shows Benares scavengers' beliefs. " I bow to the street scavengers of Kanchi's King, By whom sceptics in ( i ) Doctrine and (2) Discipline are. A s be'ng a nuisance in good-souls' path, cleared a w a y . " Kanchi's " Knights of the Broom" thus Vedantarya praised. Their Triplicane Compeers, I too thus e'er salute,

^.^.IfAULrA/^

inWVIRUlTAM

231

S a y ' n g " Kfiir avini" where v. s a y s " Hasti-giri." Vide the Kaisika. Mahatmya Chapter of the Vara ha Puratja and Bhattaryas Standard Samskrit Tamil Commentary thereon, which in all our great Temples, is annually read publicly to the Congregation in God's presence assembled. Christ too doth praise the Lord, s a y i n g " Thou hast hid these things from the wise. And hast revealed t h t m , u n t o babes"Matt-, 11.25, ^nd Luke, 10.21 ] XI. or " (5 i] e'en the earth whereon it stood." E'en touch with the soil where they dwell. Can as healing rem'dy serve. E'en as one of Brinda-ban's bushes, O ! may I be born, Bushes, decked with the dust the Jumna-breeze blew irom the feet Of th' Holy G o p i s whose ken'reaching 'yond (a) their kin's and (b) Ih' Pharisees,' Bade the.n pursue the path which Ih' Lord of Heav'n and Earth did show, And which, Adepts in-Meditation lifelong strive to find !" (Sage A-Krura's prayer. See the Bhagavata, Though tl.e groves of Brinda in which Krishna (till he completed the tenth year of his childliood) disported with the Gopis, no longer resound to the echoes of his flute ; though the waters of the Jumunaare daily polluted with the b l o o d of the sacred kine; still it is the hoi}' land of t h e p i l g r i m , the s a c r e d gordan of his fancy, on whose b a n k s he m a y s i l and weep, as did the banished Israelite of old. for the glories of M ithura his Jerusalem."Tod! XI. " T h e i r holiness to h o l j places, Saints impart, Clothed with the power of th' Lord who dwells in their' hearts." Tirthi kurx-anti tirthani, svarita stheni Gada Cliriti. XII. Procuring this, it " wave ye (over her)."Thai is T h e slightest move in this direction, will fruition bring!
6

232

THE LIGHT OF

TRUlhl

[Vide the Gita 2.40." Neliabhikram.>nass sli." This Medicines proximity itself will heal! Vide the t e x t : " S a g e ! I'm th' lie^e of these who, with friends, (1) Touch, (2) sit with, (3) see, or (4) hear God's Servants and their Friends!" ( " Y e tu Bhagavalar sanghath" etc.,) (r) Heard of, (2) seen, (3) done, (4) caused to be done, Good deed, Great King ! hath sanctifying pow'r !' (" Dharmas, (i) sruto va, (2) drishto va" etc.)

Verse 54.. ( Vis'um-jirak'

al.)

Heading.The Bride desires the Bees to go as Messengers. Text.Beeswho '11 us bear 'neath the pure op'ninglotus-feet Of my and Angels' Lord who took and ate by stealth The butter which Brnda-ban's cowherdesses stored, And did too, other acts such as the world contemns! You, with swift wing, can f l y ;

You, hence, with ease th' Lord's Heav'n can reach ; Ere starting on your Heav'nward Journey, please tell me W h a t words you mean to speak to th' Lord on my behalf I ExplanationI. bee'ng that our Seer's pain can be healed only with T h ' aid of souls who, (i) from evil can distinguish good, And (?) with both Doctrine's and Discipline's wings can fly. And (3) thence are proper intercessors with the Lord, Such intercessors'aid, FViends, in this ver^e invoke. II. " You, with swift-beating wingcan fly ; You, lience, with case, th' Lord's Heav'n can reach.'" Vide the t e x t : " Salvation h- holds, in his liand ; That is, he who in (i) Doctrine and (2) Disciplnie '.s ripe, May feel assured that he salvation will attain. III. Tell mewhat words, (for me) you mean to speak to th' Lord."

NAMMALVAR

flRUVIRUTTAi^

233

T h e word of solaceMediators give, is balm To^ souls who are grieved by the parting of the Lord. (Cp, Hanuman's words of solace to our L a d y in the Ramayana, 5,37.6." Sroshy ate chaiva Kakutstah.") IV " T h e . . . f e e t of my and Angels' Lord who,..ate th' butter." " While greater than the greatest, He's less than the least," (Anor Aniyan etc., Katha-Up., 2.20; Svet. Up., 3.20; Mahanar. Up. 8.3; Kaivalya-Up., 20.) God's (1) Majesty and (2) Stooping, both, salvation give. V " P u r e op'ning-lotus feet." ( i ) They 're " p u r e , " inasmuch as They save impartially all refugees alike. text " S a m o ' ham." Gita, 9 29.) " If but the slightest peril, thee befall, W h a t sh.ill I do with Sita ?" Rama said, Sliowing that e'en a refugee of yesterday, A s much as His Eternal Consort's loved by Him. (" T v a y i Kincliit sam-apanne" Ramayana, Vide also the saying " Kaustubla-Manir jivah" (2) The feet resemble the' op'ning lotus, for they glow When refugees come, as lotes glow when comes the sun! W . The words" Who '11 usbear'neath the...feet," shows tliat < 1) The soul's a chattel, (2) God its owner is. V I I . " B e e s - w h o ' l l us bear," hint that our Teachers'
honeyecl speech, Will fi) us

from strav'ng redeem and

(2)

make

Lord

forgive,

And thus will reconcile God with His lieges all. " Hanu man !" our Model Lady Sita said, " speak thou T o Rama of unique renown in such a way, A s to inake Him honour me while I am alive (By show'ng attention to my case And taking me unto Himself)! By word of mouth, a feat of righteousness achieve!" (Jivantim mam yathaRamah ; Ramayana 5.39-10.)

PURA-NANURU
BY DR. G . H. POPE, M.A,, D.D.

LIV. sniil^T atluSsc ^ ^ / r (Sureo <s9sanij9ssrju (^i^S^ Q^lcld ^snemeu luaisf^^ih^ HCS^^ OoVLDtflsar aiiT^aena iSaeusiiiTa >i9jreus\}Ts Qm^stam lusosd^ L/jr Qstt^iii^ UTear niresar aisnjriuir^ Q^^Qqi^iTi
s B f ^ ^iLfw

aafioioA

QfaarsmLts

aQtonem Qsiires)^ ^uQu^nn Q^s'^i^^ Losmsanr SSarr.i'^ih krr^Lj UTSSM^^ GJ ^/T S/S^^ ^eb'stso:iB
IDH'^r U.lSf-SltT tt^i)t_iUoir

^jji^^Seo lurrujQLLirQ (^jpi-^ffo QssdsoJilt qeG^^^di- eSiusari^ee^i ^p'ory ^i^aens ojenSfnemu- ib-f'^i /n Praise of King Ceraman-KuVavan-Kothai, MddalartMatlmroi-Kumaran, of Erichil in the Konadtt. Into the old city where there is perpetual di-.i of men, for the king dwells there, suppliants whose nvinvier of life is just like our own can enter as f r e d y as the town-folk themselves, passing through in unbroken stream and can lift up their eyes to behold the splendours of Court on its festive days. T o suppliants the path is open ; but if kings who have sworn hostility to our king Kothai, whose horses are swift, who nrtkes the protection of tlie realm his constant care, whose generosity puts even thehenvens to sliaine, and whose open hand bestows unstinted gifts on alf who all appro.icli him,if these kings regard our land 'tis thus it must app(ar to them : i.i yonder wide region the herdsman clad in filthy garb wearing flowers of thorns bound together with gieen leaves as his wreath, and who is slow of speech, cannot pass on wiih his tiny flock, because the tiger dwells there ; even so is the land where Kothai with mighty right hand dwells.

AGAMIC BUREAU NOTES. 19I


Anandasrama Sadhu-Maha-SangamFifth Anniversary.
T h e V e d a n t a C o n f e r e n c e , otherwise k n o w n a s S a d h u held its sittings this y e a r in C h o o l a i d u r i n g the w i s a three d a y s ' wonder. w a s prepared and the management.

Maha

Sangham

E a s t e r and, as usual, it

In its c o l u m n s this t i m e last year, t h e Indian

Patriot exposed to the world the careless manner in w h i c h the programme reckless w a s t e of public m o n e y entailed on miswere m a n y to find fault with not one h a d sense e n o u g h this y e a r to T h o u g h it w a s found there

the article then, w e regret that

r e c t i f y the evils and m a k e the conference popular. T h e programme as circulated prior to the sittings w a s a catii.logue It w a s , however, proposed a vote of t h a n k s a t the end to s a y on the s u b j e c t so that every T h e proceedings as s h o w n in

of Vedanta s u b j e c t s w i t h t w o speakers against e a c h . found last year that the m a n w h o o f i e v e r y lecture also had something

lecture had three speakers on the whole. e l e v e n at times.

the programme,covered the-whole d a y and also a position of the night till T h o u g h thus the day w a s full, every lecture w a s allotted A s expected b y e v e r y sensible m a n o n l y a period of half-an hour or so.

no subject could he thoroughly explained to the m a s s a s three men had to talk in that disgracefully short period and it w a s no wonder to us, therefore, to find almost none of the really cultured men c o m i n g forward to deliver the lectures on the conference d a y s . T h e invitation announced that S a d h u s would lecture and, unless

it b e c o n trued that everybody in the world w a s a Sadhu, there w a s not one real ascetic, one practical Y o g i If w a " thus a tan^Asha or an called toid T h e grand ceremony opened rather on at the closing day the place t w o hours late witli the really practical Vogi K a r a j w t h r a S i v a F r a k a s a S w a m i ' w h o m a d e his appearance again. A procession with him in the midst arrived the singing of vedic hymns. After one amid-t \'edintis u h o \vc .i!d to speak a n y t h i n g one a n y subject so mend matters even when exhibition of the ij^norance of the

not care to

lecture, it w a s announced that Mr. V a d i v e l o o Chettiar, the pillar of the Conference, would address the audience. It w a s on no special subject. B u t it w a s all on where to e a t , what to eat and how to gain admission to

T
The

F
spenk

LIGHI or
for a

TRi:IH
with his hands w a v i n g Two and

pillar did

f e w mlniitps in the

indiscriminately and m a k i n g half-a-dozen right-about-turns. A new arrangement w a s made admis ion for meals. admission i|ipds of t i c k e t s ^vere printed one c n redpaper and the ether on while. O n e finds no meaning to the

T h o s e who held the former were

entitled tc immediate

those with the later would receive attention later.

in s u c h arrangement e x c e p t w h e n he understands that, c o n t r a i y ed between man and man. nience aed did a year pass without

principles of the teachings of this school, difference ought to be establishT h a t as w e expected, caused a lot of inconvein the c o u r s e of the three d a y s and never all. Five years the brains of the the dinning personal humility

complaint ^rom

these c o n i e r e n c e s h a v e been held and we wonder h o w a m o u n t of c o m m o n sense. Seven o'clock in the m o r n i n g

committee h a v e not had the inclination to realise the situation with some w a s the hour at w h i c h every d a y ' s never succeeded that had obeyed in a

e v e n t w a s announced to begin other eatables being p e r c h a n c e assembling were kept at the prescribed without waiting

and every day the service of cofllee and late, the gathering hour^ mercy The for they result w a s -visitors

stupid programme.

In 99 c a s e s out

of hundred, there were alterations O f t e n lecturers never had to be found for they

in the lectures and c h a n g e

in the lecturers.

hunted after within the premises and they were their next engagement, left the place, disgusted as ^ to themselves had y e t to s p e a k . !n one instance a blunder w a s

c a m e at the hour in the programme and finding no c h a n c e of keeping up many a speaker prewhich no day,

committed,^ the like of

'iterate c o m m u n i t y has as y e t even heard.

W h i l e , on the second

Mr. Krishna S a s t r i g a l w a s s p e a k i n g c n an important s u b j e c t , thti arrival of S w a n i i Sarvilnanda w a s tht s u b j e c t of enthusiasm and the lecturei w a s demanded the termination of the lecture. himself in the c r o w d . w a s present. tliere, too. man does not T h e next lecture He a t o n c e obeyed and lost up for w a n t of the w a s give;i

lecturer and one of the third d a y ' s items w a s substituted, for that lecturer T h e chairman of that lecture Mr. V e n k a t a c h e l l a Iyer w a s The chairknow Tamil and the lecturer w a s to address in that In S w a m i S a r v a n a n d a w a s p r o p o s e o to the chair.

l a n g u a g e . T h o combination seemed very curious and that reflected much on the business c a p a c i t y of the men responsible for the conference. reply to a questisn o n the spot, an a n s w e r w a s given thiat the d u t y w a s only to see that order prevailed and nothi/ig else. meeting chairman's T h i s is a A the

magnificent definition of a c h a i r m a n in the w i s d o m of the Vedantis. policeman then is the c h a i r m a n of every these w"-5eacres. The fixed c h a i r m a n questioned the action of

in the conception of

S e c r e t a r y and reluctantly resigned his chairmanship.

AGAMIC

BUREAU

.\07ES.

23^

e oliserved nnollie- instance also. Lecturea weie-beinf/ adjusted incli^criiKii.ately. There was disorder and confusion all the while at the ari ival ot every lecturer and chairman as they were known only to one ox two in the audience who introduced them to others by signs of eyes, hands and mouth. Mr. \'adiveloo Chetliar again who was the chairman for a lecture hau an en'^'agement during his presidency which he faithfully kept up by leaving' the seat after the lecture connuenced and re-occupying it before the lecture finished. T w o birds at one stroke! There will be no end of such and similar tales 1 could record of the famous ideal c-jnterence in these so-called enlightened days and I am afraid 1 must finish here. 1 cannot but mention the attitude of the Siddhantis towards this conference. In addition to several members of the Siddhanta school, two prominent lecturers of the Samajam were there, of whom one w a s a speaker. I refer to Messrs. E . Thanikacliella Mudaliar, B. A., of Ponneri, and Pandit T . V Kalyanasundara Mudaliar. So far as I know, these have been impressing on the minds of the audience from time to time, that no dilference existed between these two schools and the inter])retations of the ancient books should be impartially given to meet the piesent tendency of spiritualism. And it is a fact that the Vedantis ne\er sympathise with a Siddhantis lecture. It would be a great thing il they had no sympathy and there the matter ended. T h e y pelt stones at the Siddhantis from a distance. T h e conference has ended and' in their opinion, the Vedantis think that ihey iiave done their duty, and the donors that their donation has been well s^^ent FtoDi a coyrcsfondent. [In recording, the proceeding of the last years conference in our issue of April 1913, w e drew attention to some of the irregularities pointed cut herein such as late hours, treble speakers and offensive intrepretatioiis. If what our fiiend has said is all true we are sorry to find that tliougli wc made tliose observations in good faith the Sangamites have not progressed in the ri^ht direction even this year. {Ed. S. D.)]

E i g h t h C o n f e r e n c e of the S a i v a S i d d h a n t a - M a h a - S a m a j a m , Tlie eightli conference ol rhe Saiva Siddhiinta Miiha Samagam held its sittings d u i i n i r t h e C h r i s t m a s week last year at Velloie under the presidency of His Hoiiness Siva Shanmuga Meyjfianasivacharya Swami of Jfiuniy ar miilt, Tirupapu-iyur. A s usual the letures on the three days of the conference covered a wide field of religious researches and wene i i i g h l y interesting and erudite. W e would record here the progress made by i!ic S.tblia duiing tlic year ended with the conference. It will surely

152

THE LIGHT OF

TRUTH

interest our readers to know how our efforts on i h i s side to popularize the univMsal school of the S a i v a Siddhanta meet witli success in course of time. T h e number of members in the course of the year nearly doubled itself and it is a rapid march. 114 i is the number at the end as again :t 556 at the ooinmencement of the year, a list also is appended showing the names of gentlemen w h o took the trouble of convassing members for the Samajani and we would make particular mention of Messrs V . T . Masilamony Mudaliar and M. R. K u m a r a s w a m y Pillay who made themselves responsible for the admission of 73 and 41 members respectively. T h e Tamil monthly Siddantam, the free oryan of the S a m j j a m has be:ome very popular under the editorship of Sriman P u v a i Kalyanasundara Mudaliar and is very widely read. ' I h e printing and free circulation of tracts was also continued through the year. A t the General body meeting of the members during one of the conference days, ?s many as ten gentlemen offered to serve as Honoray lecturers of the S a m a j a m and their offers were gratefuijy accepted. A m o n g the gentlemen-who lectured during the year, Sriman P . Muthia Pillay heads as is the case with him every y e a s the list. It w a s his lot to deliver 53 leztures out of 8 S which were delivered by the Hon. lecturers under the auspices of the Samiijam. T o him the thanks of the S a i v a population are entirdy due for the lucid exposition he ^'ives of the great S a i v a A g a m a s and the excellent analytical method which he adopts as a rule for every lecture of hia to the general mass. T h e auditors report regarding financial status of the S a b h a shows a nett cash balance ot Rs. 80 2-2 on hand whereas the expenses come up to Rs. ro5i 7-5, There are 9 Branch Sabhas Attached to the Maha S a b h a in various parts of the Presidency and attempts are being made to establish more. A good library of the S a m a j a is for want of sufficient accommodation located in the premises of Sivanadiar Thirukkuttam and an appeal is made towards funds for a permanent building tor the Sainajam and tl.e enlargement of of the library. ]t was resolved at the close of the conference that the invitation of the members of the S a b h a in the South to hold its ninth conference in t.he riiy of Jaffna during next D e ember be accepted and it will interest all our friends to know that at the request of many His Holiness S i v a Shanmuga Meyjuaua Sivach^irya S w a m i has given his consent to preside over the next conferenLe also. Travelling according to h ' s c u s l o n i to such distant place in his palanquin is no doubt an arduous task and we cannot sutiiaently thank His Holiness for the ready acceptance.

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n t l M qummn'u CoflUMmonUiaii Dkj, IMT,

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N o I

A NEW YEAR'S GREETIN


This Agaval is by a minstrel, known to us as Kanyan or *'Singer' of the flowery hill, who was a court poet and friend of Ko Pferum Coran of Urraiyura little, it may be, before the data of the Kurral. See Purra Nannurru 67, 191, 192, 212.

mekjuu^ QKirftfiLti

tSpa-^ir

Uirjnr;^ ^eu^Qt^ir ^csrr:^ SjtoQut;Qp^Mr

^ea^^^ti

Si^O/fmr

L u S ^ ^ j f u h

fill^DHAKTA

DKKPTKA,

euTssrii ^^a^Slaff? sisoQuTQ^ li/rsuyS^u u(B^Ui Lpei>ei0

lu/r^^i Qu.iturfpjM ^ t s S T ^p(peo/r/r

i^dsasrQuir^

(ipsnpsuij^u

zjCFe-ii) gtcstu^

QuiPiQfUir^ff

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T H E SAGES.
To lis all toAvns arc one, all men our kin. Life's gooi comes not from others' gift, nor ill Man s pains and pains' relief ?.re from within. Death s no new thing; nor do our bosoms thrill When joyous life seems like a luscious draught. AVhen grieved, y\c patient suffer; for, we deem This much-praised life of ours a fragile raft Borne dowii tiie waters of some mountain stream That o'er Jiuge bouldere roaring seeks the plain. Tho' storms Avith lightnings' ilash from darken d skica Descend, tho raft goes on as fates ordain. Thus have we seen in visions of the wsc! We marvel Jiiot at greatness of tlie great; Still less despise we men of low estate. Comj*. Kurral, 397 Paramori, 116. With kindest good wishes, G. U. TOPE.

.SKIK.VXTllA liUASUVA.

TRANSLATIONS.
THE A^EDAN'JW-SUTRAS AVITH SIMKANTHA 151JAS11YA.

{Coiiliuucil

fro id

oo

Vol.

V).

J n u r t l j ^iljwaya^
SECOND PADA. Adhikarana 1.
Speech (is d i ^ l v c d ) iu uiind, because of our expcricncc and the \\oid. And for this very reason all senses (follow) after (mind). (IV. ii. 2). (IV. ii. 1).

Ill the pAda just closed, it was shewn in what particular way, &c., the upasaka should practise upasana. This pada will treat of his departure from the body. The dissolution of speech and other sense organs in mind of the departing person is t^iught in the following passage: '' Of this departing pei'son, my dear, speech is dissolved in mind, mind in hreath, breath in fire, fire in the Supreme Deity. A doubt arises as to whfther this stands to reason or not. :M'hat is the j'/mf //c/c/r view Kvery eifect, indeed, attains dissolution in its material cause (uj)adAua), as we tind that a i>ot is invariably resolved into chy, its material cause, and so on. The material cause of sijccch and oLiier sense-organs is Brahman, jiot mind. AVherefore, it is proper iliat they should be dissolved only in Brahman.
Pi(rr((j:aki<hff Siddhnnta

:As agair.st the foregoing, we hold as follows:


denv, s])(m'( Ij is (lissttJvcd in

The Sniti says :


"Of t h i s dej^nrting jievson, ujy mind"2, 1 Chh.i. G-iJ-O. 2 IbuL

.SlDimAXTA

l>JiinKA.

The senses being dissolved in iuind"l. We actually see that at departure speech and other senseorgans cease to function even prior to mind. Therefore, speech first attains dissolution in nn'nd ; then all senses are dissolved in mind. As to the contention that an effect attains dissolution only in its nmterial cause, we say that it is not always the case. This law api)lies only to the dissolution of the thing itself. It is not meant here that speech and other senses are themselves dissolved in mind ; onlv the cessation of their functions is meant here. Just as a burning piece of charcoal, when cast into a body of water, ceases to emit light, &c., so also it stands to reason that the functions of s])eech and other sense-organs are merged in mind, though mind is not their material cause. The dissolution of speech, Ac., of things which possess the functions, here stands for the dissolution of the functions, the functions and the things that possess those functions being here spoken of as identical by courtesv.

Adhikarana 2.
Thib miud iu breath, from the sequel. ( l Y . ii. 3).

The dissolution, in breath, of mind accompanied with speech and all other senses, is sj^oken of in the words, " Mind (is dissolved) iu breath"2. A doubt arises as to what kind of dissolution this is. Vi)n-apaltshu :(Granted that it is the functions of speech and other senses that are merged in mind, seeing that mind is not their material cause (upadAna). But as to mind itself, it is itself dissolved in breath (pritna), inasmuch as breath is the material cause of mind. " Made u]), indeed, of food, my dear, is laind, and made up of waters is breath"8. In these words, the Sruti teaches that, as made up of food, mind is made uj) of earth (prithivi) and that, therefore, as made up of waters, breath is the matei-ial cause (upadana) of mind ; so that it is not contrary to reason to say that mind is substantially dissolved in breath.
1 Pnitiiia. >3-'J. 2 Chhii. G-8.G. 3 Chha. 6-5-4^

S k d t A J f f t t A UHASHVA. Siddhmtu

:As in the case of speech and other senses, so also in the case of mind, it is the functions of mind that are merged in breath, because of the sequel, Mind (is dissolved) in breath'4. Mind is not substantially dissolved in breath ; for, breath cannot be the direct (upHdana) or nmtei-ial cause of mind, since mind is not born from breath (prana). Wherefoiv, reason shews that it is only the functions of mind that ai-e said to be merged in breath.

Adhtkarana 3.
It unites with the lord, because of the union therewith, etc., (being spoken of) (IV. ii. i).

KrstAvhilc, tlie dissolution of the mind and all the senses in the breath was sjwken of. Now a question arises as to where that breath attains dissolution. Ptinapaknha .-What, now, suggests itself at first? From the words of the Hruti breath (is dissolved) in light*' the breath attains dissolution in light.
:As against the foregoing, we hold as follows : That breath then unites with the Jiva, the lord; it does not attain dissolution in light, because of the Smti which speaks of its union with the Jha in the ]>a.ssage.s like the following:
8(ddhirnhf

" Thus do all the senses gather round the Sell" at the time of death "2. N.w the Sutrakara ]>ioceeds to explain away the api>arent contradiction of tlie passage "the breath (is dissolved) in light.
(It unites) witii the cloinontx of matter, becausc of the Srnti referring to them. (IV. ii. 5).

In the i)a>snre, ''the breath (is dissoved) in light the Sruti refers to Might" as c(njoined with the other elements of matter. Accordingly, there is no contradiction, since we are only taught here
' 1 Chh.i. 0-6-G. 2 liri. O-J-aS. a Chha. 5-6-0.

(J

SIDDHANTA

DEDl'lKA.

tliafc the breath along with the Jiva unites with the elements of matter.
Not ill the one alone; so indeed they teach. (IV. ii. G).

Not ill light alone does the breath attain its dissolution. For, tlie Sruti which treats of the triplication teaches its conjuaction with the other elements of matter. Wherefore, since the breath, along with the Jiva, unites ^ith the ele ments of matter, there is no contradiction of the Sruti.

Adhikarana 4.
A.nd same up to the commencement of the passage. ii. 7). And immortality. (IV.

A question arises as to whether the departure that is here described is the same or different for the enlightened and the unenlightened, prior to the commencement of the passage starting with light. Pnrccqmhfha :What suggests itself at first ? Inasmuch as mundane life and liberation are two quite ditt'ere*it eifects, the departure is different in the two cases of the wise and the ignorant Siddhdnta:As against the foregoing, we hold as follows Prior to the commencement of the passage starting with the light, etc., the departure is quite the same for the wise and the ignorant. But the wise man effects the exit through the tubular i)assage (nMi) in the head and attains immortality, but not the other: here lies the difference. For, the Sruti savs: '' There are a hundred and one nadis of the heart; one of them enters the crown of the head. Moving upwards by it, a man reaches innnortal; the other nadis serve for departing in different directions"!. Pripr to this, the departure is quite the same.
1 Kathu-Up. G-IO.

j^l?TK\XTir\ miAfinVA.

Adhikarana. 5.
Because ot the reference to embodied existence prior to union with Him. (IV. ii. 8).

It has been shown in the last section that the enlightened one makes his exit through the nadi in the head, and that then commences the journey on the Path of Light. Now there arises a question as to whether, in the case of the enlightened one who has departed from the body, a journey on the Path of Light is possible. The Srnti speaks of immortality being attained immediately after the death of the physical body : "When all desires which once entered his heart are undone, then does the mortal become immortal, then he attains Braman here"]. And the Srnti speaks also of the journey on the Path of Light, in the words, Tliey go fortli to light '2. Thus, both being declared in the Sruti, thei'e arises a doubt on the matter. Purvapalcsha; Now it would seem that journey on the Path of Light is impossible in the case of liberated ^souls, inasmuch as the liberated soul cannot start on the journey, owing to the impossibility of speech, etc., coming into life again after having been once absorbed in Brahman. Siddhanta: As against the foregoing, we argue as follows: Embodied existence does not cease, because of the reference to a connection with the body, prior to the attainment of Brahman through the path of light. The Sruti merely says that the liberated one becomes immortal at once, because the actual attainment of immortality is.to come off very soon. Wherefore in^the case of the departing wise man, journey on the Path of Light is possible. Now as to the assertion that such a journey is impossible in his case, because of the absorption of speech, etc., the Sutrakara says as follows:
And ft (body) subtle in size (he has), because so we find. (IV. ii. 9). r. 1. Bri. C-4-7. 2. Chha. 6-10-1.

SIPPITAXTA

PF.TiriKA.

Though lie has departed from this body, the subtle body continues. Otherwise, owing to the impossibility of a journey, no conversation with the moon and the like would be possible. In the Sruti, indeed, in the Paryanka-Vidya, there is recorded a conversation taking place on the path of gods between the wise soul and the moon : "All who depart from this world (this body) go to the moon . . . . Yerily, the moon is the door of the Svarga world. Now, if a man objects to the moon (if one is not satisfied with life there), the moon sets him free. But, if a man does not object, then the moon sends him down as rain upon this earth. And according to his deeds and according to his knowledge, he is born here again as a worm, or as an insect, or' as a fish, or as a bird, or as a lion, or as a boar, or as a serpent, or as a tiger, or as a man, or as something else in different places. When he has thus returned to the earth, some one (a sage) asks, ' Who art thou V And he should answer: . . . ."1. So that, in the case of the wise man who has departed from the body, journey on the Path of Light is possible.
Hence not by destruction. (IV. ii. 10).

Hence, i.e., for the foregoing reasons, the Sruti, Then does the mortal become immortal ;"2, which speaks of the attainment of immortality, does not mean that immortality is immediately attained through a complete cessation of all connection with the body.
Because of the probable existence of this very one, there is wannth. (IV. ii. 11).

Because it is possible that such a subtle bod;^ exists somewhere without being altogether destroyed, warmth, which is the property of the subtle body is indeed felt somewhere, even when the wise soul departs from the body. Warmth is not the property of the gross physical body, as it is not felt in it after death. Hence also the possibility of the journey.
1 Kaushitaki, Up. 1-2. 2 Bri. 6-4-7^

SBIKAXTHA BHA8HYA.

(II it be objected tint this oennot be) beoMue of tlie denial (we sey that the aeneee depert) not from the embodied one. This indeed is clearly taught in the recension of some. (IV. ii. 12).

BrihadAranyaka teaches how the anenlightened soul departs from the body in the following words :
Direction:^The

" The point of his heart becomes lighted up, and by that, light the Self departs, either through the eye, or through the skull, or through other places of the body. And when he thus departs, life departs after him, and when life thus departs, all the other vital elements depart after it."l And so on. Then, the Sruti, after concluding the subject so far as it concerns the unenlightened soul in the words, " So much for the man who desires'^, proceeds as follows : " But as to the man who does not desire, who, not desiring, freed from desires, is satisfied in his desires, or desires the Self only, his vital elements do not depart elsewhere; being Brahman, he goes to Brahman."2 As the Sruti here denies the departure of the wise soul, he directly attains Brahman here alone.
Answer :No ; for, in the words, " his vital elements depart

not,"3 the Sruti teaches that the vital elements of the departing soul who has started for a journey on the Path of Light are not detached from him. This idea is clearly conveyed by the words of the Upanishad in the recension of the Mftdhyandinas. " As to the man who, not desiring, freed from desires, is satisfied in his desiries, or desires the Self only, from him the vital elements do notT depart."
And the
Smriti also

says. (IV. ii. 13).

The Smriti speaks of the wise one passing through the nidi in the head: " Among them, there is one going upward, making its way
1 Bri. 6-4'2. 2 Bri. Up. 6-4-6. 3 Ibid.
B

IQ

SIDDHANTA

DEEPIKA.

through the Solar region; thereby, he passes beyond the region of Brahman and attains the supreme goal." Therefore, journey on the Path of Light is possible in the case of the departing soul of the wise man. Some say that journey on the Path of Light is not invariable in all cases, inasmuch as in the case of those who are devoted to the Unconditioned the cessation of connection with the body here is itself their liberation.

Adhikarana 6.
They (are dissolved) in the Supreme. So, indeed, the Sruti

says. (TV. ii. 14).

In a former section, it was shewn that Jiva conjoined with the senses becomes absorbed in the elements of matter including light (tejas). From the words "light (becomes dissolvei^ in the Supreme Deity," 1 we understand that light combined with other elements of matter and conjoined with Jiva attains dissolution in the Supreme Deity. Now, a doubt arises as to whether a dissolution of its very being in the Supreme Deity (Parabrahman) is here meant, or the mere undistinguishability of the two from one another. Ptli'vapalcsha:It would seem proper that the absorption of the very being of light is here meant. The Supreme Deity is, etymologically, none other than Maliadeva. It is Mah^deva who is spoken of in the Sruti as Parabrahman, the source of all beings, in the following and similar passages ; " This Deity thought"2 "The one God (Deva) creating heaven and earth."3 Therefore, it is but reasonable to suppose that in Him, the material (upadana) cause, all elements of matter, along wttn Jiva, attain dissolution in their very being.
1 Chha. 6-8-6. 2 Chha. 6-3-2. 3 Mahanarayana Up-1-13.

SBIKANMA BttASHYA.

11

true theory, however, maj be stated as follows:^Though Bmhmaii is the material caase, the elements are not dissolved in Him by their very being. On the other hand, they only become undistingaishable from one another. There is no ground whatever why the mere nnion, once taught in the words, " speech becomes one with mind/'l shonld be understood in quite a different sense here. Therefore, as in the case of the mind, etc., here too, the Sruti means only a cessation of function.
Siddhdnta.The Non-separation (is meant) because of the text. (IV. ii. 16).
0

Because the text of the Upanishad speaks of union, it is quite reasonable to understand that mei*e non-separation of the elements of matter from Brahman is here meant.

Adhikarana 7.
There is the blazing forth of the point of his seat; then within the gate illumin* ed by it, in virtue of the knowledge and in virtue of the complementa^ contemplation of the path, (the wise one), helped by the Grace of the One in the heart, departs by the passage beyond the hundred. (IV. ii. 16).

In a former section, it was said that up to the starting point on the Path of Light, the process of departure is the same in the case of the enlightened and the unenlightened. Now we shall enquire whether there is any difference or no between the two at the time of their exit. Piirv ipnlcnha :In the words, " light is dissolved in the Supreme Deity", it is said that the wise as well as the ignorant is absorbed in tiie Supreme Cause,the Highest God, the Supreme Brahman, the Supreme Light,and remains there inseparable^ for a time, resting himself. Therefore, their departure is quite the same, inasmuch as the Sruti speaks of the blazing up of the heart and so on in the case of both alike. The Sruti says: The point of his heart becomes lighted up, and by that
1 Chhrt. 6-8-6.

12

SlDDHANTA

J)KElIKA.

light the self departs, either through the eye, or through the aknll or through other places of the body.**l Therefore, the departure being the same in both, there is no difference whatever between the two. h being the prima facie view, we say that our conclusion is that there is a difference between tlie two. To explain at l e n g t l i I n virtue of the wisdom which takes the form of the worship of the Supreme Lord (Paramesvara) dwelling in the heart, and in virtue of the coniplementary contemplation of the Path of Light, the Lord, who is gracious to all, becomes j)ropitiated; and when the enlightened devotee is glanced at by the gracious eye of tlie Lord which is capable of destroying all the sin that enshrouds His being and when the gate of his exit is illumined by His grace, he passes upwards by that nadi in the head which lies beyond the hundred ones. But not so the other ; on the contrary, he passes out by the other nadis. So says the Sruti: "There are a hundred and one iiadis uf tlie heart, one of them enters the crown of the head. Moving upwards by it, a man reaches the immortal; the other nAdis serve for departing in different directions."2 Such is the peculiarity in the dei)arture of the wise man* All tlii?< amounts tn this:Rndra abides in the heart of men." " 'Hio lieai't-lotus, whicli is free from dirt, perfectly pure;"3 in such passages of the Sruti as the above aa well as in the passages like "the Lord sits, O Arjuna, in the region of the heart in all beings,"4 we are given to understand that the Supreme Lord (Paramesvara) dwells in the hearts of all men. He in whom Jiva with the functions of his senses becomes absorbed and is merged in sole comnmnion; He whomin the
I Bri. 6-4-2. 2 Katha-Up. 6-16. 3 Kaivalya-Up. 4 Q i u T 18-51.

Sidilhhu.iSiK

S f i l K A N T H A BHASHYA.

273

words, "Superior to the universe is Rudra, the Great Sage (Maharshi)/'! and " all verily is Rudra,"2the Sruti declares to be above the universe as the efficient cause (Nimittak&rana) thereof^ and to be one with the universe as its material (upadana) cause; He whose supt^macy as the Lord of the universe is taught in the words "One indeed is Rudra; they stand not for a s e c o n d H e than whom nothing else the seekers of liberation have to know, as taught in the words, " Siva alone is to be meditated upon" ;4 He of whom,in the words, * * Here indeed, when the life principles of a man depart from the body, Rudra imparts instruction to him about Brahman, the Saviour (the Taraka-Brahman), whereby he becomes immortal,"othe Srijti says that He teaches to the enlightened devotees at death the Taraka-Brahman whereby they realise his true being; He who, as the object of all worship, is the Lord of all sacrifices; as the Sruti says," Secure Rudra, the Lord of your sacrifice, for your protection ;"6 He who is the best doctor of the disease of Samsara, as addressed in the passage, "O Rudra, . . . . invigorate our sons by thy medicinal plants, for, I hear that Thou art the chief physician amongst p h y s i c i a n s . 7 He whose form and part Maya is said to bein the words, Maya, verily, be it known is the material cause, and Mahesvara is its possessor,"8 that supreme energy (paramaaakti) called Maya which manifests itself in the variegated flower-show called the universe;He, indeed, the Supreme Brahman dwelling in the heartthe Supreme Lord, whose form is supreme Bliss, who is the Consort of Uma, the Supreme Spirit (Paramatman), glances at the contemplating and devout aspirantthe devotee who has been constantly engaged in Agniholra and other rituals enjoined as forms of Divine worship in the Sruti which constitutes the Divine command, who is completely free from the slightest mark of prohibited action, who has dedicated all fruits of his action to God, whose will has been completely s u r r e n d e r e d to the Divine will, who has'imbibed in full the immortal nectar of the knowledge of God, who has renounced all
rMaJuma 10-10. 6 Baawtteratapani. 2 Ibid. 16. 6 Rig-Vedn. 4-3-1. 3 Sve. 3-2. 7 Ibid. 2-33-4. 8 Sve. Up. 4-10.

4 Atharvasikha.

14

S I D D H A N T A DEEPtKA.

interested action as well as its fruit, who, having attained discrimination, etc., is solely engaged in devotion to Grod, seeking Divine Grace,and, at the time of his leaving the body, the Lord, in all His Grace towards the devotee, directs towards him His gracious glance which wipes away all the stain of samsara. Then this devotee, with all the stain of samsara completely wiped away by the mighty Grace of God, and departing by the n&di of the head shone on by the ipesplend^int Atniaii, reaches by the path of Light the supreme Divine abode which transcends all material universe, the unsurpassed bliss being its very nature ; then attaining to a form like the Divine form itself, his nature partakes of the eternal unsurpassed bliss. Therefore, it is but proper to hold that there is a difference in the destinies of the enlightened and the unenlightened.

Adhikarana 8.
Following the (sun's) rays. (IV. ii. 17.)

In the preceding section, it has bean shown that the devotee, who has obtained the grace of the Paramesvara abiding in the heart, departs by the nAdl of the head. Now a question arises as to whether, in the case of the departing devotee, the upward journey is possibly by night as well as by day. viow tliat fir.>t suggests itself is this : We are given to understand that the departing soul passes upward in contact with the sun^s rays, as the Sruti says :
Pitrvapaksha:The

" When he departs from this body, then he departs upwards by those very rays. ^'i. Certainly, contact with the sun's rays is possible only by day, but not by night.
1. Chhtt. 8.3.5I

SfilKANTHA BHASHYA.

15

; As against the foregoing, we hold as follows: It is trae that the departing soul of the enlightened devotee (Vidvan) passes upward only in contact witli the sun's rays. But this contact is possible by night as well as by day ; for, even at night, the sun's rays are present, as shown by the heat felt daring summer nights. Hence the conclusion that, by night as well as by day, his soul passes upward in the wake of the sun's rars.
SiddhiiUa

Now the Sutrakara refers to an objection and answers it.


If it be objected (that it) cannot (happen) at night, (we say) no, because the connection exists as long as the body exists ; and so the Sruti says. (IV. ii. 18).

:It has been said that, even when one is dead at night, he attains Brahman, by passing in contact with the sun's rays. This is not possible; for, death by night is condemned in the following words:
Objection

"l)ay-time, bright fortnight, the period of the summer solstice,these are good for the dying; but the opposite is condemned. because the bondage of samsara lasts only as long as the body lasts. For, the pr&rabdha karma,i.e., the sum total of the acts, which has brought about the present birthcontinuing to operate even when those acts which will lead to bondage, but which have not yet begun to operate, have been destroyed by Vidya or knowledge, is operative only up to the close of the final bodily existence; and, therefore, when even the pr&rabdha ceases at the close of the last bodil}'^ existence, there remains no obstacle to the attainmexit of Brahman.
Anaver:No,

And the Sruti teaches accordingly ; " For him there is only delay so long as he shall not be delivered from the body; then he shall be perfect. "1. Jeg to the condemnation of the night-time, it holds good only
1 Chha. 6-14-2. ^

](5

SIDPITAXTA

PFFPIKA.

in the case of otlier i)ersoiis. Wherefore, tliere is nothing unreasonable in the statement that, even when the enlightened devotee is dead at nisrht, he can attain Brahman.
And hcMce oven during the period of the winter solstice. (IV. ii. 19.).

For the foregoing rt^ason,/.<s only because there is no cause of bondage, the enlightened devotee (Vidvan) attains Brahman, even though he may die during the period of the winter solstice.
The.se two are taught in the Smriti with reference to the Yogins as things to be contemplated. (IV. ii. 20).

Objection :It is with reference to the dying enlightened devotees that the Smriti .speaks of certain periods of time as leading to a retur!! of the souls and of certain other periods as caivsing no return : " Now in what time departing, Yogins go to return not, as also to return, that time will I tell thee, 0 chief of the Bharatas. Fire, light, day-time, the bright fortnight, the six months of the northern solstice,then departing, men who know Brahman reach Brahman. Smoke, night-time, and the dark fortnight, the six months of the southern solstice,attaining by these to the lunar liglit, the Yogin return.s. "These bright and dark paths of the world are verily deemed eternal; by the one, man goes to return not, by the other, he returns again. Therefore, it is unreasonable to maintain that the condemnation of the night-time and the period of the winter solstice refers to unenlightened persons. (Answer):This Sutra is meant as an answer to the foregoing objection. In the passages quoted above, the Smti teaches bhat the two paths, called the path of the pitris (Pitri-yana) and
Bhagavadgita a i l 23-26.

SfilKANTHA BHASHYA.

17

the palh of the g o ^ (Deva-yana), are to be daily contemplated upon by those who are engaged in Yoga or contemplation as a necessary part of their Yoga, that they should contemplate daily that the enlightened souls pass by the Path of Light and that others pass by the opposite path. The Sruti does not, on the contrary, teach that any particular periods of time are suitable for the death of the enlightened devotees; for, the Smriti concludes in the following words: ''Knowing these paths, 0 son of Pritha, no Yogin is deluded, wherefore at all times, be steadfast in Yoga, 0 Arjuna.''l And it is the Pitriyana and Deyayana paths that are referred to ill the second and the third of the verses quoted above. The word ' time' occurring in the first of the verses quoted above refers only to the whole host of the escorting gods (ativahika-gaoa), among whom the gods presiding over particular periods of time predominate. Wherefore, no objection whatever exists to the view that the enlightened devotees reach Brahman, even though they may die by night, or in the winter solstice, or in the dark fortnight. When the body dies, then Brahman is attained at once.

A. MAHADEVA SASTRY, n.A.

1 Ibid, viii. 27.

18

SIDDHANTA DEKriKA.

limmantram
OF

TIRUMULAR.
First TantraThe Upadesa.

]. Descending from the astral planes and getting a body according to lr!s Karma, man receives the impress of God's grace. Entering his heart, God melts him into incomparable Love, and directing his intellect, removes his sin. Note. It is one of the cardinal doctrines of the Advaita-siddhanta that salvation is only possible in the plane of the earth: Cf. Tinivachaka,
** L^QjesBuS^Gunuj LSpsuiT&DtjMt9^^u>

See the Theosopliical Rpvieir for February and March, where Mr. Arthur A. Wells carries on a discussion on this subject. He removed our sins, Our Nandi with the Frontal Eye. He removed our sins, by opening our Eye of Love. Lightening us with the Light that no darkness can dim, He reflected His Coral Light in the Crystal. 2.

tlttUMANTUAM OF TlKUMULAR.

19

Note. TIMJ word s&fliJbLi, rusfc in copper or crystal or mirror, is significant. The impurity attaching to man is no part of his true nature but it nevertheless affects hiji, covers and limits his power as a veil. The analogy given for man is the crystal or mirror Li<?(3, which, however pure in itself, has the defect of becoming covered by rust, and * the Light that no darkness cau dim' is distinguished from this * crystal' and the author also shows that the Light in the crystal is not its own but is really the Ruddy Light of the Lord and it is compared most beautifully to the coral imbedded in this crystal. The red sparks emitted from the so-called Biilliant answer to this. See note to sixth Chapter, 'liight of Grace' and Pix)f. Henry Drummoud's tract Changed Life" where he brings out the truth of tlie proposition tliat man is a * mirror' and shows liow in tliis nature of man lies the basis of tlie proce.ss of man's salvation. As the Mantm sliows, man's darkness will vanish more and more, as he reflects God's glory, and as he reflects His Glory, perfectly, he becomes perfect himself. ' I see Goil, * I reflect Grod, * ' I become.Ciod', are the several ^^tages of this ]n'oct^ of attniuing Pathignanani. Cf. Svetas Up. " From meditating on Him, from joining Him, from becoming one with Him, there is further cessation of all maya (bodies-births)", i. 10. " As a metal disk (mirror), tarnished by dust, dunes bright ag^aiu after it has been cleaned, so is the one incar-

nate person satisfied and freetl from grief, after hebas ioen
tlie r^j-il nature xf himself."

20

SIDDHANTA

DEEPlKyV.

" And by the real nature of his self, he sees as by a lamp the real nature of Brahman; then, having known the unborn eternal Lord, who transcends all the tattvas, he is freed from all fetters (pasa)." ii. 14 and 15. St. Paul " We, all, with unveiled face, reflecting. a mirror, the glory of the Lord, are transformed into the same image, from Glory to Grlory, even as from the Lord, the a spirit.' The opening lines of tlie Chapter on tJpadesa,' the teaching,'fitly enough summarise how and why man is bom and how his salvation is secured. 3. Of the three Padarthas described as pathi (God) pasu(bound soul) and pasa (the bond), the two last are equally eternal as God himself. The impurities (tyjr u/t^ld) cannot approach God, and, if God approaches man, his impurities will vanish. Note. Man imaided cannot near God, but, aided by His Arul, lie can near Him and thus get rid of his impurities. 4. Nandi dwells in the Temple of man and his body as the light shining from the bamboo rods (by friction). Like unto our mother, He removes our three impurities and rises out of us as the sun from the Ocean of Grace. Note. This explains the method of tsalvation.
/

TlttUMANTKAM

OF

mUMULAK.

21

Cf. (1) Thevaram,


" eSfiSp/SaSear^ir uneSp u(dQi6ijQu/rso
S-p&ifQ^freo Qfi^ssufr&Qs milddeaarneif sea>iuj sii9pfSiQ)dr (^sareBfi^^Cio/^

(2) Svetasvatara Upaiiisliad. i. 14. "By making liisixxiy the under-wood andtlie syllable Om the npper-wood, man, after repeating the drill of meditation, will perceive the Bright God like the spark hidden in the wood.*' (3) Kaivalyopanishad. lo.

" With the soul for the wood (arani) and Pranava for the churning rod, by the continual churning of knowledge the wise sunder the noose (pasa). 5. Take the case of the solar lens and cotton covering it. The lens by itself cannot burn the cotton. It will be burnt when brought into focus with the sun. So, man's impurities are burnt off in the presence of the Divine Teacher.
Note.

Man is the lens or crystal and cotton covering it is the impurity and God is the sun. Cf. Svetas. Up. iii. 8. I know that Parama Piirusha of eunlike lustre, beyond darkness. A man who knows Him truly passes over death. There is no other path to go. " 6. He knows our impurities to be five, and he reynoves them from his eminent i&fth ^obition as Sadasiva,

SlDDHANTA

DEE14KA.

and, washing us out of our five passions in tlie sacred Hall, imparts us liis five graces and lovingly dwells in us. 7. As a tiling lost in the depths of water, our intelligence is submerged in the five senses. But, when oiir Tntelligence is lost in His knowledge, the Supreme Teaoher will bring our light out. Cf. Thayumanavar

8. If one alone, all alone, reaches the Hall of Silence, like the Hamsa, which separates milk from Avater, then can he burn up the seed of birth derived l)y his dwelling with the evil senses. Note. The comparison to the Hanisa is to the Hamsa or Soham or Sivoham practice ordained for the yoi^i, and the next Mantra makes it plainer. It also means the yogi ascending alone after separating himself from the senses. 9. The Siva yogis are they who burn up their seed, pass beyond the waking states and reach the Turyatitha, and, freeing themselves of all bonds, are dead to the flesh, though Kving in union with the body and the senses. 10. Discriminating between chit and chit, and practising Tapas and Yoga and entering one's own liglit is Siva Yoga. Nandi gave us graciously the nine modes of Siva Bhoga Yoga, so that we may not fall into wrong paths.

TIRl'M \NTII V M OF TIRrMT L vn.

2o

11.

He gay iw to know the Truth I am all the workl." He gave iis the World not known to the Devas. He gave ws the Foot dancing in the Sacred Hall. He led ns into the silent space of Supreme Bliss.

12. They are Siva Sidhars who attain clearness like akas merging in akas, light merging in light, and air mer-

jging in air.
13. They are Siddhars who can see Sivaloka in this world. They realise Nadha and Nadhandha in themselves. They l>ecome eternal,Nirmala, Xiramaya and Supreme Muktars. The soul reaching bliss has to ascend '>(> steps. 14. Ascending the thirty and six rungs of the ladder and entering the Light of Incomparable Bliss and beholding the unspeakable Sivam and attaining clearness, they rest there as even Sivam. 15. They rest there becoming Sivam, and becoming all| they rest there realising that all is God. They rest there knowing the Past, the Present, and the Future. When resting there, they lose themselves and become

idU.

Note. The words Q^IRLT^LF and Q^TITUUIT trjinslat^d *idle* and ' idlw* are derived from the word a r L D L U f " doing nothing. As applied to the yogis attaining the Highest Place of Peace, the words can convey no reproach. Of course, we caniiot understand its meaning and no wonder.
s-iiu>n' viS0 Q^ffioeop Qeuek^^Ouf

24

STDDHANTA

DilEPIKA.

16.

Where the idlei^s dwell is the pure Space. Where the vUeiis sport is the pure Light. What the idlers know is the Vedanta. What the idlers find is the Sleep therein. Note.

The Vedanta is the Yoga Pada or Marga ^ distinguished from the Siddhanta or Gnana-Marga or Gnana Pada. See Introduction to Kaivaljopanishad. p. 199, Vol. II of this Magazine. 17. They They They They slept slept slept slept and and and and in themselves realised Siva Loka. in themselves realised Siva Yoga. in themselves realised Siva Bhoga. how can we realise their Sleep ?

18. If one recognizes his own limitations, so far will the First One give him grace. In the incomparable Hall, in the red glare of the twilight sky, in the Presence of Uma, danced and glowed that sparkling Gem. 19. In the Gem was imbedded that emerald Light. In the Gem was placed the emerald Hall. What great bliss was not secured by the loving worship of the sacred dance in that Hall of pure gold ? 20. They gained the only true path of the world; they gained the great boon of not being bom in the world; they gained the great boon of not being separated from the Gt)lden Hall; they gained the greatness of losing converse with the world.

OUK8ELVE8.

OURSELVES.
WE had set I'oi th our high aims in oar first number in the following words ; 'Our Journal will devote itself to biing out translation of rare works in Sanskrit and Tamil, both literary and philosophical and religious, will devote its pages to a more critical and historical studj of Indian Religious Systems, to develop a taRte for and to induce a proper and more appreciative cultivation of our Classical and Vernacular Languages and Literature, to bring into the Tamil all that is best and noblest in the literature and the philosophy of the West, to supply to it its deficiency in the field of science and history, ancient and modeini. Greater attention will be paid to the Iwiguage and the history of South India, and the Bravi' dian philosophy and religion will find their best exposition in its pages; and in this respect, it is intended to supply a real and absolutely important want. Being fully aware of the fact what a small minority we will be addressing if our Magazine be conducted wholly in Engliah and being aware that no real improvement in the condition of the people can be effected except by means of their own vernacular and being anxious to preserve to them this much at least of their natural bii-thright, the love of their own language, we have resolved to .bring out a Tamil edition of the Magazine to extend its usefulness among all classes of the South Indian Community and to impart to them the benefits of Western research and knowledge and to infuse into them correcter notions of science and history and scientific and hist-orical criticism.'
4

SIDDHANTA DEEPJKA.

"111 regard to its policy, it is intended to conduct tlie Journal on the broadest and most innocuous lines consistent with the objects of the Magazine as above set forth. It is needless to observe that we shall religiously eschew all politics, and the only politics shall be, if ever there be any occasion, to appeal to the Annate loyalty of every Indian, bound up as it is with his deeply rooted religions instinct, which cannot leave him even in his " bitterest extremes. In social matters, we are fully alive to tlie manifold evils (adyatmikam, ^ e ^ ^ , adiboudhikam tS/o ir* adidaivikam Q^tum^fir^) existing in our society, we are positively convinced also that oadt&and cutom overrides all determinatton^ of science and religion and real piety, and we will not be afraid-ix> speak truth in the plainest terms. But let not the orthodox s ^ i ^ and frown. We can be really as conservative in our heart and deed and we will lose nothing by giving up or gradually changing Bome of our pernicious and useless customs. We will assure them, however, that we will strictly guard their religion and sentiment and the preservation of their own habits and mannei's if they are not positively harmful. Nothing will be done to wound anybody's feelings unnecessarily and we will take care, however, not to sacrifice scientific truth and honest conviction to mere absurd sentiment. We honour the past said we appi-eciate the pi-esent phase of our existence, at the same time. We feel it our duty to love our country and our people and our religion ; and at the same time we will not be blind to the excellence in the chai acter of other nations and other religions. Let the Grace of G-ud and the good will of our fellow-beings speed our wish and work.*' And we may be pardoned if we congratulate on; selves on having achieved some measure of success in all these directions. In fact, the appearance of this magazine was synchronous Tirith an increased and critical study of the Tamil language and literature and a

OiriJSRLVKH.

sxuiXy of

rcligioiis of India.

StimuUited chiefly by tlie

Tlieosi^liiciil S<x'iety, there wei-e aiiy naznber of magazines ani journals devoted to the study of Sanscrit and the exposition of the Vedante, Philosophy, which at best contained only an one-sided vie w of the I n d ^ pieoplo and tlieir beliefs. And many had felt the want a ^ expressed a wisii whether there was ever going to be a jodmal in nglis!i devoted to the study of Tamil Literature and Philosophy. Eren with our ears, we have heard our Indian friends aesk whe^er thei*e was any philosophy in the Tamil language and litorature, and. with tlie excejption of a very few scholars, none of the European scholai's knew anything about it, and much less cared to find oat for themselves. A European misaionarj ^ntleman wrote to us from England to say that he repeatedly pressed on Profes^ot* Max Mailer and Monier Williams and otherd the claims of Tamil Llterji:,tui*e f:.nd Philosophy but that they had turned a de&f ear to his pmyers. He complained that great injustice was done to Tamil but hoped there would come a day when full justice would be done to its great merits and excellence. And it must be a tioii-ce of considei-able satisfaction to our fiiend that in his own lilretimo the justice wliicli he demanded was fully i-endered by those very people who denied it at first. And it must be news to many that the convei-sion of .s jch a vetei-an Sanscrit scholar as .the liUe Profe:3:or Max Mailer was all due to the tiny efforts of this magazine. The proprietors and editors of this joui-nal were altogether unknown to the lr.te Profci^sor and they had never intruded on his notice t / x c ^ by jjCiilin^ iiiiii copies of this journal. We leamt casually from an Indian Civil Servant who met him in Oxford that the Professor was exercising his mind as to the particular featuroii of this magazine, and that he made enquiries as to the persons who were* coAdactihg it. ' And it was with pleasurable feelings that we read the concludrag paragraphs in his last great work on the Six Systems of Iii^H^ Philosc^^ which we extract below:

^g

SJDDHANTA

DKmKA.

"It is feared, however, that even this sraail remnant of philosophical leaminpr will vanish in one or two generations, as tho jonths of the present day, even if belonging to orthodox Brahmanic families, do not take to these stadies, as there is no encouragement. Bat, thoagh we may regret that the ancient method of philosophical study it dying ont in India, we should welcome all the more a new class of native stadonta who, after studying the history of European philosophy, have devoted themsdvea to the honorable task of making their own national philosophy better known to the world at l a i ^ . I hope that my book may prove useful to them by cbowing tbm in what direction they may best assist us in our attempts to secure a plaOB t thinkefa such as Kapila and Badarayana by the side of the leading phfloaophera of Oreeoe, Ronie, Grermany, Franca, Italy and England. In some cases, t ^ enthasiasm of native students may seem to have carried too far, and a mixing up of philosophical with religious and theosophic propaganda, inevitable as it is said to be in India, is alwayv dangerous. Bui such Journals as the Pundit, the Btahmavadin, THE LIGHT OF TRUTH and lately the Journal of the Bvdihist Text Society, have been doing most vahtahle service. What 'j-i want are texts and translations, and any information that can throw light on the chronology of Indian Philosophy. Nor should their labour be restricted to Sanscrit texts. In the South of India, there exists a philosophical literature which, though it may show clear traces of Sanscrit influence, contains also original indigeiwu* elements of great heanUy ami of great importance for historical purposes. Unfortunately, few scholars only have ta|ren up, As yet, to the study of the Dravidian Umguage and literature, but young studenta who complain that there is nothing left to do in Sanscrit literature, would, I believe, find their labours amply rewarded in that field."

It will be noticed with what few other magazines this magazine is coupled; and liow this joarnal has all througn kept in view the importance of translations and retained its own independence, avoiding the snares and pitfalls referred to by the learned professor. We never hoped that he would in a moment forget his life long partiality for Sanscrit, l u t we conbider it a great gain that he should t.cknowledgc the presence of original indigenous elements of great berauty and of grer.t importance in the South Indiian Philosophica.l Literature, and thai with almor.t his dying breath, he should recommend to his students the study of the same and should tell them that their labours will he amply rewarded in this new iield. To recount the work we have done, a very largo number of articles have appeared in its pages dealing with the Tamil literature, and lan^^aa-o and philology and the age of several classical writers. The translation into English of two fench colornl works as the

OtHSKLVES.

29

SiTagnuia Siddfaiar aud Sn Kanta Bashya liavc been accomplished, the latter nearing its completion almott; not to say of poi*tions of Tinimuitra and of a large number of hymns from the Devaram, Taymnaaavar Ac. A fall exposition of the Siddhanta Philosophy has been given, and earnest students of eveiy creed and religion have Bought for knowledge and information in its pages and they have always found matters for greater agreement than difference and for more mutual appreciation than recrimination. A nd we are glad to know that the Saiva Siddhanta Philosophy is more widely known and much better appreciated than a decade ago. Following up our first article on tlie ancient Tamilian civilizatiqn, Pandit D. Savariroyan and his friends have opened up a dark page of South India's past and gi^eat credit is due to them for carrying on their work, undeterred by the unreasoning opposition and prejudices of a large number. And we have heard itthat we have lost the sympathy of a few of our well-wishers and fiionds by permitting the publication of such articles. But we will appeal to their sense of justice and fairness for once. Did we not all read in onr schooldays that the Tamilians were aborigines and savages, that they belonged to a dark race, a Turanian one, whom the mighty civilizing Aryans conquered and called Dasyus, und tlir.t all their religion, language and arts were copied from the noble Aryanv Even a few years ago. a great man from our sister Presidency held foi-th to a learned Madras audience how every evil in our society, whether moral, social or religious, was all due to the admixture of the civilized Aryan with the barbarous Tamilian. How much of this was true and how much of it did we relish and how much of it we did not ? We hope it is well-known now how recent researches of European Ethnologists and Linguists have exploded the postulaof Professor Max Muller and others who gave currency to the

so

SIDDHANTA DEKPIKA.

distiucticu of TIII'anians and Aryans and how several tests of l a n g u a g e and fuai a es have been found to bo fallacious, and how, even in r e g a / d to till the tests, the Tamil race and language hare jitood as high a * ? possible. Tlie results are not yet definite, and more light is being thrown alniout erery day. This being so, can we not permit our Pandit and his friends to have their say and give them a good heaving ? All that we have got to do is to hear their facts, and to judge wliether their inferences are sound. As it is, W3 know the P.indit li^s already a very large following among the Tamil public wlio fully appreciate his work. As the interest of science is alono concerned, it is absurd to tn.ke offence, w^here none was meant. We trust therefore tluil our old friends and well-wi-shors will give us once more their strouii'mipjwrt so that the old work m?ij be carried on with renewed life rtiid vi or.

MY RESPONSE TO THE LIGHT OF TRUTH.


^ITQIT (^(^S subsc^ L>6i)Fdr6yr
Sdini Tirumoolar.

the vital-power of thought and ths iatorior forces in moiildin;^ oonditioiis, and more, of the stipremacy of thought over all conditions, the world has Bcarcelv the faintest grap, not to 8ay even idea, yet. The fact that thoaghu) are forcea and through them we have creative pouer is one of the most Wtal facts of the univerae, the most vital fact of man's being. And through this instrumentality, we have in our grasp, and as our rightful heritage, the power of making life and all its manifold conditions exactly as we w ilL Through our thought forces, we have creative power,, not fn k figurattvo sense, but in a reality. Everything in the milterial universe about us bad its origin first in spirit, in thought, and from this it took its form. The very world in which we live, with all its manifold wonders and sublime mimifestations is the T'jisiult of the energies of the divine intelligence or mindGod, or whatever it.

W V KKSroXSE TO THE LIGHT OF TKLTil. comcs conrenient to eacb anc to use. And Gwl said " Lot there bo, and ih: lo was" - the mftt^al worid, at least the material manifestation of it, Mas literal]} <)>okrti into existence ! The spoken word, however, is bnt the oatward manifestation tf thr int<>ri<Mr fcn^ees of the Snprcme Intelligence"Golden Thoughts gleaned from M'fstern Authors.

TKe light of Truth lias been hidden from view for a while. A heavy and sombre cloudthe vesult of dual notions a-nd actions, an offspring, as it were, of the Principle of Duality,was passing over its face and hiding it from view; but the light itself was never dimmed and like all fleeting things in this mundane world, the passing cloud has passed away and left the Light of Truth to shine as brightly as ever. A ray of this Light fell on me, poor soul, as I lay asleep, as in a trance, thinking all the while of tlie G race that saves and sets human soul at liberty, making it in its f reedom cverat-one withthe Source of all Grace^God himself, that Unity in Trinity that ever shines as Satchitananda. " A touch of Nature makes the whole world kin." But the even more magic touch of the Light of Truth, the Light that lighteth every lieart, is ineffable in its transforming effect. It transformri the humr.n ooul sunk in sorrow and sadness, tossed about in the raging, foaming, stormy sea of Sumsara,tossed to and fro, hither and thithei, this way and tliat way by the opposing forces of Nature, that ever play havoc with thope who fondly cling to the Principle of DualityIt transforms the soul tlius made sick intowhat shall I say?the Light itself, the ineffable, indescribable exjierienco of which, "like the conjugal bliss of a coy and sweet young muid," has to be realised by each hungry, thirsty soul by its own experience in self-realisation. The Light, it came, it touched my heart and entered my soul and lo I I am transformed. This, they sa-y, is my '-convei-sion." And truly so! For,
'The Saviour, He camc, I know not howl He entered my heart, you see it all! * r and t)c ' world-wide self He rooted out, root and all And in a blazing wild fire, lie burnt thoin all."

22

SIDDHANTA DEEPIKA. " I n a biasing fire, He burnt the flesh with its root, Desire, The unconquerable self, He conquered clean, leaving no trace behind ; Alone-become/ formless, in glory shone Ho afar, Then drawing nigh, dazed, embracing me in love and grace,*' " I shed tears of joy and prayed, His hold He would not release; He hugged me so that all fleshy Ix^nds fell off in the shake; Then the 'Bridegroom' He, dalliance played with ineffable grace and lovo And in Union Eternal made me His own to the loss of all that's * V and * mine/

Such is the story of my "conversion" ; "Kith and kin now have I none, nor a pedigree to boast nor am I of the earth, earthy And yet I am in the world, though not of it; and my mission in life henceforth is to obey Him who thus Wonderfully, by ^^a touch of Light " has transformed and ^^made me His own/' ^ ^ His own" I am, and shall ever remain : His '' call '' to me I listened and blessed am I, that listening to the call, hastened to him and rested my wearied head, that swam round with the experience of sorrow that followed my "eating of the fruit of the tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil" * on his Lotus Feet and prayed !
Beign Thou in my heart and feed it with the Bread of Life ; Behold! I am poor: And wouldst Thon the cause enquire, I want Thy Grace, none else my heart desireth; Oft defeated, still I long for Thee I O Lord, satisfy my longing and make me Thine own." " Let Thy Mother-Lore rule my heart and fill it with grace divine. Rituals, none I know my Lord ! Rectify the wrong I have done If Let my mortal mind's confusion cease and vain illusions fall to the ground; Sruti-lore have I none, Wisdom's Lord, yet wilt Thou not desert me '' Would it befit Thee, Lord of heaven and earth, to desert me ? Oh Lord of World, not there is beyond Thy Power, Immanent Lord, how can I with mortal mind comprehend Thy Truth ! Therefore, save me, Lord Almighty, granting me grace for the sake of The Lord be praised ! Hail to Thee, my King ! Hail to the faultless Gem, the emerald Light! Hail to the Lord that prayers grant to them that ask in faultless WOBD ! Bless me, Lofty One! I dedicate myself to Thee, and in suro conviction hold to Thy feet as the * S E C R E T or S U C C E S S / "
Om Tat Sat,

Thus I prayed and prayed until my heart melt in love and then He took me up and Blessed!
The Differentiating Spirit t The life out of harmonv I hare hitherto lived.

But, not before "'My Mother Divine" of Gufi euSsar is here indicated,

Mr

HKSPUNSE TO THK LIGHT OF TRUTH,

g3

has pleaded for me, poor soul; and since then, I live the life of Truth, and, knowing the worthlesaness of "Thanksgiving "I live a life of Thanksliving Thought.'* And my heart goes out unceasingly to Her who thus pleaded for me and I ever pray to Her, singing Her praise in my own simple way thus ;
^ Oh Mother Divine, Teacher and Light of Grace that to my hert is dear. By unswerving faith in Thy Grace divine did I see the Li^ht that %htefcli every heart; P r a ^ to Thee t ^ t from Life eternal hast borne me in Thy WOMB. And begot me ever before Time was, in the formless form I Ail, Om Namo Namah,

C. V. SWAMINATHA IYJ2K.

**niere is no ^solitude like that of a great soul in which there is no altar." *'Judge no one by his relation^ whatever criticism you pass on his companions. Relations, like feathers, are thrust upon us- Companions, like clothes, are more or less our own selection."
GaU HMUioH^

*'For life means much, to doto "be. And men must meet it manfully; A mingling w i t h the world's rough strain* A friend to help, oneself to train. So love's not all That) to a soul may fall. And yet, perchance it is; J'or love meauis strength for all of these.'^>Iind

gl

IS THEBE

DOUBLE

IX TAMIL.

18 T H E R E D0U3LE

tN TAMl.

T h e r e is one s t a n z a i n ( ^ j d ^ a n d a n o t h e r i n (sireoi^iun i'i w h i c h

are supposed to contain each an instance of what is regarded as double taSiTeirOua)!-, The following are the stanzas:
^ ^ j ^ i f s (^^Iwrr [L\<3S) ff u u n iL Q t i l eun L^oj Q s^sf^, {^peir iB^^j sMir^p QeSa i^u^uiS n ear & mirc^ g)eoff jyjyJ ^ ^Ssu ^to (n eoi^tuni'i)

st. 1 0 )

In these stanzas Qa^aff^^Hiu and g)isofrj;fj)/il are printed with double jy in all the available editions as indicating double c-nSirerr Oui-. The reason which prompted the editoi*s to introduce this double ^6aQusL- is clear; for, Qs^a^^uu with single jysrrQufiB) is and its combination with eurrt^uj wll bo and not O o / s O T T c S f e j T which (j^Dcir metre requires. To remedy this so called dcfect in metre, another \o\vol Jy is introduced by way of ^mQues) as Qs^Qff^siii which is supposed to make ^(^afieirui which with succeeding ciTifluj makes Qsussstl^^. For the same reason, ^eoa n is written with double cSy. We shall briefly refer to the grammatical p.uthorities on the Bubject and see whether any such device as double ^eSFmOueo.^ is known to Tamil grampiar and sanctioned by it, and whether aft^r all, there is any necessity at all metrically for the introduction of it in the two stanzas above quoted. Poets from very ancient times have been freely adopting the device of single when the metro requires it, and we moot with numerous instances of it in Vonba and Agaval cspi^cially, though modern poets singing in Vritthas have never thought fit to have recourse to i: at all.

SrDDHANTA DKKPIKA.

35

IllO;tf irtjt9(uii> under the Q^^^efiajeo Sutram ^^StmOuesa^ quotes several instances of single a - t S ^ r a r O u w ^ but not a single instance of tae so-called double But, coming to modem times, we h? ,'e in Nannul the Sutram 'Qoo^Qsi^ikQion &c. Under this Sutr-uu, the tSQ^^ f^tjeoff quotes several instances of single z.uSlirerr Qua*'^ but not being content therewith quotes the above ^ p m with the curious observ a t i o n j | r u j a; ir tu'CTO^l/^ Loir^^io/rajiTtLfui^ ^dssroj
Qp^jpf ma-^^eDa uj'ifLfui^ pjp^iQ^^iHeP.esiS^ ojis^

/(r meaning in thei-e ought to be double jf so that being two mr-tras and double being two matras, the total number is four, while for and other instances being two matras and single jf being one matra, the total number is three. The annotator, however, quotes no authority for his observation that O^^jjrjytfj is four matras or in other words it contains double
Jt^Ou fiBU.. ^

The j)f6irQuD_ is noticed in


eo mtr ek

ani?.es>3t in

the well known stanza,


(BdiSlGRyiuifUi

Qp^patm^cSI&^^&iQibffesifQiiu^

O stiL^err u a til eSt^Geo" li Qmn a* j; Qtu r

In this stanza, even the formulas of QsirmQuea'^ and fimriu^rr Oui- are given, the illustrative stanzas being also pointed out. Iii all this, however, there is not the slightest reference made either tc the principle of double ^eirQuGo-^ or to the ( ^ p ^ above quoted which is alleged to give rise to the principle in question. Nor does the aianotator make mention of the principle or the example in Besides the.two stanzas above quoted, we are not aware of anj versie iiom a classical work, which it is possible to quote ir illustra tiou of'dijaMe JlarOtjfio.-., and in both these stanzas.above quoted we shall show on the learned authority of is^&^iiSQ^MJIT th^i'

IS THERE DOUBLE

TN TAMIL,

there need be no resort for the sake of metre to any such strange fiction, and that re^ly there is no such things as double ^wQumt^ known to Tamil Grrammar. In Q^a^sfuiStuui under the SutramG*^^ ^lu^^/r imJr Lf^^Girp /ljpjru.LSajjbai>attjQtai^u (Qf^tu^efieuM) stanza 882 p. 682 the author explains under what circumstances the syllables t^mr and SmtLi are admissible as the last foot of the lat line of a Tenba. < f i eSojiif in his commentaries on the above Sutram, quotes the line *QairtL(BiiessiikiQsir^ m/TQp'Bso' as example for mma ajmr occurring at the end of a Venba and then quotes 'airij^arGifiQsr mpseiBjpi 'for ifwL/ occurring at the end of Venba. And then i63e*j/f observes as follows;
Qtunflai ^iw^

2gtfr?

*Q*ftL ertaroiih

^CBTQ^O)

* ^wiu^smQeup Jf^^^Jpf

Qmirm^im O^tiqmgu

aiic^cr.

^ i q s rcsrc I B ^ ^ " {Q^rwsruSajLD,

eOwtr^iiAQntf^

^uii*

Q ^ i u i q e i B i u w . P a g c f>B8.;

In other words, after explaining t h a t the 2 n d foot in the last line of a Venba combines in Qmmu.^ with the final raises the question why does not Qj^noisruiHtLjir explain the ^^ir as between the 1st and 2nd feet of the last line of Venba, and very learnedly answers the question by saying, that, as they, wc., the 1st and 2 n d feet of the last line, do n o t n e c e s sarily combine in Qeudri^Sxr, the author has not t h o u g h t fit t o explain the which is not as certain a s the betmoen the 2 n d and last feet and, in illusti'ation o f h i s answer, q u o t e s t h e rery K u r a l and Naladiar lines above quoted to b h e w t h s t t h e f i r s t t w o f e t t f the last line of Venba d o s o o i e t i m e s c o m b i n e o^herwi^e t h a n

SIDDHANTA DEEPJKA.

Therefore aocording to Q^a^j^u pbu mtwifitu and plu* QSOBM do liofc combine in QmtmtJ^ but only in ^ ^ f i i u p ^ ^ and, therefore, and being SmJrQe'i, they are only single simQum-^ and not double. In i^ite of thia clear exposition by k^Q^u s^aSuj^ oi tha metrical peculiarity in the two stanzas above quoted, the Kannul has adopted the unusual device of adding wjother short vowel to so as to convert wsif) u)/r into SQ^tSmih in order that the following syllable tt/T in mtn ^lu niay combine in i^aar with it and the metre may be saved from irregularity. And upon this authority of Nannul
OA/CW

all the editors of

Kural and Naladiar h&ve Qf(i^j)f<fiiiu and respectively, instead of Qf^c^J^vu and for the purpose of pi-eserving the Venba metre; for our pandits and editors and writers of manuscripts can hardly endure the idea of a (5/>er verse containing an instance of metrical irregularity as it is no less than a sacrilege with them. Even when they are told by so gieat an authority as that such metiical irregularities do occur in ancient poetiy between the Ist and 2nd feet of the last line, they are inexorable to his voice, and would rather devi?ie an unauthorized grammatical fiction than hear such a profane language as want of Omsurt^Sisff in a The Nannul curiously enough does not even refer to the view of and give reasons for differing from him, but gives its opinion very complacently as if it is a principle univei'sally acknowledged by the Tamil World. Even inQ^trMsruiSfuua itself where explains the pi'incipie in question and quotes the abo^'e Kural and Naladiar verses, they are printed by the editor with double Jt^ in direct contravention of the very principle in illustration of which it is quoted by the amfotator, unless of course we disregard it as a printer's devil.

^^

IS THERE DOUBLE

- TN TAMIL.

Bat all readers of Tamil who have any regard for history and troth, and who do not wish to obliterate all traces of differenco between Ancient and Modern Tamil must hail explanation with very great- delight; because, he is true to histoty and honest. By his explanation, we are enabled to see that @/D6rr is a work of enormous antiquity, and retains in spite of all opposition at least one instance of metrical irregularity in so ancient a metre as a Venba which developed into perfection ?.ges ago, and this irregularity we must cherish with gTeat delight, instead of looking upon it with abhorrence as our moderns do and trying to obliterate it by ugly dovices: for, is it the matured accents of our grown-up sons or the unintelligible inarticulate sounds of their youths thr.t are dear to us f & ^ssf)tu ir refers to his above view in another place, p.723, in his commentaries on O^^ajqaiSuj w thus u i r Q u *
jpiuL-ff es)lhUSIssr ^RG/D liisi^^-^ Q^q^^tu

s u a - S T i ^ T u ^ ^ Qeus^uir ersk u/i inn ii9/b That isf he says:-Some even suspect whether the above Qisn-fu can be called a true Venba as it is metrically irregular, and his answer is that it is a Venba in spite of it as it does not differ from it in material pai-ticulars. T. VIRABADRA MUDALIAR, B.A., B.L.

THE

400 L V I U C S .

rURKA-NANKUimU.

39

T h e 400 L y r i c s P u r r a

Nannurru.

By the Rev. G. U. Pope, M. A., D .D., Balliol College and Indian Institute, Oxford. Tlie Corau Kiug, Killi-Yalavan, who fell at Eula-muttam.

This king, who [we may infer] possessed considerable ability, was both brave and generous ibut somewhat headstrong. Hence a great deal of good advice is, in a very tactful way, offered to him by the minstrels and he seems to have been all the better for it. The following lines are worth noting. They are by the same sweet singer.
Good Counsel for the young King (35) The Tamil Lands.

The pleasant Tamil lands possess For boundary the ocean wide. The heaven, where tempests loud sway not. Upon their brow rests as a crown. Fertile the soil they till, and wide. Three kings with mighty hosts this land Divide; but of the three, whose drums Sound for the battle's angry strife, Thou art the chief, O mighty one Though the resplendent sun in diverse quai-ters rise; And though tiie silvery planet to the south decline; Thy land shall flourish, where through channels deep, Kaveri flows with bright refreshing stream, Along whose banks the sweet cane's white flowere wave Like pennon'd s|ieai*s uprising from the plain. Let me speak out to this rich country's ImigBe easy of access at fitting time, as though The lord of justice sat to hear, and right decree. Such kings have i-ain on their dominions at their willi The clouds thick gather round the sun, and rest In vault of heaven:So let the canopy Of state challenge the sky, and spread around Not gloom, but peaceful shade I I^t all the victories Be the toiling ploughman's gain' Kings get the blame, whether rains fail, or copious flow, And lack the praise : such is the usage of the world. If thou hast marked and known this well, Reject the wily counsels of malicious men. Lighten the load of those who till the soil. The dwellers in the land protect. If 4ihou do this
T h y stubborn foes ghall I c ^ l y b e n d b e n e a t h t h y f e e t ,

4.1

NOTES.

NOTES.
It gives us great pleasure to announce that the late Srila Sri. S. Somasundara Nayagar s works are to be republished as they have long been out of print. Intending subscribers can write to P. Appavu Chettiar, No. 80, Govindappa Naick Street, Madras.

Kanji Nagalingam Mudaliar is bringing out a second edition o Meikandasastram. A necessity for the second edition has arisen 80 soon is proof positive of the success of his 1st edition. This edition is to be brought out In parts and the fii'st part containing^ Sivagnanabothain is much fuller in notes and annotations than the first edition. Subscribers can write to the editor, No. 46, General Muthiah Mudali Street, Madras.

One of our exchanges, the MIND, " the leading exponent of New Thought," New York, is now making a'two fifths reduction in its subscription price since November ist 1905. It has been a 2*50 dollars periodical. It is going to remain a 2-50 dollars periodical, but hereafter the cost, per year, will be only 1-50 Dollars. When it consisted of but eighty-four pages of reading matter it made a place and a name for itself at a-.'^O dollars. Now it h ^ ninety six pages and intends to make a still better record at 1 '50 dollars. We commend it to the readers of our Journal.

It gives us veiy great pleasure to note that for the fii-st time a Tamil Scholai* has been honoured by the Sovereign by the grant of the Title of Mahamahopadhyaya in the person of Pandit V. Swaminathier the foremost Tamil Scholar in, Southern India. We offer him our hearty congratalations

THE

8IDDHANTA DEEPIKA
OK

The Light of Truth.


A Monthly Journal, Devoted to lieligiOH, Philosophy, LiteraUtre-, Science

Coniiiinoed o n

t h [Queen's

CiommemoraUoii D a y ,

1897.

Vol. Vn.

MAY 1906.

No. 2.

TRANSLATIONS.
aif4cK>

THE VEDANTA-SUTRAS WITH SRIKANTHA BHASHYA. [Cmtinued from })age 17 of VoL VII.)

FOURTH ADHYAYA.
THIRD PADA. Adhikarana 1.
By light, etc., as it is clearly taught (IV. iii. 1.)

In the last pada it was taught that the contemplator departs ftoin the body by the nadi of the head, the passage ]bing lighted by ihe Grace of'the Paramesvara dwelling in the heart. Now, we shall tirsi enquire whether such a contemplator attains Brahman solely by the path of light, or it is possible for him to reach Brahman by some other way also.

42

SIDDHANT4 DEEPIKA.

Indeed, in one place we are taught that it is also possible to reach Brahman without passing through the path of light: "Where the root of the hair divides, there he opens the two sides of the head, and saying Bhu, he enters Agni, saying Bhuvas, he enters Vayu, saying Suvas, he entei-s Aditya,, sajdng Mahas he enters Brahman. He there obtains lordship."* Wherefore the path of light is not always necessary for reaching Braliman. against the foregoing view, we argue as follows. The enlightened devotee (Vidvan) reaches Brahman by the path of light solely; for in the Vidya of Five J ires (Panchaghividj a) it is clearly taught that the path of light leads to Brahman, in the words "They go to light..."t In the passage of the Taittiriya-Upanishad quoted above it is not the path to Brahman that is taught; on the other hand, it is the attainment of the glory (vibhuti) of Brahman that is taught there. Wherefore the attainment of the Supreme is possible only through the path of light. According to some, there is no necessity for the path of light in the case of those who take to the contemplation of the unconditioned Brahman.
Siddhdnta:As

Adhikarima 2.
(We should understand) 'Vayu'after 'year/ because of the generic and specific mention. (IV. iii. 2.)

A doubt arises as to whether in the order of the stages on the path of light as mentioned here {i. e. in the Chhandogya-Upanishad) we should interpose the order mentioned elsewhere in the Sruti, or whether we should adhere onlj to the order found here. The Ohhandogya teaches the order of the .stages on the path of light as follows: "They go to light (archis,) from light to day, from day to the liglit half of the moon, from the light half of the moo!i to the six months when the sun goes to the north, from the six months when the sun goes to the north to the year, from the year to the sun, from the sun to the moon, from the moon to the lightning. There is a person not human; he leads them to Brahman."
Tait. Up. 1-6. t Chhft. .'J-lO-l. Ibid. S-lO-l, 2.

S R I ^ N T H A BHABHIA.

41

IQ the BrihfifiUuiiny^ka, the wind (Y&ya) ia oieiitioiMd the year and the sun: "When the peraon goes s m y from this world, he odfeo^Mrtit^v wind. I ^ n the wind makes room for him, like dm liiiln iir T i iiiigi wheel, uid throii^ it he mounts higher. He oom^ io^ tht The question is whether or not the wind should be iiite^fpciis^ (between the year and the sun.) P^TvofpakshaNow it should not be interposed, beoftuae it does not occur in the Sruti between them. Siddhd'ntw.^As against the foregoing we hold as follows; On t l principle that we should gather together what is taught in different places on the same subject, the wind should be interposed after the year and before the sun. In the Brihadaranyaka itself, elsewhei^, when speaking of the order of the stages on the path 6i light, the region of Gods, (Devaloka) is mentioned in the words ''from the inonth to the region of the Gods, from the region of the Gods to the aiin/' and this Deyaloka should come after the year, for, following the teaching of the Chhandogya we should in^rpos^ the year in ^ m passage, and then the year will havato take its place after the months since it is a longer period than the months. The Devaloka is none other than the wind. The word * Devaloka/ literaUy the region of Gods, denotes the i^nd as its generic appellation, whereas the word * Vayu' denotes the wind itself specifically. Thus, as specific and generic appellations of the same thing, the words 'devaloka' and 'Vayu* refer to one and the same thing, namely, the wind. So before the sun we should interpose the wind. The Sruti says : " The wind is the seat of the Gods." * * The wind that blows here,this is the stronghold of the Gk)ds."

Adhikarana 3.
After lighting (comes) Vanma, because of (their) connection. (TV. iii. 8.)

The Kaushitaki-Upanished reads as follows : " Having reached the path of the gods, he comes to the world of Agni (fire), to the world of Vayu (air), to the world of Varmia,
' , Op. oit. 7.10-1. ^ '

44

SIDDIIAXTA

DKEPrKA.

10 the world of Indra, to the worhl of J'nijupati, to the world of Braliinan."* Here, the first place jfivon to lijrht, Iiorc tli'signatt'd as 'Agni,' is indisputable. As the i-elativo ]H)siti>n< of \'ayn and Oie sun oxprossly assigned to thcni in tlio otli<r u]^:mis]ia<ls lia\o a better claim to our acceptance than tho one jissio iu.,1 lie re, thev will have to bo placed after tlie year in tlunr due >itU'r. V'-aruna, too, and others being mentioned here, a d j n b t a r i s e s a s t whether they can or cannot be placed in the path of light. {Purvapaksha):There being no iiile ly which to detemiino their position, they can find no place in the ])atli of light. (Siddhanta): As against the foiegoing wo hold as follows; It is necessary to assign places to them in the ]iat h. It is but right to assign a placo to the world of Vai una next after the world of lightning, because of their mutual relation. The nmtual connection between lightning and V'aruna is well knt>\vn to all, inasmuch as Varuna is the lord of tho water in the raiu Avliieh is preceded by the lightning. After them should tome tlui worlds of Indra and Prajapati, sach being the only i^laces that remain to be assigned to them. Thus there remains nothing inex])licable.

Adhikarana 4.
They |Li;6 f u i d e s , because of the niark (IV. iii. 4.)

Now a doubt arises as to whether light, etc., are so many localities marking the stages on the path, or they are so many gods (Devatas) leading the wise devotees (to their desiination).
{Purvapaksha):It may at fii-st appea,r that they are so many

localities, since the path m.iy lia^ e some marked stages. In common parlance people say, 'leaving tho village, go to the i-iver, and then thou wilt reach the station of the herdsmen, so, too, are light, etc. (Siddhanta): As against the f o i e g o i n g w e hold as follows. Light, etp., are cert^iinly so many d i f f e v e n t g o d s identifying them Op. cit. 1-H.

SRIKAKTHA RHASHTA.

45

aelven with the path, and acting as leaders of the wise devotees. It is but right to conclude that lirdit, etc., also are leaders, though not mentioned as such s])ccifically as may be inferred from the fact that the person in the li^^itning is nientioned ta be a leader: "Tliere is a pei*son not human, and h'ads them to Brahman."'* Now it may be asked: Of what use are Varuna, if the person in the lightnii r leads the souls to Brahman ? The Sntrakara angers as follow-<8:
Thence bv the i>erion in the lightning alone, as the Sruti says. (IV. iii. 6.)

After reaching the person in the lightning, that person alone leads them to Bvahnuin, as the Sruti says : " There is a person not human ; and he leads t hem t o Bralimar ." Varuna and others are leadei-s in so far as they lu'lp the person in leading the souls. So, thei'e is nothing i i i c x p l i c i i b l e here.

Adhikarana 5.
(He leads them to) the Created, says Badari, because of the possilaliiy of passage to Hini. (IV. iii. 6.)

A donbt arises as to whether the non-human pei*son leads the devotees to the Brahman Himself or to some one else. {Pmrajxiliiha) : He leads them only to the Hiranyagarbha, the Created; for it is to Him, not to the supreme Brahman who is all-pervading, that a passage is possible. The Sutrakara gives another reason :
And becaase it is so specified (IV. iii. 7.)

Being specified in the words I come to the hall of Praj^ti, to the house,"t it is to the abode of the Hiranyagarbha that the person leads the devotees.
But the mention of Him is due to proximity (IV. iii. 8.)

As to the mention of Brahman in the words " he leads them to B r a h m a n i t is due to the Hiranyagarbha s proximity to Brahman,
Chha. 540-2 ~ t Cbha, 8-14-1. Ibid. 6-10-2.

e^

SIDDHANTA DEEPIKA.

and the Hiranyagarbha'a proximity is inferrible from hia being spoken of as the first created being: ^ See ye the Hiranyag^rbha who is the first-bom."*
At the dissolution of th creation, along with its lord he goes beyond il, M the Sruti says. (IV. iii. 9.)

Though the abode of the Hiranyagarbha is first reached, there is no contradiction of the Smriti which denies return to this world. For, at the dissolution of the world of the Hiranyagarbhat the souU of the enlightened pass on to the Highest goal which lies beyond the world of the created Brahman, along with the Hiranyagarbha the lord of the latter. Accordingly it is said in the Srnti:... "They in the Brahma-loka, at the end of the creation, are all released, on reaching the immortal one beyond." Hence no inconsistency whatever.
And the Smriti also says. (IV. iii. 10.)

" At the time of dissolution, at the end of the great cycle, they all, along with Brahman, with regenerated souls, enter the Supreme Abode." From this passage of the Smriti too, we understand lo. Thns we conclude that the host of the gods, from the god of light upward, Ittads the soul to the Hiranyagarbha first. Then, at dissolution, the supreme Brahman is reached by the sonl along with the Hiranyagarbha. (Now follows another pdrvapaksha:)
To the one beyond, says Jaimini, because He is primarily so. (TV. iiL 11.)

The gods on the path of light lead the sonl to Narayana Himself, who is superior to the Hiranyagarbha; for Narayana can be called Brahman in the primary sense of the word, as He is the Parabrahman in His aspect as the upadana or material cause of the universe. So says Jaimini. The Sutrakara gives a reason for the above:
Because we find it so stated. (IV. iii. 12.)

"He reaches the end of the path, that supreme abode of Vishnu'> in these words we find it stated that the abode of Vishnn is the one reached by thie soul.
Hahanarayana-Upiauthed. t Katha Up. 8*9,

SanUNTHA

BfiAAKiL

F w the foUoiriiig feaaoa also, we


Vitliiiii. And thve is no referenee to the Cceated.

i h s b ^ M i l St
( l Y . iii. 18.)

As to the pasaage come to the hall of Prajjapati, to the hooB/'* there is no reference to the created being, the Hiraayagarblift; for it is possible that, as the protector of creatures, Narayaoit may be dlsnoted by the word "Prajapaii." And as to the passage, "They in the Brahma-loka, at the end of creation, are all released, on reaehing that immortal one beyond,'> here, too, the word %ahman' refers to Narayana. Having dwelt in His abode, the Yogins, at the end of the great cycle, i. c. on the last bodily existence coming to a cloeey they pass on to the Great Immortal Brahman who is at>oye all, and become released. Bence no inconsistency. ''These, indeed, &re the designations of the Immortal/'t in these words it is said that Hiva, the Parabrahman, is the one who is called the Immortal, and the one who can be said to be ever free. Wherefore, on the death of the body brought into existence by the prai*abdhakarma> th^ yogins dwell in the abode of Vishnu, till the completion of the fruit of the prarabdhakarma, and then, passing on to Brahman who is above all, they become free.
SiddhdiitaiNow

the Sutrakara proceeds to state his own

conclusion.
Badarayana iiaintains that (the person) leads (to Brahman) those who do not worship symbolB; because there ;i8 a fault in both (the views given above). A i ^ he who is intent on Brahman (goes to B r a ^ i a n Hiraaelf). (IV. iii. 14.)

The worshippei-s of symbols are those who worship a sentient being or an insentient object merely regarding it as Brahman. But they who worship Bi ahman Himselt who is above all are not said to be the worshippers of symbols. The worshippers of the Brahman Himself are led by the person to Braliman Himself and to none else, to that Bralmjan whom the Sruti describes as superior to all, as dark and yellow, as divei-s-eyed,iuasnmch as the Sruti teaches that the worshipper of Brahnmii Himself attains Brahman Himself : Having reached the liijfhest light, he attains his true forro."
_ , - j i -

Chha. 8-141.

fMahanarayana Up.

J-Fabala Up.

K'hha.

48

S l D D H A N T A PEEPIKA.

"Him wluwe Uelp-maU) is U I U H , who is the supremo Lord, Mighty, Three-eyod, Dark-neokcMl, and serene: having meditated thu8, the sage reaelies Him who is t.lio womb of all beings, the witness of all, transeending darkness. * In both the views gi\eii above the re is a fault, inasmuch as they contradict the Sruti. He wiu^ is intent on Brahman, i. e. the wors]iip]>cr of Braiinian Hiinseif, L'oe.s to Jh aluiian ; he does not tarry on the way, because there is no use doing so. lieing the Upadana or material c luse of the Hiranyagarbha who represents the sum total of all creation, Narayana is superior to the Hiranyagarbha; superior even to Narayana is the supreme Brahman called Siva, the Nimitta or efficient cause, the Divers-eyed, the Omniscient, the Omnipotent, the Ever-satisfied, the Self-reliant, the Self-luminous. So we read in the Sivasankalpa-Upanishad. " Bi'ahman is greater than the great; greater still than that great one is Hari; even greater than this one is Isa." Elsewhere, too, we iead/*Brahmau who is suiHjrior to Narayana. + Having thus spoken of Brahman as su|>crior to Narayana, the Srutif in answer to the questionof what nature is Brahman proceeds to describe Brahman in the j)assage '^Phe True, the Real," J as one who, being the Omniscient, is never subject to error in thought or speech; as one who fills the whole univerRe " V N ' ih the rays of His Potency; as one associated with Uma, the Paiasakti or Supreme Potency, who is inseparable from Himself, the great cause (paraprakriti). that supreme Light made up of highest bliss and pure intellijjence, manifesting Herself in the form of the whole universe including the HirtmyagarbJia, which is evolved out of Narayana the highest sentient being, wlio in his turn is but one aspect of Her own being; as the Immutable, as the '.rhree-eyed, as the supreme Brahman transcending all. In the words ''superior to all is Eudra"ll He is said to be above the whole univi-se. Therefore it is quite unreasonable for the followers of the Vodas to imacine a hi<*her being thaii this one.
And the Sroti points out a distinction. Kaivalya-Up. J Mahanarayau (IV. iii. 15.) Jp! Ibid. || Ibid.

SBIKAKTHA BSUkSBTA.

49

Tlw Sruti itself distinguishes the thrae(1) BnAmum who is boTe all (2) Vishnu who is au aspect of Brahman and who is the material cause (upadana) and (3) the Hiranyagarbha who is evolved from Vishnufrom one anotlier as the passages like the following shew:

"Brahma is greater than tlie great


one is Isa."

even greater than this

"See ye the Hiranyagarbha the firstborn."* " Purusha verily, is Rudra. ' Wherefore the only reasonable conclusion is that the non-human person leads the soul to the abode of Siva, the supreme Brahman, that is beyond Brahma (the Hiranyagarblia) and Vishnu, to that abode which is the supreme Light made up of supreme bliss. As to the supposition (that the per^n leads the soul to Vishnu,) based on the passage "He reaches the end of the path, that supreme abode of Vishnu," we say that tlie word ' Vishnu' here denotes the Pftrabrahman. The end of the six-fold path, t. e., that which lies beyond that path, can properly be no other than the abode of Siva, who is above all. Or to interpret it otherwiie: the supreme abode or nature of Vishnu who manifests Himself as the universe is the npretue light, which is supreme bliss, itself; and this can be no other than the state of Siva, the Parabrahman, wherein dwelling Vishnu is not of the world though manifesting Himself as the universe. Hence no inconsistency whatever. In reference to this subject some hold as f o l l o w s A s the Sruti m ^ "At the end of the gi*eat cycle, they are all released, on reaching the Jmmortal One beyond,"* we should understand that those wko worship Vishnu as the highest manifestation of Siva, the supreme Bnilinuui, reach the world of Vishnu,who is called Brahman (in the S R N T I ) because he is a manifestation of the supreme Brahman and, with all the glory of Vishnu manifested in themselves, they, at the end of the cycle, when the last bodily existence comes to a close I T T E I N to S I T E , the Supreme Immortal Being beyond, and then they tEalh Up. 8 0. S Makanacayasa Up.

50

SIDDHANTA DEEPIKA.
thRt tho-^e w l i o w o m l i i p V i s h n u

a r e l i b e r a t e d . T h u s t h e J^rnii to tiie a^Hde of SivH.

rPHoh Hr^Jt the w o r l d of A'isKnu a n d , iTiPri, at'ter s o m e i n t e r v a l , A t t a i n H e n c e n " t h i n j r iaconsiHtent h e r e .


V

A.

V i A H A D K V A SAS'I'K Y ,

B.A.,

"And this I know that good sliall fall at last, far off, at last to all, Ane every winter change to spring; that nothing walks with aimless feet. That not one life can be destroyed or cast as rubbish in the void, When God -hath made the pile complete." Tmnyswi, " The ideal of a man's real self is hid in the bosom of God, and may lie ages away from his knowledge; and his ideal of woman is the ideal belonging to his unrealized self. The ideal only can call forth or long for its counterpart ideal.'
t( To 'p

perform is to promise ; To-day's dawn pledges the sun for to-morrow." Who is ca))able of knowing his

" We arc deejHjr than we know. own ideal ? '

"First the grain and then the blade, the one destroyed, the other made: The stalk and blossom and again, the gold of newly minted
gram.

So life by death, the reaper, cast to earth again shall rise at last; For 'tis the serviec of the sod, to render God the things of God." "So long as we love, wc serve. So long as we are loved by otJiers I would almost say we are indisi>ensable; and no man is nseJess while he has a f r i e n d . " L o a U SieveH^OH.From the Mind.

T I B L ] i U N T B A M uV m V i f U L A R .

51

TIRUMANTRAM
or

TIRUMULAR.
FIRST TAMTRATHB UPADR8A.

[Cmi^fiiHPfl f n m page

2 f of Vftl.

FII.)

21. Who like our Lord will know the meritB and demerits of each and bestow His grace accordingly ? In contact with tlie world, the great, like the tortoise^ withdrew their Ave senses into themselves and losing both good and bad Karma beceme freed of evil. 92. The 'nnall still voice' of the teacher will be heard in the mind that becomes still like the waveless sea. Even as the ghee is present in the nncardled milk, when all speech and thought and feeling is lost the nntamiahed light will mingle in as, making us Sat. 93. When the soul leaves the senses and sensations to depart their own way, this chit has no other place but in Chit. In the pare Akas, the Light will mingle in Light. Understand the truth even from the illostration of water. Note. We are not to go as the senses guide us. When we leave their guidance, they leave us and we land ourselves in God as the ripe frqit detaehes itself from the stalk and reaches the ground. Cf (1) Sivagnanabotha. " (2) Mundaka Up. 1, 2, 9. In the Highest. Golden Sheath (Hiranmaya Parakosha,) thorc is the Brahman, without passion (Nishkala) and without parts. That is Pure, that is the Light of Lights.

52

SIPDSANTA DEB^KA. (3) Chand. 8, 3, 4.

'Now that serene being ^who, after having risen from thii earthly body and having reached the Highest Light (Paranjyoti, Parasakti,) appears in Crod s true form. 24. What tastes skarp in water gets converted by the snn heat into a fonn tailed salt. This salt will become one with water when again thrown into water. So also, the Jiva merges in Sivam. 25. Tliis explains how the world of atoms entering the great Worlds yettequire no room. The souls dwelling in various bodies have their final goal in the Foot of the changeless One. 26. This Foot, when well thought out, is Sivam. This Foot is Siva Loka. This foot is the final goal. This Foot is the last shelter. 27. ^nchvledge consists in seeing the Guru. Kno^tdedgd colisists in uttering His name. K n o ^ e d ^ oonsiists in hearing His words.

ICnbwledge cdnsists in meditating His form.


28. If one alone meets our Lord, The senses themselves will be controlled by him, The senses will depart of their own accord. The senses will change their course away from us. 29. We teach the beautiful feet of Nandi. We meditate the beautiful form of Nandi. We adore with words the name of Nandi. We place in our heart the golden feet of Nandi. 30. They became holy by placing in their intellect our Holy Nandi who imparts intelligence. They see the Dance of our Lord, ^vith glad eyes, and reach Heaven receiving the praises of the Vedas.

TIRUlfANTBAM OP TIBUlf^LAB.

iS8

INBTABtLlTr

OF TUB

BOtt.

1, Lo f This body of good and evil, componnded of tlie earUi, ii appeared solid and reached the fire; when the rains fell on it, it became earthy, so numberless men do perish. S. The false roof of the body falling down from A G E , the and children, 'who ate out of him will not follow.
WOOMII

Except tiie ta|Mit

and knowledge which he acquired, nothing else will follow him close. 9. The whole city gathered and eried aloud; they removed ha name' and called him a corpse; they .took and burnt him in the bam* log ground; they bathed themselves and clean forgot him. 4. This body has two posis, one top beam and 32 CVQBB biltmii^ the lop thatch is removed, the breath departs, the departing breath cannot enter it back. 5. The breath became difficult, Ihe frame was loosened. The fime was old and the spirit departed; they wondered^dan renounced the body, they threw handfuls of rice to the rooks. 6. They ate the food that was newly cooked, they iook ilie plesaures of life in the company of one to me ; they felt the twitchj^gft of the eyelidsi ^hey took to their beds and died straghtaway. Our chief raised a palace in the city square, our chief rode on ft |la&Quin in the public squares. ^ttHty 4n ^ e pnbUc squares. iur Father. 8. The match was discussed and the marriage accomplished, lore i m 'MuA^d and altogether forgot; they cried over his body l o d oUused it on the bier, the milk food was cooked and offered
tacriftce*

Our chief distribated 3 crores in

Yet he never we&t alter and soQ|^t

^ J i t fj a i i i n n M m ^ i dMt^ifed ftnd the body ^fg^tm^M^^^ aenaes fattening on gheefood fled they left the llftfftg iM^ild^ wtMnen and gold, beantifnl, as though taking

IOL Hie Puidal was taken down and the treasnre honie diaM M H ^ iill^#ie*iiiiie galea were cloeely shot, the sorrowing hour rnmli^^m'^e loving Fslntion cried and departed, Lo f II. The Loird of onr conntry, chief of onr city, is carried in the iiMifMl' p i h m f ^ ai#y with the people following it behind and the d M t o beMiAgf in Ifont. 18. Tke 96 tatras dwell in the well-bnilt castle; all these take to ikiifJMelsili.tlM castle is destroyed. Mr. Leaving behind him his wealth and buildings and the sweet he rides to the common burning ground in a car, and people tiiere. 14, Even Hiough they see the bodies pe r Ish, yet they love the body thinking that^ won't perish. Their desires form the seed of a new lAHh^end idllow tlmn. Sc are they wearied ever disgracefully. 15. The clamouring relations and females anl children leave off ikt^the city limitB. The unjust put the corpse on the funeral pyre li^d witk ifirewood freed fron^ roots, fire it and ba^o in a pool of water. W In the whole world, the pets which the potter makes with fine t M eanh, if '4>roken, will be preserved at least 8 a pot^erd. But if the body perishes, it wont be kept in the house even for a mosoent. 17. This horse has 5 beiads and 6 manes and 30 joints and 18 tethering posts and 15 stables Jand nine Sheds. It fell down burnt and we know not what happened after.

TIBUiafflnQdi*Ol' lUCUilULAB;

IP. th#r'pM'fiaT^ Jf-ni^^r^mttpo Wflgfc-Wrt llwit-ct of greens. Thev hui ried lo pHi-take this f w d aitU lo! t h ^ f a ^ . 19. There is nu rot>t H)>ove m>r wellpre]mred Moor^Wlpyr. l i ban two iejfs vposts) and one lieatn. It is very nicely thatched.>at it is all now white cinder only. 20. Tlie body is laid out in the outer court, the home is not adomd; They wail in song all about his wealth, welfare, and past jgretfteM and finish by burning the body in fire. 21. The egg was Imtched in 300 days. In the twelfth lie got married and in hia 70th year he died. Except this record, did yon liear of his charity, ye poor mortals. 22/ They bewail, those fools, that won't understand that the lamp must bum out when the oil is exhausted. They full down in angni^ who could not learn from the world falling into darkness after day break. 23. He did not worship with his body and soril. The Lord of Maya crowned with konrai flowers, Him who gave him his body and life; and he has gone to the seventh hell to suffer; and these call on him so that their bowels may burst. 24. They liva regally mtli umbrellas, liorses and swords and in the midst of their glorj- they jiass awfi\% their life ]Hvs.siiig to the right. 25. What, oh, does it matter that this bo<ly becomes eaten by ravens, or disgraced by onlookers or is thrown on the way side, after the actor who is enclo^d in the skin jwrforming the vajious acts of our life, leaves it emjrfy. J. M. NALLASVVAMI T^ILLAI, B.A. B.L.,

6IDDHAKTA DEEPIKA.

BUDDHA'S DBFINITIOH OF A BRAHMAMA. '^Him do I call a Brahmana, whose body, speech and mind do no evil and who is (thus) protected by these three. "None becomes a Brahmana by matted hair, caste, or birth, but he alone is pure and a Brahmana, in whom truth and virtue reside. " Him do I not call a Brahmana who is born of a Brahmana mother, for if he is full of desires, he is a Brahmana only in name; but him I call a Brahmana who is free from desires and attachment. ''Him do I call a Brahmana who is unattached to desires like unto a drop of water on a lotus-leaf or a grain of mustard on the point of a needle. ''Him do I call a Brahmana who has seen the end of his misery in this life and has become disbui'dened and disentangled. "Him do I call a Brahmana who is of deep wisdom, talented, cognizant of the right and wrong ways, and has attained the highest goal. " Him do I call a Brahmana who is friendly to his enemies, unresenting towards aggi>essors and lives unattached among those who are attached to things. " Him do I call a Brahmana whose attachment, aversion, pride and craftiness have fallen do^n like unto a grain of mustard from the point of a needle. " Him do I call a Brahmana who speaks words that are sweet, informing and true and by which no attachment is produced for him. " Him io I call a Bralimana who hopes to gain nothing in this word or the next, and is free from desires and ties. Him do I call a Brahmana who has no hankering, and by removing all doubts by true knowledge has attained the depths of immortalitv. '' Him do I call a Bralmiana who, giving up merit and demerit and attachment, is griefless, passionless and pure."
Bharata:'

T H E F O L D I'ATHS.

J7

The Four Paths.


Good deal of atteniion has been paid of late to tlie TlieorctifjJ aspects of our Hindu Religion and most peoplt^ familiar ^^itll the various systems of Hind a Philosophy and of the Dvaita, Yisliistadvaita and Advaita aspects in particular. And in such a study one is likely to lose sight of the practical aspects of the Religion and it is to thic* aspect I wish to-day to draw your particular attention. To the ordinary foreigner, Hinduism appears as a fantastic combination of the gi'osijCbt -..uperstitions and the most ^'^ulunrHimuf' d^'^amy speculations. Even the sympathetic stureJigion. rt^lig^o" though he is prepared to admire and appreciate particular aspects of our philosophy, looks down with pity on our so called errors. And one christian friend put it to me whether in Hinduism we have any re:J and practical religion. Of coui'se, to the onlooker, the conti a'lu between Temple-worship and its attendant festivals and the austerer practices of the Sanyasins, the allutions and pujaJi of pious people and the ' Tatvamasi' and Ahambrahmasmi' meditations of others cannot but be bewildering. Even some of ^TS are apt to look upon so much labour anl money spent in Ten^ples and in Tenplo woi-ship as o much waste, or wo are prepared to relegate these practices to the illiterate lower orders, as we are pleased to call them. Can all ibe-^e various practices have any real meaning and purpose or can they not? Can all these be reduced to certain definite pi-inciples or not l- These are the quoi^lions -.vhich I propose to discuss in this paper. Of course, wc have read and hoard people talk about Karma-mai gas, Bhakti-margjis and Yoga and (jnana margas as Different paths and tJ^o^^gh there is lebS or no bhakti or bhakti is not upabduas. waiitcd in other mai sfas, that there are )io action?*
ta- d u t i e s a t t a c h e d t o t h e o t h e r s , o r t but a i l ( h o s e w l i o d o n v i f o l l o w

SIDDHANTA

ttlLTlKk.

the Gnanamarga are only ignorant people. Dcos ir.oii smeaiinr themselTes with ashes and 9ainams> repeating Gods' names conbtitut ? bhakti ? Does not the relieving of the poor ivnd inHrm and tlio sick constitute part of one's religious duties. Is it t)ie liigliesst duty of the Yogi and Gnani that he consideis himself sup^ r or to others and thinks that he will be polluted by the mere touch of others and that he ha3 achieved a great thing if he lias injured none. And then we have heard of different Upasanaa and Vidyas, Sandilya, .Dahai*a, Sakala and *NishkaIa and Saguna and Nirguna ; and thei*e are people who would advocate the Saguna against the Nirguna and the Nirguna against the Saguna. To begin a statement of my views. Hindus hold as an axiom that no study is of any benefit unless it can lead one to the worship of the Supreme One,
uiuQesionQsA^ tBp^c^ia Q^ir^fiir QffsSvsi, eussoj^iuvp

And that we cannot be rid of the ills flesh is heir to and cross the sea of births and deaths, and attain to everlasting joy unless wo roach the fcei of the Supreme Lord.
Qdjirem

^extp^vni^

Qfgtt^nk,

[The

KunH,)

To get rid of our ills and to attain to His joy is our goal. That this human birth is given to us to work out our 8alvation and in this mundane plane is adniitted by all religions; Clu'istianity included.
L^SkisSf^^utiu tSpsiiivr.Lti ttS^^th

&UgiHU>us Qsti^Qofp ^(i^uQuQ^i

SktaQpsyrjpi

QittAB^ {Tinivachaka.)
T h i s is t l i e r o u s i d e r a t i o i i

H o w then can we attain to this end ? o t h e V r a o t i i cil R e l i g i o n .

A^id o u r M y s t e m a t i e t r e a t i s e s d c v o i o r o i i - '

THE POUk

50

sKloraWe apace to tlic treat mo nt of this question. This is the chapter na iSudana in f }io Vedaiita Sutras and in the Sivagnanabhodha. AH a necessary prelude to this, the nature of the Deity and of the Soul has to he discussed. Accord tug to i hf greatest sage of our mot her-Tamil-land, Saint Tiru.. , , vafluvar, He is ^jp and ^eap^uesr our Supremo
Nature of Gml. t j i ^ f i

and juaster, ti \o aruthor of our being and rof^Tuevation, Ho is the I^ure Intelligence and the Transcendent one, 60 ^c, cjr and ^oers^eusolo ju a .r >>, Ho is witliout like? and <l is1 ikes, QoissaiB/j (? ^ w o as cS /r dwells in our heart u> a an<l He is the occeau of love and mercy jttflmn J)
JiOrd

jti i/tiTv^k

The TJpanishads sj^eak of Him as *'the Highest great Lord of Tiords, Goi of Gods, King of Kings, the Highest abode, as God, the Lord of the world, the adorable." "He is the one God hidden in all beings, all pervading, the r.nt-aratnia of all beings, watching over all works, dwelling in all beings, the witness, the perceiver, the only one, the Nirguna being. ''His High Power {Sakti) is revealed as manifold, as inherent, acting as force and knowledge." " Ho in Siva (the H vppy and Blissful). He brings good and removes all evil, the Loi'<l of Bliss, as dwelling within the Atma the immortal, the support of all." " No one has gras|>e(l Him above or across or in the middle. His form cannot be seen, no one perceives Him with the Eye." " That Go<l tiie maker of all things the Pai'amatma, always dwelliu<^ in the heart of man, is perceived by the heart, the soul, the niinil. They who know it become immortal.' " Tliose who through heart and mind know Him thus abiding in tlio heart become immortal," ''Satyam Gnanam Anantam Brahma An^nfla Rupam Amritam YadVibhuti Shantam Sivam Advaitam." Ho is tive sat, dun and nnand. Ill tlie Gita also, Hv i > spoken of as the Lord of Lords, Lshwara and Maheswar.^, thf* and permittor, supporter and enjoyer, the Param'\ttti'\n, tlie supporter of elfmentw, as dovoiirer and causer, ft is the light of ligliti and is snid to be beyond Tamas. Wisdom kno.vublo, vs-i'^doni L^niinblc c.^nt pd i:i e r o i ' v h o u i f .

CO

SIDIHIANTA

DlvKPlKA.
CMIICJ jtfi^iUiK^

[ii tlio Aclvnii-.i Si.ldluuitn S:i.'4r:is, He is with [fin Sakli. the 'Siva S;rt.'
lU ji^'SvQsxnr 6i|it9/r<aiw a^u-i^i^ ^^st'pfB^ iQtveii^ir iQ^irtv^Q fimsTMLjiss'a, Sf^pcpesr

one

^sSajnQiLirsaQ

^Zssyru^estu^am^ Q a i u ^ j i R u d e s t (^ic.

uecRpeaafiQiiiuir ^i.e\!e\>isf

gjemsu^up

eQaiiufT^^Qifiiap

jji LSarojih^L-V

g^iusttP^Qftn. ^Tmn(^LH

(fFfcW eiii^QeiiQ^f^vfs^'CM

Gxyeu^^

LLcr*piiSfip^fir^^Qita

Sifit^ajQaj^'VfLt.

tl^i^ fi^crBSsw QnjirtfiajiiQecfiLib

LLsir

ffos^pAeP-uu^stsVALi. gjirefffrajudunev eff'^fiT,

Tliis supremo stpioineiit Avas reacliod in tlie fanions lines of the ffro at T i rn mnlar.
Qeiin^ui jHf^Qu i^SkiLbiT&i^aiT^ ifij^ti^exnUr ^(BeBwnir

^esi^u

Q^siiLLtr

ajLLnli^o^m^nQir.

"GcmI isLovo " and tlir.t j^'reat agnostic feacljor of scieneo vrho died a riinccre believer in God had stated trnly " what lias j;ll the science or all the philosophy of tJie world done for the t)iour)t of mankind to be compared witii the one doctrine " God is Love." God is as cuch all Knowledge and all Love. To talk of tlic means to attain to tliis great goal will be futile if . ^^ we don't understand the nature of man. From souL statements in the first chapter of't lie Kural, it may be deduced that man is ignorant and subject to births and deaths and has likes and dislikes and does sin and

TIIK I'OCK PATHS.

51

snPFcr and lie conul not; bo compawd to Gotl in any way. The following texts l)ring out the distinction quite plainly enongK. The knowing one (God) and tlio non-knowing (soul) are two loth nnbom; one 13 Loi-d, the other non-Lord (anisa)." Patiin Vivasy-atmer,M':ivani (Lord of tlio soul) Snsvat^ui sivam achy u tain." "He who dwells in the soul and within the soul, whom the soul does not know, whose body the soul iM, who nd<>s the mu1 within, He is thy soul, the ruler within, tlu^ iunnoit;il." Bat the soul Paraiuonnr n anolfwr. AVlio is p-. ot^^lainied as the Parainatuia, whothe inlinife kin;, peue.atea all the tkreo worlds and sustains thoni. Since I do surpass the kslr.irij, and even do exc(jl ihe akshara, I am reput<?d tlie Purushottanuu" And hero e are met by statemcntH that (lod is unknowal le and imperceptiblo to our senses. lie is past all thought A C.i Bcnlty in roach1 ing tho Goal. """ s}ieocn. AonaiLip^O/iftv^pd {Tirumantra.)

And yet the upanishads say that when men should roll np tho sky like a hide, then only without knowing Siva, there could be aii end of pain. And St. Ami Nanthi Sivaehariar states the ditficulty thus. If God is unknowable, then there can be no benefit from Him. He can never j)ervade ns, neither can we unite with him in Moksha. He cannot perform tho panoha krityas for our benefit. Hin existence will be like that of the flowei's of the sky and of the rope formed of the hairs of the tortoise. And yet it must stand to reason that wo cannot possibly know Him if his nature is as we have described above. TJio moment we assert that we can know him, we assert that he becomes an object of our cognition, and as all Psychologistis, Hindu and European, are agreed, all objects of cognition are what is called AcKit or Asat or matter. Here ia St. Ami Nandi s

Crtj

STDDHANTA

DEEPTKA.

stafcemoMt "If yoa ask whether god is an object of knowledgo or not, then know, if Ho is an object of knowledge, Ho wiil become Achit and Asat. All objbcts of cognition are acliit; all objects of cognition come into being and are destroyed (being bound by time) they divide themselves into the worlds, bodies and org.uis ibeinj^: 1 ound by space) and enjoyments. Tiiey r.vo identified at one time by the intelligence as itself (bandha) j\nd at another time (in moksha) are seen as separate ; and they arc all products of Maya. Hence all such are achit or non-intelligent or Asat (other tlum sat)," As God is spoken of as the inner Ruler and Soul of Soul, whoso body the ?oul is. the knowing Soul is itself in tlie position of abject to tho True subject God. and the thinking mind cannot itself think thought, much less can the object perceive or think the suV)ject. And if he cannot be known, He must be a non-entity, argues St. Anil Nandi. And tiiis exactly is ihe position whicJi Paul Cams tj',kes in liispamphlet on tlie "Idea of God. " His argument is exactly that O L Saint Arul Nixndi L I N T if God is knowable, he can only be known as an object, as matter, which will be p.bsurjl. But Paul Carus wouhl however retain God as an idea, or ideal, an abstract thi ig v v 4 redness or whiteness, a beautiful fantacy which will be useful. But a against this view, it is positively asserted by Saint Arul Nandi that ho i.s not a Non-entity and that He is Sat and Chit. As He is chit He H not knowable, and yet Ho is a positive fact. How is then this p.sychologieal difficulty to bo got over In the first place it will bo futile to tliink of knowing Him ns different froin ourselves as an object. Says St. Arul The first possibility ^^^^^ ,, ^^ ^^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ difTereno from tfie soul, a s
' of overconuii}^
the difficulty.

TT

^^ He is the thinker of all the soul's thoughis, as in Him there is no distinction of I and mine, God cannot be perceived by the sonl M intelligence as different." "God is not different from you either as he is iuseparHl>ly associated A.nth you and transcend all discriminating intelligence. M He is ever the imide of the soul, the soul can be said to be Sivanr The first possibility of cur becoming Him will lie therofore-ki the Tacf that we are inseparably associated with him and njU5t think
^^^ ^^

T H E FOUll PATHS.

68

ouitselvos as one witli him. Wo must not create distiuctions V etween ourselves and himself, intorposo our will and thought, tho feeling*of ' I and mine.' Then only will our nill and thought came into rafqpoit with Him.
** tJivuimtu ^^^mtktupp SaQunw uSmnpumnB iQpm **

Quanof^dj^^gQMibjfn sttan^g ijbLj9oBiupii^9 pjB^mtaa

O mind, was it not for me that God came under the banjan' tree as silent teacher and " V N n t h dumb show of hand cured me of acts called my acts, and placed me in the blis!>f ul ocean of His gi^ace.
^^iutdfiSiC-i^ Qaja>9tjStuir(l0 uwi^Qjtm

eicpSsBtiHB

Q^tifi.

By grace behold all things," He said. Not u'lderstanding By niy intelligence I beheld, differentiating. I Sj<w darkness. I saw not even me the Seer. What is this, sister ?
6Tm2sariqtJi /fsipZaffiLfji

Ot me and thee think not in thy heart as two. Stand undifferentiating." This one word when He uttered, how can I tell, dear, The Bliss that gi ew straightaway from that word ? (From Saint Thaynmanavar s ^>r / F F P L,-. *Revel in BUsa* translated by P. a\runachalam Esq. M.A. of Colombo.) (To be continued.) J. M. NALLASWAMT PTLLAJ. B.A. B.L.,

SIDDHAN'TA. D E E P l K A .

SAIVA SIDDHANTA.
Tlw alvaiiceiiient of luodcMii thought tends to unity the results of physical scienco and the principles of pliilosopliy and religion. In spito of all attempts made bv men of great intellectual capacity to liarmonise the two systems of thought, there have been growing great confiiets between the two that it seems for all the worhl impossible to reconcile iheni both together. And of course it is but quite natural ihat things in their nature irreconcilable should withstand the efforts of great men in this respect also. While the one lino of thought is occupied in pursuing its inquiries concerning tno atomic arrangements and interactii g forces that bind them together iu bringing the material world into existence, tho other runs in tin; opposite direction of reducing the entire system of matter to a u\c\ . dlusory principle of A\idya and ovol\i ig it at times from the puvo intelligence of the supreme sonl itself. -At tlie point in which tho question touclios the existence of i:\:uto;-, the divergence of the two systems takes its rise. That a philoh,opJiy which teachcs that matter has no existence of its own but that created by mind out of jiothing, cannot have strenuous hold on the scientific mind whose investigations are based upon keen observations and well-tried experiments, ia manifest from the movement tlip-t is set on foot by such grcjvt institntionsas Rationalistic IVess Association and others. The indestructibility of matter is becoming every day verified by new discoveries suid innumerable experiments.* The very circle of human Iiappiness
-1. All mofleni research tends to show that the various combinations of matter are funned of some Prima Materia. But its ultimate nature remains unknown. H. Out of nothing comes nothing. Modern science knows nothing of a beginning, and, moreover, holds it to be unthinkable. In this it stands iw direct opposition to the theologicjil dogma that God created tho universe out ornothing, a dog Jia still accepted by the majority of Protcstents and binding on Roman catiiolics. For the doctrine of the church of Rome thereon, as expressed in the canons of the Vatican coimcil,i8 as follows:"If anyone confesses not that the world and all things which are contained in it, both spii-tual and mental, havo b M , in their whole substance, produced by God out of nothing; or shall say that God created, not by his free will from all necessity, but by a necessity equ^ to the necessity whereby He loves Himself, or shaU deny that the world was made for the glory of God: let him be anathema." III. The Primary substance is indestructible. The modem doctrine of tho conaeryation of Energy teaches that both matter and motion can neither be" created nor destroyed": - Poinccrs of Evolution, bv E. Clodd.

TlIK SAIVA

SI1DIIAXTA.

is becomiit^ widonovl O\'ery CIMV, as the operations of tJio Imnian micd make great strides in the field of sciontilic thought. Every religion and every fivstoni of piiilosopliy oamestiy seek to make their principles fit 1 1 1 villi the unremitting laws of science. It cannot be deemed as an ungnardod expresgion when wo say that in the course of a few centuries the philosophy- -what<vor the merits of its cjqwnents such aa Bci-kclcV: Kant, and !=^ankar:i nuiy havo beenwhich ignores the teachings of scionce, will die a natural death giving in it^ stead, a fresh lifo to a new sy3t<>ni of thought that has sprung up imbibing its vital element from the rich fountain of science. Be it far from us to speak disparagingly of the labours of such intellectual savants as Kant and Sankara whose depth of thought and critical methods have done much in their way to stimulate and sharpen the intellects of their followers. Bub we mnt need be on our guard against being carried away by this appreciation to such an extent as to become blind to their faults and mistakes. Tho truth is always one; even when viewed in tho different lights of philosophy, science and religion, its intrinsic lustre remains as one. It presents only different aspects of its o^vn, and tho truths of thoso three branches of human thought cannot contradict among themselves. If the truth of one system sconi to contradict tho veritable statements of science, then it is quite rtvisonable to think of its iniporfoctnoss to work out a coherent fabric of enduring nature. Amidst the intellectual warfare raging between science and philosophy, will it bo possible for us to find out a system of thought tluih could compromise the results of tho two ? Yen, it is possible and there is tho oldest, philosophy of Sankhyathat tho world has ever produced. In it wo find it clearly stated that Purusha and Prakriti are co-existing entities of distinct nature, that Purusha in of pure jntelligenca whereas Prakriti a dead nxatlor and that from invisible
4

ee

SIPDHANTA

DEEPIKA.

Prakriti proceeds the creation of this visibly universe. Thas we seo the fundamental principles of 8ankhya are concerned with the study of matter and mind as th^y are, and the modern scientific researches confirm their truthfulness by thorough practical experiments in ao. far as the existence of matter is concerned. Although when viewed fi*om a philosophic standpoint, the system of Sankhya impresses itself on the scientific mind most vividly, yet when seen from the religious point of view it fails to produce the same result equally on all human mind. From the lowest Indian savago to the highly cultured man of the twe^jbieth century, the religious sentiment is seen to be predominant. And the constitution of the human mind is naturally susceptible of being impressed more with religious thoughts than with others. Hence it is that the cravings of the human soul are not satisfied with the problems and conclusions of science and philoisophy. Now the Sankhya philosophy, great in other respects, do not seem to attempt to throw even a side-glance-view on the problems concerning the existence and nature of God; and to the agnostic philo^phy of Herbert Spencer and others it more or less bears a clo^ie resemblance. With ^11 our respect and deference for the great thinkers of the agnostic school we beg to express our humble opinion that their mode of thinking has not as yet touched the secret springs of the human soul. We require the guidance of a supreme light. Whatsoever may have been the intenseness of delight tiiat we take in the study of philosophy and science, there are moments in which our thoughts soar up to penetrate into the mystic regions that lie beyond the reach of our i-eason;* then we become gradually dissatisfied with all the luxurious comf oris and sensual pleasures with which we are surrounded, and the highest intellectual acquirements of learning in which our attention was absorbed; we come to think very seriously of everytliing; and WQ.
' Prof. James' ' The wiir to belicYe.*^ "

T i l l : S A I V A ^5lDDIlA^TA.

67

ask witliin us: ''Who am I ? What means this wonderful arrangement of things ? In what relation do I stand with them ? Who meant all this? May I hope to veuoli that being of inestimable bliss whose purest and grandest light shoots forth in mj- soul at fitful intervals?" While thug engaged \vc aic transmuted into a pcrfeet religious being sober and calm* all our animal passions subdued and the divine love streaming through and through. To resort to this stage of introspection is inevitable in the human nature. And any system of thought that leaves this main aspect of our life out of account, must be deemed incomplete and insufficient. As wo have seen the philosophy of Sankhya wanting in this rcspcct, that its investigations \nll not liarmonisc with the higliesc principles of religion is as clear as daylight. Then to keep om-selvcs abreast of the scientific movement on the one hand and with the religious on the other, we require a system of thought serving as a main link to connect the two together. And this main link is, wo dare say, the SiddhatUa philosophy of the South India which is a genuine product of the Dravidian mind as has been truly remarked by Dr. G. U. Pope. Whether this was as old as Sankliya or a reccnt outgro%\lii of the latter we are not concerned here to discuss. Suffice it for our present purpose to s'ly that the beginnings of its primary principles seen in the oldest Tamil work ToOcappiam are evolved in the ancient Sanskrit Upanishads, Kena, Chhandoghya &c., and wrought out into a coherent whole in Uie V'edanta sntras and its commentary of Bhadharayana. And to I tlie thread of our argument, Siddhanta like Sankhya proves tho eternal existence of Maya as well as that of Atman and even goes a step forwai-d and prosecutes its inquires regarding the supT^me soul which stands in the closest adwaita relation with 9lix)d and matter. The depth of thought and the subtlety of argument that characterise this system of philosophy, we are not able ot

ne

iilDI>TTANTA D E E P I K A .

exhibit in sucli a brief sketch as this. A cmrsory view of Sivapiana JBodhara a work of very rare merit and which Bystematisos the entire principles of the Siddhanta philosophy in a sfringe logical method, would be sufficient to convince any one of the veracity of our Btatement. While the exposition of this system is in strict accoi-dance ivith the teachings of Physical science, it also conforms itself to the necessary principles of the more advanced religions. The two great channels of human thought flow into it and mingle to fill it to the brim, B O that those who are thirsting after truth may go there and drink it with avidity. The religious teaching of the Siddhanta consists in lifting up the soul iS an elevated conception of love which comprehends in it the love for all the animated beings and the love of God. As intelligence is seen to be invariably accompanied by love, this according to Siddhanta, is, as it were, a quality inhering in soul from all eternity. Now this love is identical with God, although in him it shines infinitely with a dazzling splendour. In the limited intelligence of the human soul its lustre is clouded by the dominant animal passions and only appears within a narrow compass when it is serene and contemplative. In childhood we loved our mother and father, brothers and sisters, and near relations as fervently as wo conld; when attained to boyhood, we loved our teachers, friends, and classmates disinterestedly for their own sake; and at these stages we had no selfish motive, for all the carnal passions had lain asleep. But on reaching the stage of manhood we were put into all kinds of tests, at one moment the passionate desires rising uppermost in our thoughts, and at other moment the faculty of reason springing up and holding in check the ruinous flame. Where the animal nature gains grovind, there wc ::ee the moral disorder and tlie ^ ictory of this nature brings about the ruin of human life. The struggle between the rational and the animal natures is truly very strong, and yet in thousand and one cases the latter gains factory over the former. And so long as there is this predominace of the animal nature in the universe, the deterioration of sonls will bo rapid and inevitable.* To strike at the root of this moral evil is the only end and aim of Kant's Mctapbysic of Etics.

T H E 8AIVA sn>DHAiKTA.

ike toachingB of Siddhaai* from xeligiow pqpnt ci w w , l a te first two stages of our life love is tfhiowii out upon otben, w l i e r w in the third and the sabseqiient stages it is drawn bwk and throws upon our own selves. By this i*eilez action of self this lofty senti^ ment loses its purity marred by the mingling of passions. If yott subdue the pasbions and make the reasonig faculty ^ e ruling power, the innate love, through this, finds its way, spreads out into a bound' less ocean and assumes a universal form.t When yon secure thi# unlimited love, you become one with Gk>d as he is the very eoienoft o love. 'Sulduing your anim^ nature, love thy neighbour as thy God and you become the veriest son of the Heavenly father whose form is of the pui-est love' is the kernel teaching of the Siddhantfb as a religion. The purest extraction of the teachings of the Sacred Kural is the one doctrine of love. The lives of the sixty thre^ saints nai-rated in the Peria Purana hinge upon love as the means of salvation. Love has two aspei^ Uie lower uid the higher; inJt^ lower aspect the soul views the whde animal kingdom with supreme kindness; in its higher it sees the divine light enveloping the entire creation and melts and merges into the supernal bliss of the Heavely father. Such great religious of antiquity as Buddhism and Jainism touch only the lower aspect of love without -taking into consideration its higher form even in the slightest degree. But Siddhanta in, culcatesthe two aspects and the lives of Manickavachagar and others will elucidate this fact. In one word, we conclude that, as a religion, philosophy and scien3e,the Saiva Siddhanta presents three views which on a critical examination prove to be consistent one with the other. Though m theoreticclexpostitionof this system of thought is met with oppositipa from diilerent quarters from men of different cults, practically we see its principles embraced by all in every day life. Those who recognise the practical utility of this system will be impressed with the value of its theoretic side, if the facts of our daily life were ol any avail in constructing a fine system of human thought* Pandit, R. S. YEDACHALAli. iiSi

70

SlDDHANTA

DKKIUKA.

SKETCHES OF CEYLON HISTORY*


BV HOX'BLK P. A R U N A C H A L A M . M. A. CAXTAH.

Durntter'ai'law, Lincoln's Inn ; Ceylon Civil Scrvicc; Meniber of Oic Ceylon Lcgislalivfi Couiicil.

I. The history of Cclyon is a subjecfc about which many of us can hardly be said to be burdened with much knowledge. We know it ^reat deal about the history of England and of ancient Rome. Our children can tell us all about the Norman Conquest, the Peloponnesiaa War, the capitals of English and Scotch counties, the capes and rivere of South America, the manufactories of Chicago. But of tho elements of Ceylon geography and history they arc in blissful ignorance. Many even of our educated men have but a dim idea of who Sanghamitta was or Mahinda, Dutugemunu or Elala, what associations cluster round Mahiyangana or Munissaram, Aluvihara or Kattragam, what was the origin and history of cloth manufacture in the Island or of tho cocoa palm. Kotte and Sitawaka, in comparatively recent times, witnessed the heroic resistance of our people and kings to foreign invaders from generation to generation. The names of these places waken no emotion in our hearts. Wo think of Kotte mainly as the suburb which supplies the children of -Colombo with nurses. Sitawaka, rich not only in the memories of this struggle but in the romance of Queen Sita's captivity and rescue in a bygone naillenniam, is lost in the unromantic tea-district of A vissawella. Robert Knox, a little over two centuries ago, spent m ^ y yeara of captivity in Ceylon, little dreaming of the. destiny th^ awaited his countrymen here, and has recoi-ded his experiences in one of the most interesting works in English Literature. Few read the book, fewer still know tho spot where he livad in captivity -and buried his father. It is scarcely creditable to us to remain in such profound ignorance of the history of our Mother-land and to be so indifferent to our past and surroundings. It is a great loss, for not only is the. history of Ceylon among tho oldest, most interesting and fascinating

T H E 8KETCIIES OF C E I L O X niSTOIi\ .

71

in the world, going back twenty-four centuries, but no people can break with its past as we are trying to do. It has been truly said : * A people without a past is as a ship without ballast.' How dreary, too, is the life of many of our educated men and women, with eyes fixed and ideals formed on Bayswater and Clapham, and our intellectual food trashy novels and magazines 1 No wonder that visitors to this beautiful Island are struck with the absence of originality, of organic life, in our j^eople. There are signs, however, that the dark fog in which we are content to remain will lift ere long. It is refreshing to read a Royal College boylprotesting in the College Magazine against the exclusion of Ceylon history and geography from the curriculum of our leading schools. Some time ago the otticers of a public department formed themselves in a Society for the promotion of the historic study and research. They used to read together and discuss the Mahawansa, the ancient chronicles of Ceylon, a veritable storehouse of valuable^ information, of which there is an excellent translation by Tumour and Wijesinha. Each member was also expected to acquaint himself with all matters of antiquarian or scientific interest in his native village or town and to communicate and discuss them at meetings of the Society. The plan is one which might >vith benefit be generally adopted. Rich treasures of history, ethnology, folklore, botany, geology, zoology await the explorer in every part of the Island. Our educated men and women can hardly do better than devote some of their leisure to this exploration, working in co-operation at various centres, discussing the results at local meetings and in j o u r n a l s such as that of che Royal Asiatic Society. It is work that any intelligent person, however limited his sphere and opportunities, can take part in. It would give a new zest to our life and surroundings, would furnish abundant material to the B . J . S. Journal, now almost dying of starvation, and would lay the foundation for a much needed comprehensive and up-to-date account of Ceylonphysical, histori cal andtopogi-aphical. It would help also to recall to us and fix in our minds the great things done by our ancestors. TTius we may in time recover some

72

STDDHANTA

BEEPIKA.

of our lost originality and acquire that self-confidence which is indispensable to national progress and national success. It is our good fortune to live under a Government which will foster every attempt in this direction/ In a speech recently delivered by the Lord-Liautenant of Ireland ho happily expressed the imperial policy of Britain. ''There are some people," he said, *'who seem to believe that the only way in which a great Empire can be successfully maintained is by suppressing the various distinct elements of it-s component parts, in fact by running it as a huge regiment in which each nation is to lose its individuality and to be brought under a common system of'discipline and drill. In my opinion, we are much more likely to break up an Empire than to maintain it by any such attempt. Lasting strength and loyalty are not to be secured by any attempt to force into one system or to remould into one type those special characteristics which are the outcome of a nation's history and of her religious and social conditions, but rather by a full recognition of the fact that these very characteristics form an essential part of a nation's life and that under wise guidance and under sympathetic treatment they will enable her to provide her own contribution and to play her special part in the life of the Empire to which she belongs."
11.

The primitive history of Ceylon is enveloped in fable, yet there is perhaps no country in the world that has such a long continuous history and civilization. At a time when the now great nations of the West were sunk in barbarism, or had not yet come into existence, Ceylon was the seat of an ancient kingdom and religion, the nursery of art, and the centre of the Eastern commerce. Her stupendous religious edifices more than 2,000 years old and, in extent and architectural interest, second only to the structures of Egypt, and her vast irrigation works, attest the greatness and antiquity of her ci\ili. zation. Her rich products of nature and art, the beauty of her scenery, her fame as the homo oE a pure Buddhism, have made her from remote times the object of interet and admiration to contempora^ nations. Merchants, sailors^ and pilgoms have in diverse tongues

THE SKETCHES OP CEYLON HISTOBT.

75

feffc records of Uieir visits, whicli (jonarm in a sfcrikiiig nmmT Ui^ ancient native chronicles which Ceylon is almost angnlar among Asiatic lant^ in possessing. Ceylon, it is belwved, was part of the region of Ophir and Tarshish of the Hebrews, from which King Solomon s navy snppUed him with "gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks/'* To the ancient Greeks and Romans the Island was known by the name of Taprobane, by which name it is described by Onesicritus, Diodoms Sicnlns, Ovid, Sfcrabo, Pliny, Ptolemy and othersa name, too, familiar to English readers throagh Milton: Embassies from regions far remote. From India and the golden Chersonese, And from utmost Indian isle, Taprobane,*' The name is a corruption of '' Tamba-panni,*' one of the names given to Ceylon in the Sinhalese chronicles. It is explamed in the Mahawansa (I.,t p. 33) as derived from tom^-^na^o (copper-palmed) having been given to the Island by Wijaya and his follower^ who, " exhausted by sea sickness and faint from weakness, had landed out of their vessel supporting themselves on the palnSts of their hands pressed on the ground hence their palms became copper-coloured" (tambapanayo.) A fanciful explanation. On the opposite coast of India there is a river still called Tamrapami, and the name may have been brought to Ceylon by the early Tamil settlers, a common practice among colonists in ancient and modern times- Vergil in his jEneid makes JEneas, on landing in Italy, express surprise at seeing a little Troy, another Pergamus and another river Xanthus. "Parvam Trojam simulataque magnis Pergama et arentem Xanthi cognomine rivum Adgnosco" {rerg, Mneid,) III., 349.)
* 1 Kingt, X., 22.The Hebrew word used for peacock (tuki) is umnistakably the Tamil word tokei, while the word for apes {Icapi) is the Sanskrit and Tamil kapi and ihe word for ivory {slien habbim the tootii of the hahb) is the Sanskrit ihham and Tamil ibarn. + Translation of Tumour and Wijeainha, published by the Government Printer, Ceylon, 1889.

S I D D H A X T A

DKLIRXKA-

How many English nnd Scot-li names of phiees ed into Ceylon by Britisli v^'olonistsl

LMVC

been introduc-

Tho Arabs called Ceylon "Serendib" jind tbo J^oi-tugiiese Ceilao." Tlio names are probably derived from Siiihala or Sihahuii (changed to Selan and Sercu) and i)a v>a (an Island) changed to dih. To the inhabitants of the neiglil>onring cont inent of India it known centnries before the Christian era by the name of Lanka (the i-esplendent,) the name it still bears among the native inhabitants, both Sinhalese and Tamil. Tho Siamese have added tne honorific Tewa, caliing tho Island of Te\va Lanka, "divine Lanka." To the Chinese Ceylon was "tho Island of jewels,' to the Greeks "the land of the hyacinth and the niby," to the Indian Buddhist " the i)earl upon the bixjw of India." The traditions respecting tho Isalnd jvvo many and curiousThe oi'thodox Buddhist believes that every one of the four Buddhas of the present cycle, from Kakusanda to Gautama, visited Ceylon and instructed its inhabitants, and that Gautama Buddha left on Adam 8 Peak his footprint as an undying memorial of his third and last visit. The Hindus claim the footprint as that of Siva, wlxose shrine was probably established there or revived by Samana or Lakshmana, one of the heroes of the Ramayana and the reputed guardian of tlwj ])eak. From him it was called Samana-kuta even prior to tho visit of the second Buddha,* and is still called &'amanahi by the Sinhalese. Tho Mohammedans, continuing a tradition inlierited from some of the early Christisins, ure equally positive that tho footprint is that of Adam, and that Ceylon was cradle of tho human race, the elysium provided for Adam and Eve to console them for the loss of Eden,a ti*adition wliich somewhat softened the. bitterness of the exilo of Arabi J *aslia and his fellow Egj^ptians during their intenimert in the Island from 1883 to 1901. The earliest Indian tradition about Cevlon is recorded in the Skanda Purmia, the story of tho rise and fall of a mighty and wicked Titan, for whose overthrow Skanda or Kartikeya, tiie god of war and wisdom, Avas incarnated. Tho echoes of that contest live in
Maliawansa, 1., p. 58.

Tin: sKKTi^riKs

O F

C E Y L O N

H I S T O U Y .

7 5

ivniore forest sUrin in tlio sontli-castorn corner of Uio Inland, callod at'tcr liini K;irMkoy;v Grain;!, or wlioro after his Tictory 110 wooetl iiiui won u cliieft-aiu's divnj;'litcr, who sliaros Tvith him the \vorshi]> of millions from 0;vsUiiu>ro to Ccyloi\, and with whom the Siii]uilt\<o priosts i^kajmrrJas) of the slu ino proudly claim kinship. Tho foutht'i-n bank of tlio Kalutara river near its mouth (Kalutara Noiitli J-ailwaA statioii) I M ticill liM'ally ciUled Velapura, tho city of the lance-cod. (tJio lam o bciao^ his favourite weapon.) and marks tho limit, of iiis for. itoi V, w'lilu tho opposite bjuikof tho river is assigned to l.is ami is vailed Debeslura, a corruption of Bovasatra (tijo euomii'^i of tiie gods,) 'J'lie next. Indian tradition, later l>y many ccnturics. is thai of tJio Uamnniu:i^ tlio coltd), aied epic of Yalmiki, which relates the aoductioii of Sita, a, Xortli Indian l>y Havana, King of Ceylon the invasion of Ceylon hy her hushand Kama, and her recovery after a sanguinary war and tlio s^langhtor of Havana. Tho bridge said to Jiavo been constructed for the passivge of Rama's army to Ceylon is tho Ada!U S Bridge of j'lnglish ma}>s. It touches tho Island of lltimoswarain, wht>ro, on his retuiu from Ceylon, Rama established shrine to Siva, |K>rhaps the mo?>t frequented of all the sacred spots 1 1 1 Indi i, M u d over which, luid Adam's Bridge a i-ailway will at no distant date run, linking India and Ceylon in closer bonds. At 3.1uniss:iram, in the Chil:vw District, already an ancient (wttn) shvine of Siva ( f . s T m ) , as its name implies, Rama is said to have worshipped on his way to battle witJi Ravana. The purity of Sita's i l u i r a o t e r and her devotion to lier husband have made her the national hci oine, as lie is the national hero, of India, and thousands still pass in reverent pilgrimage ovov* their route to Ceylon. Sita's name lives in Coylon in Siha-ti'.law.i. (Sita's plain) and Sita-ela (Sita's stream) and Sita-knnt (Sita's pond) between Nuwara Elia and Hakgala, where she is said to have been confined by Ravana, and in Sitawaka (Avissawella). Both tho Skanda rto ana and tho Bnmayana represent Ceylon as a huge continent, a tradition not unsupported by Science. The geology and fauna of tho Island point clearly to a time when Ceylon was part of an Oriental Continent, whicli stretched in unbror.t-k

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STDDHANTA DEEPTKA.

land from M Adagaacar to tho Malay Arcliipelago and nortliwards to the present valley ofth^ Gangefl. The valley was tlien occupied by a sea spreading westward across Persia, Arabia, and the Sahara Desert, and forming: the southern limit of the Palae-arctic Continent which embraced Europe, North Africa and N^rth Asia. In the cotirse of ages the greater part of the Oriental Continent was submer^d in the sea, leaving Ceylon as a fragment in the centre, with, on one sido, the Maldives, Laccadivee, Seychelles, Mauritius, and Madagascar, themselves separated from one another by hundreds of miles of sea, and, on the other, the Malay Islands ; while the Ganges valley was upheaved, making North and South India one land and, later, Ceylon itself was separated from South India by a narrow sea. The greater part of Ceyloti is said in tlie Rainayana to iiave been submerged in the sea in punishment of Ravana's misdeeds, and the Grdat Basses Lighthouse, wliich stands out on a solita:^ rock in the south-east sea of Ceylon, is still called Ravana s fort. The meridian of Lanka of the Indian astronomers, which was reputed to pass through Havana s capital, passes through the Maldive Islands at 75^ 53' 15^ East Greenwich, quite four hundred miles from the present western limit of Ceylon. On this coast the Sinhalese chronicles record extensive submersion by the sea in the reigns of Pandnwasa {cirea 600 B.C.) and Kelani Tissa (200 B.C.) At this latter period Kelani is said to have b^eh at a distance of seven gatis" (28 miles) from the sea. ''The guardian deities of Lanka having become 'indignant with Tissa, King of Kelanixa, (for the unjust execution of a Buddhist Elder,) the sea began to encroach. 100,000 sea-port towns {Patwmgam,) 970 fishers' villages, and 470 villages of pearl fishera, making altogether eleven-twelfths of Lanka, were submerged*by the great sea. Mannar escaped destruction: of sea-port towns Katupiti Maiampe." {To he continued.)

R E V I E W S A X D NOTES.

77

ReTiews and Notes.


PANNIRU TIRUMURAI TIRATTU * Those who write aboufc the revivalist movement started by the Azhwars and their followers almosti gnore the greatest revivalist and reform movement initiated and successfully carried out several centuiies earlier by the Saivite teachers and Saints Manickavachaka, Tirugnanasambhandar and others. But for their efiorts, ther^ would be no Vedic Religion and Hinduism to-day.

Mam^mQatw

iSQpejQs

iBW^Qtv^Qat

This movement commenced from the first century after Christ and continued till the back of Buddhism and Jainism was broken, and we know it was about the century that the Buddhist missionaries in the South had to fly the country, and seeh refuge in China and Japan. Even in the 7th century, at the time of the 2nd Chinese pilgrim Buddhism was dead or dying; and when we know that about the 8th and 9th centuries Hindu king were making gifts to isolated Buddhist and Jain monasteries, it would seem the vaunted conquests of Baddhists and Jains were nothing more than polemical. But the great power with which the Saiva Saints stemmed the tide cf Buddhism and Jainism was a power which they borrowed from their opponents. The Vedas were a sealed book to the common people. 'I^e Buddhists and Jains appealed to them in their Vernacular and made speedy converts. The great masters of the Tamil 1 ..nguage were in the first few centuriest he Jains and Buddhists- As such when Manickavactiaka, Tirugnanasambhanda and Appar commenced their ministrations, they spoke to the people in their own Vernacular and the effect was a miracle ; the people very soon veered round their old faith and new faiths were given a complete route. This is the true reading of the miracle of the opening of the gates of Vedarsniam or ^Q^LDmpasrr closed by the Vedas or tamp as we have elsewhere pointed out in our article on Saint Appar. The Tamil outpourings of these great masters were immediately recognized as the real meaning enshrined in the Vedas and it was in f w t so. And their power was irresistible. It is the astounding Personality of these great masters and the Power of their Song celestial that has gone to make the strength and vitality of saivism
* Pablished by Siva Arunagiri Madras. Price Rs. 112-0.
MudeJiar,

66,

Nammal^-ar Street, Sowcarpet,

7S
OF TO-<L:IV.

SIDDHANTA

DHKl'IKA.

Dr. CT. U . P O L ' E mi<l oihovs, liavo fully rocognistHl this ]K)\\vr wielded by iiuisters like ^lunickavacliaka. ;iiul ovlicrs ovor rlie Tamil people ; aijd it >viU be no surj)vie that the Devavaiii and TiruvaeJi ikuni Hymns are ever so popuhir with tlie })eoplc; luid tliere are any number of editions of these. But tlieii* veneration fo.' tJieir ancient movements liave been so great that tliey darep comment on these works and it was only a few yeai-s ago, an in iifferent I'xplanaiory eommentary of the Tiruvachakam w:vs brought out. In the present edition, tlie' author has given tlie wliole of what isknown as Agustiyar Devara Tirattu and the whole of Tiruvaeluvkam and ^elected stanzas from the other Tirumarais, ineluding uuIt, ^(Tjuuiw^aff o^/rirunuilar'sTiniiuaiithiram, and J^eiiapuranani t^e. The author s own contribution to this eofnpilation eoiisists in his exhaustive commenrai v on 50 selected words and phrases in Tiiuvaehakam eonn)i ising 94 pages such as ' rcLns-^eua u u eu'i ips ' S vve., i^'e. The conunentai-y is like that of the Bliaskarjirayani Lalita Sahasrauama and all the available vedio and upanished texts are quoted in exp'.auation of e.ich subject. Our friends vill recogni:>e that this is just a very instalment of work done, on the model v)f tlu> commentaries on Tiruvahno/.hi, in which the greatest love and intelligence and ability of Vaishnava writei's have been brought to bear. Mr- Arunagiri Mudaliar has been doing excellent work in Kangoon and Secunderabad in organizing Saiva Siddhanta Sabhas and promulgating tlie truth of {Siddlianta }liilosophy by means of various tracts and publications. He has now settled in Aliulras and tiiis is the first effort of his extended labours and tia> conniienttvry inu.st bo most welcon)e to evei-y one who is interesed in tJiis Sacred Religion. Every one believes that the Tamil A'eda is a reproduction of the A'edas and ITpanishads but no one had j)roof till now that it was so. Our author wislies to continue his labouiN in tho same field and bring out a more com})lete conunentary on tiie TiruvjM'haka and we e^trnestly recjuest our renders to give him every encouragemeut to do so. 'L'he price ought not to deter purchasers. It is fully worth the price. THE BRAHMA SUTRA ARTHA DEEPIKA.* The Tamil world must be very grateful to Mr. Siva Row, for the enriching of the Tamil language by his seholarly traiiNlatiouM of the Upauishads and the Brahma Sutras with conmieutanes. Tliese were sealed books except to a very few and we have met large number of Brahmin pandits who had no access to these works at all. So these
* With the commentaries of Sri Sankara Ac., by A. Siva Bow Esq^ SuCregistrar of Saidapetio 20 parts. Part V I . price 12 as.

R E Y I K W S AND NOTKS.

79

innst come as a boon to ali classes of tlio iieo])lo in th^ Soutli of India and we have no (loult it will lead to a beivei* and coi i octer \ iew of our i-eligion and philosopliv. J'cople liardly reali/.o wlmt expense and trouWe it means to bring (nt works like thesi'; but W G have every ho{ie that Mr. Siva Kow's conin.endable labours are adequately recognized. THE LATE Mr. V. KANAKASABHAI PiL].AI
AKD

PANDIT NATE8A SASTRIAR. These two are eqiKil lovereof tlie Tamil language and by tiieir labours they have added considerably to the literature and the history of the Tanul language. They have been cut off in tlie full flower o * f their manliood and tlie manner of their death has caused considerable stock to their friends and the public. Few know that at our suggestion Mr. Kanakasabhai was engaged on a critical and historical review of Periapuranani and Tolkappiam and we know none at present who wo ild undertake sucli a task. Pandit Natesa Sastiy was also engaged in other useful work ainl it is not mere empty eulogy when we say their loss is irreparable to the Tamilagani. TRACTS AND LEAFI.ET8
BY

P. NARAYANA lYEll Esq., Pre.mdcnf, Madura Theosophlad S^H-u'hj. Up to date, Mr. P. Narayana Iyer has brought out as many as 15 tracts on various religious and philosopliical topics such as Tii ipuradahanam &c.,!and the latest deal with ^laliisluisura iiiarilhanani and Ramanuja's Vishistadvaita. We know only one oilier Iji-anch Theosophical society, namely the Cudda}>a}i branc li wjiit ji is engaged in siinilar work of enlightening the public on these questions and tlie importance of such Mork will be easily ieeo<rnized. That M. Narayana Iyer should have consecrated his life tor such work speaks very much to ttielgi'eatne.-5.s of his hc'ji,)t and ^^e wish we had more men of his stamp devoting themselves to tlie cause of their country in all its various needs. We note however one tliiuii- iii his last pamphlet on Vishistadvaita. We c^uld haj-dly lelieve how he allowed the note to find a place in it, in which he speaks of the agami as avaidhika and opposc^d to the Vedas and that the JSiddhanta was established by Sivagnana Swamigal an i his followers, es|)e('ially when he is" aw^arc of the declaration inade by Sri Nilakanta Sivachariar that he found no diiference 1 etween the agamas and Vedas and when ho must liave known the vi?w of Jiis fovourito autlunTirumular who had declared scoihOunuiuiT ua' and after a f ^ Swami Vivekananda had described the relation of agamas to tho Vedas. And wc are surprised that he should ascribe the establisli-

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STDDHANTA DEEPTKA.

ing of Siddhailta to Sivagnana Muniver and his followers. We know Vaishnava writers use this argument in abuse of Saivism and we are very indeed sui-pinsed that Mr. Narayana Iyer should have so easily played into their hands. " V V e have the greatest respect for Mr. Narayana Iyer and his work and we wish he would delete the note in his next edition, as we are sure this has caused con'oiderablo offence to the whole body of Saivites. SALEM TAMIL SAXGAM. This Sangam celebrated its first annivei-sary with grcart, eclat on the 21st April '06. During the past year it had 35 weekly at which the sacred Kural was studied and they had liuished the v. i; Atf of j^^eopLo. They held more tlian 12 ])ablic meetings at wiiicli several pundits lectured on various subjects to the general publit. On the anniversary day, over thousand poor wero fed and the invited guests were treated to dinner and in the evening the public meeting was held under the presidency of Sriman P. Pandithuraisami Tlievar Avergal, President Founder of the Madura Tamil Sangam. After the report was read an interesting paper on the Life of Tiruvalluvar was read and the speaker made an interesting proposal that the Sangam should be called the Salem Tiruvalluvar Tamil S ingam which we hope will be carried out. It is a notorious fact that we are altogether wanting in our appreciation of our great men and we do not honor them sufficiently woll. A paper on ^ ^ aupii v/as also read. The president made an able and stirring speech in whicli he exhorted his hearers to honor and love their mother Tamil and hi-j speech lasted nearly two hours and was listened with rapt attention and great enthusiasm, though the atmosphere was i-titilying to suffocation. Srcoman Pandithuraisami Thevar avergal has devoted his life and parse to the cause of Tamil and may God speed his work. The fifth anniversary of the Madura Tamil Sangajn will come off on 2'ith May and we hope it will be fully attended. Since last year, at our suggestion, only papers of interest are to be read at the meeting and this year several papers, we understand, already have been sent in. Pandit R. S. Vedachalam Pillai has organized a Siddhanta conference to be held in ditt'erent districts from time to time and his Tamil Magazine Gnana Sagaram is to be the organ of the conference. Saiva Siddhanta Sabhas should cooperate with him in his commendable work. When there are no Sabhas, people interested in the spretid of tlie Siddhar-ta should lose no time in forming societies and inviting the confert ^ to their midst- They should communicate with the Pandit to liis address^ Madras Manager, The Siddhanta confercnce, Manrady, Madras.

THE

8ID0HANTA DEEPIKA
OK

The Light of Truth.


W fi nniM, Devoted to Raa^i^'U. / U/ZM, lAtc}iUu>f; Sciinct&K.

i!. . li'^^jd on

the Queen's Commemoration Day, 1897.

Vol. yiL

JUNE 1906. TRANSLATIONS.

No. 3.

THE VEDANTA-SUTKAS WITH 8RIKANTHA BHASHYA.


[Continwd from- pagf -)() of f ol. Vtl.)

FOURTH ADHYAYA.
FOURTH PADA. Adhikarana 1.
On res.ching (the Supremt^ I-<igl>t), thcro is the manifestation in his truefunii M the Sniti sajs. (IV. iv. 1.)

It has been shewn in the last preceding section that those who have attained true wisdom, reach, by the path of light, the abode of Siva, the Parabrahman,that abode which lies beyond the abodes of the Hiranyagarbha and Narayana, and which, being of the nature of the highest bliss, is known by tlie name of Svarga. In tliis pada, the Satrakara proceeds to shew how, in the case of those who have

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STDDHANTA DEEPTKA.

reached that abode, the manifestation of their true nature takes place. The Sruti teaches that lie who has reached the Parabrahman,the Great Luminai-y, the Supreme Light,manifests himself in his true form: Having 7'isen from out of this earthly body, and having reached the higliest light, (the serene being) appears in its o\vn form."* Now a doubt arises as to whether this form which is attained by him comes into being at the time, or it has already existed. Purvapdksha:It has not already existed in him. On the other hand, since the Sruti speaks of this form being attained^ it must be something newly acquired, like Svarga. Siddtianta:As against the foregoing we hold as follows: When the Jiva readies Brahman, his true formsimilar in its nature to that of Urahmanwhich lias already existed in him veiled by his sin, manifests itself on the remov al of the sin. So we anderatsnd from the words "in its own formotherwise, the qualification "own form" will have no meaning, inasmuch as even the newly acqaired form belongs alike to the Jiva. On the contrary, as we maintain, when the sin veiling the tnie nature of the Jiva has been removed by the Grace of Siva, the Parabrahman who is gracious to all, the trtte nature of the Atman, similar to the nature of Siva, comes into manifestation; it is not newly brought into existence, as the resnlt of an act is. Since the Jiva's sin has existed from time without beginning,we can easily understand how he is subject to samsaraor mundane life. Wherefore we conclude that when the Jiva is liberated, it is his true inherent nature, the pure consciousness and bliss endued with omniscience and other such attributes,which bursts forth into manifestation.
(It is) the liberated one (that attains his true form), (as shemi b j ) The original proposition. (IV. iv. 2.)

Though the Atman in himself has already existed, we maintain that> when the Jiva is freed from sin, the infinite bliss and the like manifest themselves in him; for, in the words "I shall explain him (the true self) further to you," the Sruti proposes to treat: of him alone who is released from the waking and other states of conscious* ness brought about by sin.
^ Chha. 8-3-1. ^ ^

SRIKANTHA BHASHYA.

88

Moreover,
The Atnwn (i metnt hero.) afi shown by the context. (IV. iv. 3.)

From tho context wo understand that tlio Sruti, in the words "I shall explain him furthei- to you, ' pro}ioses to treat of the Atman free from all sins, who forms the subject of the discour e ; for, the Sruti starts witli tho words. '-Tlie Atman who is free fi om sin,...He it is tliat we must search out, lie it that we must try to understand/' and says furtlier on "I shall explain him to you further." Wherefore, wo conclude that the liberated Atman, in whom the inherent attribute of sinlessnoss and the like liave nuinifested themselves, is of a nature and. attributes similar to those of Brahman.

Adhikarana 2.
Bftcausc (the liberai^d one) is foinul tletscri'octl without distinction. ( 1 7 . ir. 4.)

It lias IK;en said in the last adhikarana that the nature and attributes of the li 1)0 rated one are similar to those of Brahman. Now, we have to enquire whether this similarity of the liberated (soul to Brahman) is consistent or not. PurvapcJcaha :Which of the two seems at first sight to be the case ? It would seem that none of the souls, whether bound or liberated, can be similar to Bralunan, inasmuch as the Sruti denies a second being similar to Brahman, in the passages like "Rudra is one and remains without a second.' against the foregoing we state our conclnsion as follows:There does exist a similarity between Brahman and the liberated soul.How ?For, in such passages as "The sinless one attains gpre at est similarity," and "the liberated one becomes equal to Siva," we find it taught that thelibevated soul is similar to Brahman in nature and attributes; and it is this similarity that is taught by the Sruti in the words **He thai knows Brahman becomes the very Brahman." The liberated vUman, in virtue of this similarity being attained, realises himself as insejiarate in liature from Arahman. As to fcke allegation that the Sruti denies similarity in the words "Rudra is one and remains without a second," it has reference to tlie facl
8iddhanta:As

Crtj

S T DDHANTA D E E P T K A .

that the Jiva has no concern with the operations connected with the universe. The Sutrakara, too, says in the sequel^ "as may be inferred from the similarity in respect of mere enjoyment." Therefore the similarity meant here refers to the attainment of all objects of desire equally with Brahman. Accordingly the Sruti says: " He enjoys all blessings, at one >vitli the omniscient Brahman" Hence we conclude that the liberated soul can be similar to Brahman.

Adhikarana 3.
It is in respect of Brahman's attributes, says Jaiuiini, as the Sruti'a teaching, etc., hews (IV. iv 5.)

It has been said above that, when the soul is liberated, his inherent nature,similar to that of Brahman, self-luminous and endued with the attributes of sinlessness, etc,manifests itself A doubt arises as to whether similarity in both respects is ^ .sible or not possible. Purvapaksha:The purvapaksha will now be stated by way of citing the views held by others.Jaimini says that the manifestation of the true nature of the liberated soul, as declared in the words "he appears in his own form," refers to tlio attributes of Brahman, such as sinlessness, etc. It is these attributes of Brahman which are also inherent in the natuj'e of the Pratyagatman or Jiva, as declared in the Sruti: "The Atman who is free from sin He it is whom we must try to search out, He it is whom we must try to understand," He moves about there eating, playing, and rejoicing:.."* Wherefore, according to Jaimini, the liberated one becomes equal to Brahman only in res})ect of the attributes above referred to.
In rcspect of consciousness ulonc, says A udulonii, because that ia his natur*. (IV. iv. 6.)

Audulomi holds that the liberated soul is equal to Brahman only in so far as tlie inherent nature of both is consciousness (vijnanaV the Sruti says :

SRIKANTHA BHASHYA.

85

" As a mats of salt has neitlier insiie nor outside, but is aia mass of t&ste, thas indeod. has this Atman neither insi^ nor outside, but is altogether a mass of consciousness " t " He is nothing but a mass of consciousness." % Thus, as we find both the views upheld, we have to conclude that the liberated soul and Brahman are distinguishable as well aa undistinguishable ; but, as they cannot be both distinguishable and undistinguishable at the same moment, we have to conclude that they are distinguishable or undistinguishable under different conditions of time, &c, (SiddhafUa):The Sutrakara proceeds to state his own conclusion :
T h o u g k (the soul is) such, the attributes mentioned above do exist because of their mention, so that B a d a r a y a n a finds no incousistenc}. ( I V . iv. 7).

But Badarayana maintains that the liberated soul is, both by nature iutid attributes, equal to Brahman, because there is no inconsistency whatever involved in the view. 'ITiough in the words, " he is nothing but a mass of consciousness," it has been taught that the liberated soul is self-luminous, still the Sruti proceeds to teach 'The Atman who is free from sin,...must be understood," thus shewing that the attributes also mentioned above, sucii as sinlessness, pertain to the liberated soul. Wherefore, as the two aspects based on the teaching of the twofold authority are not inconsistent with each other, it is but proper to admit both. It is only in case of mutual opposition that an explanation should be sought for in the difference of the conditions of time, etc. Thus, we conclude that the liberated Boul is like Brahman, self-luminous, as he is consciousness by his very nature, and that he is also endued with all excellent qualities, as it is declared that he is free from sin, and so on.

Adhikarana
B y mere will [ h e secures all e n j o y m e n t ] >cau8e so the Sruti teaches. [ I V . I T . 8.]

it has been said above that the liberated soul, who is selfluminous, is of unfailing will, and so on. Now a doubt arises as to whether this is possible or not
^ ^ Bri. 6-5-13. : Ibid. 4-4-12.

S I D D H A N T A

D E E P I K A .

is the view that fir^t suggests itself ? It would seem at first sight that, in the case of tlie liberated soul, his mere will, witliuut the aid of external causes, cannot secure for him the objects of enjoyment, since that alone cannot produce the effect.
{Purvapaksha)What

(/SVt/f/Aaw/a) As against the foregoing we hold as follows. By mere will, he can secure all objects of enjoyment, as the Srnti ays: '^Thuswhenhe desires the world of the Pitris, by his mere will the l*itris come to him."* WlK'iofon', his more will can secure for him all objects of enjoynient; t here is no need for external causes.
Ami lifiHM- lie lias none rise a s iiis hnl. [ I V . iv. 0 . ]

For the \(?ry rciisoii that he has attained to the nature of Brah-

man and is endued witli sinlessncss and otliersuch attributes, he has none else for his lord; he is inde])endent, never subject to Karma, since all kanna has been destroyed. The I'aramesvara does not control hirn, because ho has gone beyond the spliero of the injunctions and the prohibitions which constitute His connnand and which have been in vogue in the long current of time. How so ?~Bccanso ho has ceased to he adej)endont being {jxisu). And certainly, on the removal t)f sin, he has attained to th(? state of Siva Himself. His attainment of the state of 8iva consists in his po.SfciJiwing all the imsuii)assod bhjsscd (jualities free from the taint of all sin, that is, - in being of the same nature as tliat of iSiva. Now, the nature of Siva is made np of omniscience, etc. Therefore the liberated soul wJio is e((U{\] to Siva, has Siva s attributes such as onnusciencc, eternal knowledge, eternal happiness, perfect freedom, omnipotence, unfailing power, and endless resources. Samsara means the contraction of the self-knowledge (Atniajnana,) so that, when the sin, the cause of contraction,is removed, the liberated soul attains omniscience. For the same reason, when ignorance, the source of 8arasara> has been eradicated, the illusion also, by which the soul identifies himself v?ith a large or a small body, ceases to exist. And because the liberated soul is devoid of decay, death, and grief, therefore, not being subject to karma, lie is perfectly free. He is ever happy,
Chliu. 8-2.J.

SRIKANTHA BHASHTA,

87

because he tejoices inliis own self, being solely immersed in the enjoyment of that imsurpaased bliss which c o n s ^ t e s his very nafaire and he is therefore devoid of hunger, thirsty and so on. Becaiwe atll his powei-s are ever unfailing, therefore his desires and his will are always realised. Hence it is that the liberated sonl and the Paramesvara are spoken of in the Sruti as endued with the eight attributes, such as freedom from sin, etc. Wherefore it is but right to say that the liberated soul who is equal to Siva is perfectly independent.

Adhikarana 5.
Badari maintains absence (of the body); for so Bays (the Sruti.) (IV. IT. 10.)

It has been shewn above that the liberated soul is self luminous, of uikfailing will, and so on. Now comes the enquiry as to whether the liberated soul is embodied, or disembodied, or both. Badari maintains that the liberated soul has no such organs as the body and the senses; for, the Sruti speaks of Brahman as disembodied,in the words " who is without parts, without actions,"and the liberated soul, who is of the same nature as Brahman, must also be disembodied.
Jaimini maintains existence [of the body], because of the alternatires qpoken of in the Sruti. [IV. ir. 11.}

But Jaimini holds that the liberated soul has a body, because the Sruti speaks of him as putting on different phases of existence vkh bodies and the sense-Morgans. "He becomes one, he becomes three, he becomesfive,'t and so on. Now the Srufei havv ig spoken of the liberated soul as embodied and also as disembodied, a doubt arises at to what his true state is. PurvapakshaThe truth is that the liberated soul is disembodied; for, the Sruti teaches that he has no external organs and the like in the following words : "Seeing these pleasures by the mind, he rejoices."^
+ Chha. 7-26-2. Chha. Up. 8-12-6.

Stj

STDDHAXTA

DEEPIKA.

And Brahman, too, is spoken of in tlie Sruti as devoid of external organs and the like, as one wliose delight is in the Atman and prana alone, whose bliss lies in mind alone."* That is to say He takes delight in the Atman alone, not in any external object; He enjoys by the mind not by any external organ. Wherefore the liberated souls are ever in a disembodied state. As to the embodied state spoken of, it relates to the souls (in a state of bondage) whose conditions ar different. Siddhanta:As against the foregoing view, the Sutrakara states his conclusion as follows ;
Like the sacrifice lasting twelve days, both are possible, says Badarayana for the same reason. [IV. iv. 12,]

As the Sruti speaks of both embodied and disembodied states, the liberated soul exists in either wa)'at will. So thinks the blessed Badarayana. Since the Sruti teaches both ways, the sacrifice lasting twelve days may be treated either as a mttra, or as a a^tna,that is to say, either as a sacrifice in which a number of persons are engaged as primary sacrificers, or as a sacrifice in which only one person is engaged as a primary sacrificer. So, too, here. On the state of the souls who have risen to the height of Siva there is a pauranic text which reads as follows: All-knowing, all-pervading, pure, all-full by nature, endued with strength equal to Siva's, gifted mth supreme power, embodied as well as disembodied do they become at will." Wherefore the liberated souls may exist in either way. (7b he continued.)

A. MAHADEVA SASTRY, BJL,

^ Tai. 1-6.

TiiK FOCI! I'.vrns.

The Four Paths.


[Contimed from jmijc (i3 of Vol, Vll.) Tiie second possibility lies in the fact that God is not knowledge alone.
Ihc sccuutl

l He was so,1 we- cannot know Him for certain. 1 1

jwssibiiity. But as we have stated above, He is also ail Love, It is in tliis .Supronio fact that our salvation is based. This Lore is in us, surroumls us on all sides, above, below and all about us. His l^ove to U R passes that of the mother, says Sivint Manickavachakar.

ujrEJS(t^2i(f:sr<i iQ269TiiQ^rrjpiLti jgjusi Qua^Q^rjpiLD sruQufrffiih

tsii^tuffear*^ ^uufiQin ^aenGfit^ii/iijir ^suduirnQui^Ui Quiff^uQeu^efJUi^ sr^siK^eutnudQi^d^an/idujir "

^^ssarL-ffAMr QUITBQ^

^ ^ i t S u y^ffgifBiuiauLj

No selfish want ]>i oinpts His love. His Love was ever with ns from our tii-st beginning' to the very end.

^Q^Qmsj^u^fiGfT

euenoieuiLt^ajtrk

AfSiP^efl^ir jy^fitflcu^ ^ Z s f T u u f f i

mecppib^iL

90

SIDDHANTA

DKEPIKA.

The mother's love will not suffer even if the child misbehaves and does not deserve it\. If we will therefore return His love, then our salvation is secured. St. Tiruinular sums up these foregoing facts in a beautiful verse,
^cvrjy iBe^jj^Uifi ^FUMJ ^gn&nff iSi^jpt Q9A1 u^ffUGnir QfUdMi^dn SdoQilttj ua^ji^B^

QiBU^em^Lj

jpt&cuLur/t^

Now let us realize to ourselves how it is that to know him and become one with Him, we must love Him. Let relations. Is it by birth and caste, wealth and possessions, learning and knowledge that one is brought nearer to another? Are not all these barriei-s dividing one from another,? By all these means one regards himself as raised above all other less favoured individuals. It is learning that puffeth up aman. The ness and ^mineness' becomes more and more developed in these men. So these means can never lead one nearer to another. Then what other means have we ? It is love, love in all its g-radations from pity and upwards. This is the gi'eatest Thing in the world as Prof. Di ummond truly said. It is the ideal of both theistic and atheistic systenis of the world. Love is the basis of all human society, the rock 011 whic h it is built. That this will appear so from the mere heads of the chapters in in the sacred Kural. It is the uiie thing w J J I c I ) b i n d s man to man, the parent to the child, friend to fi iend an<l tlie woman to the husband. When this prevails, the distinctions created by birth, possessions and learning all cease. It is this which imjiels the servant to engage in his master's servicc, the mother to sacrifice herself to the child, the friend to give his life for his friend, tlie lover to forget himself in the loved. All the nollcst acts of heroism, th^g in thH^rid.

T H E FOUR PATHS.

91

"^hilibiitliropy and martyrdom arise from this one source. It is this love which as we have seen gives rise to the other great fact in Being namely s^rifice. Ev-en naturalists have discovered the connection of these two facts, Love and Sacrifice, even in the case of lower animals. And should not this law hold good in higher realm than the animal and social.^ And it is to lead to this end we have all along been trying. And in this place the importance of knowledge cannot ho ignored. One has to enter a railway platform and watcli Knowledge . ,, . necesaary. ^^ recnrnng scenes. The compartments are crowded more or less. Fresh passengers try to rush into it. The persons impelled of coui'se by their own comfort resist the intrusion. Actualfights^^ensue.Some of them try to get in somehow. They stand for a while. Those who have comfortable seats are pierced by their own hard[heart and they pity and relent. A small space is found for the man who stands. They naturally soon after fall to conversation. They discover soon their mutual friends and relations and by the time they leave the train they become the most affectinate of people and the parting becomes a sorrow. Whereby was this mutual hate turned into love. It is by knowledge. We are ignorant, all of us, how intimately we are related to each other. We are all god's servants. His children in fact and may be we can share in His fellowship. The whole world is ensouled by Him. We are members of His body. Says Srikanta. "Wherefore the whole univei-se is ensouled by Siva. If any embodied being whatsoever be subjected to The True worship. Constraint, it will be quite repugnant to the eight bodied Lord ; as tothistliere is no doubt. Doing good to all, kindness to all, affording shelter to all, this they 'hold as the worshipping of Siva."

Crtj
p

STDDHANTA DEEPTKA.

Here in this last, sentence of Srikanta, do we get at the real essence of all religion. What is Siva ? It is Love. What is worship of Him, Loving Him. How can we love Him, whom we do not know ? Nay we can know Him and do know him thoqgii. We do not perceive each other's souls or minds and yet we love each other. It is^ the body we know and it is on each other's body we manifest all onr love. We do willing service to the body only of ptir elders, ua.sters and teachers and parents. It is~on that body we love, we la^dsh all our wealth and labour. So can we worship and love Him by loving His Body whicli is the whole universe of Chetana and, Achetana.
iSldif^QajeS Gu/rsQfveiff evjre^gvOaretr est^sofw

Gilt_/iPCcj.T Qptaaioisssi

L^^eattGnn

^ ^ B s s f T j y ^Q f l w i s i i u i r ^ q f t L i L n

As I pointed out above, knowledge is an essential requisite of our love. As knowledge grows, Love will grow. The more and more we understand our nearness to cach otlier and to God. more and more will our love gio\v. The knowledge and love prevailing between master and servant is weaker tlian between father and sen; between friends it is higher and in the pase of lovers it is highest. I must here point out a Psychological Law whieii I may state as ti e The third i>ossibiHty. hasis of this exj^erieuco and which I may state as the third possibility. It is the peculiar nature of the soul or mind, where it identifies itself with the thing it is united to. This aspect is alone fully

T H E FOUR p a t h s .

gf

disciissed in the Siddliaiita Saatras. Si Meikandan calls it j y ^ ^ ^ St. Ami Nantlii expands it sls mwaemuin St. Thaynmanar paraphrases it as lunQ/ta^jsaup/Seor UBIU S^jpt The human'sonl is a mirrora crystal. It becomes dark when darkness covers it. A man can be judged by his associates. He can be good or bad as his associates are. With the world in union, the soirl has become identified with the world and lost its individuality. In God it has become Sivam, losing its individuality. In the full glare of the midday ran, I ehallange on to see the mirror. What one will see if he has courage enough to see it, will be the full i-adiance of the glorious sun, and which will blind him at once. Says Prof. Henry Drummond. All men are mirrors, that is the first law on which this fomula is based. One of the ai)test descriptions of a human being is a mirror." Pix)fessor Drammond states this Law as tJie Law of Reflection and Assimilation, or Law of Influence or as wc may call it, Law of Identity ^jg ^jp He instances the iron which gets magnetised and becomes a magnet, ^Q^ioesiua Beir/DminQ/DSssr^' a mirror getting rid of its dust, reflects the glorious light and becomes merged with it and loitf. Only one word about the meaning of the words ' merging' Hew the SOQI merges 'losing/ before I Continue the thread. I quote And loses itself. froan a text book of science : " When a river enters the Sea^ it soon loses its individuality, it becomes merged in the body of the ocean, when it loses its current andwhentlreforeithas no power tokeep in sufipension the sediment whioh it had brought down from the Higher lands." Please reread the lines in this way and the application will become clear "when the soul loses its individuality (its feeling of I and mine) Ahankaram or Anavam, it becomes merged in Ood when it loses its karma, and

SfDDHANTA

DKEPIKA.

jrhen therefore it has no power to keep in suspension its mala witli which it was associated from the beginning. This losing of self is the real sacrifice, brought about by love. It is this sacrifice wc are asked to make as we enter the Temple precincts and the moment we make it, our u^/i^euth will leave us and we will beccHne mi^ tlie Blissful Sivam. We likened the soul to the mirror and the following passages from the upanishads may be considered. As a metal disk (mirror), tarnished ))y dust, shines bright again after it has been cleaned, so is tlio one incarnate penon satisfied and freed from grief after lie has seen the real nature of himself." "And when by the real nature of himself he sees as by a lamp the real nature of the Braliman, then having known the unborn Eternal God, who transcends all tatwas, he is freed from all pasa.' "From meditating on Him, from joining Him, from becoming^ one with Him, there is further cessation of all Maya in the end.** In Drummond's language these verses readsee God, reilect God and become God." Students of Darwin will have noted how powerful is the law of association and assimilation or identity in the animal and human evolution. Persons who are ever a^ociated with pigs get piggy faces, and with horses horsey faces. In the case of a husband and wife, when they have been perfectly lovicg, it has been found, to effect a complete assimilation of their facial features Such is the power of the human mind ; it can lower itself to the very depths of the brute or it can raise itself to tlie very height of Godhood. This law is spoken of in our text books as the law of 'garudathyanam.' This brings us to the very end of our subject. We cannot know God really by all our religions rites and performances, repetition of prayers and formulas by saguna or

T H E FOUR PATHS.

355

uirgnna worsltip, with or without idols, and even by the highest yoga, except when His grace and Love 61b ua all and we lose ourselves in this Love. Look at how St. Maikandan ridicules this idea of the Yogi that he knows God. ^ If it can be meditated, then as an object of onr senses, it becomes Asat. If you regard it as not conceivable by our organs (internal and external) even then it is of no use. If you contemplate it as beyond contemplation even then it gives you no benefit as it is a mere fiction. If you contemplate it as yourself, this is also fiction. Giving u^i these fictitious ideas of God, the only way to know Him is by understanding with his Arul or Grace." So that all our understanding of Him till the final goal is reached ^^^ ^ merely fictitious, or use a better word, symbolical. Tlie conception whether that of the Bhakta or Yogi, Hindu or Christian will only be symbolical. We introduce a real element into it when we introduce love in our conception of God. And this conception naturally divides itself into four foi*ms, that of master and servant, parent and child, friend and friend and lover and loved. All other conceptions can be reduced into these four. There is love and knowledge in all these different forms of Bavana or Sadana. As our Lord and master, we do him and his bhaktas, loving service ai^ obedience and reverence. In the master, we lose our own identity. To tne father and mother, obedience and service and reverence and love in a greater degree is exhibited. To the friend we can say 'I am He,' ' He is myself,' *all mine are His' and 'all liis are mine.' In real life, this ideal of friendship is rarely manifested. Our people could hardly appreciate the act of the saint who gave his wife to the bhakta who demanded her of him. How would you like the Pourtrayal of Hall Caine of the lowborn and illiterate Mtvnxeman who loved and continued to love more and more the
The four ths

Crtj

STDDHANTA DEEPTKA.

Iiigh born and cultur^ aristocrat who betrayed liim, cheated and robbed Jiim of his betrothed and forfeited all claims to regard respect. It was because his friendship on his own part was sincere and true. It is this ideal of the friendship and tlie bavana required under it which reveals the meaning of the formulas of Tatvamasi and Aham Brahmasmi, given out as the mantras to be practiced by the Yogi. In Yoga, the identity of bavana is fully reached. When we understand this fully, we can understand all the episodes in the life of St. Sundara, who was of the very image of SomaSundara and whom God chose as his omi 'friend.'
ertfinn^iUfiLj (S/gntfiSfHnniu inrtnipQiuff^Sistfi nSm^uuaj^iu MjirofQ^iuiLith ureuisuanajjs ^i6^ires8rL^it2eaf tufitSwr Qaj^gfient-^gj

III life, have you felt the hundredth part of this love for your friend, the gnawing pain at heart when you are separated and the boundless joy when you met.

These are then the four paths or margas Chariya, Kriya, Yoga and Gnana, othenvise called Dasa, Satputra and Saha and Sanmarga. And the various duties assigned under each are only such as our love of the master or father or friend or lover will induce us to manifest in tokens of our love. These duties are meaningless except as tokens of our love and as disciplining us to love and Ibve more God and liis creatures.
Quw^Qurp semSw tUAB^GD^euri^ Gluirfitutu^uiS^ii stii fi

T H E FOUR PATHS.

97

These daiies are for the Dasa Margi.

ujbpw

iMiL^i^ttitLrfl

Oar cHristian friends who regard our building Temples and spending in ornaments and flowers will scarcely realize why millions of money ai*e spent on churches and church decorations. The money gpent in flowers onfiaeter And Christmas festivities in churches comes to a million or more each year. Christ rebuked the man who held the joint purse and who objected to Mary's wasting that precious scented oil on Christ's feet. It was not the value of the oil that was worth anything but the love that prompted that sacrifice was worth all. But it is not by costly gifts alone we can manifest our love. The duties of Satputra margi are as follows.
" y f i ^ ^ ^ itQ^fiw mppmiL QnSp/stLL^^tsifyii ^ ^ p p turiimiA Quippio gjQpdQtktnio t^pjpi uifrimuur^Qi^,** mpfiQ^tu^w

dtupr^

iffQraofswmpjf nw^mrmmtb

eOsarQ^giR qmfi fmiatii^ia,

Qurprvuup^tL pw rmtsQ^UMiit^

are those of the Sahamargi. The eight forms of Yogfa referred to are Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, PratTakara, Daraniw Dyana and Samadhi, and we note only here the definition of Yama and Niyama. Yama is Ahimsa^ Satyam, refraining from thefU celibacy or chastity, mercifulness^ devoid of deceitfulness, contentednessb courage, taking little food and purity. Niyama is performing tapas, and japam, vratam, believing in God, worshipping Him, reading and meditating on the shastras, being cheerful, fearful of evil and intelligent.
3

Crtj

STDDHANTA DEEPTKA.

Tlic tlnti'.^s of Saniiiarga are stated as follo\TR,


dk^tuf^ Qw^^ih sS^iud Q^ir^dur^uj^jfpjpr ujcsiff-eufresT lUirssi^^unrirdmQus.

These four sadanas are so arranged that one may lead into the other. And the fonns and symbols in each .are so chosen that as one reaches the higher path, fresh meaning and fresh beauty and life may burst forth, as his own intelligence and love ripens to receivo the fresh life. The Temple built of brick and mortar becomes the very soul r<nd heart of the Yogi and the Sivalinga becomes the Loving Precence and Light of the Supreme. The food ueSI offered by the devotee gradually comes to mean the sacrifice of anava or ^jb The beauty of such books as the Tiruvacliaka, Davara an(i Tiruvaimozhi consists in this that it fnrnishes the required mental and spiritual food to the illiterate and the most cultured minds. That these four paths are natural divisions, it will be readily perceived. Ttie world s great religions may be ranged under one or other of;these heads. Mahomedanism and the ancient Judaism fall under the first division. It was the merit of Jesus Christ that he brought into greater prominence the Fatherhood of God. The following quotations from the Bible will show that the other paths are not unrecognized by Jesus Christ. Ye call me Master and Lord aivd ye say well for so I am." St. John. XIII. 13. "If ye love me keep my commandments. XIV. 15. Little children, yet awhile I am with you; a new commandment I give you. That ye love one another; as I have loved you that ye also love one another. XIV. 33. 34. Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends." "Ye are my friends, if ye do whatsoever I command vou."

THE

FOUR

PATHS.

99

"Ueiicefortli I call yon not servants; for tlie servant knoweth not what the master doeth, but I have called you friends, for all things that I have heard of my father I have made known unto yon." ''Ye have not chosen me but I have chosen you. XV. 13 to 16." " That they all may be one, as thou father ai-t in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us." I in them, and thou in me that they may be mar'.e perfect in one. XVII. 21 and 23." When I spoke of these higher aspects of Christ's teaching to a missionary, he observed to me tliat it only struck him lately that fellowship with God was a higher spritual condition than fatherhood of Go<l. Among oai'selves, the Madiiwa system may be said to bq pure Dasamargii. The Kamanujah in its popular aspects, i? Dasamarga und Satputramarga and little more. Sankaras system will be Saharaarga. Bat the mistake is nuide in not understanding that these truths are only symbolic and then tJiey are apt to become dogmatic. I have seen Christian friends contend that God is our real father, as Vedaiitis and Yogis may declaim that there is no other Ood but the self. A true and universal religion will combine all these Tarioua paths and which are requii-ed a?id necessitated by the raryirg degrees of man's intellectual and spiritual development. And then we will not see the mote in our brother's eye and will live in peace and amity for ever. I only need quote to you one verse from the Gita whore all these four paths are set foi tli. 'Therefore with bowing and body bent, I ask grace of thee, Lord and Adorable, ^s father to son, as friend to friend, it is meet, O Lord, to bear with nie as Lover to Loved.' I may also observe that Saivaism of to-day which I regard as the true modern representative of the historic i-eligion of the Gita and Mahabharata period combines all these lour jmths and their great Saijits St. Api>ar, St. Gnanasambandar, St. Sundarai- and St. Maniekavachakar are regarded as teachers of these four paths. More than all this, I wish to euiphaize the fact that love is the essence of all iH?al Religion, and real worship of God is the worship of God's creatures and loving theuj one and all without distinction of caste or creed, as obser\c<l by Sri Kanta, and unless this is fully rceofrnized and pri/'tised no real spiritual progress is possible. J. M. ^'ALLAS^VA^JI TILLAI, BA., B.L.

Crtj

STDDHANTA DEEPTKA.

Cameos from Tamil Literature.


V

I. (KALITOGAI. ii. 1.) The following is the first stanza in which is the second chapter in seSjiQ^ams, The fii*st peculiarity in the stanza is that it does not contain any Sanscrit words. The metre is seS Qiarua- which* however, to the great surprise of the modern reader^ is mixed with ^^Hiufi^^. Of course, the only instance of occnring in it would long ago have been converted into QimTL^dsa and the metre would have been modernized if d Qalfiuf had not stamped his seal upon the peculiarity by a note. In line 16) m^tuir^ e ^ Q p a r is expressly stated to be by iB^&i^rs&eiifujir in his notes to the stanza and if it had not been for this learned note, the manuscripts would centuries ago have been changed by introducing an jif or Queue-to od^oj/tm as /sov Qpekjpi which would make Q&idrc^^istr which is the only /*2bir now admissible in seSQn/t^un. The context of the stanza is this. The Q^irifi (maid) explains to her mistress, the heroine, a false incident which she imagines has happened to her. In Q/^if ^siruiSujua, such a liberty is allowed to G^KTifi (maid) in the Sutram :
mtppn^m Q^iucSdesr Q^irpp^ LMnpuiBg^iQ Qua Q^ i s up uiS^eQjsotb

(tptsva^S^

(ipaviria

S ^ w p

UWQEUJPI

^EUIIQU(T^A

KTLLL.^

^US^LL.

&C.

This Sutram very elaborately enumerates all the occasions when k cillcnved to speak. Her first duty is to coiijccture thC'

CAMEOS FROM TAMIL LITERATURE

loi

intimaGy of her mistress with the lover by means oi mnpp Q^i Q/t n jb /DQfiui, &c., being the seven methods enumerated above. After knowing this intimacy by the above means, then it is that C^V^, by false or real incidents or methods, should test her mistress as to the existence of the intimacy which she was able to gqess by certain means and for this purpose she speaks to her mistress as in the following stanza. She might ask her mistress, for instance, to worship the young moon (aee ^mmirir s (^istarmfl Qrmis jrDan.u LI' &C,, in fi(Sfs(:sjrmm/.) The mirtress might keep quiet without worshipping, and the inference drawn hy Cjg/r^ on the principle of O^iuBfi ^Jfirt^n Jifr Qsir ^e/b f Ac, is that she has got a lover, and therefore refuses to worship the moon. Or, she might say that she saw in the neighbourhood an elephant or a tiger with human blood in the mouth, which would arouse her mistress's fears for the safety of her lover. And so, by snch methods as these, which may be real or fictitious, she sounds the mind of her mistress for confirmation of her suspicions of intimacy, before she countenances the solicitations of the lover who is hanging upon her for help in the matter. But, in the stanza here from the C^/r ^ invents a new fictitious incident, saying a certain very handsome person was paying silent visits to her and that, as both of them were bashful to open the subject* she asked him to push the garden swing in which she was seated and while moving there, she contrived falsely to slip from the swing and fall into his arms. By her mistress's behaviour, after hearing this incident the maid might be able to understand th^ existence of intimacy which might arouse her jealousy.
(i^ieuit^ QuMW/g

(y^mfttfi^p

p^stapp

102

SIDDHAKTA DEEPIKA.

^JpiJS Atfi^^

Gtieu^Sp maQertan

ffiOJifirpjpimfi^fhQfinami'essB&POMJCi Q^tuQ^ ^eoTdSffiRiu/ria est jpj^^sio quqan^^aj euii^aZsar

Quaiuojira

eS'^tkQ^taieuan

ubirKi9eifl6viiuja^Q^^ QmireafL^irGnduiW uaan^iSenL. Q^iuQiutm oi^jS eQ(Suiumi9

O^niuQiuoneuagiQst QiLiuttJ/Siuir Q^^QuirpSi^ibQjSGft QunutujSiB Otfu/rcw^^TUj Qs^Qsafd

Oil thou, of eyes like blue lotus, ponder over this iinident. A matchless hero, as if he pursued the tracks of a strong elephant or other wild beast, adorned with garlands graciously woven and holding a bow, would for several days come looking at me and go. He cannot express the source of his cares but one has to understand it by remote inferences. I was sleepless with sympathetic cares. I endured pain of mind, though unconnected with him. He could not bear to disclose his wishes to me, nor would it be consistent with my modesty to tell him my sorrows for him. Without enquiring into this, vh., my sorrow for him, it is possible he might fall a prey to his cares. I, therefore, induced by my distress of mind which has caused niy shoulders to pine away, have done an immodest act, hear thou of sweet forehead. While moving in the swing situated near the fields where we drive away the parrots, I requested him, 'Sir, please ])iih my swing.' ^Oh damsel,' he said,'well' and moved it. I fell falsely upon his arms, pretending to slip from my swing. Takiif^

CAMEOS FROM TAMIL L I T E B A T U K E

10

my pretence to be true, be took me tip forthwith and embraced me. If I then recovering my senses slioiild get np, lie ont of his kindness to me would tell mo ' Oh thou of ginwious tresses, pleaso stay not lest others should know this/ I, therefore, lay long in his arms. T. VIRABADRA MUDALIAR, B.A., B.L.

II. PALAIKALI. STANZA 14.


muaJZmr^
(SSesorutfU O / ^ ^ o f c u ^ Q^mQ^ffiiin

/j^i^QuimQ^iL

Ui98QuMiuw Ui^iBrjpi

Q^eoitJ^af

thvsff

iBjpijs!^^ U i f f i e f f f f i ^ i a

Qw^SmgeutwmZeir^ utouwmCJBmir tQwSiuQfrwS

Q^tutuiQiufQmi^&iLt ustumi^iSpurrttLi^ SfinQ^K^^iySuiuiruu

Glur(^nww

pQun (^^QpskiQi^t

Qeuctnuii ?

iLiudMuuili^ajir/g^tQttJi

g^UimuAJ^itijtmuiii^CbumimtJieu^jBtutQtJt

Crtj

STDDHANTA DEEPTKA.

THE DBPABTING LOYBB GETS INCREASINGLY TENDER. O Thou with shotilders softer than the softest pillow and more polished than the most shining bamboo! O Thou with eyes black with pencilled dye more beautiful than a pair of blue flowers! O Thou with teeth white and straight and more f ragi-ant than jasmine buds haunted by bees! O Thou with face, small and fragi-ant ? O Ihou with black hair loved by the dark clouds and a budding bodom O Thou young maid covered with beautiful and bright bangles Such were the sweet flowers of rhetoric with which you beguiled me lately, and covered your hate to plunge me in sorrow. (LOVE BECOMES YOU BETTER THAN WEALTH AND AMBITION.) Did you forget your love by fancying wrongly with the vain delusion that nothing else is of consequence than wealth ? Did you fancy the words of false friends that be without money" as true ? where can love

Do you not know that money earned wrongly is sogn lost and does mischief in this world and hereafter ? Hence ; Regard my love as worth something. Give up the search for wealth, as it will involve the loss of our love. And this will last you more than mere wealth* J. M. NALLASWAMI PILLAI, B.A., B.TL

TITE S K E T C H E S O F C E Y L O N H I S T O R Y

105

SKETCHES OF CETLON HISTORY.


BY

P. A R U N A C H A L A M , I I . A . C A N T A B . Bnrriater-at-laiv, Lincoln'g Inn; Ceyion Civil Service; Member of the Ceylon LegUlative Council.
HON'BLR

{C(mUmted from iiage 76 of Vol. VIJ.)


111.

The first hisitorical event recorded in the chronicles is the landing of Wijaya, the discarded scion of a royal race in Northern India and the founder of the^rst known dynasty in Ceylon. This event is assigned to the year 544 B.C.,* about the time that Cyrus, the founder of the Persian Empire, j)ermittedthe captive Jews to return from Babylonia to Jerusalem. Over the period that intervened between the invasion of Rama and the arrival of Wijaya and which according to the Sinhalese traditions covered about 1,844 years, an impenetrable darkness hangs. It has been usual to regard Wijaya and his followers as arriving in Ceylon from Bengal. There is hai^ly any warrant for this belief beyond the fact that his grandmother was a princess of Wanga (Bengal.) The traditions reported in the ancient chronicles of the Dipawaiisa and Mahawansa point rather to Gnzerat in the Bombay Presidency as his country of origin and departure. The princess Bengal is reputed to have run away from home and joined a caravan^ and while travelling in a wilderness in the "Lala-rata," (the old name of Guzerat) was carried off by " a lion," probably a bandit of the woods, with whom she lived in a cave, bearing him a son and a daughter. When they grew up, they ran away with their mother. The lion roamed the villages, to the terror of the inhabitants, in search of his offspring and was finally slain by the son himself, a feat which is said to have earned for him and his descendants their name of Sinhala, the lion-slayer.f He then established himself as King of ''Lalarata," and Wijaya was his second son. He "became a lawless character" and had to be expelled by the King with 700 of his comrades and their wives and children. The ships containing the women and children drifted to "Nagadipa" and " Mahilarata," probably the modern Laccadive and MaJdive Islands. Tlie men landed at "SupThe date of Wijaya's arrival is said by the Baddhist chroniclers to hav occurred on the day of Gautama Buddha's death, which event tradition gives as 644 B.C., but which more probably occurred about 478 B.C.. For reasons see

Cunningham's Inscripiione of Aoka.

f The Sinhalese thus trace their origin to a lion, as the Bomans of old traced tVeirs to twins nurtured by a wolf. 4

IC^

S l D D I I A NTA I) 1 . 1 : r I K A ,

paraka" (tlie modern Surat in the Boiubaj liH>siaency) autl at "Barukachcha/' the modern Broach, and at botJi ports so niisbcliaTed tliat they had to be expejled by the inhabitants. They took slnp again and landed at last at Tambapanni" in Ceylon. This port is located by some on the north-western coast near Puttalani, and by others on the south-eastern coast, at the month of the Kirinde-Oya. The Dutch historian VaJentyn placed it in Tumble<-ani of Ti incomalie district, in old times called Tamanatota and the sea-port of Tamankaduwa. At the time that Wijaya arrived in Ceylon, it was inJuibited by a race called Yakkhas or Nagas, of whom very little is knov^n. They were a branch of a prehistoric, probably Dravidian, race which colonized South India and Ceylon. The term Yaksha, which is the Sanskrit original of "Yakkha," is in tlie Bdmdymux and other Indian traditions applied to a race of s})iiits whose chief was Knvera, King of Lanka, who was dispossessed by his half-brother, the famous Havana, and is now regarded as tlie regent of the Northern qaurter of tiie world and as the god of wealth. The Yakshas were akin to, if not identical with, the Nagas, the Dragon rjice. They appear to have attained a high state of civilization, and the names of Negapatam in the Madras Presidency, of Nagpore in the Central Provinces of India and of the Naga hills, the norrh-easterlj offshoot of the Himalayas, attest the wide extent of the ancient Naga dominion. Long before the Wijayan invasion Iilahiyanganii (now called Alutnuwara) in the Bintenna division of Uva had been one of their chief cities, and Gautama Buddha on his first visit to Ceylon is said to have descended on ''the agreeable Mahanaga garden, the assembling place of the Yakkhas,"a site marked by the ruins of a great dagoba built about 300 B.O., and still a great place of Buddhist pilgrimage. It was the Maagrammum of Ptolemy, who describes it as "the metropolis of Taprobane beside the great river" (Mahaweli-ganga.) The modern representatives of this ancient race are the fast dwindling Veddas or wQd men of Cejdon and the Bldls, Santals and other wild tribes of India. "Wijaya on his arrival married (under circumstances* which recall the meeting of Ulysses and Circe in tlie Odyssey) Kuveni, a Takkha princess of great beauty and much influence among heicountrymen. With her aid he suppressed the Yakkhas and established his power, fixing his capital at Tambapanni, also called Tamana nuwara. He then basely discarded her for a Tamil princess of South India. Kuveni, seeking refuge among her own people whom she had betrayed, was killed by them. Another tradition says that the deserted queen flung herself, with curses on hor husband, from a rock

T H E S K K T C H E S OF C EYLON HISTORY.

107

callctl after hei- Yakdessa i^ala (" the rock of the Yakkha's cui-se/') and which is one of the hilla that irive picturesquencss to t]ie town of Kunnu'^-^Ja. Toniprala, tlie i oek of hnwcntations," and Yilakatupota, "the vale of toai-s, " both in the Kurunegala District, are also associated v/itli her ^sorrows, Kiirt m' Anna, A\liich rchites the story of her love ani sorrows, sjiys tiiut in agonizing shrieks she wailed; " When shipwrecked and forlorn, I found thee and thy men food and liome. I helped thee to roiit tlie Yakkla"s and raised thea to be king. Pledging me thy troth, tlion niadest me tliy ;>pouse. Didst not thon know then, that i was of tlie Yakkha race I * Loving thee with nnquenchable love and living in t>neh love, I bore thee children. Ho>v canst thon leave me and love tuiotlier 7 The gentle race of the rising fnll moon are now to nie the blaze of a rcd-liot ball of iron; the cool spicy breezes of tlxe sandal groves are hot and unwelcome; the cuckoo's sweet song lierces my oars as with a ti})ear. Alas, how can I soothe my aching leart V
lY.

Wijaya s Huccessors, like liim, were adlierents of the Brahminical faith, and took their con^;Oits from the ancient and powerful Pandyan dynasty of South India, whose sovereigns, from their enlightened encoui-ageiaent of literature, have been called the Ptolemies of India. The alliance v, as indispensable for the development of Ceylon and was probably the justidcation of Y/ij:iya's ingratitude to a Yakkha queen. The cultivation of rice was among the first cares of King Wijaya. Tlie grain was then not grown in Ueylon. When first entertained by the ill-fated queen Kuveni, he is said in the chroniclest to have been served with rice gathei-ed from the wrecks of ships. Even 250 years later the production of rice was so Uimt<Mi that kingDewanampiyatissa is said to have received from the Emperor Asoka of Northern India 160 loads of hill paddy, t The Tiunils, however, on the mainland had made great advance in rice cultivation. A bi'anch of the Vellalas, the old ruling caste of Tamil-land, claims to have received the grain and instruction in its cultivation from the goddess Parvati, andL still calls itself by the title of y llai, her children, for so she deigned to CcUl them wlien granting the boon. The Tamil name of the grain {arim) was adopted into the Greek language and through the Latin 4tryza has passed into modern European languages (French rtz, English Wee, &c.)
I., pp. 32, 33; and Odytsey, + Mahawansa, I., p. 33. Mahawansa, I., p. 16. ^ Consort of -Mahaivama, X, 274 H teq. and iilo callcl Cuia.

108

SIBDHANTA DEEPIKA.

Tamil colonies of agriculturists and artificers were imported in large numbers, and rice and other cultivation introduced. Irrigation works were constructed. In order to secure the organized and continuous labour necessary for their maintenance, the patriarchal village system, which still remains in a modified form, under the name Gansahhawa, was introduced. Large military forces were subsidized, and the highest offices of State thrown open to the new allies. The civil and military administration of the Island thus organized and the resources developed, Ceylon rose gi-adually to a high state of prosperity and civilization. The Island was divided into three great ratas or regions; the Pihita or Raja rata, so called from its containing the established {pihita) seats of royalty {raja,) and comprising the whole region to the north of the Mahaweliganga; the Mohuna rata, bomnded on the east and south by the sea and on the North and West by the Mahaweliganga and Kaluganga, and including the mountain zone to which the land rose from the sea-coast like a ladder {rohuna;) and the Maya rata between the Dedura Oya and Kaluganga, the western sea and the mountain ranges and the Mahaweliganga on the east. Throughout the twenty-four centuries of native rule rice cultivation was the principal concern of king and people and one of the noblest of callings. Kings themselves drove the plough. To build tanks and construct water-courses were regarded as the wisest and most beneficent acts of a good ruler. The extensive ruins scattered in profusion in the ancient kingdoms attest the bounteous care of the kings and the lavish expenditure of money and labour on the national industry, and the names of these kings live in the gi-ateful recollection of the people as benefactors of their ra<ie and country. Great as these irrigation works were, the greatest perhaps in the world, they did not altogether prevent famine in times of severe drought. The native chronicles report the singular manner in which a Sinhalese sovereign (Sri Sangabodhi Raja, circa 252 A.D.,) on one such occasion manifested bis sjnnpathy with his suffering people "Having at that time learned that the people were suffering from the effects of a drought, this benevolent king, throwing himself down on the ground in. the square of the Mahathupa, pronounced tMs vow : * Although I lose my life thereby, from this spot I ^vill not rise until rain shall have fallen sufficient to raise me on its flood from the earth.' Accordingly the ruler of the land remaioed prostrate on the ground, and the rain cloud instantly poured down his showers. Throughout the land the earth was deluged. But even then lie would not rise, as he was not completely buoyed up on the surface of the water. So the officcr.^ of the household blockod the draih.>>

T f l E jSKETCHES OF CEYLON HlSrOBY.

of tbe square. Thereupon being lifted by the water, thin righteous king rose* In this manner did this all-compassionate sovereign dispel the horrors of the drought." {Mahawanga, I., p. 146.) About 437 B.C. the capital of Ceylon was transferred by king Pandukabhaya, fifth in Wijayas line, to nuradhapura, the Anuro' grammum of Ptolemy, originally founded by one of Wijayas followers. The city organization was fairly complete and gi\w proof of no mean administrative capacity as well as advanoc m sanitary science. The king appointed his uncle ^'Nagaraguttikay'' the Mayor of the city. "Pi-om that time there have been/' says the Mahawansa^ * Nagaraguttikas in the capital." Anui*adhapura may thus claim to haVe been among the oldest Municipal corporations in the world. A great marsh ^vas deepened and converted inte a tank called Jaya. Friendly relations were established-^ith th* aboriginal Yakkhas, and their chiefs were given important offices. "He formed the four suburbs of the city and the Abhaya tanks and to the westward of the place the gi-eat cemetery, and the place of execution and punishment. He employed a body of five hundred clumdcdas (out-castes) to be scavengers of the city and two hundred chandalas to be night-men, one hundred and fifty chandalas to be carriers of corpses and the same number of chandalas at the cemetery. He formed a village for them on the noi-th-west of the cemetery, and they constantly performed every work accoi'ding to the directions of the king. To the noi-th-east of this village he established a \dllage of Nichi chandalas to serve as cenletery-mento the out-castes. To the north-ward of that cemetery and between it and the Pasana mountain, a range of buildings was at the same time constructed for the king's huntsmen. To the north-ward of these he formed the Gramini tank. He also constructed a dwelling for the various class of devotees. To the east-ward the king built a residence for the Brahman Jotiya, the chief Engineer. In the same quarter a Nigantha devotee, named Gin, and many Pasandaka devotees dwelt and the king built a temple for the Nighanta Kumbandlia which was called by his name. To the west-ward of that temple and the eastward of the huntsmen's buildings, he provided a residence for 500 persons of various foreign religions and faiih. {Mahaicamo^ I.,
p . 4:3.)

{T^f In'

nntfhnttilA

IIQ

S i n b l l A X T A DEKPIKA.

Is Meat-Eating Sanctioned by Divine Authority.


BY

8IH! W.
' And God s,iid Behold, upcH the fixee of the earth,

C O O P E R , C. I. E.
is and n-cfy tree in the uhuh is a fniit

I have given you aery Juiu hearing seed, uhuh

vf a tree yieMing seed: to you it sh.Ul be for r,:eat '

To those who arc seriously desirous of solving the " Food cjucsiioii, tliese words will apjwal with force. Tliere is nothing ambiguous about them; nor are we left in any doubt. We are distinctly told in this cliapler of our sabred Scriptures that altiiough we are to have doininum' OMM* the tish of the sea, tlie fowl of the air, and over every living- tiling that nioveth upon the earth, the/V{(t7. of the earth only are given to us /< meat. Tliis ib the plain command of the creator. We are to eat of every herb and of the fruits of tlio trees, but wt^ are not commanded to eat of the flesli of animals or of fi.sh; the vegetable kingdom is xpressly reserved and set apart for man's food : and this i a fact tliat cannot be set aside or controverted. The eating of flesh by man, however, may be triiced back to the remotest periods of histoi-y. In the eighth chai)ter of Genesis wo liear of Noah offering burnt oPierings to Mie Lord "of every clean beast and of every clean fowl," and it may be inferred from this that the practice of taking the lives of certain beasts and certain fowls liad existed some time previous to Jiis period. It may also be presumed that since man liad resorted to the practice of taking the lives of animals, it was witji the object of providing himself with food. But it is by no means certain that, l)ecausc man atp of the tiesh of animals, and offered it i\a burnt offerings to the Lord, the creator necessarily ajijmurd of Iho practice. Noah was one of the few survivoi-s of a race thai had been dosiroyed becaiise of its ,vf//.v, and it is conceivable that to take the lives of God 8 creatures and eat their flesh as meat w-as among the sins which were an abomination to the Lord, and which caused Him to destroy tlie human race. We need hardly go back to Noah's days to realize that many false sacrifices, dedications and offerings are made to the Lord, which
l ing up manner in the name of Christ. For nigh two thousand ycai^s frightful tortures have been inflicted by man on his fellows; poor humanity has been persecuted,

In

MK.VT

K A T I M . AI.I.OWAlII.i:.

IH

l i I I i m p r i s o n e d and slain with r c l o n t l f S H c . uoltvjnul coll-lIoo(led fcrocitv; and sincM; tho l{(Mleenicr walked tlie o:li tli, nian luis sur- . cewknl in dolnfrinj,' fhtr ci/nturics willi o<-oaiis of innocent 1lool puurod o a t in Mis lloly Name. ITI fv>nipaiaHvely intxlern (inuvs tlio (oi riWc Im|uiKition swallowed np its coantlcss'iliousnnds, and even in on.r own conntry," tho prison, tho fa.crgot and tlie Mock liave clainM'd their nuofTending and helpless victims. Noah, then, beinjr Inunan, was liable tohnnian weaknes s, to tjie oWl inttiicnco of inherited sin ; to wrontjf conceptions of wliat was due to the J^ord ; to jMirverted ideas of the'natnre ol l i ne s(rvice, or of Hacrifices that would be acceptaOl to Jlini. Noah in common with his rare, had been in tlie habit, pvobably, of killini^ certain ''clean ' animals for fool, :5n(l as rln'M t'orni of food seemed jjootl in siulit, he c o u s i d e i i'.l ii;. his duty to make sacrificial offerinj^s of it. to the Lord. It do vs not, ho vever, follow that Noah was right in his loufic ! It was contrary to tlie Creator's command to use the liesli of animals for food, and it is presumed that Xoah nmst have been aware of this; yet, because it liad betMi ///.< custom to do so, lie saw no harm in ofTerin,i>' it, sai-rificially to tlu? very JJeing who luid expressly set ajKirt the fruits of the earth for mr.n s meat. To satisfy the lusts of the flesh and pand(r to that sensual e^roiism wliicli was as connnon in Noah's time as it is to-day, the express commands of God wore set asitle and consiilered of no jnirticular moment in tho economv of life. It seems clear then that Noah sinned tlie sins of Jiis forefathers, in this i-esiiect at least. And it. apywrnrs erjually clear that subsequent ^fenerations rii^lifc through IMblical histoi v simply followed Noah 8 example. Many of the religious tejiehers mentioned in the Hible who ''stood up for the Lord" were essentially human, and endowed witli Jnnnan tastes and weaknesses. They found the jirnctice of ersting animal flesh common among all ^wjoples wIkmi tliey w(n e l orn into the world, and they simply accepted it just as it stood. Tliey were but nuv, and were liable to finite man's errors when he comes to interpret God's laws and commands. They had forgotten tliat God cannot err, is not liable to mistakes ; does not constantly change His mind as man does! They had forgotten that, when God created this world in which we live, He made no mistakes and left nothing forgotten. And that among other things He made man and appcunted certain of His creations for man's food.

112

SIDDHANTA PEEVIKA.

God placed the entire vegetable kingdom at man s disponl^ so that he might eat and be satisfied. Bat this did not satisfy him; he lasted after other meats, and in obtaining them he disobeyed one ^ the Ci'eator's commands, and all the sophistry that man can bring i support of other interpretations of this plain command cannot alter the facts. It would, however, certainly appear that in many of the books of the Bible there are passages that might lead one to suppose God approved of the practice^ But if we continue to look into the Scriptures for furtlier evidence on the subject, we shall soon find references of a totally different character, and a little study of the question will 'make it clearly manifest that there is a steady progressive development of thought in this respect running through the Old Testament. In endeavouring to arrive at the truth behind seeming inconsistency, we must remember that the variableness lies not in the Will of God in the matter, but in mans intei^^^rtatimi of it. It is impossible that God's law of right and Avrong in this respect, as in any other, could have ever cJianged. Believing then as we do in the imniutability of God's word, is it not incredible to suppose that this Omniscient Being, when planning out His marvellous scheme of creation, should have created man a frugivorous creature and have commanded him accordingly to eat of the fruits of the earth, and a few years later have changed His mind ? Surely this is not the plan upon which God works : surely He knows what He is about; and His word is more firmly establislied than the stars. To admit that the Supreme Being changed His mind is to invest Him with the attributes of man; erring, weak, changeable man ; and as we naturally shrink from such a position we mnst seek for another solution of the difficulty. It seems that an explanation of the seeming inconsistency is offered in the fact that Jewish historians have always regarded their Jeliovah as a Personal God ; and once we clothe the Creator witli personal attributes, wo make Him subject to human weaknesses. >Such a conception of God may >\ell lead the mind into all sorts of errors, and it certainly appears that, as the whole of the old Jewish writers regarded Jeliovah as a Personal Being, and moreover as a God possessed of the same passions and attributes as nuui, they found it easy enough to believe that, as He was given to an^r, jealousy, repentance and such like weaknesses, He might conceivably cnjiiigo His mind occasional!v.

LS M E A T - E A T I N G A L L O W A R L i : .

113

111 other words, God was measured by hiiinan standards, and man utlorly failed to appreciate Him; failed to arrive at a just ostiuiate of His immeasurable greatness, of tlie awful magnitude of His might, majesty, and power; and of the profimdity of His unchangeableness. At the very earliest period of Israelitish History we find the people following the instincts of all semi-savage races by shedding the blood of animals and offeung their bodies as sacrifices to appease the Being they worshipped, and it is conceivable that the rulers of Israel, in codifying the customs into some intelligible shape to meet the requii-ements of the times, only followed these instincts in giving to the people that wonderful code of laws which is to be found in the books of Numbers and Leviticus; instincts, however, which completely harmonized with their own laytcs and inclinations in the matter. Further on, as the people became more enliglit<?ned, we find leas attention paid to the rigid ordinances laid down by ancient lawgivers. In Psalm li, 17-19, ^^Titteu by David about 1034 B.C-, wo lind the following passage :
" The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit; a broken and a contrite heart, 0 Gt)d, Thou will not despise."

Still later, about 760 B.C., wc find the following reference to the .subject iu Isaiah, I, 11-14 :
" T o wha4< purpose is tlie multitude of your sacrifices iint-o M e ? saith the L o r d : I a m full of the burnt offerings of rains and the fat of fed beasts; and 1 delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he-goiits," W h e n ye come to appear before mo, who hath required this at your hand, to tread m y courts?"

Such scriptures clearly show that, not only had the people no divine authority to offer these burnt offerings and sacrifices, but they were actually an abomination to the Lord. The Lord God of Israel is here asking by what authority these abominations wero offered to Him; and it is clear that this must have had a potent effect on the Israelitish priesthood in checking these bloody sacrifices, as it will be seen from this time onwards that the cruel practice gradually recedes into the background, and finally disappears with advent of the Redeemer. So much, at least, may be said as to the practice of using animal flesh by way of sacrifice. The first chapter of Genesis perhaps stands alone among the many beautiful chapters of the Bible. It is not a biography of man, as is practically the rest of the Old Testament. It is an unknown record of God's creation, acceitted as true by the Jewish peoples and })y the Christian nations.
a

SIDDIIANTA

DEEPlIvA.

The r e m a i n d e r of the Old Testaments stands out in sharp contrast to this. It is a strange blending of God and man; on the one hand we have God as a Personal Being striving, struggling for the mastery of man's soul; pleading, beseeching man to be true to Him and not to depart from one who had been so good and merciful to him; and then threatening, cursing and punishing him; and on the other, a record of man's base ingratitude to his Creator, and of his vices, iniquities and crimes; and, alas! there is but little said of his
^artues.

Bearing in mind the character of the race depicted in the historical books of the Old Testament, wo may well be pardoned if we accept with many doubts the views held in those times in regard to the killing of God's creatures and usi^g their flesh as human food; and it is perfectly clear that no justification whatever can be found in these books for the practice of meat-eating, but that the evidence is rather the other way, tending to show, on the whole, divine disapprobation of the habit. But in turning to the Gospels of the New Testament, we liave a new set of conditions to deal with, inasmuch as the interest at once centres round the acts and teachings of the supremely inspired Son of God, and pretexts in favour of the consumption of animal food are at once sought for and found in the examples supposed to be set by Christ Himself. The marriage feast in Cana of Galilee ; feeding the multitude with loaves and fishes; and the ])ai'taking of the broiled fish and the honeycomb after His Resurrection, are all quoted as divine examples in favour of meat-eating; but let us examine the matter somewhat closely before we make up our minds one way or the other. When the Saviour came among us, He came with no earthly pomp and circumstance. He took upon Himself man's estate, man's methods, habits and customs, including his ways of eating and drinking. It does not, however, follow that, because the Lord became man for our sake, Ho necessarily approved of all man's habits and modes of life. As a matter of fact, in the four books of the New Testament that record the life and works of the Saviour, and lay bare 60 some extent the simplicity and frugality of His domestic life, there is really no direct evidence in proof of His ever having partaken of animal food; no evidence of a nature, let ns say, that would be accepted as conclusive in any human court of justice of to-day. The most that can be required of us is to admit, for the siake of argument, that there is evidence, by implication onlv, that Chnst may possibly have sometimes partaken of animal food. But as cvi-

!S

.\;J:.\T.I:ATI:VC.

AI.J.OWAULL:.

II:,

tlcncc of tliisnaiiiro is of a nvgoiuc vatlicr tluin a jX'silin cliaractcr, ijolhing can ])c ]roved by it. \Vc (hid ill r^i. Mattliew xi, 19, that His enemies accused Him of being "a niriii glultoiions and a Avinebibber." In St. Mark ii, 15, that He "siit at meat with j)ublicans and sinners" (the word here translated meat" in tlie oriirinal refers io food, not flofh; the 'mea+, offering' of the Hebrews \v;us one of tlie corn and oil;) while a.I the books of the Gospt'ls rt'for to Hiis feeding the midtitnde wit i loaves and fishes. V But the-most tliat this discloses is the fact tliat He, to whom all things were possible, did not despise human habits, or human means of relie\iug hunger; nor did He hold aloof from them. A V ^ e nuist also remember that fish was probably an absolute necessity for the crowded population of Palestine at that time. And the taking of net-caught tish does not involve bloodshed and cmelty tliat is needless; thciefore the consumption of this type of food is a very different act to the eating of the flesh of warm-blooded animals, whether considered from the ethical or the hygienic standpoint. It is indeed conceivable that, conscious as we know He was of His divine origin, He must have experienced many things in His brief human existence that were repugnant to Him; suffered many a thing that caused Him bitter pain and deep humiliation, yet ho gave no sign. Not the least among those afflictions were those which the GodMan found in the daily routine of human life. It is distinctly recorded by the early Fathers of the Church that several of the Apostles were total abstainers from flesh food, and it is more than probable tliat they were folloAving the exalted example of their Master. Looking at the subject from this standpoint, it Avould seem that the argument in favour of flesh eating has little to gain by any reference to the records of the life of Christ, and His attitude in the matter.
* * *

Two of the commonest reasons give in favour of meat-eating ai'e: 1. That if God did not intend man to eat of the tlesh of animals. He would not have given them to us. 2. That man's teeth are evidently intended for the eating of animal food; and if they were not given to us for that purpose, why are we provided with them ? In regard to the first point, there is, no doubt, widespread misconception on the question. It is believed > > y mo^t |X'ople, who will

116

STDDIIANTA DEEPIKA.

not think for themselves, that all animals whose flesh w considered what is popularly termed " good to eat" were really given to us by God for food. If for humane considerations it be suggested by some one that they should abstain from the use of animal food, the answer comes promptly, " Why should I ? It was given to us for food, and why shouldn't I eat beef or mutton, or anything else I like f* Then we frequently hear it contended that what we call the domestic animals " belong to m a n t h e y are his property; he breeds, real's, feeds them; and if he kills such of them as are good for human food," he has a perfect right to do so; they belong to him as rightfully as do his lands and house, and other goods and chattels, and he can therfore do what he likes with them. Let us take the first of these reasons, viz., that certain animals were given to us for food. Now if there is a gift there must be a giver. The gift is the effect, the giver the cause. Who was the giver; and when, how and where, and upon whom was the gift bestowed.? We have seen that there is nothing in the Old Testament to prove that the Almighty God created any of the animals for man's food, but that on the contrary he was expressly enjoined to eat of the fruits of the earth; and to have, at the same time, dominion over the rest of the animal creation. Let us, however, pause a moment and consider what was meant by dominion. Did the Ci-eator mean that dominion over ''eveiy living thing that moveth upon the earth" gave man the right to slaughter His creatures for food ? Hardly that, or reference would have been made to it in the next verse:
" And God said. Behold, I have given you every herb' hearing teed which i upon the face of the earth, and every tree in the which is the frmt of a tree yielding seed ; to you it shall he for meat."

After so plain a command, the only interpretation that dominion might bear is its literal meaninglordship, power! God created other beings besides man, ard as many of them were physically stronger than man himself, it was necessary that he should be protected against them, and have dominion over them ; but it was evidently not the dominion of brute strength that was planned by the Creator, but the superior power of moral and spiritual force. God put into man's hands no puny human weapons of offence and defence, but armed him with that mighty controlling force which is not well-known among us to-day, alas ! We have lost the power, but in those far-away days when ''man walked with God" it was different. Perfect man and perfect woman were God's first human creations; living souls endowed with perhaps divine attribut-es, and

IS MEAT-EATING A L L O W A B L E .

117

mvested with such apiritual power as would ensure to them complete dominion oyer " eveiy living thing that moveth upon the earth;" and it was in this sense that man was given dominion over God's creatures. Briefly, there is absolutely no evidence to show that the practice of killing certain animals for food purposes is anything more than a man-made practice that was bom of human cravings and fed by man 8 insatiable appetite. In the old, old days, when the fathers of the human race, walked the earth as primitive men, they found that the flesli of somo of the animals was good, and they slew them as we do to-day without Jet or hindrance. They were not troubled in those days by such questions as "Meum and Tuum," ethics and religion, right and wrong; nor were they swayed by such sentimental reasons as humane considerations, mercy, compasdion, and the rest of it. The nomadic life of the Israelites under Moses rendered tha cultivation of vegetables, as we know it to-day, an impossibility. Sheep, goats, and oxen were plentiful; they carried their flocks and herds with them; here was convenient form of food; and as there was no other available, these animals necessarily formed the staple food of the people. The only thing Moses and the rulers of Israel could do was to curb, as far as it was wise and politic to do so, the lusts and appetites of the people ; and their efforts in this direction found expression in the elaborate system of laws and regulations found in the Pentateuch. But the domestic animals were no more given to these ancient peoples in those far-away times than they are given to us in these days. The practice of eating animal food was initiated by man probably at a time when the economic conditions under which he ! ived were excessively hard. Food was scarce and the grossestignorance prevailed as to the highly nutritive value of manj vegetable products which no doubt existed then as now. If man under such conditions, therefore, took such means of subsistence as were ready to hand, there are certainly many excuses for him; indeed he liad no choice in the matter; it was animal food or starvation; and the common law of self-preservation dictated which alternative to take. In consideraing the contention that "domestic animals being the property of the owners man has a perfect right to kill them and use their flesh as food," we should bear in mind one or two points. When we speak of rightSy we should not forget that there are rights of many kinds. There are l e ^ l and moral rights, rights in equity and in law, just rights and unjust rights, the right of might, right of dominion and power, and so on ad infinitum. By which of these rights is the question we are considering to bo decided.

liy

S1D1>HANTA

DKErXKA.

If wo attempt to settle it on the grcnnd that these animals are oar by tlio legal right of inheritance, the enalytical mind of an able lawyer noiild st once look into our title and trace it back and back till he came to those far-off days when our ancestors took their animals by right of might, and although he would admit that custom has established a right, he would at the same time tell us tliat our title was faulty inasmuch as our ancestors obtained their possessions by force. Let US draw a parallel between this case and that of many of the great families of our own countiy, or, for that matter, of any country in Europe. The landed possessions of many of the great ones of the earth are vast and yield great revenues. They are firmly established in them, and the law of the country recognises their proprietorship. Nobody to-day brothers himself about the equity of their titles; the land is theirs; it has descended for generations from heir to heir, and that is enough. But trace back the history of some of these lords of the earth; go back generation by generation; back of those days when strife was rife, and breast-plate and morion, sword and spear, were inipoiiant factors in the formation of family estates and the upbuilding of family names. Go back to those "good old days" when "barons held their sway" and serfdom was the portion of the people; to those fine old times when the strong hand took what it wanted and held what it took ; when kings confiscated the estates to those who opposed them, and distributed them with lavish hand among courtiers and flatterers; gave any with unstinted generosity that which was not theirs to give, and enriched those who had no right to receive, save the right which might gives. You shall find tliat had not time sanctioned tl>e title it would have been found of so faulty a nature tliat no court of justice of today would uphold it. And you would realize in this case, as in the other, that many an o-vner of inherited estates has no more equitable, just, moral right to his property than has the man who claims the right of taking the lives of living creaturcs. The right of possessioVj the right of mighthoih being legalised by man-made laws and by customare his; but man's laws are not God's laws, and although man finds it easy enough to justify himself before earthly judges, his conscience must tell him that ho cannot and will not be able to offer justification before that High Tribunal whicn takes no cognizance of such human laws as are not framed in justice and equity, and administered in mercy and compassion.

A VETEBAN ORIENTALIST.

119

In considering the second point, that" the hnman teeth are evidently intended for flesh food/ we should not too readily accept all tlmt people say in this world. Many an apologist for meat-eatmg will be found to defend the practice on the grounds of man's teeth being those of the camivora; whereas, as a matter of fact they are nothing of the kind One writer says :
" The physical structure of man is declared by our moet eminent biologists to reveal the indisputable fact that he is at the present day, as he was thousands of years ago, naturally a frugivorous (fruit-eating) animal . . . . The accepted scientific classification places man with the anthropcnd apes, at the head of theiiighest order of mammals. These animals bear the c l o e ^ resemblance t a human beings, t h e k teeth and internal organs being practically identical with tbose of man, and in a natural state tiiey subsist lumost entirely upon nuts seeds, and fruit."

There, is, besides this testimony, overwhelming scientific evidence forthcoming of man being of the frugivorous order of mammals (see "The Testimony of Science in favour of Natural and Humane Diet," published by The Order of the Golden Age,) and if those who follow the practice of partaking of flesh food, because they believe they belong to the carnivorous order, will not look into the question for themselves, then they must tear the charge of deliberately shut* ting their eyes to facts, Man is not of the order of carnivorous animals, and no amount of sophistical jugglery can prove him to be so. He is declaimed by the most eminent authorities to be of the frugivorous order, and if, after science has spoken, man persists in his carnivorous practices, he will do so because he Justs after the flesh of Grod's inoffensive creatures, and not because he believes he was intended by his Creator to be a meat-eater.The Herald of the Golden Aqe.

A VETERAN ORIENTALIST.
db. o. u. pope.

The London correspondent of the TirMs of htdia writing under date April 20th says: In commemoration of the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria, the Royal Asiatic Society established a Gold Medal to be awarded evei7 third year to some specially selected savant of repute by whose laboui-s Oriental learning has been encouraged amongst Englishspeaking people throughout the world. The time for this triennial award has once more come round and the choice has fallen on that piuinent Tamil scholar, the Rev. G. U.Popo. Mr. Pope is remarkably

120

SIDDHANTA. DEEPIKA.

well pi-esorvod for his age. Ho was born 86 years ago, almost to a day, in Nova Scotia, where his family then resided. He completed his education at the Hoxton College, being designed for the Wesleyan ministry, and went oat to Soatliern India in 1839. He joined the Church of England, and was employed under the auspices of the S. P. G. in TinneVelly, where he first learned to know and love the Tamil people, language and literature. On his temporary return to England in 1849, he made his first acquaintance wi(jh Oxford, where ho was the guest and occasional Chaplain to the great and good Bishop Samuel Wilberforce, to whom, he is wont to say, he owes very much of what he most values in life. On his return to India in 1851 he was appointed to Tanjo re, where he saw a new phase of native life and 3haracter. Prom that time Indian education engaged very much of his attention, and he was able to found the Tanjoid College, which, under a succession of able men, has taken a prominent place in the educational work of Southern India. Ho had had some tuitional experience inTinnevelly where he began what lias developed into the chief educational centre of the S. P. G. Missions there, viz., in Sawyerpuram. His pupils, their children and their. grandchildren, are scattered pretty nearly wherever Tamil Native Christians are to be found. Mr. Pope afterwards laboured at Ootacamund and Danglore, and finally left India iii 1880. He has mostly resided in Oxford, where he received the degree of M. A.> having previously been made a D. D- by the Archbishop of Canterbury. He has been chaplain of his College (Balliol) for nearly twenty years, but his chief work in the University has been teaching Tamil and Telugu to the accepted candidates of the Indian Civil &rvice, large nutnbers of whom have passed through his hands and hold the venerable scholar in affectionate esteem. For their use he has published a series of elementary books. He has also written a textbook of Indian history, and has ti*anslated many of the Tamil sacred writings. A scheme is now on hand for the publication of a complete Tamil Dictionary on the foundation of those in use, introducing as far as possible modern improvements. A specimen sheet and prospectus may soon be expected, and very many influential pei^ns are interested in the project. Mr. Pope does not expect, at his advanced age, to do more than set the work going, but he has accumulated a large amount of material which in competent hands will suffice to make a complete and suflScient dictionary. "Who's Who" states that Mr. Popes recreation is "TamU," but it may also be said that he is a poet of no mean order, and has rendered most sympathetically into English some of the sonnets of Goethe, Victor Hugo and other famous foreign authors.

TIIK

8IDDHANTA DEEPIKA
on

The Light of Truth.


.1 Mcrtf^h /iUtina/, Drrotai t.- /{iir;:!on. Pha'ostff'hy. Liinatv.tr-. S. rrr. t J'..

Commttiicttd on th

Qun'a

Commemoration

Day.

1897.

Vol. VII,

JULY 190G. TRANSLATIONS.

No. K

THK

VirUAN'T.A-SL'TlfAS

Wiril

SIJlKAVTirA

TMIA8HVA,

[('initinned

/nnu

prirj^

fV.

11/.)

FOURTH ADHYAYA.
FOURTH PABA.
T h e Snt'/akani says that ifi the casf of one and tJie same person the t w c ^ t a t c s are possible at different times.
Beeauso of t h e posiibilitv (of e n j o r m e n t ) in t ho nb-i^nfT- of thr >cKiy. as in d r e a m . ( I V . i r . 13.)

T h e liberated one sometimes crealJi several bodies at will, a n d , e n t e r i n g into them, he wandei-s about. bodies, h<-' remains, c'ninyi: thj fn the Sometinie.s withdrawing^ the state, the liberated one

di^embo^liod

plciisnrc crciUcd by the

runimcsvjMH,

in ihc ssnnc

j22

SrnDHASTA

Di:EriKA.

that in a dream a person iu tlio state of bondage enjoys by the mind (oianaa) the pleasures etc., created by tlie J^iraniesvara. That is to gay: Jujjt as in a dream a person enjoys with the hiind alone, without the aid of the body and the sense-Oi gans, tlie objects brought before his view by the Isvara, so also tlie liberated one ^njoys the bliss which is the essential beuig of Brahman with the mind alone which forms part and j)arcel of his being.
When it e x w t a . a s in t h e w a k i u g s t a t e . ( I V . iv. 1 4 . )

During the existence of the body and other accessories created by his will, the liberated one enjoys all pleivsures like a person in the waking-state. Objectimi:If it be possible for t)ie liberated one to enjov by way of peinyeiving material objocin, then, as the Fiberaied one will Jiave to pei-ceive also what is no! 'le iritfije in the univeiue, he cannot be free from the contact of the miseries of samsara. J/WH'er:No; for, the IH-M-ated one never j)erceives the nniverse in an undesii'able form. In j>oiut of fact, the whole of tl ii universe appears to him as UraJiman. tSo the Sruti says : *'Thisthen becomes Brahman, embodied in akasa, the True Being, the pleasure-ground of life, the bliss of the mind, fnll of peace, immortal." (i) In the passage preceding this one, in the words, " He attains the heavenly kingdom, he attains the Loi-d of wistlorn,"- it has been said that the Yogin jtttains to the abode of Siva, the J^arabrahman, the one essential bliss of the lieavenlv kingdom, tJiat he attains to the Lord of wisdom, to that one who is. the fountain source t>f all wisdom. Then, the question ari.sing as to wliat the particular state of the liberated one may then I c, lle Sruti answei-s in the words ' He is the lord of .speech, ihf kud of the eye. the lord of the e-ar, he lord of knowledge.' he berotnes ihe rnler of sjecch
I T a i i l ). I -J ihi.i

SltUvANTlIA liliASIlYA,

Y M

iiijwmuclt as they are all obedient to liis own will. lu the case o the liberated one who has attained to tJiis state,that is to say, who has risen k> the state of Brahiiiau embodied in akasa, and whose organs of speech, etc.. are pure and obedient to hia own will, , tlien, 1. on his jttaining to tiiat state, this whole universe becomes the Brahman Him^lf embodied in akant;, that is. Brahman clothed in tlw! supreme splendour (akasa), y. in His Supreme Bliss. Tliat Supreme Power (Para-Sakti) which is the fonntain-soui-ce of all being, the one homogeneous essence of ultimate being, light, and bliss, is what is called Paramakasa. the Snpreiue Splendour, forming the very l)eing of Bralmian, and which directly in the case ot the Paramesvara and tlie liberated one, and idtimately in t he case of othera, is the means of realising their will and activity. Accoi'dingly the Sruti says: "Who indeed could broixthe, who could live, it' this akasa, this bliss, did not exist.? This orits imltMMl, makes one happy.'' (i) 'Bliss indeed is Ho: urfsiiuing rJiat l)li>s, iuileed, a |)6i-soii her becomes happy.' In these woitls the Sruti tcaciies thai the Pjirasakti is the object of Iinivei-sal experience. Accordingly the Srutibeginning with the words "That is the unit (the highest) of human bliss," and ending witli the words Hiat is the unit of Bnihman's bliss," (3)teaches that the manifestation of bliss rises in an over ascending scale up to Brahman accoinling as the limiting conditions ( u p a d h i s ) subside. As Iree from all limiting <-onditions, the bliss of Brahman and the liberated one is all full, as the Sruti says, " That is the unit of Brahman's bliss, and of the bliss of that man who is versed in the scriptural lore and nnassailed by desire." (4) Th man hero referred to is that pei-son who has attained supi-eme knowledge and who performs the agnihotra and other sacrificial acts
' ( I ) Tait. 2-7. (2) f ( 3 ) Ibid 2-S. (4) Ibid

124

SinmiANTA

HKlIPIliA.

w i l l r o u r lotiL'-iMtr l o r t l u ' i i - i ' r n i i s , inan. The b l i s s of s u c h a Brahniaii art'

>vhilo t l t u l i ^ a t i i i G r w]u> <|uitf is

ilunn all to Kralistill alivo, is

liborateii while No

a n d t h e l)lisj> ol'

fv^ual.

iiicoiisistenrv

h o w e v e r , i n v o i v o i l in t ite S i uti loai'liiusr, a t t ! i o s a i n ? l i m e , t h a t a m a n ' s b l i s s i s o q u a i u> t h e b l i s s o f l o w e r s t a ^ r o s , s i u ' h a s t h e b l i s s : f o r , i n t h e i-ase of t h e Yoirin who, b y his

Hneh

human

su|Mv,ioi- Y o r a . liris

r i e n t l i r o u g h t h e s e v e r a l sfcagii>s, h i s y o g a a t t h e l o w e r s t a g e s boinjj^ v e t i m p e r f e c t h i s b l i s s m a n i f e s t e i af t l i o s e s i a j r e s is spoken of as

e q u a l t o t h e b l i s s of t l i e b e i n g s w l i o a r c o n t l i o s e l e v e l s .

H e n c e it is

t h a t t h i s ono. t h i s s u p r e m e Bliss, i lie linal s o u r c e of all, tJiis s u p r e m e splendour, boinjr insi^parate from the Supieme Being, nuiverso, in t h e is s p o k e n of knew

as Brahuuin, as tlie

c a u s e of t}ie

woiuls " H e

t h a t Bliss was liraJiman. ' r e f e r r e d t o in t h e w o r d s

A m i t]ie

manifestation

o f t'iij B l i - s i s Bh.iirn,

" T h i s was the wisdom attained by

f o u n d e d in t h e S u p r e m e H e a v e n . univQrse a p p e a r s Supwrne to the liberat.ed become

Accordingly, inasnuicli as t h e ones as Bi'ahman clad in His

splendour, tbev

i m m e r s e d in t h e

S;jpreme

Wliss,

a n d a r e , t h e r e f o r e , l i k e B / a l n n a n , f r e e f. o m a l l c o n t a r r of

miserv.

Adhikarana 6.
Like H Innip lu' pei v a f l f s : so indeed tlio S n i t i I t has been already all-pervading in virtue of bodies at his own wtll. indicated (IV. iv. 15.) that tlie liberated soul becomei*

of ^is |)ower of assuming an infinite number

Purcapalifihacannot, properly

Sow

one may suppose that the be all-pervasive,

liberated

soul

speaking,

because

lie js said to

Winder about like a limited b e i n g , in t h e f o l l o w i n g psissageN: all worlds, he w{i.nders a b o u t f i - e e l y ' i^) '' T h e s e worlds he w a n d e r s t hrough, e a t i n g t h e f o o d he likes,

putting

on the f o r m he likes."(i^

W h e r e f o r e his assmnption of several bodies can only b e g r a d u a l , h u t not jiimultaneous.


ri^dlTd :"ibkj a ouhu s ^Is' > ruic. u iiY-'t.:

SKI K A NTH A liHASJlYA.

I-^/.

Just a lamp omlosi'i! wit I: in a jar the wliolr room by its liglii on rlio removal of the iiniiriUioii, so alo doe the libf i-AlPd soul becomes all-iKii-vasivv by way oi ptM-vjidiug tlte whole univeii^ thvoujrh )iis Sakti (Divine J\>\vorU on the rBmovl of tlie sin which obscured his Srwkti.
Accordinj^lv the Sniti

savs:

''Ho IS our kinsman and iatliei. He is rlie dispenser, Hr knows all the heavenly abodes; in wiiom diiipirtin>r, thoM wlio have attained iminortaUTv Hnd liieir lieavenly abodes in the third
ref^ion."

"They at once spread over eartli and sky. over all worlds, overall quarters, and over heaven; haviujL^ >napped aMunder the lone thread of destiny, and spoing tlie Or.e iu nil creatures, they become that Chie." (2) These verses occur in the section treating of Malvadeva, the Supreme God, the creator of the univei'se, and embodied in the whole universe. (The Hifit vei*se quoted may be interpreted as folloji'S:) He, Mahadeva, our kinsman, our Father, the ci^ator. He is the dispenser of all ^ood. He knows all non-material heavenly regions. Now the sriiti proceeds to say wJiat purpose is served by His boiny our kinsman and knowing: all regions. Those who liave attained immortality an-i enjoy the bliss of freedom and always disport in Him, resort to the abodes they like, all full of spiritual splendour, and situated in that region of Mahadeva called hdaven and whi^i lies beyond Maya, forming the thiixl region from here. That is to say :The liberated ones, having attained immortality with their bonds of confinement broken asunder when Mahadeva, the Parabvahman, the doer of all good like a kinsman an^ -a fathe.', has vouchsafed His grace,--dwell in the splendid abode* formed in their own region of Supreme Heaven^ the third one from here.
t Mahan.. 1 U. IhJd. 1-17^

KII>I>II:*NTA

UKKPIKA.

Jiow in the next veree tlie Sruti teaches liow tliey pervade tlie jjitfei-^TUe Ubei-ated souls ^jprciid over the earth and sky with the Ihetr own Divine power (Sakti); they spread over even the f e ^ n s of the Hiranyagarbhaand the like ; they spread through the four quarters. Thus tliey dwell, pervading the whole univerae. So that, 4)inniscient as they are, they rend asunder the vast thi'ead of detiny owiyedi>y Karih'a; and thus released from bonds of virtue arid vice, they beiwild in all beings the one Being, Mahadeva, and bec*oioe one with Him, one with all. Therefow, the libei*ated ones inlinersed in the one Being-, Siva, do pervade the whole. Jims, the liberated Jivas are of the same nature as MaJiadeva and are spoken of as Devas, peiTading the univei-se including heaven itself. It is they that ai-e extolled in the Saman called Devavrata beginning with "Those Devas who abide in Heaven," etc. Parana also sa\s. '*Tliev indeed are the verv Devas who dwell in Heaven, the Devas who dwell in the Mid-air, (antariksha,) the Devas who dwell oil Eiifth; these Dsvas abide in their Divine vow." Here the " Earth" means the Brahmanda; what is spoken of as Antarik'Hha' refers to the second region called Maya; what is here spoken of as heaven" (Dyauh) refers to the third region, otherwise kno wn as Parmakasa, the Supreme Light, the pure Divine Source, the. abode of Siva. Hence the all-pervasiveness of the liberated ones.
Nescience refers to one of the two 8tate8 of self-abgorption and death ; no indeed it ia taught in the Sruti, (IV. iv. 16.)

The

Sruti teaches the absence of the internal and external knowledge, in the case of him who has attained to Brahman : Embraced by the all-knowing Atman, he knows nothing whatever, external or internal." (1) How then can the liberated soul pervade all by iiis divine power of knowledge ?
Ohjection:The
I Bri. H. < 21.

SRIKANTHA BnASHVA. ; - T l i i s ulijci'tioii CJHUIUI l-e luuiul.iiiuil. of kn<nvU*t!|rv- uii iUe part of jiva namely. Hltop o r clet li. l e f r . s t( vuhev

127 For. tin's \v;uit (he i n o ittei,

J<e<ra.iflin: sleep ihe Sruti says ;

He said : " S i r , in that wjty lie ( W s no', ku(w himself that he it 1. tior iloejii he know anyihiujr that exists. " (M

A^ifl as to death it is tarijrht us rollows: ''Having visen from nut tf these elemeutvi, he vanishes njL'uin in them. When he lius deparicd, thew is no more knowledge. Li>>eration being qnit^ distinct from these two states, there can be no al>sent'e of knowledge. On the < ontiary, owinjr lo the rem>val of the veil of sin (mala,) tiie soul hocomt^ :ill-knowing and :illjjowcrful. So in liberation tliere can be no want of knowledge

Adhikarana 7.
Kxee|>linjr actjvitics connccted w a n t of proximity. ( I V . 17.) with thi- univorsf. IVom t hf-j<Cftioii and from

It has been said that tlie liberated souls attain e<jmi]ity wiih Isvara in re|)ect of the attributes of self-biminusity, jiervftsiveness, omniscience, etc. Accordingly equality even with resjiect to the t reatioii of the univeitie ii- inevitable, because of the unqualiHed i;sertion, *'He attainss utmost equality, ('i) AV'hen equality in respect of creation of the universe is onco admiited, then as there wutild bo maiiy Isvanis, we would have to give uj) the theory that Isvara has no second. Therefore the question arises as to what sort of equality with Isvai-a is aUained by the liberated souls: Dues the equality comprehend tlie creation of tlie universe^, etc., or de it nut comprehend it' Prrj)aAir/<a:What is the view that suggests itself? Because that Sruti- in the w ords ' When he desires the region of the Pitns, ' ctc.,(+)teaches that, by mere will, he iias the power to create the region of the J^itris, etc., hecause again the Sruti in the words through these regions he wander^, eating the food he likes, putting , ~ 1 Chha. 8-11-1 IWi. 3 Muiidt.Va 3 1 y I riitta. 1

j2q

STDDFIANTA

DKKPIKA.

on the form he likes, " - (l) ho is siiirl to be :i.ctivu iu all rcj;i6ii5, also bc/uautse no liinitatiuu is made jw vegartls the e(ju;iltty attHincil w i t h Jl^aramesvara, it ipay bo conoluded that tJio liberatcfl bouls are engaged also in the creation, etc., of the world. Condm'ton :As against tho foregoing view we maintain aw follows : Tiiough the liberated soul attains equality with tht^. Parainesvara, Jiis freedom as regards objects of enjoyment docs not extend to the crcation, etc., of the universe. Having regard to the section (in wliich tlie parjsages treating of the creation elc., oc tiie universo o c c u r , ) we conclude that such functions pertain to the Paramesvara. Take for inslance. " Whence, verily, thoso crcat-urcs are born."(-) ^'Creating tho heaven and tlie eartli there is one Deva. In these sections ireatiug ol: ihe crcation of the universe, Jiva has no place at all. riicjreioi-o, the liberated soul has nothing to do with the creation, etc , of the universe.
If it bo said t h a t it is expressly taiiprht, wo, say, no, for what exists in the region of the hierarchy. (IV. iv. 18.)
HUC I I

tcauhiug rofors to

If it be said that tiie liberated soul has to do with the ncti\ity connected with the universe, as expressly tauglit in the Sruti Hhrough these worlds he wanders, eating the food he likes, putting on tho form he likes," (4) we answer that it is not so taught. The passage teaches merely that ho can command the enjoynicnt.T available in tho regions of Brahma and others of the hierarchy, because the passage refers to the enjoyment of the objects of desire, lie has therefore nothing to do with activities connected with the creation of tho univer.se. Ohjecivm :If so, then, as he is engrossed in the onjoynient, ho IS subject to change. The Sutrakara answers as follows :
.\ii<l it )S not sultjecL lu <'km;r<?; BO. iiilo?'l. ih ; Sruti ! 'jcriKc.-: its stale. (IV' ir.lfi ) 1 Tail J Tail y . i . a Mahau.i l-U' i Taii ;i.lM.

r^ltlKANTHA

HHASHVA.

Tiie likaji to be eiijoyfd by tin' Jihcratecl soul is not suijji't to change, in pure, is of tlie iiattn*^ all-full Hialmiau. So. iiuleed, due* the 8i*ati deacrib* its ntatc ; Hliss indeed is lie: nttaiiiMiir ili:ii lliss, imU't^d. a perscMi here WcoTiieM hap|v. i 1)
N .

And the natiii-4' of li.-uliiiian. iiiii-iMl. is ilrsi iiluMl an iiiuiiutalile


iJ.

ill tlie followiiii/ pajsna^'es.


" E x i s t e n c e , kno\vlttl_re, uud in'iniic is Itialiinun.

BHftS is Hi-ahnian/ H) HeiitV the l>liss of lilie,ari<ii js M > t suljjrct fhaiiife. as thtf H H M of a I W U I K I SO^IL (PasuHs subject. Tliat is !U sav : Wandering freelv in the region of the iiieiarchical bciuixs ranpn^ front Sddasiva to Brahma, eai in;; the fKKl he likes; putting on tlie form h likes, released from all senHe of identification vvitli the human and othor bodie.H, with iiis three potentialities uncontracMed, the liberated 80u] fully realises his all-|ervading self, endued with the supreme Bliss and lij?ht, with Siva and Saktl lield in homo</eneous union in all tJieir glories, iinmei*sed in the universe which has become of one lidmogeneous essence in perfect unison with J\iral)rahmati. Accordingly, in the words "I am the food, 1 tlu? fw<i, f the frHnl! I am the eater of food, I the eater of foo<l, f the eater of f o o d ! " the Sruti teaches that the liberated soul rej^rds his self as all-f>ervading, identifying himself with the whole universe inrhnlin^ the experiencer and the objects of expeneu'.e. The Self spoken of here is not the self of Samsara or mundane experience, ituisnmch H S it is alUfull as embracing the whole universe. On the othor han<l this Self is quite free; it is quite distinct f r o m the fictitious samsaric self which is limited as comprehending only tiie body of a Deva or some other being, thinking "I am a Deva," or I am a man," and so on. Hence there is no connection whatever with the self of the world of mattrJ Til, 2-7. 2 Tftit if-J. a 'I'ait 6

jgjj

SII>|)HANTA

DKKIMKA.

Or the ''Ahami' refers to Siva ami Sakf.i held in perfect unison. 1*he thought of the liberated soul takes the form " The verse including food, ,etc , is nothing but that self. " Hece the ing of the. wise : "The recognition of Siva and Sakti in perfect union,embracing the whole from Ui to is void of attributes. "The svllable 'a' is in the lieai-t, and the syllable ^ha is in the twelve i;iembered region. Hence the sages look upon this (unh erse) at the non*dual, i-esting in the shining Self." Now, the song of . the liberated soul who has entered the supreme abode of the unsurpassed Brahman, accompanying his meditation of the glorious word ^ahani which denotes Siva who comprehends all fmiyerse, i^i not a thing which is enjoined here by the Sruti as incumbent on the liberated soul. On the contrary, the song referred to is intended to extol tlie state of the liberated soul with a view to indicate tlie highest flight of the enjoyment of Bliss. Wherefore, excepting the enjoying of Brahman's Bliss, the liberated souls cannot, of their own will, have anything to do with creation and other such activities. A. MAKAOKN A SASTRY, B.A. is spoken of as ^aJiam/ since the infinite

( Tu hr

CoHtinvnlJ

CirumaiinraM
ov

\(\ntt\uned fnnu page

TIRUMULAR

o/ To/. Tji.]

INSTABILITY OF WEALTH. ^ f o r e others ease ua of our kingdoms imd fortu cart and elephants, and of our hw.manity, if with clear Vision, yre can lisw^rvk, we can reach Him easily indeed. 2. The evil begetting foi-tune which is like the waning dar|: moon, let us never speak of. Think of the Go<l of gods without doubt and our riches will increase like a rain cloud. o. Lo, thesse poor men! lliey see that their own shadows do not serve them, yet they believe tlieix gold to be their own. Know thiit when the life departs, the body and the eye and eyesight equally perisli. 4. The bees seek the fragrant tiowei^s, (.'ollect the honey imd deposit it in a tree. Heings iTft>re powerful than the bees drive thiMB away and rob the honey. The Bees giw it up after discovering their board to othei^. So ir will be with men and their fortune. 5. Let me exhort you, attain to clear viition ; after attaining to cleanfessi don't get nnrddled again. Let. not the ilood of wealth disturb and discolour you. Throw away y<;nr vvejilth and don't look back on it. Then you can meet the king of death boldly. 0. They know not that like the louia placed in the tumblii|g waters, joyous wealth and gold and the budding body ai-e placed together as in a nutshell just to wean one from the world. 7. Your wife and children and brothers will each claim jour great wealth as their own. If you can di.sfcribute it in life in rharitr we car. speak of a sure help to yon when yon have need for it. 8. Y'onr body is full of desires; will any body offer a price for it. It hfis one post to which it can be tied: and there are nine ezit. Aftr your y>arents and relations have come round and worshipped, they will leave your body and go. If renoujicing everything. |>eople's minds will dwell on the gracious liord, at the time of death, they will not even feel the hot Ineifcth of the messengers of Yama.

j^j

SIDDHANTA

f^EEriKA.

IN 8TABILIIT OF YOU TIL How blind they ai;e not to know, even frprn tlie fact-^ that tli< imii rising f r6rn the east sets in the west, Thy see the atrong calf become a bull and die oldTa'nd yet they learn not. 2. Many a year is pasi^ing away. Yet they would not approach oar Father aiKl enter into Him. Suppose the years are indefinitely incteased. how long will the lamp last which is constantly trimmed. 3. Youth is dying out. Our clearly defined duties remain to be fulfilled. While there is time, think of the Naiidi with braided hair, in which Ganges is concealed, and reach Him. 4. The soft-hued damsels wouTd love me before like the sweet juice of the sugarcane. I was like the sugarcane to these flowerlike damsels, and now I am bitter fruit to them, 5. Tliey s&e not that one ages from childhood to youth and frotn youth to old age. I desire more and more tho Feet of the Supreme One transcending all the worlds. 6. They get up in the morning, day by day, they go to bed iu the evening and thej waste their day- The unchangeable Lord will give bliss, to those .who thiiik of Him. 7. The big n-eedles are ei>closed in a bag (human body). From this tree (human body) fly out these five needles. If these five needles are touched by dew, the bag enclosing five needles will also fly away; S:. They know not that Vishrm and the sun measure tlie age of the world. They who go to the world of the gods and karniic worlds die away after the age of thirty. 9. They pause not even after seeing the decay of the 16 kin(is of kalas. After the furious king of Death has measured their age they will reach hell and will not quench their thhst 10^ While you are yet in your youth, praise the Lord with song While there was yet time, I saw the Vision I'ltre without wasting my time,
[To h'l oM<ttUfad.

SKETCHES OP CETLOM HISTOSY.


liY

Ht >N'FTLK

1\

AlirXA(;HAl.AM.

M.A..

CAKTAB.

Barri$ier a:t4aw. Lincoln's Inm Ceyion Civil Service; Memhrr of ihe Ceylon Lrgiahttre CoiiVeii

{Cmdimted from jxiffp WU of Vol. 111.)


V. While Wijaia and hts immediate successors wrre improving and developing the Island, on the continent of India tho seedc sown by one of the greatest of her sons, Gaiitama Buddha, about the time tliat Wijaya left India for Ceylon, were beginning to bear fruit. Buddhism, ousting Brahminism from its pre-eminence, became the prevailing religion under the great emperor Asoka {circa 320 B. C.) He has been called the Constantine of Buddhism, un Alexsnder with Buddhism for his Hellas, a Napoleon with mettam^ all-embracing love, instead of gloire for his guiding light. His grand-father was Chandragupta, the Sandracottas of the Greek historians, at whose court Megasihenes represented king Seleucus, general of Alexander the Great and afterwards successor to his Bactrian and Indian' dominions. Inscribed rocks and stone pillars, still found from Otwh" mere to Orissa, bear testimony to the extent of Aiioka's empire, the righteousi>ess and wisdom of his rule, and the nobility of his character.

His active benevolence was not limited to the confines of his empire or ovem to human bemgs. One of his rock edicts records the system of medical aid which he established throughout his doiQinions and adjoining coontrres, Ceylon being specially named, "fiverywhere withiir the conquered province of the Raja Piyadasi (Asoka), ihe beloved of the gods, as well as in the parts occupied by the faithful, such as Chola, Pida, Satyaputra and KeUlaputra, even as far as Tambapanni (Ceylon), and moreover within the dominions of Antiochus the Greek, everywhere the heaven-beloved kings doable hy&tem of medical aid is established, both medical aid for men and medical aid for animHls, together with the modicamenls of ^ sorts

jj^ uttahle
plmed,

OT)imANTA for men

hElij'IRA. Alwl Avlierever there is not irhey slinll >e p.fijiared aiitl

ami for animal'*.

(such provMiioo), ia all suL^ti

both rooit-drugs hi%s. Aivd in thf pitbJic highwiiys shall be dug amt ti^eew ptanted tor the accouimodat-ion of men snd Miimals.' A second imcripUoii^qipcttiits <>flioeis to watc}i over domett in lifA and publiv raoral% jmd pi-oincfto insfevaction among the it>men a well as tiw yBtii. The esfsence of religion is declared to cqmist in revei^tice ibo father and mother and i^iritnal tachet-, kindne^ to servwit and dependents, to the aged, to the orphanjtnd deiBtitute; and to Brahmins and Sramans (Buddhist lind tenderness lo all Uviftg creaturen; " ami this is the true religtons devotion,, this the sum of religions instruction, viz., that it shall the mercy and charity, th^ truth and purity, the kindness sui4 honeiity of the world/' Another inscription records how^ he sent fortJi missionaries " to l;b^its of the barbanan c^^ for the spread of the of Baddha and directs the taissionaries to mix equally with ioldier^ 3r)Miituns and beggars, with the dreaded and the despised, wt^Mn ik^ kingdom and in foreign countries, teaching better fMlpi. Bfttfe croQU'ersion is to Iw effected by persuasion, riot l y the i^ ii^ulcated on the ground that all faiths aim ^ JtM^lr^Mraint aiid parity of life^ althongh all cannot be equally in uttaining to it." ''A man mast honor his oym faith b i l l i n g that of his neighbour, jand thus will but little that Wjri^g There ai-e even circumstajfvces under which the finih. <of others j&ould be honoured, and in acting thus a man increasowQ fi^th and weakens that of others. He who acts differently, own faith and injures tliat of another," ^'Br.ddhism/' ajf^ir. W, Hnater ojjaeryes, "ivia;^ at once the most; inten^ply ^ i o n ^ l i y rftjj^pn i^ the iforld and the most tolerant The charac^ r > prcwftly tiaing {aijth whiph wi^is its victories by peaceful mejws, fP tro>^Iy ii^pwsed upon it by Asoka, has remained a prwipent of Buddhism to the njesent d^iy "
:% teod o r Qthpr edicts Aeif^ p r p h i b i u the s U u g h t e r of aniw^b for Jie ovdersi ^uminqucmiiul luuniliatioii of tlve rK;ot)le

SK irif' H

OF r M Y L(JN H fSt( )lt N

arttl a i-epitLHcirtion of the jfroat moi-vt] preccptrv fif t)ie Boddliiatii?' tre^d; hfr iitciilcatea the trne happiness to be foiind in vfrtiie tind ht the imparting of vi. tne is the great^t of all < hantable 1w cofttrHt the vain ami tranitor>' glory of thin world with the reward for which he Mtrives and looks beyond. No sovereign liisiiory aave prrhapt Marcu* Aurelins, the Stoic philosopher, whv shed lustre on the throne of the Cwsars five hnnd . ed vears lateiv
7

wafc animated by so high an ideal of kingly duty. Asoka al<r collected the body of Btiddkistic doctrine into an anthontative veveicm in the MagadKi or J^li langnage of hia central kingdom, m efsrion which for orer 2,000 years has iormed the Canon of tlie iSoathetn, inelnding Ceylon, Buddhists. At the beginning of the third centnry before Chi'ist the reigniftg ptitice of Ceylon, the saintly Tissa, "beloved of the godir, Deranampiyatissa> became a convert to Buddhism^ At hi request the Etoperor Asok^ sent his son Mahinda.(307 B.C.) to Cejlon to praach the faith, and later his daaghter Sangiiamitta as a missionary to the women of Ceylon. the zeal and eloqtience of this noble pair of missionaries Buddhism became estabHshd in the Island. The consummation of tliat achievement was the arrival (28)^ B.C.) of a branch of the sacred Bo-tree (FtViw religiosa), under the shade of which Gautama Buddha had attained wisdom. The brancK plaited with great pom]) and ceremony at Anui'adhapura. still flourishes there, the oldest historical tree in the world, and the object of profound veneration to millions of Buddhists throughout the world. To this tree, the symbol of Buddhas noble life and teaching. Anuradhapura through all its vicissitudes of centuries owes its escape fi-om the oblivion which luw overtaken other mighty oitiea and kingdoms. true is it, as Goethe has naid, that Kin gcistreirh anfgeschlosseues Wort
W i r k a t auf dio Fiwigkeit." PerhajM* under

renewed

iropaW

of th*

same her

Anuradhapura may again

witness a revival of

foroe ancient splendour.


s^piritual

Eight miles from Anuradhapura, by a roa4 which is the F * Sacra of the Buddliist world, stands the ilihintale mountain, revered

sn>l)TJANTA

|)KKJIKA.

asfeliosiCdUP of t!io firsfe interview between tlie saint Mahinda and his roval convert. A noblf^ flight of stops, more than a thousand in number, leads from the base to the highest peak which is crowned bv the Ambasthala dagoba. which enshrines the saint s ashes and commands a view ofroajetsticgrandeur. Near by are rock buildings which served, as retreats for the monks. Inscriptions, still legible, tell us somewhat of their mode of life. None who deotroyed life were permitted to live near the mountain; special offices were allotted various servants and workmen; accounts were to be strictly kept and examined at an assembly of priests; certain allowances of money to every person engaged in the temple service were made for the purchase of flowei-s, so that none might appear without an offering; cells are assigned to the readers, expounders and preachers; hours of rising, of meditation and ablution are prescribed; careful attention to food and diet for the sick is enjoined: there are instructions to servants of every kind, warders, receivers of revenue, clerks, watchmen, physicians, surgeons, laundrymen and othei-s. The minuteness of detail gives an excellent idea of the completeness of arrangement for the ordei'ly and beautiful keeping of the venerated place. VI. In the year 237 BC-, the troubles of the Wijay a dynasty began. Two Tamil chiefs in the employ of the king killed liim and usnrped his throne, which they jointly occupied for twenty-two years, when they were dethroned and slain and the original dynasty was restored. The Tamils re-establisded themselves ten years later under Elala, a prince of the Chola dynasty. The dethroned dynasty took refuge in Magampattu, on the southern coast, where the great tank and dagoba at Tissamahai*ama still stand as monuments of their rale. Elala at Anuradhapura, according to the Buddhist chronicles, though a heretic, ruled the kingdom for forty-four yeai-s, administering justice impartially to friend and foe.' At the gate of his palace hung, according to the custom of the Chola kings, the Arach^hi Mani or " bell of inquiry," communicating with the head of his bed and the ringing of which secured immediate inquiry and redress of grievances. Fables, which tlie Mahauama gravely rccords, grow up

SKKTCHES OF IE\U)N HtSTOHY

If?

illjjfct t)it; voi-y bii-ds and beiists souglifc and oUwaed redi'ess^ Hii uttlHJiidiiig justice iiiiicted OfipttiU punislHucnt on his son. For n uuiutcutioiial daimvge ctmsyd to u Buddhist dagoba by his. chariofc lie offered hi.s own life aa atonement, biit the aggi-ieved persons wero pleased to accept ofchev resjlitufcion. Tho tomb, erected where ho fell by his generous foe Dttinge^ mtmu) a Hfion of the old line, is still regjlrded witili Teneration by t ^ ^nhale^. Chi reaching tho quarter of tho city on -which ifc btands/' says the chronicle, "it has been the custom for the monarehs of Lanka to silence their music, whatover procession they may be heading." Well may the Sinluilcse bo proud of chivalry so raro and improccdented. So uniformly was this homage continued, says I'fsnncnt,, that so lately a^ IblS, on tluj suppression of an attempted rebellion against tho lii iti^sh Government ivhen the defoatftd aspirant to fho throne Wiis making iiis escape by Anuradhapura, he alighted from his lictui- oJi uppi (.uciiing the quarter in which the monument was known to exist, and ultllough weary and almost iiicajxible of oxertioHj no knowing the precise spotj ho contiiiued on foot till a^ured that Iijo hail ptts^icd far beyond the ancient meworial. King Duln^etnunu iu tho epics of Buddiiism enjoys a renown suoond only to Uovanampiyutissa. Ue commemorated his triumph by numerous magniticont buildings dedi-jatcd to religion and chuj-ity. Of his ninc-storcyed uiona,sievy, ih.v Bvu/.cn Palace, resting on 16(.HJ monolithic columns and ioofed with plates oi brasj', a forest of pi'.lars still stands. The rnins of 1 lu? Kuwanwf^li and Miriswetiya Dagobas mafech in greatness and sanctity those of the Tuparama constructed by I>evanampiyatij to enshrine the collar-bone of Buddha. Nor did Dutugemunu forget liis j>atroii-god of Kattarugama, who had sent hun forth to do battle with Ehila. His gratitude raised noblo structures over the ancient shi ine and gifted it with rich endowmeiitj. After Butugemunus time the Tamils })roved a nover-failing sources of harassmeni. They made frequent incui-sions into Ceylon :i.nd Tamil kings often sat on VVijaya a throne. Walagam Bahu I. {circa iOl K C.) after a short roign lobt his kingdom, his queen and tho most precious treasure in CVylon, Buddha's begging bowl. Aftor vears f exile he recovered the two f'oruier and in conmiemeraiien

jjg

SIDDHANTA

DEEPItA.

of hU success built the Abhayagiri Dftgoba, the most stapendous of this clA^s of sfcructnrts, rising original^ to a height of 4Q5 idet its ruins after a lapse of 2,000 years standing over 240 feet. Sometimes the tide of invasion was rolled back into Soadi India as by king Cbja Bahu, who (115 A.D.) brought back a multitude of captives, whom he settled in Alutkuru korale of the Colombo District Hariapattu and Tumpane of the Kandy District and in parts of the Knronegala District. JBahu's triumph is commemorated by a yearly perdhera festival which is now continued by the Dalada Maligawa at Kandy. But the tooth-relic of Buddha which now heads the procession formed no part of it till about 160 years ago.* At this festival a high place hM always been held b^ tlie goddess Pattini whose wor ship was introduced by Gaja Bahu. He brought from India Wr g o l d e n ^o/am&d or anklet, copies of which are the symbols of her worship, and oaths are not infrequently taken on them in courts of justice. No oath is more dreaded by the Sinhalese peasant.
Gaja

Gaja Bahu also established in honour of the goddess the grest niitional game of Ankeliya or horn-pulling, held especially on the occasion of epidemic and coaducted on a magnificent Kale in the presence of thousands of spectators. It concludes with a torch-ligj^ ^oce^ion through the infected villages, recalling tho " neednfira" lighted by farinera in Englai^d on the occasion of epidemics among cattle. Many a Sinhalese family traces a hereditary connexion w ^ one or ocHer of the rival factions which in times past celebratod this festivi^ with boisterous merriment and not infrequently with tocji riotous excess^lat the kings had to interfere to check it.
(To he Continued.} Thi8%s by order of King Kirti Sri Baja Sinha [1747-1780 A.D.] who dia
KMWiVe Bwddhism 3 T . < 1 the ?mojrf onncT order of monk hy iinpr^^tioii

Mrs. Besant on the use of Images in Religion.


Mr& Annie Besani deliverod a very interesting lecture on the above subject in the last meeting of the Kashi Tatva Sabha. The following is the summary of her speech This is a subject of great dinpute in India. I have avoided the word " Idolatry*' for it is always used with implication of something objectionable. ^ Murti'' is ti^anslated, therefore, by the word Image." Image-worship in soma form or other is found everywhere in all fltages of civilization and at all periods of time. H u m a n nature always craves for it and its form depends on the different stages of human development. Let us look at Europe. . We find thaA images were used, images wore to be found in Cathedrals, Churches, homes of the nobility, street, markets and other places throughout Christendom. Some 800 years ago Reformation wa directed against the use of images. Owing to the growth of its abuse, it was identified wdth the objects worshipped. People made non-essential, essential and superstition took the place of a rational Image* worship. A s refomaation advanced the Puritans did away with Image-worship in England and Scotland. Images were broken down, the traces of which are still be found. If you now go again you will find the image re-appearing. It is a very significant fact that human nature always yearns for an external object of worsliip. Images have appeared in the Churches, you will find images on the window-panes and the other places in the Church and Cathedral. This ra appearaiice of the public worship of image in the Church is a fact which goes to show the craving of human nature for an external object of wcmhip. Images are used now but the central idea is kept c l e a r - t h e object of worship is not identified with that object itself. In India very much the same thing has happened. Here image- worship was abused to a very great extent, and hence a certain section of the people revolted against it and attacked it because people began to lose sight ci the central idea and identified it with the object of worship. But as you have seen in Europe It again appeared when people caught hold of the central idea, so it will not disaf pear totally from India until and unless people fail to understand its real nignificance and fell into mere supei-stition. Take the case of those religions where its use is spoken againstIslam and Judaism. In Judaism all images are prohibited. The result was the art of the people died. All true arts are based on religious ide ^s. If you deprive them of the religious element they become vulgaried. The. Jews made presentations of fruits in the temple of Solomon. Inside the temple they had a holy place where they had the archa symbol of Jewish polity. Islam has no representation of any divine form but every Mahomedaa Uirns towards Mecca and goes round the Black stone. That black stone round

J40 w h i c l i llie Mahoineilan

SlhPHAM pil^jriin- c<k whioh

IM-KIMKA. D i v j u e I o n ii f u r atlorho;:. of

f.ir f r o m i b e

U u ir ivHgious p u r p o s e s . o n c o n c r t ti^ linos rouinl stones, Ac. ThoDKltt li

V x i a g v w o r s h i p s t i m u l a t e s a n d help> si u i a : : t o t h i n k hi?; t h o u j r h t s r a n g a t l i e r a n d e k i m <1) O n t ^ r - p i i y s i c a l in o b t a i n i n g image made

T h e n are iwci k i n d s <f iht itso 4>f i n m g e s : iulcndcd f i x e d on one p a r l i o n l a r p o i n t , a n d IS lirs: it g r e a t i v it. It !'i'Mitnl : i > ir^r

fur !h<-ni w h o c a n n o t helps them ill?' MiMiial iui:i;:e.

concentrate^ t h e i r t h o u g h t s o n ooncentrttion. an Von c i i n i rttldre-v People eivate

imafze-worshi)).

iiiiupe i f i r n i a i l v in i l u ij iiiimls. U!:!t s> VMM I ri'i.tt' r h r i s r :> I V.llitT. J n d . o ' c o n c c p t s . Thert* is oih' ^rf^c = likelv 1.) ivlenliiy t h e n!

s e c o n d stn^'i: o i demotion. t'orili. All ol i

1 Vnfc.'^t-uifs tl> |.i;\\ .ind

rvr^: iin.v/os of nM-nlal PeopU nre tiiui) i h o p i i v s i e a l o \ e r mind i l u n an rxteniai

\v M m t a i i i n a ^ e - w o r s h i p .

i m a g e . T h o u g h t exi^ii i^r ^ u Tar ;?i : . v ^oipiHini; o h j e o i . A n c x u - r n a l o b j e o i i > vAi'^y s h i p , b u t a n i o n t a l i m a g r niak* - :t 'HM ? v^omnlrtc i h m a k e s h i m fai^ali*.- a m i biijot^nl. l . a e h c-ne h a s a

iaipJ irnr.- r i i l a l i o n of t h^* o h j ^ f t ol woi t'oi nroi 1 he d i f t e r e n e e a n d t h u s t i c u l a r m r n t a l ideal :i)id h e Thus menf.u-

is so a b s o r b e d in it t h a t he, d^ridi s !iis i>roiherV ei>neeptii>n of u .

iiuiige w o r s l i i p e r e a t v s Heerariani^^m a n d t h u s ^vo tiiifi iviany . s p r i u j ^ ' i n f ; n p in t h e P r o t e s t a n t ehureli- T h o s i : w h o i h u s w o v s l i i p bv iowwlv^/ a m e n t a l e o i u epii^)!! ay tliat. llui\ a r c inn-orrlieh/ss w h i l e t h e (thf'r a s u b t l e r f.>ne. i m a g e f o r t!:e [.urp^^se of tjoing o u t uft>. r i^xtr^rna^ nf w o r s h i p o n V v hii'li tlie m i n d external words lo form. Aecordin;; l o i:n.i^o-\vir?'!iippers. Mam Om^ woi-shij^s a g r o s s licnce we fitid form th; jicoph* Jind it wry heli>fnl t o havc^ a n U i n i l is r d w u y ^ rlu- m i n d fr.trn chotir,r oit^min<l t r o i n uia* f r o m exfc^-rnal an<l w o r s l n p .

inL-dit.ation a n d c o n c e n t r a t i o n , .ny it v. ill it is v e r y exteinal

i m a g e s r.f C i i r i s t a n d CiitUlha wta shippe-il w ith crreaJ r e w vcne\ ta.-ii> vrs[. To draw nori'>sarv

v e r y i i d p f u l t.o h a v e an e\l r n a ! o h j i r i nij,'. it i> vi l y

Inch iI is a l w a y s

^litViculi to l u r n i h e

thing to quite a ditfcreni thing. o b j e c t s b y fivinr; a p a r t i c n l a i from the mind.

So we can easily tnrn our mind !bjett l\r o n r nn i i i t a l i o n

If y o u h a v e o n e o b j o e t of w o r s h i p t h e m i n d r e s t s o n it a n d o l h e / o b j e c t s vaui^lt Tl y o u w a n t t o ^et rid ol a n v nl^'a d o n I lijilit ai^ainst il, luit It * >t s o m e t h i n g ; c o n t r a r y , l o r i n s t a n e e if y o n w a n t ii^ t o g e t rid of it, b y o t t r a c t i u K

c o n t r o l a n g e r , don't r e v o l t n g a i n s t il , b u t e m p l o y

yuuv

m i n d t o its^ppusiie a n d ii

w i l l v a n i s h . D o n ' t s t r u g g l e a^;ainst it, b u t d e i i b e r a t e h t h i n k of i t s op[H>Mtcs. W h e n a raan w o r s h i p s a particTilar i n u i g e h i s )jiind r e s t s o n it a i u l r e m a i n s f i x e d to it .o!d o t h e r t h i n g s d r o p a w a y f r o m ii. Su the u s e of ima;;e w o r s h i p is of a n i m m e n s e Try t o v i v : f y it. by your yoti pilot* h e l p t o t h e p e o p l e , f o r it f a c i l i t a t e s stearline.ss a n d conct^itrjit ion. I f y o u w a n t t o c o m m u n i c a t e t o Rome f r i e n d , h i w r t h e p h o t o of h i m . m e m o r y of y o u r f r i e n d a n d t h u . i hy photo living and responsive. Your emistHntly thinking of l i i m y o u rnaki^ t h e T h u s tii

f r i e n d , i n hiii m i n d will l>f a U r a e t e d

- h i s m e n t a l force will c o n c e n t r a t e m a g n e t i c a l l y on t h a t piiuto.

w i l l b e c o m e a c e n t r e ot m a g n e t i c c o u u j u u i i c a t i o n l-H-twei'u v o u a u d v o i i r fritMni.

Thug you can rasily eommunicatp wiili ycmr friiMid.


objeet of wnrdiip. V.y r.->ntan(l\ iuodil:\t on

Vun do the smum; w ith i h f


iho imagr yon sprofid a

r.r.sANT ON Tin: i si:

OF

rs

KKLUIION.

MI

mAgnaic iUm over ifc ud teft Menik of the ^ w t s of t h e it. arawa b o t h k i n d s af worship, r / ; . . hy t h e help of a physical iiuagf aiul by t h e inentHl image, a r c identical. H e wIk.> worships an o u t e r inuijce nlso trie?* to reproduce it in his niiiid a n d t h u s 1 tri t o ri>;o to stilnler intclleetiiAl conecption of tlio CiroMt Kxistcnee. T h e m a j o r i t y of m e n enmuil eonceiTf of t h e infinite, boundlcns, and t h f void tmd trhen^fun- iiiin;;e w\>rithip; w o r s h i p of H i m in hi;> limited a n d conditioned nianifcKUa.r. is w i y useful. Void is n o t a t h i n g of which niiucl ean rest. W h e n e v e r jv jierson or^d)ipf \ h r tinivereal Self h e t h i n k s of H i m .: pervading t h e whoU- .f nni\< rs<'. J \ . r t l m n e i t , temfdeR. all these aacred places nn- built only to form M !nn?ne(ie c>iri n m n i c a ^ o n between t h e Divine f o n n and t h e wr.ishippor. In .>!.! d/ivg men highly develoi>ed in <veultiKin nsed t o fjo f n n n pljicr In pitic* lo uM}n'tise ihf images. T h e m o r e a m a n worships an imn;e with ilovoiiin tlu- more uwjjijfii sed it becomes. If y<>u jjet a 4;oo<l photo yon KK>k :<t it witli p i nt alVoction HIXI y o n ftnd delight in setrin^j it boeanse it responds to yon. If it is tn;' >f a photo how f a r it is trnoof tin-iinagi s of l>ivine form placed in t h e shrine and t>en>ples. So t h e nse of images in worship should not be tlisreganlexl an<l mdennul. Jf a jxsrHon c a n n o t worship, c o n c e n t r a t e and i \ u d i t a t i ' witluui an iniage. let h i m h a v e one by all mean";. If a m a n isan better do t h e work wit lHiut and work w i t h o n t an O U U T imag<\ l e t h n n worship without it. If ytm w a n t t o I*Hcii a p a r t i c u l a r individual like Sliri Krislma. B u d d h a a n d others, tln^n a n i i n l f e will grcatlv h e l p yonhmige m a k e s a bridiee ht'tween t h e worslip|x<r ami t h e w o r c h i p j v d and faeilitMt' c>mmunieatiou W e n m s t guard againxt ih<> .lAMjjer of t h e aiuis. l.i t jK-'Ople worftlnp image not as l u n i llims if, liUV a> a lhin>; kept for 11 is icprcsrnlutioi;. I^t, l^-'ople realise thiit iniig<ari> t h e o u U r fvrms of t h e inn r rt'aliiies. I t t h e d n t y of the ( ducated m m to t r a r l i the people the reai sisniticance underlying image woi-ship insN-ad >/ t u j u l e m n i n g .i t h i n g v,hi< h is nalnrul o u t c o m e <>i fh.* v f a r n i n i ; f t huwi.in n.-iturt'." Thr Hmtin.

know noililn^ !' l o - r n ; u i M n . ami ovi'iijtliinir of tpiostioniiipr. jisk eaviiost rpicstions is io soiiictimo find tlioir unswci-s. To bo unwavcrinjily set in sonic faiilty, inromplett; knowledgo is to pulsy ont of j.etiifying. Therefore, pnnehr.ition is an inlenotriition ]>oint, not a period.
hilf i s a !>cliKd wliich ouu'lit in

Self po?.ossion is nine pointh < f t.h timral

SihhHANTA

hK.KIMKA.

Religious Re-Union.
We extract from Mr. W. T. Stoud s pamphlet on 'How to Help/ tlie mrticle on Religious Re-union, Jind we may say we are in perfect agmaient with him on the subject. (Article Religious BeunionThe Review of Revieus.) The Review of Reviews has always maintained that all religions are but attempts made by finite intelligences to define aa accui-ately as they can the angle at wbich they contemplate the Infinite. 'All paths to the Father lead when self our feet have spurned/ Hence the folly of quarrelling about different aspects of the same truth is exactly that of the knigrits in Aesop's fable, each of whom saw only one side of the shield. While all religions will always maintain their special creeds and rituals, there is ample verge and room enough for them all to unite in the service of humanity. The formula of that association is the union of All who love in the service of All who Suffer. This ideal was pursued by us for years under the title of the Civil Ghurchf which may be said to have been the mother idea of the Free Church Federation although I stood aloof from that organisation because it refused to include Unitarians and Roman Catholics within its fold. Helpers can promote this ideal by supporting locally all interchanges of pulpits and all efforts to promote joint action for work or worship of the various sects. They can help the cause of methodist Presbyterian Union^ support the Christian endeavour and imilar unsectarian bodies, and oppose all manifestations of the spirit that divides in or out of the churches. You can help in suppoi-ting any united effort of the denominations for the promotion of common ends,Civic Sunday, when sennons are preached on civic religion, Peace Sunday, Hospital Shnday; etc., also all concerted co-operative efforts to promote t^jran!Be, purity, revivals, etc. The scientific investigation of the law of God revealed in the material world is practical natural theology, and can b promoted

RFXIOIOUS BE ( NION.

lii

by ever>- effort to induoe % h B studv of in jiny of her \%vM fomitt. Nature study, the keeping of bird^ and aniomlt M bouaiical and geological rambles, may be all promoted Q K branchi^n of this study of the Divine lav. The Review of Reviews has always maintained that the patient investigation of psychical phenomena would ere long result in e*tablishihg, upon scientific foundations, the truth of the persistence of the individual after the change we call death. Helpe^-s can help in this region by collecting carefully all at^cebsible evidence as to the occurrence of phenomena which suggests the presence of intelligent forces outside our physical consciousness or the existence of ^ yet undreamed-of potentialities in the human mind. One great aim of the Review of Reviews has ever been to work for a civic revival, to arouse a^ intense a religious enthusiasln for the salvation of the state and the Kiupire as a i*evival arouses for tlie salvation ot the individual. H men and women '^otild but spend themselveb and their means as steadily, as persistently, and as ungrudgingly in the service oi those collective masses of individuals which we call nations, and municipalities, and parishes, and empires a? they spend themselves and their means in parochial andtevaogelistic work, how much might be done But this end is only to be achieved by prayer and fasting, yea, and the taking of many collections and the ungrudging rendering of much drudgery as acceptablo sacrifice. The ideal always to press for is the organisation of iM the scattered forces of religions and altruistic endeavour on the same common sense principle on which the municipality organises its police service. One centre of organisation in the centre of the town, the community divided into districts, none of which overli^; in every district a Superintendent, and on every beat a responsiblA manthat is necessary to prevent crime. Is less conmKm tense necessary when we attempt to fulfil our prayer, Thy will be done on earth-as it is in Heaven ? See, for organisation of civic eestre. Appendix to If Christ came Chicsgo." I W h i t e f r i a r s Street. K. V.

SIDDHANTA

DEEPIKA.

Cameos from Tamil Literature.


KALITOGAI. ill. 94. (J Comic. Scene. A Dwarf aud a Hunch-back.)
M ^okHl^fi^ungui ^StuQiL^ in

^tftiarL-^dS^p ^tkrtuQujp inieitmL-

upt^utsQttr uQ^jtru r y)i ;

flQ(utkmu>

er/^S^^-JsoL. Qur

a.^ot^V'Siou.aQ GuitjBS^ss^QH

Qm-B^^tSLLi^A^ e^tf^B^avQc-^gHuSitT;

iBesipQtuSTirQt^mltsru

(Juirjpiss^fiiTQiBinLQ^iij^adj

uSiiti^JieuirQ^earQwtijQsire/? QueiFBji.(^e/r il luirtBii^QuJ^^ iumQ^-ih.jpi;

^Qajeitmrifoir

jrtifSlux^^

srru>iTiBL-S(^ iBmL.siTffsarsAiiTs26oorf SIT ^LDQparQ^e^eilsireiirs; ;

^ ^ f i T sfiaQaiTesn^Q^inLQL-^

^tnueSarwiTiTu :QsiTtt9ginlaessn_[rir

OiL^auSlQtm^^ef issirmwQejcari^Q,^

QuifihOutLjisffi&r^ff^^QuiSOT &

Q/^S tf - uiSiU!T/i^iSi

siiQ.

CAMEOS O O M TAMIL. L t X e R A T U B E .

U6

The Dicarf : Oh iny beauty >yith the bodj- ^eiit double like the shivdow of the trei? m water! T wiiih to hiiVd a word with you. What virtnoos deeds yuii shoiitd Have performed to deserve this speech with me. Oh Ple.ase stay. The Hunchback: Oh my mother ! (aside). O you son born of auspicious hour when Pretending to love me, like yourselves deserve the animal with the head of a mn^ At the dwarfs not fit to be been are usually borpl you prevented me from going. Caai dws^s to touch me ?

The thcarf : You with the full beauty pf yoar body^ whick is bent and crooked like the-plough-share attached 4k>. the plotg^ and snapped at the top, has nmde me love sick which I cannot b^c* I cannot bear this pain. If you will show me grace, I will livec F!A8e let me know your mind.
The Umchltdirk

: Oli Look at his cheek ! (itsid^.

Oh you ignotant dwarf ! you invite me to your home m this oroad day. tiiere nu^ny women of your own hotisehold wlko Kill 4I0 this 7 Oh, Oh, look. This God of Love runs after me, twisting his hhort arms around its pits> running like a turtle placed upright and on its hindlegs, though I told him not to go after me. When she said this, the Dwarf strutted before ^ spying **0h look at the gait of God kania, brother of God Sama with the bow.' The Huncitback': Oh! Oh! Look at his giut. The Dicarf : Let us not banter each other anymore. on the Xing s feet that I will not do so anymore.
The Buftchback:

lMar

l^et it be so. Oh you with the beautiful cJiipt! We desiro that people uhaMwtA d^tr

I will cease bantering also.

ple us as liUle devils, when they, are ip ten>ple precincts. . 'Let us retire to some flower laden tope.

glDD^ANTA P E E M K A .

X 0 T E 8 AND COHHBMTS. Wt^i^Vi i^MTecl two commuiiictftiil^ie, one from the publuher of the bbve tret and another from the antltor thereofi aneftt our remarks in reviev^ing the '^iSiStwi**"* i i m in oar May N.o. We. regret they are too ' l o n g f o r puVHcation and our space u limited. Both oar learned friends say thai'it was never their intention to cAadtlie iDieepiibilitiesof saivas and we gladly ac2opt their absar< ance. Bot they try to interpret the pai-agraph in question against the meaning of their ptiun wording. And we will ^ o t e the note in foil and leave our rj^aders to judge whe^er our remarks were justified or not. dp^jpi
^/Sti
^^ttffm

m^^ia^tAafsr^
^ ^ ' x ^ i r M t u j f f ^ i i a fir tSiuK^^^fi

j f ^ m ^ i ^ un^tuut

VQ^fi

** uffutSffiituiiA'

S^AOot

mi QP^^tjiim^

m^A^m^

Qm^fm^m^C^B

^jb^^wSmAB,O^A

HmmSmstm

Yf^fdo not'wish to'start'a centrtfirersy, W we may i e permitted that neither Sii NiUkanti> SlvacJiariar no/ eatabltttlithf ^ St, Mikandan Qor Sivagtiauaraunivar f i i A l l t Uio tormer. were l^e greatovt oxponento abd anthom M on UfliSiaTii phUosophy iw^ muhivar introdncod noAew luia hhtgTMtt t^pvtoiioa Mbts oir hi:i being the most learned ^ ^ m tmrneniaUit of the SiddhanU tSimtras. We do di:ti|igaUK ^ t ^ i i b m c a l^w^en the Veda aud Agaiua, between the Vedanta of Sn^anta and the Siddhaula oi St iHrumular aud St 35ikandi.^

NOTKS ANI> t'oMVUCNTS.

UZ

ani yet ilio Jibtinctidn is one without a diftwiiOe. St. tfaikftadan Mid hia followers qpeak of the Siddlianta ^ fW and noe h j amy oiher name. We coiQiaeiid to the QiOlM o our brpdiei^ Teraea comtnencing' from 11 ii>. Sutra VIIX. 4 diragraiia of St. Arul Nandt StTackaiiar, in which the relalion of Veda and Aiiai&a is s ^ forth, and we will only quote here vereet IJ.

The onljr real boofe are the Vedas and ^ i va Agamas. All other hooka Me dvived from tlMjie. . These two books wero eteciiiidly re veaSled bgr the jierfectOod. 01 I h ^ i the Vedaii are general and' giten otti faiiiall; A&BOM are md revealed for the b e a ^ td t W bl#!ie^ and they contain the fwntial troth of the Vedm and Vdaiit Hence all othei books are ^rvapaksHa and ike 4ione form the Siddhanta.

jiijeHiUfr

fi'^Qstkeefli

Bciixionsandp<feta]i^es and text-booka are variouf, i ^ h another, i t is asked ,wiach is the true religion, inrtt^tbe ime pcistnlate and which the triio book, thai t# inte
fiattdat9 rtitttmahly ttftd book, whirk iiot mfiietinu its fniyn fold. wHhjkis or thai^

Hence all ihese ^ pri-.^d by the Vedas and Saiva A|ranrvv And these two tttter juaboided in the sacre'l Fool of Hara.
iverythiiig iciihiH

^^^

SIDDHANTA irhlKI'IKA.

We are extremely glad to note that the author of the tract concludes his letter as follows ; ''I am a staunch lov^r of 'Saivaisin/ and aniirdent admirer of Sivagnanamunivftr, Tirnmular and other Saivite Saints, arid in its own turn, the system Will he presented to the public with all its grandeur and exciellence." We hope to welcome these tracts witli pleasure. 'I'he fifth aiiniversavy of the Sangam was celebrated on i'4th May last with considerable enthusiasm. This anniM a d n r a Tamil Saiigain. i i.

vei'sary celebration was unique m many respects. It was presided over by Pandit V. Swaminathayyar Avergal who among Tamil scholars was the fii'st to receive the title of Maha Mahopadhyaya. There was a fuller attendance of Pandits and Scholars interested in Tamil from all parts of the Presidency. There >v>s a large attendance o Mahomedan gentlemen and scholars. The president evoked considerable personal enthusiasm, and though the aittinga were inordinately long, the enthusiasm never at nny moment flagged* When the President appealed for funds for the support of the. Savigam, it was touching to see howtlio proverbiably poor Tamil Scholars responded more than any other class. The acme of pathos was reached when a Pandit stepped up to tlu' dais and presented a small gold bangle he wore towards a iiuMiioriul to tlie famous Nachinarkintyar of Madura. The Bangam for the first time thought of having a constitution and ap)K>inted a committer to draw up the rules and place it before the Sangam at its next sittit g. The example set by Mr. J. M. Nallaswami Pillai last year of submitting written papors for being read before the Sangam boi'e ample fruit this year and a number of very able and interesting papers were read. The Sangam adopted a resolution to submit a memorial to the University and the Government protesting against the select committee s suggestion to make Tamil and other vernacnlarB as an optional subject for the P. A. and B.A. examinations. Mr. Radhakristna Iyer, Principal of the Maharajah's College, Paducottah, who moved tho proposition gave a practical illustration of the disas^^ous consequences of such a scheme. He had advertised for an additional Tamil Pandit: btit just after he read of the select com-

Nrn:s

<OMMKNT.V

U U

luittce'.s i*eport. he tlifuiarht tlioro wouht J M ^ n iioiVssitv l\r a >ii"'lt'

imndit, and so dropped the appointment of a second j^undit. In those days when not even one pursues learning f.r It ai ning n J 5 u k wc do not believe even a decent number of KindcniJi will take up the Tamil or other vernaciilai- in prcfcrence to oihor t onrses o study. It is to be feaied that the grcai. advaucem^^ni. (o he observed in the study of Tamil among Enelish-cduc:itv<l youths will receive a positive check, if the new proposal should become a fact. The President in his long and very discursive speech brought out the very many excellences in Tamil literature, nnd forcibly argued ngainst the presumption that a study of Tamil is not sufficient to make one thoroughly cnlturedland highly patriotir and civilized and manly. He instanced with great pathos the incident mentioned in one of the Purananui'u Hymns where an old woman, verging on her grave rose up with rage and vowed to cut off her breast wliieh sack* led such an arrant coward when she hoard Iver son lia 1 turned and fled from the battlefield. She went to the batUe-field, turned over the bodies of tho slain and her joy knew no 1 onnds when she discovered the mutilated body of her l)eloved son illustrating the wellknown verse of Tirnvalluvar.

Can there be a nobler example of womanhood and heroism in any language? He showed also what great power was wielded by the Tamil scholara in the good of the. countrj', in peace and war and what noble examples of love and friendship and goodness are found in the incidents recordcfl in the Pqrananuru. He referred to the great debt we owed to Xachchinarkiniyar from whose coxaxnontAries alone it was possible to unearth many a classical work and but for whose labonns they would all be lost: and he referred to the fact with regret that tbongji lie was a citizen of Madura, no nemorial

SIl'lHANTA t o-ild

hKHPIKA.

i'MiUKi ill his luimt? in t i:n rlussirul ciU . T h e Saiijruiii

Vi'o!ii-

meniorial woultl bo put up when the S:i.trnin llaH 2rjleii>l. hxmiit >Swamiiiathayyar further j rfo7Te<l ti> i-reui Jiliiotltlcs ho exporicnce<l in hU search for manuscripts inul his athnnpi* to deciplier old mnnuscri{)ts and pnblih tlit'iu and lu' j^nitrfully rclVrred to all hiH iMitrons iunl
.leiit ]>roni<it^tl suitable friends who assistetl liiui in this work.

tliat

Rao Bahadur C. N'aj^oji Row was preaeiitthroughonttho sittiuffs, and a paper on Indian Music written under his direction was read and was listened to with great interest. Mr. Uadhakristnayyar spoke about it also and lie told the Sanp^ani how he was carrying on liis investigations in regard to Indian ^lusic,and referred to several things he discovered in ' Silai)p>idikiirani' and lie appealed to those present to help him with any ohl niaiuiscript iii Tamil treating of music. >Ir. P. S. Subraraania Iyer's paper on *Perseverence' was short and swet. Pandit Palvanna Mudaliar's Siddhanta Vilakka Katnavali
on Pattina'

was highly commendalble and Pandit Vedaclialam's paper

pcdai was a meritorious production. The paper on KadaiEzhu Vallal opened up an interesting page in the forgotteti history of Tamilagam and deserves to be rend by all. The Sangam has evoked con^^iderablc intei'est among the studeiit classes by the establishment of various examination with lil>eral prizes; and it has published several valuable works, and Ahananuru and a Tamil lexicon are in coursc of pui>lication. It h a j % entered on a course of great usefulness, and Sriman Pandi ThuraisaraiThovar, the founder of the Sangam Js to be congratulated lac the success already attained, and it behoves the public not to show only lip.deep loyalty to him and our mother Tamil but aid the cau^e by every means in their power.

A ^ ' B

C O M M E N T S .

151

Wii are glad lo know that, Pandit U. S. VcdacLahui Hllai alwr ttanding the Madui-a TamU Sangam and delivering some lectures in Madura left on a lecturing tour in the southern dibtrict^ and tcctured on variou:i subjects at Tntieorin, 'J'innovclly, Tanjoro, Negapatam, Cuddalore, etc.

This Sabha is the oldest Sabha in the S<mth and it has been maintaining a free reli^ioua Sunday School for over ^^ ^ satisfaction to all that this Sabba has acquired a site through the liberality of Srinian Avadaipillai of Pitchandar Kovil, and the Sabha haa appealed to the public for fuiidii for starting the building. About Bs-^'-iKKK) is required for the purpose. Trichinopoly a every one knows is a groat religious oentrc. and it has become a great centre for christian missionary enterprise M all denominations- The principal of one of the colleges i-emarked recently in a public address how ignorant the Hindu Students ^yere about the eleinent^even of their religion. Every Hindu parent will see therefore how serious is this reproach ^nd it is their bpunden duty to see their children get some religious education outside the Christian bchools. Hindu parents are quite indifferent as to what their children Warned at ochool or not provided they pass their examinations. But they feel sore svhen they turn out badly in after life. It is.of the gica<est importan:?e that childrep get tlicir religious training from their earliest childhood, and a school of the kind worhwd by the Sabha cannot but be beneficial. We appeal to all Hindus to tjiieourage tlus sabha with liberal donation? in ihcii- laudable woik.

SIDPHAXTA

DF.tPlKA.

If iji wiili llu; siiicercst i epriet we record the demise of the Hon ble J*. Kumaraaami Mudaliar of Colombo. He T h e late Hon M e great Tamil Scholar and a man of great r. Kinrisua...i M<ir. I aud lie was the leader of every move of f'o)oinlo. . . . .
y y . ^

ment in the cause of religion and progress. He was extremely generous an helped^very movement liberally with his purse. His charitieiv were innumerable. His death is a serious loss to the public, but he is sure to earn his crown of glory in the next irorld. We offer our sincoic sympathy to his hfnour;ii>lc brothers and his relationsWe welcome the publication of this now 'J'umil weekly newspaper and wish it a long life. It is issued by the THE -INDJ A. Brahmavudiii office and its annual subscription A new Aveekiy. i Rs. .>. The ai ticlcs arc written in simpile and lucid Tamil prcio und they ;ue high'y instrui tivc and well adapted to suit the tasti^ of the IVnul-reading public. The paj>er contains aj'ticles on agriculture, industj-y, religion and politics besides the
important evjiiiis of the week, t'Clegr^tms 1'he issues that have already yppcaicd fire in e v e i y way creditable. In accordancc with Sairs Sidfli.anin ( oilthe

prorranin>e jniblished on May

0(5 by tlie

K-S. Vedachuium

iicncy J SecretHvy of the above confereucet pandro K . 8 . rcdachalam went on delivering Icfuvcs nc.ted below. 1. 21st 06. At the Iccturc-hall of
. c.'

!Mr. Tiltainayakam Pillai, retired, Deputy Gellector, the Iccturc on Hinduism and its Principles was delivered. The systems of Charvaka, Buddhist, Jaina, 8ankara. and liamanuja were surveyed one l>y one and points common to them all were noted and spun into a coherent whole. That this whole was nothing but Saiva Siddhantn was proved by him. very ablv.
2. '26th May 'm, Under the I'l-esidenlslnp wri'...'ii criti< al of Mahamaho.jn ihf jiadyaja M r / V . 8aminaiha . lyc^

sMi'lv

XOTKS

rOMMENTS.

16

clHSsirjil Tainil o.io Pattiuapaiai was lo.-. t by hin. ui thtf IVmil Sfin^irain at Mfulora. Tho critical merits of the lecture were very )n>lily sjx^keii of by ilio President and the learned r.adience'i. -JTth Afay At the .\radur:i Temple premises, Iccturo on Jnaiia Marga wfts vciy succinssfully delivoreJ. Mr. Slinnmugam Kiilai. the able commentator of Tolkappiojn Pairam was on tho chair and reviewed all the essential point of the Icetureand paid his high eonjplimentary words to i lie Iccturfr. A Brancli Society to tho conference was f o i - m e d at Madnra. Mr. AJ. Nagalinga Madaliar, Pleader, was elocted iiM IIm- l ^ p s i t l e n t , a n d Air. L. llamasamy Pillai tho secretary.
4. 'Panjoro, 4th June ill I b e preiinMes of Sai\a .Siddhanta S a b h a was at tlu? l o c t n r o o n S a i n f Tii ajrnana.vanibhanda ilelivcred. criii-

T h a t t l i e l i f e o f G n a n u s a m b a n d a w e l l a c c o n h ^^ilh the i-ijiin, w a s v e i y a b l y d e a l t w i t h by t h e (ectciXT.

historic

0 t h - l u n c 0 0 . A t T f l n j o r o ; w n > i h c r I c c t u r e r'li t h e B a k i i vvaii d e l i N C i c d . A t a n y i n t r i c a t e p o i n t s i n t h o phil.>M>phy o f xvere d e e p l y r e a s o n e d OUL a n d ma^Je c l e a r a s d a y l i t d i t .

Yoj.'a

Siddhanta

T h e n the aciho him

c o u n t o f ( h e ' r a n j o j - e f^^xal v u c i f i l y ' . v c r o r c a d f o r ^ h e a p p ^ ' o ^ i ^ i o f lectnvci' un'l n a n a g e i - Paridit. Vodochfijaij!. t h a t a sohoo! of S i d d h a n t a must for tho bonent Air. K . S Sonio lo s , :; : It ptopcsed by

1 by rhe Locnl rhc-.M-fidly

^"X-ieiy by

of ihc nieinto/- ivrl . S r i n i v a s a m P.jlui; introdnccd inio fro

op[ntved

O'.k l o r o i a l u c t it. ')>uti->u of tho

j h a i i t r o M-ai

Tanv>r.i

f.ooo l S o c i e t y b y the

: : ? e c i e t a r j ' ... A-.: i Pillai ^as

Mr. Snhiiinuthii

V^lhu

f n h-.s p]o.. 0 . M r . M r . L . I"

p o i n t e d as xhtci.-j ry and secrelai y, 0.

; - ji.'-y.

t j i c orsist^int

b i l l 7 u n c U'3. I n t i i e S a b h a p i e m i ^ c s tite I c c i u r . ' on S f i n i

of t ho b r a n c h

society

at Kivalar,

Manickavat h a k a r was

delivered. For

T h o l e c t u r e r c h o c k e d the account? of the t h o expense.^ of the m o n t h l y m . v i i n g s f e r e n c e to tho ij^valav Branch.

B / a n c h :nid a p p r o v e d .

iO u c r e - i v r n by the con-

7. 14.th Juno 06. Afany respectable men at Alannargadi requested the Manager to go over there ajil lorm a branch to the conferrnre. In complvini.' nith their renet, he went OTOr there and

SJDPHAXTA DEEPIKA.

dtoliveied a lectuitj ou iiod, Soul and Matter. Tken uiMicr the daatobsp ^i^ Hr. Kalpalcavinayakam Pillai, B. A , Police InspocfcoiXortned a branch to tho conference. Mr. R. Aruriachalam l^llai is to be its piiesident, und Mr. Gopala Pillai secretary. 8. 17th June 06. In the. grand sabha premises of the Nagai Volipaiayaai Local Society, the lecture on the Mystic cunstruction of Hindu Temples ^vas delivered. The unselfish ^td benetictojii motive that stinmlut^ Pandit Vedachalam to work for the conference even saciiticing his healiii and comfort to a certain extent has deeply laid us under great pbligation. We thank him in the name of the conference for undertake ing the difficult task of going on a lecture tour to bring the conference to bear forth good result iu the investigations of the profound philosophy of the aiva SiddhantaC*. S, Ponmnncamt 3fndaliar, General Secretary, Saiva Siddhanta Conference. A writ^jr iu the May issue of the Virjanand Maijazine in endeavouring to fix the agepf Patanjali combats the view Tlie Age uf Ptttanjali. that Patanjali of i\\G MahnBhashya is different from the IVitanjali of tJie Yofja Sutras, He supports the traditional view that J'ataiijali wrote the Maha^Bhashya, the Yoga 8utraift and a work on medicine. In regai-d to his age, ho disagrees with those who think that Patanjali lived after Buddha's Nirvana and quotes approvingly I^andit Bhashyachary's conclusion that he lived in the 10 century B.C Abunt the theory tliat Patanjali floui ished after 8akhyamuni's Nirvana, lie writes : ''Again to one of tho Sutras (Vll, -50} of I'anini, Katyayana adds a Vartika to explain the t^'rm 'Nirvana,'and says tliat it means 'to bloNv out.' If Katyayana or l^atanjali lived during or after the lifq-time of iSal^yamuni (as is supposed by many) surely they as grammarians would have noticed the Buddhistic interpretation of the word ' Nirvana.' But as they did not w iiro at liberty to say that neither of tJieiu lived aft<r the riTrodticfion of Buddhism by JSa^fhyanuiwi. Whipn Buddhism was preached by Sakhyamuni, the decline Brahminival authority ^vas vciy .irrciit. Those chan-ru^iu rcliji^H

NOTi-s A\i <'<\fMfc:NTj*.

irr.

and cbpeciuny iti a religion professed by those that q^re teiiiie^l the groat conservativos'feliost> eliaiigetj (which wore of so destructive a character) would at the lowest ostiiuation require 300 years to intervene. If Gaumata Buddha, and Buddha Bhikshus could be fouml in India about 570 B. C., there is nothing extraordinary in placing Patanjali tlivee centuries earlier, tliat is, H70 B. C., in other wordn betwfeen the 9th and lOth centuries B. C., although the change* of language would necessitate our placing him even earlier. Our argitment is greatly strengthened if wo base our reasoning on the chronology of the Chinese, who believe thrit Nirvana of S. Muni took place ill 040 or OT.I H. CV

A now way lias ])eeu found for utilising piueifipple. The fniifc can bo made to yield a very deliciouH wine> mdcK resembling-Rhine wine in delicacy of flavour and appearance. It is thought that pineapple wine may becomc a much more important commercial product in the not distant future, as it is aii excellent aid to digestion. Greai quantities oC the pulp are now being put up with sugar for market iu a form relatively imi^erishable, being available at any tinw fofconsumption and retaining the ftavour. But we cannot find that this has yet been introduced into this country. The pineapple plMit yields a valuable fibre which is woven into the famous *'piiia" cloth the most delicate of known fabrics. It U very beautiful atid shawl made of it will actually float in the air, settling down very slowlv when it is tossed upwards.

We propose to devote in future 2 pages of our Magazine to matters of agricultural importance to our country and we invite tliort contributions and items of practical importance totlua potiioiiel tie paper for our readers and corrtspoodenta. A qeeiy colnnm #iU also be added to this paper. A reader of Mr. J. M. XBllaeWii Pillai 9, translation of SivagnanabodhahM sent a st|t*g Of 4yieiw and we propose to aasweir them frottt timrto iime, tOgetUtfr othws that maT be sent to na.

W-hai iht mid MyHica'^ayuhout EXCKfiS T F R 8 F S MODERATION.


is fi'om iht' Mute rial, M(.lfru<ion is fr<m the S p i r i l i u l .
K x c e s s in u i n i u t i i r u l ,
Moiifruiion

I l x o r s s is i l i s e a i t
K'.xcctrSH i s (iij.' o r c . ;Moi3oral i o n L ,

E x c e l s is i. Iwayi- c i a v c . o p c : : i , - : iMotloration " a n i k r c k o r i L.idis iriborn.


E x c e s s . s h o w y fiu<t i;Tis m i - i t . :':

Moderation

inin*! ina jfers '


l a c k of, o r u o yelf coni i

Excess shows much

j \ ] c d o r a t i o n shovv^; g r o a . : g e l f - c o T i t r f l .

Excess excites the nerveslMoleratioii quiets ihe nerves. Exccss Meukens the inutscle':., Wbd^ration Btrengthens the inuscles. Excess poisons the bloocl, Moderation purifies ihe blooil. Excess litupifiofc tlie brain. Mode rat-ion invigorates the brain. Exces!? retards the highest tlovelo}iTvii^nt. Moderation pronKtes the highest cl^ elopnr^e)it. Excess spells damnation )o;>s, Moderation spells peaee fmin. Excess breeds A i e. Moderation manifests \ii'tuf. Excess is followed by retril.nlirvn. Moderation is pf;i isecl. E.TCess reveals foolishnet^s. Moderation is -wiadonv. rains itfan, Mod^raiioi) pTOser^e^ man. Hodeiation cveaies and.preserves ]ife 77.e Miroh

AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL BiOffiS^


Now that luiral hclwoh uie to ho introduced, witJi siimll pmlfiiK
Indiau B u r a l Education.

^^ - Slys pa}>er .m ihe sul>jt-.ct in the


April JiuiiibtT of tlie AiLTit'uUunil Journal o f

India deserves attention, lie points out that thv syst-eui of education should be thoroughly Indian and suited to tlie locjil c onditioins an|i that the students should be taught to kno^r, by truiuin^ thtiin to observe, to thrnk and to do, and tliat they should given the niothpii of study more than mere instruction, and that tliorc sliould be suitable lesson books in the vernacular lanjruage ' nndtM>;raiifk^.Jiy t))e j)eople' and d e a l i n p r ^vith objects tu'iuliar to the locjility, the-teacher presenting the objects themselves in the e(>ui se of te^v'hing:, wid tliat the school gai*den jshould be mainly used for the bn{)|>ty ot rn^^emls for object lessons, in which ti e pupils can study the ^rowfh of plants, ajid under the cfuidance of the teacher, the cliild should ol>^rve th^ parts of a seed, the plant food in it, the process of jrerruination and the conditions necessary for It. In each, stage of the growth of t)ie .piai^t we should pull ii[) a specimen and obser\ e the roots^ their uf^s^and ttbeir growth; the stems, thei.- uses and structure; tlw flower?^, IheH* parts and uses, and methods of fertilization; the fruits and. i^eeds, tkeir formation and iif*es. methods of dispe4'sal and the like. Het^iould observe tlie sod and its composition, the effect of plant food and manures. The garden should 1>e deliberately used to gain abjeet lessons in failures as well as in succes^es in connection Avith soils, drainage, manures, weeds and the like. The child's plot shoi^Id be used like a slate to ptit tilings on and rub them off for i^ucatioaal pur)iose.s. It will teach him habirs of close ol>servation, of tlioujrhtfulness am^ carefulness; he will lenrii by doing.
-A-

Kverv one is familiar with tJie ground-nut but not a k) ho\r the uut is formerl. The name lact
<?mond.iiut and itn ^ ^jj^^jjl^ s u g g O a t t b s * tfee

pods are formed from't|itMols 4d til plant. It is not so. A graduate fricmd of ours ia>kiiig i n i M ^ ' l ^ field of lyround-nut was curious Imwever.to Rsk ns why th< liifHl f

.sNHllA\rA

hKKIMKA.

^'l.Mii.Mio'I iisf'lf t.>wnniH iiu oudli. Tlu in in IVni rho ovurv o:- st'o^l |m| of. tlii> fnnii-tvimr: ir i'.loTijfaies itsiollrf lwI ios itsoir t omplrtciv in r!io o:irth and then lovelopes into t.he nut. Tlrs it dof>5to protcct its luscious Hood fronitJie attacks of biixland other enemies, and buf foi- this doviso it will difficult? to j^et any f^found mix at uii- Thi>i habit entails that tin- suli sliould bo light to admit of tlic mIc : ': r pihHl bizrying* i tscdf in tho cfirtli and this accoiiiits for the fact wl)} (mt of i\ iotal area of 440,28:5 acres in Madras under thi!j crop in l!)04-0.'. ?80,f)S i acres wore grown in the District of SoutJi Afcot which, iis it lies onthsra coast, is distingnisliedby light sandv soils. And tho (^round-nnt in a plant which requires very little nwunro. Tho pcHts of Ground nut in Madras: - T l i e District of sonth Arcot in the Madras IVesidency is distinguihhed by light soils on which the ground nut (Arachis hypogeii) is <;ultivated in enormouji quantities. Out of a total area of 410,282 acrcs in Madvtis under this crop in 1904-05, 280,9^^4 acres were grown in the district. The litaple is, therefore, of command in ir importance* in tJie local agriculture. The pests attacking grnuml nui are coinparatively few, tli principal ones being *'Surul" or ''Madupuchi and "Tikka." The latter is a fungoid disease which is not at present verj^ serious in this part of India and apparently prevails in damj), close weather. Surul.on the other hand is universally present and does gr^at damage. The word ^^SuruV* means a curling" and is depentlent on the habit of the insect of burrowing inside the tissues of the leaves which ciirl up and are distorted. The chrysalia is formed in a fold of the leaf. Tue insect is a minute dark motli (Anacampsis nextoria meyr) 01: very active habits and is probably nocturnal. On walking over the fields a constant shower of disturbed inserts flies out, quickly seekiixg shelter under the neighbouring leaves. The walls of bun^ gailowsin the neighbourhood aro sometimes blackened at night by millioiui of the motlis attracted bv the bright lights. ISko SjBrcA.<pufihi ^appeain to prefer laying one egg in eaoh leaflet, and vithtfis. In k bad attack, the whok W E W A blarteencd or blag: ^nip^rance. is tha C M * witb

ill.'

AGRICILTI KAL AM> INiiLSTUlAL

NUTK.

ia

must j*!t9 of tliiM class, shower* vf rain arc moat bonettL'iuly wliil hot sun and dry air liwul to increase, wlietker in dry or irrigated crops. From the iiiterital working of tlie l aturpillar, it is doubtful whoUier spraying will be of much use, but, on the other hand, it seettU) probable tJiat light traps .may help in di'stroyfTJL' ihc moths at

If the rj'ots understand k little about fertilization tlu^y can easily gei butujxjr crops in the various s|x^cics oftrourds they raiw in tlieir back yards cVc. In aU these plants, the male and femaleflowersare sepaixvte and the insects assist in carrj-ing the |)ollcn from the male flower to the female flower which is distinguished by having a small fruit under the petals. This method is however uncertain; luid tltisis the reason why so many of the young fruits .wither away The lyots can make it surer by e^u^ing himself the pollen from ihw midc flower and lifting it on the pistil of tlie female ilower Many fruits ap|x;ar wholo and yet when cut a small worm or beetle crawls out from the stone or pulp of the fruit. Tlio SUmgo Weevil. This seems a mystery. The history of the insect is tliis. The beetle lays its minute eggs HI the small ovary just in the tiowering stage or little after, it is hatched inside the fruit and the worm dovolops with the fruit and by the time the fruit is mature, it has trc-nsforraed itaell iiitoti Ixjctle or weevil. After it emerged from tlie f r v r : t , t h r inscci htJis ik-elf lu the bark till neit season when it begiui to breed. This i)cst is ^reading all over India. A note in the agricultural journal of India suggests remedies for destroying the pest. It is to paint or scrub down the bark with Kerosine j this ifi best done in the cold weather bwt cu-be dope ut any time before the Mango flowers or the beetle becomes active, say not later than the begiiming of February. A. further pi^ecoution is to dig o^-er the ground belon the trees in order to destroy any yvccyih that off the 'btirk mid talc rcfutft4ier.

S I D D H A X T A TDEF.PIKA.
Hie nQlUiowl^gil
K * TBCOWPLUCIIL

t b a n M t l M n m l p t o f t h fll6iiriiiitf
KCVJCTVR 161,

New lioiid .Sti%*et, W. fyondoii. A D D U H I Subscriptsou r j Tlio Ictuliug ex}j<juent cif New T h o u g h t UpUincl Farms Aliiaiice .OjKj%waim in Hud>wjn, N. Aimuijl Subscription 1-50 dollar.^. The quarterly organot tbo Anglo-Indian Tern-; Association, I^ondon. Q d . Herald i\f the G o h l r n - \ quarterly magazine advocating the adoption throilghoub Christendom of a blocKJlcfvS , aiidmvtural diet; Paignton, England, Anluiul Subseripiion 1 s. Q if^

The Indian Moija^ine and lieview;'

The organ of the National Indian AsHOciation it) aid of Social Progress and in fndi. A. (Nonstable & Co., Ltd. 16 Jamen S t r e e t llayinarket. Tx^ndon, S.. W. price
o //. j>ov e o j n .

'[The yVorUVs Ailcqncr Thought and the UniI^ortland, Oregon, an American monthly. Vnjuu^l versal RepubhW ' The Graiir

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S i i l i v r i i p i i o i i i t s . 1-H O a ytan

THE

8IDDHANTA OEEPIKA
OK
\

The Light of Truth.


A Monthly Journal, Devoted to Religion, Philosophy, Liit^aturi-, Scitna
OomiMiMMd on the QtiMn's GomiKMmoratloii Day, IMT.

Vol. VII.

AUGUST 1906.

Ho 5,

Clrumatitram
Of

TIRUMULAR,
[CouNnued f.-oin pa^j" 132 of Vol. i'll.)

INSTABILITY OF LIFE. Knowing well that all tluit are borne on a leafy flowerladen liough did without fail, they do not praise our Lord's Feet wiihonfe fault. They know not that king Yania is waiting to tend for then. The tivo (senses) oivn a full grown field. The fire gn^rd tlus field. Tho live liaving receiveil tlie luandato of the Lord, tliey relinquish their watch of this field. 3. There is a drum with Uvo faces and tlie fite king dweliiB li. AYhen the five kings depart from it, tJio drum falls to dust 4. They who cannot realize tiie Lord of Tiruvenkatam MlAlIp^ Dweller in tlie lieart df tlie Vcdanta, the Kandt who diuicea iaTlMvenkataifi, cannot realize even tlicir soid and cannot bear their life.

SIDPHANTA DEEFIKA.
m

5. Tliey do not understand that the 10 aides of this world are mearared by the Sun. They do not pause and understand the illusion of this world. ^ 6. People do not understand that even the well-woven girdle is ftom to shreds and the black hair tum^ to grey. Frcon birth to death appears just like a single year. 7. Only a little rice is required to boil a pot. Give a little rice in charity before ever your b<^y is burnt. The allotted days are almost oyer. 8. Bven though you fondly seek and dwell on this life of yours, as the bee hovers on the sweetness of the flower; yet your life cannot last unless fixed on Him with the Three Lights for His Eyes. 9. Perform charity according to the Law. Praise the Pure One in view to reach that great land. We need not give any law to those who know how difficult it is to get a human birth. 10. Do not leave the path of virtue, becoming envious- Dont covet other people s property, becoming avaricious. While you are prosperous just give to others and eat yourself. ABSTENTION PROM KILLING. The sacred flower to be used in the Pujah of the Gum is abstaining from killing animals* The Deepam to be offered is your removing the animals fear. The real Dhyana will consist in your doing good to them. 2. The cruel messengers of Yama will bind them who direct the beatinig and lulling animids, with strong ropes, and drive them with insulting words in<ip the burning Hell. ABSTENTION PROM BATING MEAT. The messengers of Tama will publibly catch hold of those low people who eat meat, and throw them into the burning Hell.

TIRUMANTRAM OF TIKUMULAR.

163

2. TLose who abstain from killing, thieying, drinking intoxicating liqndrs, lust and lying, will be freed from evil and reach the blita of ISiya's Foot. Thia is reaching the Highest Gnanananda. AGAINST LU8T. While the loving wife is at home, he who goes after a woman guarded by another is like the man who incurs sorrow by going after date fruits, without eating the jack fruit at home. 2. Burying the sweet mwigo fruit grown by oneself under the earth like gold, one gets up the tree to pluck the sour mango fruit. This man loses the benefit of his existence. 3. They go after women in the darkest night when stars above shine. Then cannot rid themselves ot tbeir mental darkness. 4. Even though the leaves may be shining, the fruit of the strychnine tree cannot be good for food. Don't therefore, let your mind hanker after women though they may be beautiful and smiling. 5. They enter houses in search of women. Their gushing love is unreal like a dream and the bubbles in a whirling pool of water. Don't think it real. 6. The women will ask their most intimate lovers, to stand apart when others approach them ; and tliey will talk to them in secret and let them go. 7. The effect of one s having mixed with women is found in the diseaees the body has acquired. What was at first as sweet as the sugar-cane juice is now slinging him like a furious serpent. 8. If we do not take hold of those who get themselves entangled among the weeds of vice covering the Tank, they will surely be drowned and lost. POVERTY. Their clothes are torn, their welfare is gone. Their intimate relations have lost their love. Tliey cannot give, their days are gone

SIDDHANTA

J>EEP1KA.

as well as their rejoicings. They are mere automatons, Diougli they live in the -.vorld. 2. You go miceasingly after rare articles of food for filling that false pit. (Hunger) But if you praise the Lord, and leave off covetousness, this pit can be filled up at once. 3. They will eeek the heavens for filling this stone pit. It is difficult to fill this for any one. When one knows the secret of filling up this pit, then alone will this be filled up and his impurity leave him. 4. Ones relations are worse than one's bad karma. If one, before his days are pabt, lights up a lamp of wisdom and love, then this great hunger can be satisfied. 5. He, whose mind is bent on God, will get rid of all the ])lea8ures of the body and the senses, and the sorrow innumerable which follow, and will hate this life full of evil. J. M. N.
{To he ccmtiniiecL)

After all the world is but an enelianted palace of Mirrors. We see the face of our soul in each thing. we are seeing our own heart. In each person we look at Condemn, if you will, but only when

you know that the thing you condemn is a bit of your own ugliness, which another but glasses. Admire, lovo, but lament not when the object of your love has passed away forever. The beauty was of yourself, which you saw as in a glass, and it abides witli you forever. It can not pass save in the passing of yourself. Devotion to a great principle is the loom the weaves the pui-ple and the pick that digs the gold for the coronation of cliaracter. it is the impossible that is always being donv. Orail.

The Inner Meaning of the Siva Linga.


[We publish below the fii'st instalment of an article on the al)Ove subject from a valued friend of oui-s. He is a good student of 8aiva Siddhanta, both in its Vedantic and Agamic aspects, and is es|X5ci ally very strong in the Mantra and '.rjuitra portions. The subject is a good deal obscured by ignorance, prejudice, and blind bigotry, though Professor Wilson long ago declared that he saw nothing objectionable in this sacred symbol. The word literally means nothing more than ' Symbol;' and a really good exposition of the subject from the stand point of our ancient Mantra and Tnntra Sastra will be valuable. It is not any fai-fetxjhed or imaginary explanations that are attempted here but our friend quotas a text from tlie Sliastra for every one of his explanations. The article will be s}iecially valuable as it will contain numerous citations from the Agama Shastras which have not yet seen the light of day. Ed.j The object of the present article is to remove the most erroneous idea entertained regaiHiing that Holiest of Hindunay universal Sypibol, viz: the Siva-Linga. To Swami Vivekananda, we owe a deep debt of gratitude for retrieving the honour of this Ancient Symbol of the land of Bharata. He did his best to repudiate the oftrepeat'Mi, but erroneous, explanation of the Siva-Lingji as a Phallic emblem. When Gustav Oppert, lately of the Presidency College Madras, read a paper in London on the Siva-Linga explaining it as a Phallic emblem, the Swami who was then present in the audience refuted it and established wliat it truly meant. The Loudon Daily Chronicle reported the same in the follomng manner. "The Swami said that the worship of the Siva-Lingam originated from the famous lingam in the Atharva Veda ?amhita sung in praise of the YupaBtambha, the sacrificial post. In that hymn a description is found of the b<ginningle6s and endless Stambha or skhamba, and it is

120

SIDDHANTA.

DEEPIKA.

shoNvn that the said Skhamba is put in place of the eternal Brahman. As, afterwards, the sacrificial fire, its smoke, ashes and flames, the soma plant and the ox th^t nsed to carry on its back, the wood for the Vedic sacrifice gave place to Siva's body, his yellow matted-hair, his bine throat, and the bull, the Yupa-stamba gave place to the Siva Jaugarn and was raised to the High Devahood of Sri Sankara. In the Atharva Veda Samhita the sacrificial cows are also praised with the attributes of the Brahman. In the Linga Parana, the same hymn is expanded in the shape of stories meant to f^stablish the glory of the great Stambha an4 superiority of Mahadeva." Later on he says ''the explanation of the Siva Lingam as a Phallic emblem began in India
in her most thoughilese and degraded times,'* Yes in her thoughtleds

days, and shameless days too, when the internal quarrels between the different sects were highly rampant and were waged with an implacable hatred and when the minds of her men were so notori* ously plastic as to receive any kind of impressions. The story of the Linga becoming sundered by a curse does not at all account for the origin of the Linga, but the supposed, and fanciful too, resemblance to the genitive organs and the appellation of Linga as applied to both, accounts for tlia story. It was a general practice in antiquity to invent fictitious tales for the purpose of explaining names of which the origin was lost in obseuiity. It must be admitted that the worship of the Linga was almost universal in this land during the time of Mahabharata, and it must also be admitted tiiat long ages must have elapsed between the time that it was first introduced and the time when il was universally woi-shipped. There were innumerable tp'nples in those times. The 6 sous of Pandn, the Kauravas, tht> warriors like Aswathamo, all BraumiiiH, Sri Krislma, Rishis like Vyasa and almost all were worsliippers of Linga or Vigraha. While on the one hand it gained in its popuhirity, on the other hand, it lost much. Tlie tliick mist of ages began at first

INKEB MEANING OF T H E SIVA LlNGA.

Ip7

to dim the true significance of the symbol, till in the loug distance of time the significance was so entirely loat, that wople at a comparatively later stage began to tax their ingenuity to unravel the mysteries and began to refer to their imagination for this purpose. Many of the indecent practices as are mentioned in the Soma. Laguda, Kapalika and Bhairava, Pancliriratra, Vama Sakta and other tantraa began to appear then. Theories hitherto unheard of were promulgated and were believed. The Vaishnavite began to hate the Saivite and the latter vice versa, auMl interpolate texts of their own imagination. With reference to the Mahabharata Saivaite, the Shakta and the Vaishnavite are all unanimous in saying fliat it contains interpolations and scoring out of texts* It is left to scholars therefore to trace out what are true and what are not true. Thou^ it may at first appear to present some difficulties, yet a little diving deep into the subject will pave the way for correctly understanding the things, for, fortunately, the true explanations of all those symbols are not completely ignored, much less effaced. In the Mahabharata there are references about the Sankhya, Yoga, Pancharatra, Yedas and Pasupathas. In the Drqna parva Mahadeva is said to be the f uthor of the Vedae, Pancharatra, Pasupstka and other sciences. Sankhya, Yoga, Pancharatra, Vedaa and Paeupatha are thf> different religions. Yudhistira asks Krishna " Tell me how Vaikanasas speak about you and how Pancharatrasand Krishna explains the same to him. Reference in Uttara-Bamayana about Pancharatra ftnd Pasupatha are very clear, and so there are references of these Agamas in Koorma, Linga, Varaha and Vamana and other puranas. In all these Puranas there are some which claim greater antiquity than others. The Linga Purana and the Vayusamhita are 9^ong the oldest being void of all embellishments of style, and of figures, as are found in later ones, They are quite archaic in style and are strictly the Upabrahmanas of the Upanishads

SIDDHANTA

DEJ-i'lKA.

a^id they contain tl:e correct viosvs of the syiubok. I Jo n .t say that the other puranas contain different views and I car point out that these latter pnrana's too reproduce clearer views of tlio same, bqt I say lhat in point of antiquity, they are the oldest. In these Puranas, references about tlie A'^^duias are very numerous. As to what the AgamiW teach, it is enough to tpioto tlie opinion of tii9 late learned Swaini Vivekananda. " The Tantras represent the Vedic rituals in a modified form, and before any one jumps into the most absurd conclusions about them, I will adv ise him to read the Tantras in connection with the "Brabmanas" especially of the "Adhvarya' portion. And most of the " ^Mantras" used in the Tantras will be found taken verbatim from these Brahmanas-" From the very ancient times* the practices as establishad in the Agamas have continued unaltered. Temples are being built in the same fashion. The same observances ai'e observed and the same IMantras are repeated. Literate or illiteratei the Gnrtts of the Siva temple observe the poojah and other ceremonies tn that self same manner as their fore-fathers did on the batiks of tlie Ganges thousands of years ago. It stands to reason the'refore that these observances should have been long practised more or less in that selfsame manner as we find them depicted in the treatises, before they were actually reduced to writing. The treatises themselves should have only copied those obser^-ances as they tvere in vogue in those times. Thus, from those remote times down to the present time, the observances coniintld to be the same and will continue to Ibe so, till a last relic of temple worship is left in this country. Do not the Brahmina Of the presettt day Ironi the Cape Cbmorin to the Himalayas, be they removed from each other by any iiumbet of customs or dogmas, be they immersed in the verbal ^vliirlpools of Dvaita, Advaifca And VisisKtadvaita, continue to offer the sahie prayers of (Imam me Varuna) etc., Mantras, which their ancestors used to offer to Varuna etc., on the

THE

INNER MEANING

OF THE SIVA LINQA.

bimks of the Indus. Thus, in order to have a correct and SQCC^et idea of tlie symbols, we must refer to these sciences which iJona have tried to explain the mysteries c o n n e c t with them. I^osp sciences are the Agamas and the Silpa-sastras. Let the IJpftxiiaiiads^ the Puranas and the Ithihasaa Contain in chapter aiNr chaptoji eiiloginms of these symbols, let Bodhayana in his Nityapooja VidH, Pratisthavidhi anq Pradoshapooja Vidhi, Asvalayana in his Soolb gava,"" Apastliamba'in his Isana-bali, Katyayana and Sadya Jashada in their grihyaa offer praises of Siva-linga or Siva Yigraha, still we must only turn to the Agamas. Hence Haradatta, the author of the Ujjvala a commentary on the Apastliamba Sutras, observed m his Srutisookthimala thus. " Just as the kalpas stand to the Vedic sacrifices, so Thy A^amas stand for Thy dhyana^ etc." ^ What then is Linga. It means '' a Symbol." The Vyakarahn (grammarians) and the Mimamsakas have profusely used this word in this sense. The lexicographers have other words to denote tiie male organ, and the Nanialinganusasansf of Amarasimha, especially in the Nanartha Varga employs the word in the sense of any huxnan organ. Why then of the so many other symbols prevailing in this country, this symbol alone should be termed preeminently as the * * Symbol." Because this alone has been regarded preeminently as emblem of the Great unknown/' A. RBNGASAMI IYER.
fTo he c(yntinuedJ

H O N O U R TO R E V . G. U. POPE.

We extract elsewhere the full report of the meeti^ in the Royal Asiatic Society's rooms at which the Veteran Tamil ScholaT was presented with tlie Society's Gold Medal for Oriental Scholarship. No one has Jaboured so long and so well for our Tamil land and literature, and we cannot say that the Tamil people have been sufficiently grateful to him. The English Universities and Societiw have showered honours on him, when our own University situated in Tamilakam has been slow to recognize his merits. No othor candidate can be worthier than tliis old Tamil Scholar of the highest honour our University can confer. We hope our University will wake up to a sense of duty before it is too late. We send our Pope Ayyar our heartiest congratulations.

fjQ

SIDDHANTA

DEEPliv/^.

Qaeries and Answers.


Q, I. Am I right in understanding that according to the Saiva Siddhanta philosophy. (1) Ood, soul and mala are eternal entities. <2) does not take avatars. (3) Souls are formless or have the form divine, infinite ; a pure disembodied soul does not exist; pure soul is without conscience ; and ignorant; they either exist in Mala or God; they cannot act without the aid of senses and God ; they are not of the samo order of being with God. (4) Mukta souls are completely merged in God, when their identity is lost, but there is no annihilation but are not extensive with God. (5) Sat means not changeable. A s a t moans changeable and not non-existent. Ane. I. (1) Yes. It is not possible to derive one from the other or explain away the existence of some of tliese. T h e y are final facts which admit of no further explanation or tracing. (Vide Sivag. p. 24 and 25-) (2) No. It cmnot he horn from the tcomb. This is the essential difficulty. The creator cannot subject himself to the laws of evolution. The subject cannet become the object. Bat God, without being ham from the womb, can and does appear to his devotees at various times to touch them with His Grace (See Mrs. ^esant's lectures on Hinduism in which sh^ speaks of God Mahadeva not being boni but capable of appearing to Hi?> devotees as He is the Supreme Guru.) I have treated this fally in m> articles in the Siddhanta Deepika.' Most people \till understand this when stated in reference to the Supreme Brahman, but are unwilling lo understand it when assc rted of God Siva.

QUERIES AND ANSWERS.

I7i

(3) A pure disembodied soal does not exist. The natnre of it is such that it cannot exist except in union with something eke and Jtecomirtg mie with it. It is on this, its scheme of salvation is based, and the rationale of all Yoga is based on this peculiarity of tlio soul. By body is meant all its sukshuma and kar^a forms- In Mukti, the Mala envircmmeDt passes out of our view^ and it does not trouble us, as when in a pure subjective condition of mind, we lose all copsciousness of our body, and don't feel hunger or thirst or pain. Soul is formless and infiniteinfinite in the sense that when you drop a drop of milk in a tumbler of water, this one drop diffuses itself through and through in such a way, that it is evei-ywhere in the whole tumbler of water. But its infinity or Vyapakam iti no where to be compared with that of God. Pure Soul ? Soul is in 3 conditions (1) original condition before the body is evolved (2) conditions after body, sthula sukshma &c is evolved (3) soul in union with God. In the first and 3rd there is no consctoiisness not conscience, but it feels pain or bliss respectively. In these conditions, it feels but it is not conscious of its feeling. Feeling or enjoyment is at its highest when we are not conscious t h a t w e are enjoying, a s pointed out by western Psychologists. In the 2nd condition t h e r e is feeling and consciousness. Souls exist in Mala or God; i.e., in Bhand^ in Mala and in Mukti in God, so far as its direct union and perception of the other in feeling as above explained. Though at all times and always both souls and Mala are in God. Though we are in God, and God is all about us, we do not f ^ l Him, owing to our feeling of 'I' and *mine/ the ahankara or anava. They cannot act without the aid of senses ani God* senses in its broadest meaning, including its different kinds of bodies. In Bhanda, it is the body that educates us and leads us on, as the lamplight in darkness. On this is based the necessity for frequent birth and evolution. In Mukti, when the full splendour of he glorion

172

S I D D H A N T A

D E E P I K A ,

Suilis all about ns and around U M , thei-o is uo necessity lor the lamp-light. God and scml are on different planes of Beiu^. (4) They lose their identity and individticUity, consctoufftieas of self but not their personality, The scientific definition of individuality and personality will have to be borne in miAi' Personalitynot in the loose and incorrect sense used in most Theosophic publications. " Personality signifies tiue Being both concrete and spiritual. It alone is True being. It is not limited. Personality is that universal element that pervades any human soul and which is at once its continent and being. Distinction from others and limitation by them results from individuality, not personality. Personality belongs to the substance of the soul and individuality to its form." Vide Vol. I. Deepi^va p. 280. Nirguna and Saguna are not to be translated Impersonal and Personal. Nirguna means devoid of the qualities and connection with matter. Saguna means connected \\Tth matter and experiencing qualities of matter, cf Ch,p. XIII. Gita. The following is pure language of science and is equally applicable to the case before us. " When a river (individual soul) enters the sea (God), it loses its individiMlity, it becomes merged in the bcdy of the ocean, where it loses its current (feeling of I and mine, the limiting properties) and therefore it has no power to keep in suspension the sediment which it had brought down from the higher lands (has lost the power of performing karma and lose its mala. Higher lands from its original birth onwards.) The story of a piece of coal. p. 42. Newnes. also Vol. V. p. 6. See S. Decpika

Soul IS extensive in the sense as already pointed out above. (5) Yes, as used in 8i\ agnanabotham. A sat is 'other than. Sat" as I have explained elsev.hevo, quoting Dr. Hubbe Schleiden.

QUERIES AND ANSWERS.

l^S

As to ihe various moamngs of Sat aiid Asat. See note in Mr. Daviea Maaoalof Sankkya Philosophy. Sat means intelligent and Asat non-intelligent or Aehit. 1 & 3. Mala' is used coUectively to mean all the three and classed as one, as it is objective to the soulsubject mind. ' God,' Soul and Mala belong to three different j>lanes\ 'anava and maya anil karnm^e not derived from one another. Karma can only result after the ^ u l has begnn its pilgrimage, and in a sense therefore it must bs^e beginning but as it resulted from the soul's connection \^ith f anava * and this connection is eternal, karma is also classed as etemaL ('/) Creation means only the production of the evolved World of life and matter from the undifFerentiatcd primal condition in which they were. (4) 'Asat' does not exist independently of sat. Body or matter cannot have existence apart from a thinking mind. In a pure subjective condition, .the object drops out of our view altogether. This is its non-exi^nce or sunyam, 'mirage' because it is fleeting and unstable, and vanishes when we know the RealGod. (5) Changeability and uuchangeability has to be distinguished from existence and non-existence. The Siddhanta does no where postulate nonexistence of existing objects following the strict lines of the Principle of conservation of energy. An existent object can both be changeable and UDchangeable^ i.e., in the sense that it can lose its changeability, as water, an unstable element, can become stable in the form of ice. But that itself shows its changeable character. When soul is called Satasat it means neither Sat nor A tat, but as its very nature is 'to become one' with that which it is united to, it appears indistinguishable from Asat when it is united to Asat, and Sat when it is united to Sat.

120

SIDDHANTA.

DEEPIKA.

NOTEiS AND COMMENTS.


The Madras Mail reports an interview with this Swami, and we extract the following from his replies. S w a m i Abhedananda "Studying the Western mind" he replied, on absorption. ^^ went on to speak of the misunderstandings that arise through the use of words that convey one meaning to the oriental and another to the occidental mind, and the necessity as few people have time to study Sanskrit, for finding the right English words for Indian thoughts. For instance the word, 'absorption' is frequently used by writers and the idea conveyed is that the soul is absorbed by the Deity as a drop of water is lost in the sea. ' Individuality is never lost,' said Swami Abhedananda" We could not understand what he meant by this. This could not surely be Vedanta. Where there is individuality, there will be duality or dual consciousness. He would be correct if he used the word ' personality' instead of individuality. In mukti, individuality that limits is lost but not personality of the soul. We are glad to find that Mr. R. W. Prazer, lecturer in Tamil and Telugu in the University of London, acknowled^lectio^ZmT Siddhanta as an eclectic school of ^phiioBoph philosophy. He observed as follows at the meeting in honour of Dr. G. U. Pope. "At the same time a new philosophy was growing up. The teachings of idealistic monism by Sankaracharya, the Karma Yoga of Patanjali, with a theistic Sankhya were united and formed an eclectic school of philosophy"knownus the Saiva Siddhanta, which dealt with the nature of a Pei-sonal God, the soul, its bonds, or maya, which separated itifrom the mystic union with the soul of all things." Mr. Nallaswami Pillai has pointed out long ago that this was no new system but this eclectic Saiva Siddhanta was the same as that of the Svetasvatara Upaniahad and Bhagavad-gifca (vide p.J7 vol V\ Siddhanta Deepika.)

NOTES AND COMMENTS.

175

At tke same meeting, lie sarcastingly observed, "the grandest period of this literature fell 8omewhei*e between the thirteenth centuries, though to p W Chronology. native. friends they ought to place it some 600 years earlier." And this was received with laughter. And the * Madras Mail' quotes it approvingly when writing on the age of the Bhaga\'at gita. And no wonder. There is always ^ a disinclination on the part of European Scholars, almost amounting to a prejudice to recognize anything oriental as very ancient, and this when coupled with ignorance on the part of the ordinary people cannot but lead any claim to antiquity to ridicule and laughter. We thought that after the publication of that able dissertation on ''Some milestones,by the late Professor Sundram Pillai, in which hw fixed the age of Saint Gnana ^ambantha as the 6th century after Clirist, corroborated as it was by the independent investigation of M'r. Venkayya, and Dr. Hultzch the Govt. Epigraphists, the date of the classical period of South Indian Literature was beyond question. At any rate nobody has come forward to refute the conclusion of Professor Sundram Pillai. And tradition has always been uniform in ascribing an aaterior date to St. Manickavachakar. And this position has been in no way shaken by the superficial argnments adduced by Mr. T. A. Gopinatha Row in his article in the Christian College Magazine. The classical period of Tamil Literature is connected with the Sangam publications, the Sacred" Kural, Pattupattu, Purananuru, Silappadikaram, Chintamani and Manimekalai and Kalitogai and Tiruvachakam &c. and to say that this period was between the 9th and 13th centuries no Tamil Scholar should assert. We hope to revert to this subject on another occasion. Mr. T. A. Gopinatha Row in his articles contributed to Sen Tamil for ' Ani,' notes the date of Pavanantlii to b The age of Pavajithi^f about A. D. 1 2 0 5 . His patron was Siya Mmuw^andjldiwku. ^ ^ ^ ^ Amarabharana, king of Kolar in Mysore Province. The date of Adiarkunallar, the tapious commentator of Silappadhikaram &c., is fixed slightly after

120

SIDDHANTA.

DEEPIKA.

the date of Kulottunga I. (10701117), as the commentary quotes Kalingattu Parani cotaposed in honor of this sovereign. The commentator's patron w;asBoppanna Kangeyan of the Mysore Province. He notes also that there was a flonrishing colony of Tamil Jains in Sravana Belgola, who settled from Deepangudi^ near Tiruvarur. And the Jain Kin^ of Mysore were patronizing the contemporary Tamil Scholars such as Pavananthi and Adiyarkunallar. 0. Mabel DaP also notes the date of Nannul in her work on' the Chronology of India." I. A paper on 22 Sruties by Mr. P. S. SundaramIyer, RA., L.T. 2. A lectnre on Tamil Music by Mr. S. RaList of papers Ac., dhakrishna Iyer, B. A. A paper on 'Perseverance' by Mr. P. S. amiiversary meeting. Subramania Iyer 4. A poem entitled 'Marutha Pattu', composed by Mr. A. Narayanaswami Iyer in honor of 8riman P. Pandi thoraiswami Thevar avl. 5. * Siddhanta Gnana Ratnavali' by Pandit S. Palvanna Mudr. avl. 6. 'Pattinapalai Araichiyurai' by Pandit R. Yedachalam Pillai avl. 7. A paper on' Daysb ancient and modem' by Mr. S. Swaminatha Mudaliar. 8. ' Sri Bhattar Vaibhavam' by Pandit V. M. Satagopanunanuja Ghariar avl. 9. A paper on .'Kadai Brfiu Vallal' by Mr. S. Krishnaswami Iyengar, M. A. 10. 'Ravi Varma' a Tamil Drama by Mr. T. Lakshmana Pillai, BJL. 11. 'Tamil Sanga Manmyam' by Mr. Abdul Kadir Rowther 12. A paper on the establishment of Swadesa Schools by Pandit S Rajagopalachariar avl. 13. ' Life of Kumuna' by Pandit M. R. Kandaswami Kaviroyar
ft Via

The last number of ' Sen Tamil'contains portions of papers Nos. 8 and 9. ^

""THE ETYMOLOGIES
SOME OF THE xVAMliiS OF CEYLON, A iiaiue, mutm, uumen or onoma is, as explained by philologiste, Dial by wliicli anything is knmrn. It is a word derived from the well-known and prolific Aiyjin root or phM}etic type, Gan or Glia, which means to prodaco, to be able to produce or to know, and which every student of philology' meets uith and recognises in such \vor<is as the English hum-y leii, iho Sanskrit gnan<t (knowledge) ffantla (mathematics), tlie J'ersian zan the Greek gyne and the Sinhalese yane (woman). " Words, says Dr. Peile in his Philolo^, are not so much " breath which is spent in setting out our meaning to each other and * * has no further permanence ; on the contrary, they are abiding " things, the history of whose origin, growth, decay and vanishing is " nmch more interesting than many a novel; which eveii in many a *' curious way throws light on sonic d4fcrk prwcssos of <ho liumaii *- mind." Tims do we see that the kingdom of words is no exception to the laws that govern the kingdoms of the physical world. An intelligent inquiry into tlic origin, gro'vth and decay of woi^s, is therefore no less interesting and useful tlian one into a physical science. Words have life and there is in language a germinal dcvelop.nent similar to that in living Injings. In language a germ is that which is calletl dhatu (literally seed) in iSanskrit, radix or raU ill English. It is from these dhalii^ or roots that all languages have sprung. The life-power of these verbal germs was some thousands of years ago so well-known to Panini and other ancient Sanskrit
An cay rcail nt a mectinjf of thf S Tnimi ChiK Wr^m^w. Iiy Mr. S. W.
ritn:iniiiriifny.

jyg

SIDDHANTA

t>EEPlKA.

grammarians and so clearly recognised by Agastiar, the Aristotle of India, Tolkappiar and other ancient Tamil grammarians that roots and suffixes have gained the philosophic names of Prahriti or Palcufi and Vikriti or Vikuti, respectively. It is moreover a pecnliarity of the verbal kingdom that its germs are so potent and vigorous that their development into words, is invariably attended with impi*egnation, for all words are pregnant with meaning, or what the Tamilisns call haruttu, from karu (fcetiis, or sense) Language being peculiar to man, who alone of all animals is endowed with the faculty of Reason, it is no wonder that roots, the very basis or foundation of human speech, are radiant with the light of reason and convey some general idea. According to Prof: Max Muller, a root or radical is "whatever, in the words of any language or family of languages, cannot be reduced to a simpler or more original form." There can bo no language, however poor or unrefined, whore the words cannot l o palled to pieces and scientifically explained. Nor is there any part of speech which has not come up from some root or other. Tho various sub-divisions of nouns into proper, common, abstract, collective, material and siU generis are no barrier to the dissector of words. All these are alike to him from a philological point of view. There is no classification of roots into proper and common, nor has the term arbitrary name or Idukurippeyar of tho Tamil gi*ammarians any existence or meaning in his dictionary. Whatever symbol or expression of thought there is in any tongue thai could not suffer reduciio arf radicem at the hands of a worthy.philologist, ^ould either be discarded from ihe category of names or words, or be relegated to the realm of words, the history of which is at present unknown. The fact that there are to be found, in almost every language, even in the aymimtrically farmed Sanskrit language, words the etymologies of which are at preseni

E T Y M ( ) T , O G T E S O F S O M E O F T l I E X A M K S iW ( E Y L O N .

doubtful or unknown, does not warrant a conclusion that Oiay are nloaninglesa by origin and that they can never be pulled to pieces. A reference to tho otymological history of such words as almug or alg^um, areca, hetely curry, mango, yiiiger, pariaft, rke etc., would shew how a study of Sanskrit and Tamil has led to the discovery of their radical signiHcattons in npite of the ignorance that once prev a i l ^ and still prevails to some extent among European scholars as regards their origin. How amusingly imperfect is tho derivation by Prof. Skeat, e the word Mango from Malay ^Mangga^ when it is clearly the Tamil JtfatiAMiy in Engllsli garb. This is a compound of ma (tho mangpo tree, so called probably on account of the /or-like dust over the green fruits) and Jeay (the green fruit) from root ka, to be hardened, to dry, to burn or boil. The reason why the name of the gretn fruit, has been imported into England and some other countrieii is because the green ones only could be exported safe to a disiaat rountrv. Again, who would have thought that the roots of areca lie hid in the Tamil adaikay (ex adai/o stuff the mouth, and kay green fruit) ! Now, look at the history of the word peacock. Its origin wag so little undei-stood in Dr. Johnson's time that, in his anxiety toaccount for its form, the learned doctor, being led captire hy Fancy, suggested that the name of this beautiful bird was due to its being a cock with a peak or tuft of pointed feathers. Thanks to tho indefatigable labours and researehev of Dr. Caldwell and Prof. Max Muller in the field of philology for the flood of light) which has, since Dr. Johnson s time, been thrown upon many an English word of Eastern oi-igin. In his science of Language, Prof. Max Muller haa told us how the pea in peacock, the A. S. pawa, the Latin pavo, the Greek teat, and the Hebrew tnli are all copies, more or less imperfect, of the

J^

S n )T m A N T A 1 )K F. IM K A .

a hM remarkable for the gaiety of its t^jkai or p l u m a g e ( f r o m root/o or to hang). The gradual corruption of th I t o i l name is due to^the confusion that not uncommonly takea p l a o e , T e n in the same language, between any two of the famous triplets K. P. T. Compare the English nmneral f<mr with Latin qtudmr, the Sanskrit katvar, the Greek tettares, the aeolic pisyres and the Wallachian patru. Compare also the Tamil hoppul (bubble or the navel) or I'ojypul, tfyppid and the vulgar pokkid, all of which mean umbilicus. To satisfy the curiosity roused b; such a derivation, I may here remind the student of Bible of the gold and silver, ivory {tbham), apes {kapi) and peacocks (tuki) which king Solomon imported once in every three years in the ships he had sent out to Tai*8hi8h smd it i interesting to note here how singularly faithful and loyal ia the king were the masters of those ships; for they were scrupulously careful to import even the very native names of the luxuries of the East. Doubtless were they aware that the native names would in the eyes of the wisest man, add lustre to the beauty of the bird and the other articles of curiosity obtained from India aiid the utmost Indian isle." To i*eturn from the digi'ession, it should be noted well that all proper names have at one time or other been common or class names jor-appellatives, or are traceable to roots which express some general ideas.
tokai,

purely Tamil

The names of " Tewa Lanka" are therefore as liable to, and worthy of, interpretation as any other vocables, and their etymolo:^es are eminently worthy of being called * * tales of tmth.'* Ceylon has from time immemorial been the centre of attraction to people of every clime, owing to the natural beauty of its scenery, ihe richness of its resources, the grandeur of its climate, and to the religious traditions or folklore which make it the elysium providid

ETYMOLOGIES OF BOME OF T H E N A M E S OF CEYLOX.

181

for A ^ m and Eve to consolo them for the low of JBden, and a beloved seat of Knvera {the ideal of wealth), Kai*ttikora (the Hindu >ar-god), Siva, Buddha and a host of other deities and demi-gods. Various indeed are the charms of the Cinnauion Island, and vari* _ ous the names with which she has teen christened by the nnnie/o8 visitor from regions far and near. The following are among the prominent names of our ''Golden Isle." i . Tambapanm, More than one account has ben given of this ancient appellation. The Mahavanso, as translated by Tumour, lias the following: " At the spot where the seven hundred men, with the king at their head, exhausted by (sea) sickness and faint from weakness, *'had landed out of the vessel, supporting themselves on the palms " of their hands pressed on the ground, they sat themselves down. Hence the name of Tamhatcannapdiutya (copper palmed from the colour of the soil). From this circumstance that wilderness obtained the name of TamhofmnniJ' The Editor, however; of tin*: translation, Wijesinha Miidalivar, makes, in a foot-note, a correction of , it as regards the word " Tmnlmwammpdmiya' and says "their fxilms became copper-coloured/' " Tamhapanayo" The accuracy of this passage in the translation is further questioned by Mie late Hon. Mr. DeAlwis who asserts that Hho word in the original which Tumour took lor Tambapanniyo is i)i reality copper-coloured Major Forbes, in his book Eleven years in Ceylon," justly discarded this fabulous derivation but suggests an equally fanciful one by making Tamanhada or Tania'na the original of the word in question, and tracing not only this name but even that of the river Turnraparni in Tinnevelly District, India, to the TamafM tree whieh lie sava abounds in the northern part of the if^land but which. far as

SIDDIIANTA wc know, did

in:i:riKA. in tlu- luippy iiawlio

uoi aiul <locs not exist wnywhtMf \mi

!,urination of the Mayor.

It is :i siul aeoident that tliis winw-r

vixWed in question tlie antiqu^iriun accuracy of llie natives and tlicir otvniolojical
liko ihiv.

.leau. tions, slioul<l liinisolf

liave fnllen into an orror

Til.' Iniiiitn Tainraparni

is sn t ;illL'l on afcoiuit oi" the popular T h e name is niaclc up of Sans.

l)olicf tK:ifc it contains copjH r .sanils.

Tamra^ coppcr

and

f w a t e r .

Xow there arc 'Ulier writers of equally <^ood repute wlio do belie vo that some early Tamil settleis from soutJiern India, may have, on their arrival in Ceylon, jriven it the name of Tnnirnjmni/ or Tan*hapanni after the river in the Tinnevelly district. True it is that colonists in all a<^cs and climes do take to their colonics names near and dear to them in the mother country. In illustration of this common practice, we need not ransack the paj^es of Virgil's Aeneid or Brotlier Jonathan's histoi-y, knowing as we do that palmy Jaffna i rich in such nomenclature, e. g. Nellore, Tinnevelly or Timnelveli, Vaddukkoddai, and iTam*tion, all of whicli are names imported by early Tamil Settlers in the land of the harp." It is therefore not improbable that the name Tamrapami may have found its way to the * Ratnadwipa' though Tamil settlers, and, if so, it mnst have been firgt applied to a river in Ceylon and then extended to the whole island. But there is no iustorical evidence whatever to warrant such a conclu.sion, nor has any proof been adduced of such gross and wilful blunder in nomenclature being committed by any other colonists, as calling an i'4and by the name of a nvcr in a distant countiy or vice versa. The probability therefore lies in favour of the explanation that this ^'Emerald Isle" of the East, was in ancient times called Tambaimnni, on account of the hi-sght red colour of its soil, which is a striking peculiarity of Ocylon.

i:TVMi)l.(XilKS OF SOMK

OF TIIK

NAMF.S OF

CJ.M.oN.

Thus snys sir Kmcrson Teimeut "A |)t'eii]i;i.rity wlii. li i-s M U C of ' tlie first to strike a stranger who lands ar Galle ir Colombo in tlic bright red colour of the streets and roads contrasting vividly with ''the vordui-e of rht; trees, and tha ubi(|uity i>f the fine red dusi which "lenetrates every crevice and imparts its own tiiii to every neglecl'*ed article. Natives resident in these hx^alities are easily re.'og"nisable elsewhere bv'the generjil hue of their dress. ' The above statenieiit holds good with regard to a majority of tho districts in Ceylon. It may not be out of place to point out hero that there are several villages in the Jaffna peninsula which go by tho names, Chernjxidu {retl jwrtion), Chemmani {red soil land) and the like. Tamhaimnm is evidently a corruption of either Tampravanni (Sans. Tampra or Tauira^-eopper and Varna or Vanua--=colour, with the feminine suffix I) or l^ampi-apani (Sans. Tanipra=^copper, and pani meaning land or grove). Compare tho expression Tamra-miru^am in Tamil for a red animal. It is curious to note in this connection that there is in Point Pedro, Jaffna, a village by the name of ^ Tampayiddi,' the first part of whicli 7s apptirently Tampra=copper or red colour. The contention that Tambapanni means the Red Land is further supported by the Chinese name of Ceylon, Suychoo, which means the red land. I should not fail to refer here to the origin of tlie greek Taprobane. It is as clearly derived from Tambapanni as Jaffna is from Ydlpdnariy but its Grecian garb has beguiled some studentfc of words. The fancied resemblance of this island, in its shape to some leaf
(Tambnla?)

ittropoi-tedby Archbishop Trench^'in his treatise "On

the study of words," to have given rise to this name, but this in extremely doubtful and unfounded.
t To be coiiiinued.i

8ll)J>nANTA

DEKl'lKA.

SKETCHES OF CEYLON HISTORY.


BY

lIoN BLE r . A R U N A C H A L A M , M.A., CANTAB.

Burrinter-at-law, Lincoln's Inn; Ceylon Civil Service; Member of the Cetjlon Legislative Coitncil.

{Continued from jHige 138 of Vol, Vll.)

vir.
In the long line of Ceylon kings none perhaps is so revered as Sri Sanghalodhi of whose
sympathy

and love for his people

have

already given a striking illustration. His death was not unworthy of his life. Renouncing his sovereignty to retire into the woods for religious contemplation, he was pursued by the fears of his rival who set a price on his head. When many had died through being mistaken for him, a poor man eager for the reward went in search of the exile and accidentally meeting him at Attanagalla bub not knowing his identity, mentioned his errand. Sri Sanghabodhi out of compassion for his poverty and for the many that had died, disclosed himself and serveced his own head. This supreme act of selfsacrifieo earned for hiin from his remorse-stricken rival the erection of the celebrated Attanagalla Vihara (not far from Veyangoda and still a venerated shrine) and the still higher glory that great Sinhalese kings thenceforward assumed Sri Sanghabodhi as one of their principal titles. In Sn Sanghabodhi (whom the modem world would p^rhapu regard as weak and superstitious) the people recognised a sovereign who most realized Buddha's idei^s of self-conquest and universal charity, of humility and self-sacrifice, which he preached in many a sermon and illustrated in many a dialogue and story, and not least in tJiat beautiful and popular collection known as the jalakaor birth-

S K E T C H E S OF CEYLON HISTORY.

stories. Here e.g., is one known as "the Banyan deer birth story." A lady, the mother of Kumara Kassapa, liad keen unjustly foand guilty of immoral conduct and w-as declared innocent through the intervention of the Master. Then it is said that tlie brethren talking this matter over at even tide, the Master came there, and learning the subject of their discourse, said not only has the Tathagata (Buddha) proved a support and protection t^ these two (the lady and heK son); formerly also he was the same." Then, on request, he revealed that matter, concealed by change of birth. Once upon a time when king Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhisatta was re-born as a deer. A king of the deer, by name the Banyan deer. The herd of the Banyan deer was shut in the king's park, as also another herd of the Branch deer. The king of men or his cook went daily to hunt for deer for venison. For each one killed many were wounde<l has asrsed by the chase. So the golden coloured Banyan Deer went to the king Branch Deer and persuaded him to a compact that lots should be cast and that every day the one deer on whom lot fell should go voluntarily to the cook's place of execution and lay his head upon the block. And this was done. And so by the daily death of one the rest were saved from torture and distress- Now one day the lot fell upon a pregnant doe in the Branch Deer's herd. She applied to the king of the herd to order that the lot, " which was not meant to fall on two at once", should pass her by. But he hai-shly bade her begone to the block. Then she went to king Banyan Deer and told her piteons tale. He said he would see to it, and he went himself and laid his head on the block. Now the king of men had decreed immunity to the kings of the two herd When the cook saw king Banyan Deer lying there with his head on the block, he ran and told the king of men, who mounted his chariot and %vith his retinue hurried to the spot, and said: '' My friend, King Banyan Deer, did I not grant your life ? Why are you here Then the king of the deer told him all. And the king of men >va8 greatly touched, and said : "Kise up. I grant you your lives, both t(f you and to her." Then the i cjoinaci camc ; "But though two be
4

136

SIDDHANTA

l>EEriKA.

thus safe, wliat shall the rest oi' the herds do, 0 king of men "" So they ilso obtained security. And when the IJanyan Beer ha<l likewise procured protection ^for all the various sorts of living things, he exhorted the king of men to justice and mercy, preaching the truth to Iiim "with the grace of a Buddha." And the doe gave birth to a son beautiful as buds of flowers, and he went pla\ing wath the Branch Deer's lierd. Then liis mother exhorted him: ^'Follow rather the Banyan Deer; Cultivate not the Bianch! Death, with the Banyan, wore better fur Than, with the Branch, long life." And th Banyan Deer made a compact M-ith the men that whereover leaves were tied round a field, the deer should not trespass, and he made all the deer keep to tiie bargain. From that time, they say, the sign of the tying of leaves was seen in the fields. Then the Mast-er identified the characters. " He wlio was then the Branch Deer is now Devadatta {a schismatic), his herd the membei-s of the order who followed him in his schism, the doe is now Kumara Kassapa's mother, the deer she gave biilh to is now her Bon Kumara Kassapa, the king of the mei: is Ananda (Buddha's favourite disciple), and Banyan, the king of the deer, was 1 myself." VIII. The Buddhist scriptures, known as the Tripitaka or the Thrce Baskets or Collections were, 88 B.C., i-educed to writing and so protected from the curruptions and errors inseparable from oral tradition. Tliis was done at the romantic cave temple of Alu Vehara in the Matale District by 500 learned and saintly monks assembled by order of Walagam Bahu L This did not, however, prevent the ^owth of schism which even in his time had manifested itself, having its head-quarters in the Abiiayagiri Vihara which he founded and which set itself up against the ancient seat of orthodoxy, the Maha Vihara. The dissensions increased as time went onFrom the beginning of the 3rd century A. D. the Buddhist church was distracted by a heresy called the Wytulian. Of its natuie little is known, but it was deemed sufficiently grave to call forth cx-

SKKTCTIKS o r

1 EVLON

HISTOIJY.

187.

rtviiio nieasmes of persccntion from the siiihaledo kings, liithertoso Utloraut. The heresy, however, time after time reasserted itself till about 275 A.D; it even found a champion in the king Maha Sen. He disj>os.sessed the orthodox monks, overthrew their great monastery, tlio Brazen Palace, and with its matoriala constructed buildings fur the heretics. A popular revolt compelled him to retrace his steps and to make ample amends. He restored the buildings lie had destroyed, erected new monasteries and nunneries, constructed the statoly Jetawanaranm Dagoba and numerous tanks including the vast lakes of Mincri and Kantalai and made gifts without limit to tho orthodox monks. A grateful people liave awarded him dinno honors and worslii]) liim as an iucaranation of the Kattaragam god under the name ^liuneri Sanii. On his death (301 A.D.) ended the Great Line or Alaliawausa, and the Little Line or Suluwansa began, in the veins of whose sovereigns no longer ran (according to the Ciironicles) tlie pure blood of the Solar dynasty. To tliis line, however, belonged many illustrioas kings, among whom were tlie painter and sculptorking Detu Tissa (330 A.D.,) and the great surgeon Buddhadasa (339 A.D). The Sinhalese kings from t he earliest times, mindful of the health of their subjects, maintained systems of medical aid, following in the footsteps of their great exemplar the Indian Emj^eror Asoka. King Dutugemmm (200 B.C-) on his death-bed relates among his meritorious acts : I have daily maintained at 18 different places hospitals provided with .suitable diet and medicines prepared by medical practitioners for the infirm" {MaJiawansa, I.p. 125). A rock inscription at Mihintale {circ, 362 A D.) records that a physician and surgeon were born on the establishment of great monasteries. King Buddhadasa is said 'to Jiave entertained for mankind at large the compassion a parent feels for his children. He rendered happy the indigent by distribution of riches, protected the rich in their property and life, patronized the virtuous, discountenanced the wicked, and comforted the diseased by providing medical relief," (Ibid. p. 155). He composed a great work, still extant, on surgery, called Saraththaaangaha. He extended the benefit of his surgical skill to the lowest castes and even animals. Ho provided hospitals and medical practitioners in all villages, and 'Dn i.he main roads a.sylums for the crippled, deformed and destitute.

jQQ

SIDDHANTA

DEEPIKA.

This policy was continued by the great Parakrarna Bahu (1150 A D ) of whom the MaJiatomisa records (11. 194-5): "And thiH ruler of men built further a large hall that could contain many hundreds of sick persons, and provided it also with all things that were needful, as stated underneath. To eveiy sick person he allowed a male and a female servant, that they might minister to him by day and by Dight, and furnish him with physic that was necessary and with divers kinds of food. And many store houses also did he build therein, filled with grain and other things, and with all things that were needful for medicine. And he also made provision for the maintenance of wise and learned physicians who were versed in all knowledge and skilled in searching out the nature of diseases. And he took care to discern the different wants of the sick, and caused the physicians to minister to them, as seemed necessary, both by day and night. And it was his custom, on the four Sabbaths (Uposatha days) of every month, to cast off his king's robes and, after tliat he had solemnly undertaken to obsex ve the precepts, to purify himself and put on a clean garment, and visit that hall together with his ministers. And, being endiied with heart full of kindness, he would look at the sick with an eye of pity, and, being eminent in wisdom and skilled in the art of healing, he would call before him the physicians that were employed there and inquire fully of the manner of their treatment. And if so be that it happened that the treatment that they hid pursued was wrong, the king, who was the best of teaohers, would point out wherein they had erred, and, givij^g reasons therefor, would make clear to them the coui-se that they should have pursued according to science; also to some sick persons he would give physic with his own hands. Likewise also he would inquire of the health of all those that were sick, and to such as weie cured of theii; diseases he would order raiment to be given. And as he desired greatly to gain merit, he would partake of merit at the hands of the physicians and impart his own merit to them, and then return to his own palace. iiUhis manner, indeed, did this merciful king, free from disease himself, cure the sick of their divei-s diseases from year to year."
(To he continued.)

Cameos from Tamil Literature.


MAXIMKKAI Al, SIHAlSF.l KATJlAf.

The .oiiioiiut of labour spout by Mjiliainahopadliy.'vya Swaininathayyer, in bringing out his edition of Manhuekalai, is sonu^tliing stupendous. His introtluetion containing an ac.'oant of Buddlui's life and Dlianna and Sangha is most valuable. The prose version of the story of Maniniekalai should int erest every reader. His glossiiries and footnotes are of innnenso help. Tlie Poem by itself is of surpassing merit and contains passages of great grandeur and beauty, tliougli conclied in the simplest language. Every one who can affoitl should buy this book, not merely to encourage the ])ublislier but to perceive tlie great beauty of the Tamil langu^vge. We give an extnict to-day,, and hope to dip into the tretwures of this volume now tvnd then. The following passage is remarkable for its beauty of sentiment and i>ftthos; and it contains a quotation from the 8acred Kunil.
UfTaijueufiUiQ^^esijuu IU!TLJUSS)PQIIJ65I(d p
if5i//rQa/i3rj3r Q

ujfsiQ^iriB^iTSS)LD'Ji9jir Q'ljsm&s^^^^^

Qusxrt^inrn9jb

Lfsr^r.

LfdCoOisk l3p^3trih L-lldj^TiilTLDtTjUoiT OP^^uQuQpesipQ'JUssriiQs\)Qe^osr LLT^JjQjr^SuQLDfT LL^SCT

^ ^ ^ & i s r

wuiiaQi

LD^SST'ljpthuil-QlS^ iUfr^Q^iLJ(^ppLD iutrssr^Q^Qe^^ Quir!jbu9Ss8rQsT^Ge\ir Q^^ttSsritfiJUjrpp&ui

jQQ

SIDDHANTA

DEEPIKA.

Qyl/nssi MuajtLjih Q,u(i^'M<^(/>'2)ajssrpsuu


QutnLiu9^L^s\>6UssT t^i^iLfQ'tlTi^'Lfth siemLQu^gfiiii SesypiL^ssiL^u'^usmn^T lUjiBsesiSU QUCTC^^GDJT Q^qr^h iSpiriUiTiU^QsLLQ sL-eSlesnj'juir-ssQ^ ^^ilQtuQuirsvu

Q!Liirip(^es)suiuiru9^^i96S)f^

eufrisi'SirQ

LDuSif-csijjeuirsfnrp

^^Qpssyjriuirsrr.TsvTiEi<fE6u^ utLisnreir.

A Brahmini named Marathi was retarning from the River Cauvery after bathing. Kakanthan s (The King's) son seeing that she was alone, and mistaking her for a loose woman solicited her near one of the river ghats. She shuddered and was filled with great sadness. She would not proceed to her home as she believed in the truth that a woman with merit enough to command rainfall in this earth would not enter the lewd thought of others; and as she was thought of by this man she could no more assist her Jiusband in the tending of the three fires. She therefore proceeded, bewildered to the cross ways where the avenging angel was worshipped and wailed as follows: "I have done no wrong to my husband. I could be thought of easily by persons who saw me. I have fallen Irom that standard of chastity which will produce rain. I do not know the fault I am guilty of. O You avenging Deity dwelling in this square. Do you really exist.? " The Deity appeared and addressed her as follows. "Hear me, O damsel, the truth of tho saying of

C A M E O S F H O M T A M I L L l T K I i A T l KK.

tliat Infallible Poet that at the word of tlie wuiimn, who, not worshippinji^ the GoJs, worships her J usbaiul alone, tlie rains will fall, you would not realize. You have listened to vain words and sweet words of others. You have thought it vour duty to attend joyous festivals and to worship the gods. At your bidding tlierefore the rains will not fall. Like really chaste woman,, you do not possess the power to induce awe in the minds of others. If you give up these faults, then will the rains fall as you wish. And my punishment meted out to transgressors will not fall on you. The king must punih ofFendei-s within 7 days. If he fails, then alone I can punish. Kakanthan will however punisli the senseless one with his sword in 7 days. ' Accordingly, indeed, was tliis man executed within the time appointed by his father.

Honouring a Tamil Scholar.


DR. G. U. POPE'S WORK. S P K E C H BT M R . MORLET.

London, 22nd June.The lecture room of the Royal Aitttic Society WM crowded to the doors ou Tuesday afternoon when the Secretai-^- of State for India presented the Society's tiiennial gold medal for Oriental Scholarship to D r . G . U . P c ^ , tiie famous Tamil pundit, and the annual Public schools medu to Mr. L . F . Niader, of Rugby School. Lord Reay was in the Chair, and the large c<nnpaoy present natur^ly included many of the old friends of Dr. Pope, connected witli Southern India. Mr. Morley was in his natural element in the studious a n d literary '*atmosphere"of Albemarle Street, and he spoke with vigour and empLvifl keeping the audience in hearty accord ^-ith him by his sound opinions and wann tributes to the medallists and in good humour by his sly witticisms. Mr. Morley, who was reo-eived with cheers, said that his first duty was t o present the medal which wa awarded as a tribute and a recognition to Dr. Pope. (Cheers.) His career had been long, and he was not at all sure that Dr. Pcm might not regard that day's proceedings and the recognition of that carew b j Ukat distinguished and niost competent Society in some senses the crown of it. He himself was not competent to pronoimoe even the names of the long list of books of which Dr. Pope was the author; but he knew enough to be awaie that he had endured the drudgery of going through great masses of grammars and vocabularies, and his researches in Tamil, Telugu and other languages and dialects of Southern India were well known to all who were concerned, with that field of literature and of action, because he had been not only a most industrious and sedulous scholar, but he had thrown himself, his life, and his f^ulties for many years into a sympathetic and admiring intercourse with the peoples among whom he had cast his lot. Of course, they did not disguise the fact that there were two views 'Missionaries; but whether one sympathised or did not sympathiM with their immediate business, there could be no doubt whatever that Missionaries frwn

IQ2

SIDDIIANTA

]>EEPIKA.

old times -and he was now thinking more especially of the Jesuit Missionaries in China up till to day ha^ performed great linguintic services, and h ^ vaHtly added to our knowledge of bajkward races and peoples. B u t Dr. Pope's permanent service would be liis addition to our knowledge of language. H e understood that the culminating effort of his literary career w a s the production of the text of the translation of a Saivite Saint who gave utterance to the deepest devotional thoughts of his community. And what delighted him to hear, and to know what was that, in speaking of that book and of the Saint with w h o m it w a s associated. Dr. Pope referred to him always with the s y m p a t h y and in the temper which one good man ought always to feel for another whatever the diflference of dialect. (Cheers.) H e confessed that added to the pleasure which felt in ^ i n g tlie verv humble instrument of recognising his jierformance and his jwsition. (Cheers.) Dr. Pope's work had been different from that of Sir William Muir and of Principal Grant his predecessors, but they hoped he would t a k e t h a t medal as a mark of honour for himself and for his services. (Cheers.)
A BROTHER SCHOLAR'S TRIBUTE.

Mr. R. W . Frazer, Lecturer in Telugu and Tamil, London University, said he was pleased to have the opportunity to do homage to a Master w h o had long since gained the almost sacred title of r/u ru in South India. T h e y all k n e w t h e great literary achievements of Dr. Pope, and it was fitting that the Society should recognise and crown those achievements by the highest award it could bestow on Oriental scholarship. H i s life work had been to unravel the long-lost history of the life and thought of South India, of a race now to be found, in the words of the Dravidian scholar Caldwell, " wherever money is to be made, wherever an apathetic people is willing to be pushed aside, there they s w a r m , these Tamils the Greeks, or Scotch of the E a s t . " T h e language in which t h e Tamil ancient records were preserved was a language of no ordinary difficulty. I t was absolutely unintelligible to the ordinarj' Tamil student of the vernacular. I t was preserved in a ; tyle know^n as Classical T a m i l or Straight Tamil, as op)K>Bed to the Vernacular Tamil or Crooked Tamil of to-day. I t abounded in the m o s t complicated system of m e t r e ; it was crowded with anomalies, full of obsolete words and forms, and archaic inflexion. The grandest period of this literature fell somewhere between the ninth and thirteenth centuries, though to please their native friends they ought to place it some 600 years earlier. [Laughter] W i t h the whole range of this extensive literature Dr. Pope w a s intimately ac<iuainted, as were the ablest native scholars of South India, and t o this knowledge he brought his great powers of critical analysis. W i t h i n the past few years he had given translations of some of the most important works of the leriod, so that now, in his own words, they could undertake " a thorough scientific investigation of the historical foundations of South Indian beliefs." H e had not only given those translations for purposes of research, he had further enriched them with the most copious notes from three great w o r k s of Jain or Buddhist origin only recently published in T a m i l in WTadras and still untransliited. They therefore looked still much from the great st^re-house of learning of Dr. Pope. H e himself had ti-uly said t h a t " T a m i l scholarship was the direct road to poverty." (Laughter and cheers.) Notwithstanding this disadvantage. Dr. Pope had devoted almost 60 years of his life to the study of this literature and to its critical examination. H e had traced in that literature the early advent of A r y a n learning into south India, and the literary influence of the Jains and Buddhists. Then the story of the vehement disputes between the Jains and T '^hists and the Taiiiil Gurug w a s told in his recent translation of the Manx^itavachagar, as well as t h a t of the revival of the ancient worship of the personal God S i v a , leading to t h e building of the great temples of South India from about the tenth century, and

UOXOL'RlNt; A TAMU. SCHOLAR.

Id3

the rinal <lisai>ix'aj'auce.of Biidclhisni and Jaiiiism from the land. A t the time a now ]>lnlosoi>hy was growing up. The toaeliings of ideaUattc Monism by Sankiua Arhavyn, the Kann^x Y^oga of Patanjali with a theistio S a n k y a were iinitl MIUI formed an eclectic school of philosophy for Soutli India known the S.-\iva Siddhanta, which dealt with the nature of personal God, tlie souU and its bonds or Maya, which separated it from mystic union with the soul of thinfrs. Of this Saiva Siddhantii philosophy, as set forth in the long poems of the 14 San tana Gurus or succession of Teaoher?, Dr. Pope wows now ahuost the sole European exponent, and a text book from him would bo eagerly welcomed. In this country Dr. Pope's influence had been gj^eat, and the affection felt for him by his pupils was deep and lasting. H e remembered one of his pupils telling hiin that Dr. Pope gave up his vacation to teach him Tamil bccause he (the pupil) had been ill during tenn time. (Cheers). B u t great as the respect might be that the pupil felt for his gvru here it faded away before tho reverence paid to the guru in South India. There Dr. Pope had for many years received homage for his learning and deep sympathy with Indian forms and modes of thought. He had gained that great sympathy from and with tJic East which could only be gained by one who iiot only talked in the language of the East, but also felt as he did in that language. They recognised tliat day a life's work of patient research and laborious scholarship. Dr. Pope would feel the honour deeper because it honoured his beloved melodious Tamil, and would bring pride to that proud and sensitive i)eoplc cf South India. (Cheers.)
DR. POPE'S REPLY.

Dr. Pope received a tremendous welcome on rising to acknowledge the presentation made by tho Secretary of State. He was evidently moved by the proceedings of the day and he spoke with deep feehng and convictior. H e said it was not easy to put his thoughts into words on such an occasion. Wite reference to Dr. Frazer's allusion to the connection between Tamil and poverty, it was quite true that more than 60 years ago he had said to a native friend in South India. I am going to live for Tanail. I t ^ a l l be m y great study; your people shall be my people; and I hope that m y Ood will be theirsV' The friend replied: that is veiy delightful; but it means for you contempt and poverty." He thought of the beautiful picture in Dante the saint who married poverty, and thinking of those beautiful lines he said: N o ; if I give myself to that course to which it seems to me God has called me, the study of Tamil, it will be its own reward (cheere), and if not God k n o w s ; in His hands I place i f E v e r since then Tamil had been his great work, and that day he had received for the first time anything like a genuine public acknowledgment of that work. It was not that 1m cared greatly about such things, but really it went to his heart to receive the welcome they had accorded him. H e was most grateful for it, not, he hoped ih any egotistic spirit, but he felt the acknowledgment to be good for him,- good for the Tamil people and good for those who made the acknowledgment. (Cheers.) Much had been said, and well said, that afternoon abc^t the umou of races and the creation of sympathy between the English p ^ p t e and the people of India. H e assured them t>hat such union could 6njy be aMained through language. He would say to every man, and especiaily to etery woman, who went out to South India, to learn Tamil: It was not a difficult matter: ihey learned French, German And other languages, when they had far better to leam Tamil (Laughter). He had taught Tamil to ladies with the best results. It exactiy suited the delicacy of their lips, the acuteness of their ear, and the w)undness ol their taste. (Laughter.) Ladies should learn Tamil, but pot Ido

jQQ

SIDDHANTA

DEEPIKA.

much - ^ e y must not give themselves up to language and physiology; they not lose sight of the wood b ^ u s e of the troes. Oop people in India did not want to be great physiologists or great ^yehedloinsls; but they wAnted to be in a position to speak to every man* woman and child who came in contact with them those thrilling words which ibem brothers and sisters; they wanted to understand the thoughts and h of theTOopleamong whom they dwelt. With regard to " young India" tan^t Siglish his views were, he supposed, somewhat heretical. They d be taught everything which would elevate, broaden and soften their I; but they should be taught nothing they could not transfuse into theif own dialect) to circulate amongst their own people and be made instrumental in the elevation those people. Of what value was it for a young native to go spoating half a dozen lines from one of Shakespeare's tragedies, or to be acquainted with our comedies ? What they wanted was that the natives of { ^ t h India ^ould be thoroughly trained and disciplined in all that English fiterafeoie could give that could translated into the tongue of their brethren, ^ e a r , hear.) He feared that there was great difficulty in achieving that purpose. With the development of English studies amongst young natives he tnwl observed that the love for the vernaculars and the study of them hiki ipMie down. That was a serious matter, and one that ought to be confidered by tiie rulers of South India. It would be a sad time for South India when the vernaculars were neglected. The heeui; of a people died out when It ceased to value its language. If there were any young men present who were goins oat to India, and who felt some little doubt in learning the vernacular be could aaanre them t l ^ although at first it might appear a difficult matter by and by H became the^ ,yery joy of a man's existence (Cheers.) When quite a lad he went to OMluun Street, Wesleyan Chapel to a Missionary meeting, ard heard a ilUBsion^ say: " l a m going to M^ras, I shall have to leam Tamil and meaeh to Tamil people.** He mentally resolved that as soon as he was at uberty he would go to Madras and leam Tamil. And so it came about a few years after that he went to Madras. He was called the * * Pundit" on booj^d because he devoted much of his leisure to learning Tamil. Amid great lai^ter, Dr. Pope described the pride he felt when the catamaran mail messenger came on board and the captain of the vessel requested him to ask tiie distance to the shore. He was able to make himself understood, bat the catamaran man poured out a volume of beautifol and liquid jn reply, not one word of which was he (Dr. Popey able to make out. (Laughter.) However, he soon passed beyond that stage, and he went forward steadily ppnoing his ideals. From his experience he could tell young men tht^t there y w a ^ e a t deal in a straight forwaid unity of life. To have one gfeat study, i ^ jbbata worthy one, and to pursue it steadUy was one of the ;,Trande8t .things that could come into the Diind of a young man. . Gcng on to refer to an incident of his life in connection with Jowett of BaUiol, to which reference had been made by Dr. Frazer, the octogenarian fiavant said that one evening after prayers he was walking round the qiiadrangl^ of Balliol with Jewett, who made him talk about Tamil, and about the need for a translation of the " Timvachakam " Jowett said to him " You must do it." He repKed; " I have no patent of immortality and it would be a eiy long business." The Master gave him one of those peculiar glsmces of hii which his disciples knew so well;- and replied: " To have a great work in progress is to live long. You will live tiU you finish it." Jewett had long ainoe passed into the unseen. He (Dr. Pope) published the book and signed *fce .preface on his birthday six years ago, and there was anothef pretty ncftrlj ready to go after it. (Cheers.) If there was one thing which he most thanked

.VGKICULTUliAL AND INDUbTltlAL

NOTES.

providenoe fo;* was for giving him a anity of purpose in iile and ^lergy strength of nnnd and body to persevers in it to thie end. (Loud cheers.) Dr. James, Headmaster of Bogby, then spoke on the success 3f Mr. Haider in gaining the Public Schools Medal. On the motion of Lord Be 4,y, tended by Sir Baymoml West (both of whom had the emphotie testimo' y to the urndmyii^ labours of Missionariea and the assistaiMs U^y ere to a good Adminiatrafeon and to a right understaoding of the pe^le) a vote of was accoxded G O Mr. Mcxrley, who said m<m tiian thank you in lepTy, thai little being a mention of the keen interest with whic^ he had heaid. Po^s speech.If(t^7a Mail.

Agriciiltaral and Indnstrial Notes.


Pharinaceutical JoumalJ' the best known antidote for malarial district fevers indifferent San powers. countries of South Ameriea, bas long been practised and taken advantage of by the l^rowth of snn flowers, not only as a certain prevention ol yeRow fever, but also as a lucrative article of commerce. For tw^aeaeoin we could see sun flowers being gtown all about^that was when we had seed to send out free. Now^ few sun flowers are seen. (^lould take pains to have them in their gardens. They are vslvable becan.se they are not only healthy plants to grow near dwellihgs, but the blossom ia exceedingly han^me, they are rich in neeta|r^ uid bees work eagerly on them; the seeds are eaten by poultry ^ ^ stalks and leaves are eaten by horses and cattle. Surely,, a plant of such I all-round valne is worth growing, in our gardens, if nc4 import^t enough for a field crop. The sago fo commerce is the product the Metroxylon Sagu, a species of palm which is indigenous to the CYcad Saeo forests of the marshes of Borneo and the neighbouring islands of tho Easterii Archepelago. It is also yielded in considerable quantities) by several other members of t ^ great palm family as well as by a variety of herbaceous and other plants that luxuriate in the warmth and moisture of the evergrwn forests c^ the tropical -world. Of the last mentioned group, few are more interesting than the beautiful leaved cycads of India. These humble plants, whose graceful foliage resembles that of some of the indigenous tree-fema or ql the delicate ratan palms, occur generally as sporadic itnderflhrubs in the forests of the plains at low elevations as well as in the socluded valleys of the hills. Their glistening green tiers xrf abiiiptly pinnate leaves that are bohfe in simple whorls at the According to the

SiPDIIAN'JA

I)t:KPlKA.

of the a t o m s lend sot'iness ami cliarni to varied vegetations of tlio localities in which they instal themselves, while their rugged dark brown cylindrical trmiks from tJie resemblance which they bear to the stems of the palms, have earned for the cycads the misleading epithet of the decorating palms " of India and the East- However the following are the commoner Indian species of the somewhat extensive genas Oycas : ]. The cycas circinalis, Linn; 2. The cycas Kumphii, Miq; (J. The cycas pectinata, griif; and 4. The cycas biamensis, Miq. Of these, the last is ordinarily stemless, and is not, therefore, a source of starch; but the tall-stemmed, much branclied cycas circinalis of the evergreen forests of the Western Ghats and Ceylon and the branched or simple-stenuned Cycas Ruuiphii of the low lying forests of the Malabar Coast, Tenasserim, the Mergni Archijielago, and the Andaman Islands, together with the simple stemmed Cycas pectinate, contain in the inner medulla of their trunks an abimdance of edible and nutritive starch. The ovoid fruits of tJie species, too, that are borne in alternate rows or series upon the edges of the fleshy pedunculate bracts are turgescent with quantiiies of a mealy starch which is eagerly sought after and consumed by the hill tribes. The excessive periodic demands which fruitbearing makes on the reserves of starch stored up in the stem result in the latter being left, after fruiting, in a condition of almost complete denudation of that substance. For purposes of exploitation of the cycads for sago they have, therefore, to be handled before fruitescence. Moreover, the activity of the species is intermittent, it has a distinct period of growth followed by a distinct period of recuperative rest. After the fii st showers of rain of the . Soath-West monsoon, it enters upon its greatest vegetative activity. The B a p then ascends rapidly up the stem and a cone of more or less circinate leaf buds is given out of the top above the circle of insertion of the previous years fronds ; these elongate together aud, with the older fronds,' form the foliage of the plant .for the remaining months of the year. When tlie fronds are young they assimilate vigorously and soon help to restore to the recesses of the plant the reserve material which had been previously requisitioned lor in the metabolism of the tissues engaged in their development at the commencement of the season of vegetative activity. As they grow older, their activity diminishes, until in the cold weather it altogether Ceases. lu the hot weather su}>ervening, the fronds turn yellow, and at its close they droop and withe^.* In consequence of this remarkable habit of the Cycad, it is

Ar.lMcrLTLlIAL

A M ) I N D U S T l i l A L NOTF.S.

1*^7

classed among the slower growing species of the indigonoriH eiiible plants of India. The cycads attain to coramcrcial maturity at ages that vary not only with the characteristics of spe3ie3 but also with the innate peculiarities of the individuals. In the economic exploitation of the plants for sago, this variability is a source of some anxiety as well as of much practical difficulty; for, owing to its operation, the exact period afr which they contain the largest quantity of the best starch thej can yield is an indeterminable and unknown factor. However, as the majority of the cycads are capat)le of yielding good starch in fairly large quantities at agesthat average seven years from sowing, they admit of being exploited with measurable profit, at any period of their life after that age. In the fixation of the season of exploitation itself, regard must be had to the facts which indicate the desirability of so timing the fellings as to secure to the operator the best results which he can obtain consistent with economy. If the plant be not yet attained to fruitbearing, it would obviously contain the highest product just before the flush of new fronds appears; if otherwise, then, before any evidences of the periodic fructifications became apparent. The method of extraction of cycad sago may be briefly described as noted below; On th6 discovery of a well-growing promising individual, it is felled flush with the ground and divested of its fronds as well as of the dry outer layers of its annularly furrowed stem. It is then carried to the home of the operator where he proceeds to cut away all the remaining part of the stem except the innermost cylindrical axis. This delicate core is now carefully sliced into thin, oval or circular discs which are spread upon mats and dried in the sun. When quite crisp, they are pounded into flour which is thereafter sifted and mixed in water. The resultant mess is then poured into a pot and allowed to stand until the starchy substance is deposited at the bottom and sides of the vessel. The clear liquid above the deposit is now drained ojf and the precipitate itself, while yet fresh, rolled about between boards until it resolves itself in the spherical pellets that are known as sago. These pellets, on drying and partial steaming, are passed through sieves that are graduated variously for the several grades, such as bullet sago," "pearl sago" and the like. The majority of Indian manufacturers, however, are content with the production of the amorphous meal which, after desiccation, is stored up for use. The elimination of tho starchy farina from the see is proceeds upon principles that are more or less identical with its extraction from the stem of the plant. In some localities, tho fragrant ripe fruit is picked and dried until the yellow pericrap shrivels and cracks. The hard endorarp is then broken up and the kernel, while fresh

j,^

SIDDHASTA

0EEPIKA.

pounded and mixed with water. In other parts of the country the Mature Imt unripe fruit is split into halves along tHe sutures of the endocaip and dried until the kernel shrinks and separates from it, after w h i c h it is treated in the usual manner. The yield of dry sago from an average sized stem of about four feet in length and two in circumfei-ence amounts to about five pounds. Tiie quantity of farinaceous material obtainable from the seeds of a plant of the same dimensions averages annually to about that amount. When it is remembered that the sago obtainable from the seeds of the cycad is, for all practical purposes the same in qu^ity, too, as that from the stem of the plant, it will be admitted that there is no good reason beyond euston^ perhaps, to support the practice of felling it for the elimination c^ the prc^uct. It is evidently a practice which the voracity of some barbarous tribe inaugui*ated ages ago and which their comparatively enlighteued descendants on the hills and plains still keep up. It is, however, a ruinous method of exploitation to be employ^ with a food-crop which is slow of growth and, although the more intelligent natives of India, living on the outskirts of the forests, seem to entertain the notion that the cycads occnr in numbers that are practically inexterminable in their own or any other generation, the hope for the future development of the industry of extraction of cycad sago lies in the direction of the consei*vation of the species and its systematic exploitation for fruit alone.Indian Agriculturist, [The cycad cynalis are plentiful in Salem and Mysore Hills, and they bear fruit plentifully. No use is made of these fruits so far as we are aware and valuable material is therefore allowed to go to waste. We hope the agricultural associations will take up the exploitation of this material. d]. There is ho doubt that the tomato is increasing in public favour every year. We find it grown on a scale so The Tomato ^^rge now that one wonders where the demand c omato. comes from. In America the tomato is one of the big industries both as fruit and as a culinary vegetable. One has only to tuni any of the American grotjery journals to find on what a large scale tomatoes are grown. Indeed, it is no exaggeration to state that the rise of the tomato in public favour is unprecedented in the history of development of any otlu^r cultivated plant. In the memory of many now living the tomato was hardly known, except as a garden curiosity, and Imown to most people under the name of " Love Apple," and was of small siac and full of seeds. Few people ate it, the sterling qualities of the fruit W E R E U J A J ^ O W U . At the present time there are mawy

A G B I C U L T U B A L AKiD I N D T J S T K I A L N O T E S .

icorcs of varieties, from the small ''grape" variety to the immeMsc fleshy fruits, weighing a ^und a piece or more. The colours vurv from a bright golden yellow to a deep blood red, and the gradatioii m flavour is equally varied. No kitcJien garden, even in India, is considered complete without it, while thousands of acres are given up to its cultivation in America and Australia. An immense quantity of the fruit is used, both in the fresh state, and for sauce and other purposes. In India the tomato has become a very popular eatable, and is cultivated on a fairly large scale, not only in private gardens, but by the market gardener, and the quality of the produce is very good indeed. Any one who has visited the horticultural exhibitions held at various centres in this country must have been struck by the splendid quality of the tomato exhibits. A large number of varieties is cultivated. The scientific name of the tomato is Solanum lycopersicuni. It belongs to the extensive Natural Order Solanaceas, which numbers among its members the datura, the tobacco, potato, capsicums, the deadly night-shade and a host of other plants used in medicine and as food. Its original home appeal's to have been tropical America, but it has become almost indigenous in India. It is very susceptible, to cold, and a moderately frosty night in upper India will destroy it entirely. That is on reason why it is considered advisable to sow the seed early in the season, so that the plants will have become well established and hardened before the severe frosts set in. A soil rich in potash seems to suit the tomato best. Wood ashes are very beneficial. There are various methods of cultivating the tomato, the commonest being as an ordinary field crop; but it has been found that grown thus it is apt to make untidy growth ; the fruit often rests on the soil, and the plants are more liable ^ to insect and fungus attacks. From the results of numerous experiments made on the growth of tomatoes under glass by the authorities of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, it appeai-s that " undoubtedly the best ^stem of growing green house tomatoes is to plant 12 to 16 inches apart in the rows, prune to the one stem system, and head in or cut back the leaders above the fourih or sixth cluster of fruit, as circumstances require. The physiological effects of pruning or mutilating manifest themselves at first in the retardation or cessation of the growth activities, which are eventually followed by an accelerated growth. The degree of response is determined by the nature of the organs mutilated and the extent of the injury." Growing on treUis work, or on stakes gives much better results. In fact we have found the trellis system the best, and recommend it in preference to all others.
T h e tomato is subject t^ the attacks of several insects and fuim. T h e high state ot cultivation of thoac plants, and the umny

jQQ

SIDDHANTA

DEEPIKA.

varieties pi'oduced by hybridisation probablv account for this. The careful gai-dener is always on the look out for these enemies, and, by taking them in hand at the earliest manifestation, often saves liis crop. Among the insect j^ests, the worst is Auierican boll-worm (Heliothis Armiger), whicli ranks among the most destructive of cat-worms. In tlie case of the tomato, this worm attacks the fruit to devour the seeds, thus causing the fruit to rot and decay. It will thoreforo be understood that if the plants are allowed to sprawl about on the ground, and the fruits resting near or on the damp soil, they are nmch more liable to the attacks of these pests than if die plants are staked or trellised. Cut worms are not difficult to trop with heaps of luilf-dead weeds placed among the plants, for they crawl under them for shelter instead of burrowing into the ground, and in these simple shelters can be easily collected and destroyed, while an ounce of i*aris green well mixed with a pound of damp pollard and placed in little hollows in the ground among the growing plants forms a very attractive food for all these caterpillars, which cat it readily and die. Another common disease in India is the '^Sleeping Disease" of tomato (Fusrium Lycopersici). It is a fungus disease and takes its popular name from the sudden manner in which an apparently well grown healthy tomato plant will suddenly wilt, droop down, and die almost in a night. This is caused by a fungus that gains an entrance into the smaller roots, rapidly extending through the main roots into the base of stem, and affects the whole of the plant. The outward symptoms are a discoloration of the stem when cut tl^rough, instead of the natural normal green tint, and a close examination shows that the stem above the ground is more or less clothed with fine white mould, spores of fungus. There is no known remedy for this fungus, no fungicide has been found to check it, and the only recommendations that have been made by investigators is, to pull up all plants, weeds, and dead leaves, rate them together and burn; and mix quicklime with the soil they have been growing in. Seeds taken from diseased plants, or from plants grown in an infested district, are said to transmit the disease, and should not be used. There are some other diseases, but these two are best known in India.Indian Planting and Gardening, [The tomato can be very easily grown in the plains and in any quantity. They do not require too much water and in Palmanair we have seen it flourish with little or no water. Madrasees, besides usmg the fruit for sauce and soup, dry the raw fruit after slicing it and make it into a for frying. Every ryot can sro^ the tomato in his fields. Edl.

THE

8IDDHANTA DEEPIKA
OK

The Light of Truth.


A Monthly Journal, Daiokd tc I'fU^ion, Pkilbsophy, Liiaatvre-, Science iSr.

on th

<|ueen'8

CommMnoration

Day,

1807.

Vol. Vn.

SEPTEMBER 1906.
TRANSLATIONS

No 6.

TttB VKDANTA-SUTRAS WITH SRIKANTHA BHASHYA.


Continued from page 130 of Vol. Vll).

FOURTH ADHYAYA.
FOURTH PADA.
So do the dil-eci and the indirect (Bevelations) reveal. {TV' iv. 20)

The S^ot! and tlie Sm^ti jbeach the same thing - t^at has ^ taught above. The passages of the Srnti are such as the felioTrmg; "From that Atman sprang Akasa/'l The Smriti referred to includes the passages like the following; Waters alone did He create in the beginning."2 Therefore j^rahmai^ ahme is the cause, etc., of the'universe. Now one BSay suppose ;-r-Thfin, toecause perfefct equality of the Uliefated aoul utth Brahiilan, ^itb tjtm, is taoghtin the pase B g e H k e thm feUowttg: l - W t a X, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3intt.

ao2

SIDDIIANTA

DKEHKA.

* * When the scer sees the brilliant maker and lord (of the woi lii AS the person wlio has Jiis source in Brahman, then he is wise, ami staking off good and evil lie reaches the highest oneness, free from passion;"i *'The liberated one can bo equal to Brahman;" Therefore, whatever power Siva has, such as the ]iower of creating the nniverao, all that pov.or can accrue to the liberated one, without any limitation whatever. good. As against this supposition the Sutrakara says:
A n d boeausc of equality only as regards enjoyment. (IV iv 21)

Otherwise perfect equality cannot hold

The equality of the liberated soul with Brahman rcfera merely to tlie enjoyment of ail objects of pleasure. It does not refer to the creation of the universe and the like; for, then, there would bo many Isvaras or Lords of the universe. The Sruti accordingly says: He attains all pleasnres in unison with the omniscient Brahman. 2 Brahman is spoken of as omniscient because He is-endued with that chit or consciousness which sees all things, which constitutes His very nature, His heart itself, manifested as the one supreme existence and light, and in virtue of which Brahman or Siva who is onconditional by time and space becomes omniscient, is the c&use of all, abides in all tilings as their very self, is possessed of g-ll powers, is| of unfailing power, is independent of all, is ever satisfitjd, is of unsurpassed supremacy, is gracious to all, is the one bliss which all the liberated souls seek to attain. Only as endued with this power, even the Supremo Brahman is said to be omniscient. Having attained pei-fect unison with Him, tho liberated soul, too, with his inner sense, with his inherent thought or consciousness,
1 Muudaku. a l . 3 . 2Tai. 2 1

SniKANTHA

UHASHVA.

sUistiis all objecfcs.pf ilosire; that is to say, lie sees them all and jotd^. Accordingly the Sniti says. ^ i i i g these pleasures with tlie mind, he rejoices.'*! *'The Mind is his divine eye. * * Whose nature is true, rejoicing in tho senses, delighted in the mind la tlieso word:3 it is suiil that even Brahman enjoys His bliss in the mind, not with tlio nid of tho external organs. The wearing^ of tho body and tiie setisos by Brahman and tliQ liberated soul ift o])tional for them and subserves amusement ijience no room for any objection. Wherefore it stands to reason that the eqiialil}^ - e f ^ * liberated soul with Brahman holds good only as far as' enjeyaieBt is concerned, iiiasuinch as we maintain tiiat, as Brahman enjoys all objects of desire, so also does the liberated sbnl enjoy. ISyen in common parlance, as when we say " Deva^Nlta is a lion" speadc ^ equality when we find agreement in respect of a few attributes ; and therefore the assertion of equality (between the liberated soul and Braliman) is not open to objection.
No return, as so it is taught. No return, as so it is taught. (IV i t , 22)

It has been said that the liberated souls attain equality (sayujys) with Brahman, because of tlie similarity in respect of enjoyaaenty etc. Now a doubt arises as to whether even they do again return to Samsam at any time, or do not return. This doubt arises because find that those who in virtue of a certain act of merit hiftT atiaui^ to the position of Indra do return to Samsara; Purtapaksha:What view may suggest itself to TO here ? hk the woi-ds "having as much food as he likes and assuming aamaiiy forms as ho likes, he ontei*s (into these worlds)," we are given. onderstand that the liberated souls are associated.with many becfim. When once they are associated with them, it is likely that they will
1 Chha. 8-12 5. 2 Tai. 1 6 3 Tai. 8-12 5.

2114

S J1 > 11A N J'A r> I'-1: IM K A.

again do gcod and evil deeds. When the great act of Divine worship which he had dono before became exhausted through enjoyment in various ways, the liberated soul has to come back to the Samsara of mean pleasures under the force of the act or acts wliich ripen at the time. Accordingly, those who have ri .cn to the height of Indra and the like return here on the exhaustion of their great meritorious act, and are born in the body of a Brahmana or the like. Wherefore those who have attained to tlie height of Brahman return to Samsara a^ain, inasmuch as the enjoyment, which works by way of bringing together the objects of enjoyment and the enjoyer, only causes the exhaustion of the great meritorious act. Siddhanta :As against the foregoing we hold as follows. There is no return to Samsara for the liberated ones wJio have seen directly the Divine Light of Brahman and entered into His abode. Why ? For, the Sruti teaches as follows : Who behaves thus all his life, reaches the world of Brahman and does not return, yea, he does not return. The Purana, too, after treating of the abodes of Brahma, Vishnu, and others, declares as distinct from them all the ancient abode of Siva, the Parabrahman, in the following words : "The primev:il aVode of the Spouse of Uma is as resplendent aa a ciore oi Uie suns; it is furnished with all objects of enjoyment, quite pure, eternal and imperishable. " Having Attained to tlrnt celestial abode the souls ai^ freed from d l troubles ; tliey become omniscient^ all-pervading, pure and all-full. " They, accoi'ding to their own will, be<*>me embodied or disembodied, with their body and the senses quite pure, with Bupreme powers endowed k> them.
1 cnihii. 8-1& " '

SRIKANTHA BHASHYA.

900

"In ibe case of those men who were devofced tt^ Qrnm^ aaA Toga iid have gained the supreme abode there is no retnni agahi to the fierce region of Samsara." We shall now explain the meaning of these pa^sagea In the words having reached the highest light it appeM ill its tme form ; that is the self the Srnti, refers to the Light, attained by the liberated sonl; the Supreme Brahman, aMOciated with I7ma; that Mighty Lig^t whose splendour transcends the splendotir of crores of the sons, and by whose light this shines. So sayi the Srnti: The snn does not shine there^ nor the moon and tiHb stars, nor these lightnings, and much less the fire. When He shines, everything shines after Him; by His light aU this is lighted/'^ In the Atharvasiras also it.hae been descfibed as follows: I am Paramesvara, the Supreme Lord; I am Akasa, the celestial Ether; I am the pure ; I am the end and the middle; I am the Light in front and at the back; I am one and all; whoso knows Me and Me alone he knows all Devas." The Smriti also says: " Every one should meditate on Siva, who has feet and hands eveiywhere ) who has the head, the eye and the mouth everywliere; who is the mass of light that overspreads all." Beyond this is that Light, the Para-Brahman known as Siva, associated with Uma. Tlie abode wherein He dwells, it needs no saying, is as resplendent as a crore of the suns put together. The same thing which in the form of consciousness is the unsurpassed light, is the seat of unsurpassed bliss and is therefore known as Svarga, as taught in the Shiti: ''the region of Svargia enveloped in Light Devas, verily, went to the region of Svarga,

1 Chha, 8-8-4.

2 Kalba. 6-15.

8TaL Anu 1-27

S11>I>UANTA l^fclKHKA.

tliofla I>evas asked Hudra,"^ and so on; the abode here eyokei^ of being the one beyond the fourth. So aays the Uttara Gito: " the fourtli and tlio one beyond the fourth is the abode of
Si%'a devoid of evil.'*

The abode in primeval l)ccnuse it is beyond all lokoM or regions, beeaose it is the cause; below it and oucside it are tlie seven envelopes of tlie Brarlinianda an taught in the words '' be it known ihnt the envelopes of the Anda aro outside the region of Siva." And it is primeval also because that is the abode of Brahman who transcends the whole universe including Brahma, because it had transcended'all, as the Sruti says; ***Greater titan the great is Brahma; beyond this great <me again is Hari; and beyond Him even- is Isaj"^ It is the abode of Untci s Spouse, of Siva, the Parabraliman. In the words * * Him whose helpmate is Uma, the Supreme Lord, the Kuler/3 the Sri^ti tebches tliat Siva, the Lord of Uma, who is darknecked- and three-*^yl3d, should be meditated upon and is the goal lying beyond the Prakriti of darkness. Moreowr, liaving declared that Siva is tlic essential being of all, in the words \"erily is Hudra,"4 the Sruti concludes, " Homage to the golden-armed, to the Lord of Gold, to the Lord of the Mother, to the Lord of Uilia."^ ^ word the "Uina ' which is synonymous wth Pranava, the Sapreme power or Parasakti, which is also the Supreme cause (Paraprakriti) is meant* In the words ''Dark and Yellow is Brahman'' the Sruti teaches that Bralinian is harmoniously blended with her. Therefore the abode belongs to the Parabrahman, the Lord of Uma. What else is it ? It is. furnished with all objects of enjoyment ; it i s ^ w a ^ endowed with ail objects of desire.
1 AtharvasirAs. 2 Sivasiail kaepa-Up.

Hpnce, verily, tho


4 Mahanh. 16 18

fiiruti, " He tfttains all object o i derive,. \nih. tho omniscient firah3: Kaivalya-Up.

SRIKANTHA BHASHYA.

900

man/* tetches tliafc the liberated one n4 tains all objects of desire in eonjanctk>n witli 6ri),limaii. Qaii pore is the abode, because untouched by change, the Sruti giving us to understand that it is beyond all cause and effects in the passages like tlie following: " Him who is the witness of all. who in bovDud dai kness. i "Who has colour like the sun, who is beyond darkness." Indeed, that abode wherein Siva abides is perfectly pure, because, unlike tiie products of matter (Prakriti), it does not prive rii^o to attachment, hatred, greed and the like. That is to say, this .'ilodc is ^16 Supreme reality, luminous, full of great bliss, the Sn]>remo celestial Akaea, because the material products alone are said to bo subject to creation and other processes; and because this abode is beyond those processes, it is eternal. It is the universe of the material Akasa that passes through the processes of creation, iK:c.; it does not apply to this celestial abode which is composed of spiritual Akasa. (Ohjectiwi) We are taught tluit cverytliing cxcopt Siva is subject to dissolution, as the Srnti says : ''When what is beyond darkness is attained, then there is neither day nor night, neither being nor non-beitig, Siva alone thero How can tliis abode and the liberated ones bo eternal ? {Answer) No such objection cin bo I'aised here. For, tho liberated souls and this abodo are comprehended in tho entity of Siva. These aro equally blessed (Siva) as seats of perfect purity. Hessedness consists in being of a nature quite distinct from that of the bound soul (pasu) and his bondage (pasa) which come within the sweep of the wheel of creation, etc. Thus, tho abode of Siva which distinct from the bound soul and his bondage, cannot be perisliablc.
iTvaivalyu 2 OS, li i l^-

jQQ

SIDDHANTA

DEEPIKA.

This abode is imperishable, not subject to decay and growth, u n l i k e Svarga etc., wl^ich are the results of acts admitting of increltt a n d decay. Such it is declared to be in the Sruti, "He reaches the goat of the Path ; that i the Supreme abode of Vishnu."i The highest inherent nature of Vishnu is, indeed, the abode of Siva known as Paramakasa, the Spiritual ether, the goal of the six-fold Path,' that which lies beyond the Path. It is this abode designated as Brahmaloka from which there is no returnwhich is spoken of in the following passage: "He reaches the world of Brahman, and does not return, yea, he does not return. "2 In the words having attained to that celestial abode, th6 souls are freed from all troubles," and so on, the characteristic marks are given of those who have risen to that abode and who are equal to Brahman. Having, attained the abode, that inherent divide nature of the great God which is beyond speech and thought, t. c., having realised it by Gnana-yoga directed towards it, the souls become emancipated. They are completely freed from death and all sources of evil such as Avidja. That is to say, ihe liberated souls are free from all evil tendencies and qualities. Next their blessed qualities are mentioned. They have attained the state of Siva, and are omniscient owing to the destruction of the taint of sin which has shrouded their knowle ige; they become omniscient. As their power of knowledge extends to all regions, they become all pervading, as explained already in the Sutra rV. iv. 15. And being purf, with the state of Siva manifested on the removal of sin, they attain to a.pure spiritual condition and become one mass, as it were, of consciousness. In the Sutra IV. iv. 7, it was shewn that the soul becomes self-luminous, of unfailing will, and 80 on.
1 Katha 3-9. 2 Chha. 8 15-1

SBIKANTHA BHASHTA.

Tliey become also all-full, they are ever satisfied, inanhiicb a tly are in their very nature the bliss unsurpassed and have attsined all desires. It is their very nature to enjoy unchanging and uniiurpassed bliss, as ali^ady explained in the Sutra IV. iv. 19. Because they are thus ail-fully their body and senses are perfectly pure ; their body and the senses are no longer those whicli are subject to undesirable change. It is taught in the Sruti,He becomes one"! and so on,that the liberated souls puts on several bodies at will. Therefore the body and the like which the libe'rated ones assume at will are all perfectly pure, because they are formed by Mahamaya. Their purity consists in not subjecting the soul to any undesirable change. In the words "The Lord by his Mayas is seen in different forin5i,"2 the Sruti teaches that even Isvara assmne^ by His powers of Mahamaya, many bodies, such as the one with dark neck. In the words '*Ugr.i is of diverse forms with eternal bodiei/'s the Sruti teaches that the bodies assumed by the ParameMvara, aif not made of matter, are made of pure spirit (Vidya) and are eternal. Just a^ the Paramesvara assumes manifold pure bodies, so also tbe liberated souls.

They are endowed with Supreme powers, with the highest glories acting according to their own will, not having to bemean themselves so as to do service to others. In the Sntra IV. iv. 9, it has beta shewn that the liberated soul is perfectly independent, not being swayed by Karma and the like. They, the liberated ones, are independent and are endowed with supreme powers. They become embodied or disembodied of their own accord. They who have risen to the abode of Siva sometimes pot on part bodies and sen^s and enjoy pleasures therein, independently of tlw will of Isvara; sometimes, without the body and senses, and solelj with their inherent mind, they enjoy all sorts of pleasures. Thie h t
^ 26-2. 2 Bri Up. 4- 5-19.

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SIDPHANTA

DEEPIKA.

been already shewn in ilie Sutra IV. iv. 12, by way of explaining the meaning of some passages in the Smti bearing on tiie Babje<^. Accordingly the liberated one becomes embodied or disembodied at will. In the words Homage to you all, to the disembodied and to the all bodied"! the Sruti teaclies that those who have attained equality with Siva are without form and have manifold foi-ms. When they become embodied, then whatever Jbodiesmarked with dark neck and so on,the Iswara assumes, all such bodies can be assumed by those who have attained equality with Him. In support of this tome qnoto the Sruti. "Those who arc darknccked, dark throated."^ Accordingly, those who are devoted to the knowledge conveyed by the Vedanta and to Yoga embracing all forms of self control and the like and directed towards the Paramesvara,3 and who have thereby attained to that abode of Paramasiva which has been described above,they who have become endowed with the attributes mentioned above and have become equal to Siva do not return ftgain to the region of Samsara, which is one unsurpassed suflFering Mid is therefore hard to endure; they will not again be subject to tlie life of Samsara. Therefore, as taught in the words "he reachcs the world of Brahman and does not return," those who have readied the eternal, imperishable world of infinite Bliss and Light belonging to the Lord of lUma, the Parabrahman, who is omniscient, omnipotent, possessing ail glories, bestowing His grace on all, who is the object of all worship, who is devoid of all taint of evil who is the depository of all excellent and good qualities, who is possessed of divers eyes, are endoiirad with omniscience and ether virtues, and dwell there (in that world) without fear of return. That is to say
I Big. Sara. 2 19 9. 2 Tii: Sim. 4-5 4. 3 Ibid. 4 5 11.

SRIKANTHA BHASHYA.

900

The libreated ones become blended with Brahman, wiih Siva who is one mass of unsurpassed bliss and light, and attain lominoiu bodies. They become omniscient, omnipresent, peacefnl; they are the seat of the suj)reme eternal glories; from them all veils of sin have glided away* and they see Him every where; and He u theirTery* being and self. As the sruti says " Where the gods ha\ ing aUained tlw immortal pass into abodes in the Third,'"! they att n the abodes they like in His tSupireme Spiritual world; and w th all desires accomplished at their own will, they shine everywhere along with Him at all times. Thus the whole is quite consistent. This commentary lias been written by me, solely with the aid of Devotion, my way being illumined by service at the feet of Svetacharya. A. MAHADEVA SASTRY, BJi. {FmU.)

Man himself is greatly responsible for his limitations. He refiiM to open his mind to the influx of Divine Troth and thereby builds up a dam of ignorance in his being that keeps out the Truth that would make him free. Every man can have access to the accumulated Love and Wisdom that would guide and protect him if he Would become sensitive enough to receive. Every state o^ consciousness is a state of mind. '' As a child I was' happy with my childish things. Now in this very same world I am unl^ppy with all that heart can wish for of material things." The world has not changed, but I have changed my point of view of the world. The question is. What must I do mentally to build up a permanent state of happiness in my mind T/ie World'$ Advtnct Thought.
tMahana. M&.

THE ETYMOLOGIES
OF

SOMK OP THE NAMES OF CEVLON. {Continued from page 183 of Vol, VII), II. Lanka the Respleude^it is an expression too familiar to need ny explanation, But the belief that the seuse of resplendency is retained in the very word Lanka, is worthy of earofal examination. It is now almost an admitted fact that ihit conveyance of thought, is of Aryan make and origin, and that our island earned this name on account of the ^glimmering of the P^et and gems on her surface- S'uch an idea is indeed worthy of ^ poet, and the erudite author of Takshina Kailasa Puranavif (a work on the ancient shrine of Trincomalie composed at the instance of Singhai Jagarajasekaran, brother of Pararajasekaran, a king o^ Jaffna) is truly deserving of praise for the readiness with which he has accepted this brilliant account. But it is all in poetry.' This derivation would havo been more worthy of acceptance if Lanka could mean a raby or gem but it only means bright or shining. No sane man woold doubt the etymology of Ratiiadwipa (from Ratnagem and dwipaisland) or of Katnapura (from Ratnagem and pura-city). Now it is a wonder that the idea never struck any one among the host of writers on Ceylon, of tracing the term in question to tha Tamil llankai which is synonymous with the Tamil iunUti and arankam (a rising ground or dry glimmering bpot in a river, an ait or islist). To the Tiraiyar or sea kings' (from Tirai-sea) whose saiiskrit name was Sagarakular (from Sagara-sjea), and who, as recorded by the late lamented Tamil scholar Mr. V. Canagasabai Pillai, B.A*&L. in his book entitled * * Tamils Eighteen Hundred years ago," were

ETYMOLOGIES OF SOME OF T H E NAMES OF CEYLON.

2id

iriginalljr people of Lower Bengal, and who are recorded x > liave settled tiiemselTeB in Bengal, Barmali, Cochin China, (^jlon and Southern India and thus earned Uie names of I'ankaia riraiyar (ex, Pankalaii]-Bengal)i Kadara Tiraiyar (ex KadaramBunnah), China Tiraiyar and Sinhala Tiraiyar and to the-Tamil people who are supposed by the same autliority to have migrated from Taimlittif'^the modern Tamluk, at the mouth of the Ganges, aits or islets must no doubt have been a very familiar sight. It would therefore be not unnatural for them, when they drew near this pearly island in their maraklcalams or wooden vessels, to have ex^ pressed themselves in the same term that they used for the aifc. llankai now means in Tamil (1) an ait (2) Ceylon (3) Ravanas fort. It h-M a fourth meaning of a pendant, but in this sense it is evidently a Sanskrit name. Ilatikai comes from the Tamil verb ilankukireUuto shine or glimmer and means *thcU which glimmers a fit name for an ait in the midst of a shining sheet of water* The verb HaiikMrcUu is another form of Vilankukiraiu the root of which, vU or vd^ means to crack, to be open or Ipright, to receive light and to understand, and is met with in a multitude of Tamil words. The f ^ t that no one has yet traced the word to a Tamil Boarce, is due partly to the implicit faith in what is known as popular etymology, partly to the want of acquaintance on the part of European scholars with the ancient Tamil classics, and partly to a want of consideration that the Tamils who lived nearer to Ceylon than any other people, must hikvei before all others, known the island and its people. The Tamils, whose home was in such proximity have therefore a better claim to the word under reference than the Aryans who lived in the far north. The disapproval by Major Forbes of the popular etymology of Lankm and his suggestion that Laka, the alleged Elu form ef Lanka, might be thie same word as Laka (a corruption of the Sanskrit Laksha) pne hundred thousand or multitude* is really sensible. He writes as follows;** I think it probable this name was derived from " 6r Laksha (one hundred thousand or multitude) and diva or (* 4wipa (islands) for Cingalese traditions mention that thousands of " isles attached to the kingdom of Lanka were overhwelmed by Ihe

214

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l>EEriKA.

B.C. 2SS7f along with the splendid capital of Sri Lanki^>oors * * which stood to the westward of any part of the present island. I " am aware that other derivations have always been given but I see * * no reason to approveof them when the same name Lakadive wliich is that of the cluster of islands at no great distance from Ceylon, has ^dways borne the same simple derivation that I now " suggest. If there is any. truth in the Bamayaua or the Rawana * * Katawa' of Ceylon, the Maldives and Lakadives were then parts " of the kingdom of Bawana : and, along with the great extent of "Lanka, which was submerged, swd the southern peninsula of India, " formed the kingdom over which he ruled."
" tea,

The credibility of tJiis derivation hinges, 1. On the alleged identicalness of the names Laka or Lakadiva (Ceylon) and Lakadive (Laccadives), (2) on the accuracy of the statement that the latter name "hat/ always home the sanie simple derivation" suggested by the major, (3) on the unquestionableness of a supposition that the form Laka is older than Lanka, and, above all, (4) on the truth or falsity of the story that Lanka was in its early years a group of thousands of isles or more, and lastly (5) on the presumption that Lakadwipa or Lankadwipa is the correct ex* pression while the name Laka or Lanka is but a vulgar contraction of it. If any of these five bases is succossfully attacked, the superstructure must needs fall to the ground. With regard to the first point, tlio learned Major has luckily or unluckily omitted to enlighten his readers how one Lakadive WM known from the othei*, if both wre in existence at one time with the same name. If it is said that the * * Eden of the.eastopi wave" and the Laccadives and Maldives, \wth the submerged islands, formed the realm of Rawana under the comprehensive name of Lakshadwipa, I fail to see the reason why Ceylon and Laccadives only should have inherited the grand name to which Maldives would equally be entitled. The second point is one that requires tangible proof. The dixit of the Major on the etymology of an Eastern name is not

ETYMOLOGIES OF SOME OF THE NAMES OF CEYLON.

2id

worih much, if any^ing^ nnlesasapporM by eorfobon^ve e v ^ i ^ . Apparently the Major has "made the statement in qiiestion on information taken on tmst. It is exceedingly donbtfal that the Aryans of northern India whose alphabet is as perfect as, if not more than, any \alphabet on the face of the earth, and who coald, withoat a shadow pf difficnlty, transliterate and accurately pronounce words of almost any langnagewith the exception however of words where the Tamil yj (LL) occurswould have corrupted the alleged Blu Laka into Lanka, or have preferred the latter to the former, which, in the view of the Major, is the original and correct glossa : nor is there any rhyme or reason for the Sinhalese speaking people to Have lengthened the name by one additional sound or letter. A study of words in any language would reveal that the latter name is more liable to change by wear and tear, or phonetic decay, than the former by accretion. Moreover there is little proof that the pure Elu includes in its vocabulary Laka or one hundred thousand. It is by birth a purely Sanskrit word which has .found its way into almost every Indian language,and even into English as lac. It is probable that there might have been numerous isles rouml about Ceylon and that the sway ofl Arakkarkon (Rawana) extended to all these isles but it is highly improbable that there wast such a poverty of words or intelligence in the ten-headed Rawana and hia mighty race as to drive them to the necessity of gfiving one name for " thousands of isles." If the primary signiGcation of Lanka be " one hundred thousand or mnlMtude." it should invariably be followed by the word dwipa which is, as it were, the centre of sense in the expression Lankadwipa. It would therefore look as absurd to speak of Lauka as it is to speak of Tri (three) instead of Tripnra, the three cities alleged to have been destroyed by Siva. If any one be inclined towards a similar account of -Uie origin of the term, he could, with greater plausibility, trace it to the Tauiwl Ilankanif which means (1) a swarm of ants (2) a swarm or crowd and (3) an arena or stage, and which is, in realitr, the Sanskrit Ranga in Tamil dress.
1 King of the ttrmkluf or rajkskOskM.

^ w o r d IhmlBii

glDDHANTA

DEEPl^i..^.

'Wtinld then be analysable into Ilankani. and ai (iiioim8uffix)/aiid thn mean that'which exi-^U in cluster (tr sioarm"; 3ompare the word^j^raratta wooden tray from maram !Ebe o h a D g e jof rianHi imo. needs little explanation. The spiftfej of the Aryan languages where, unlike iri the Tamil, the letter L eon begin a w o r d , ^ o u l d nf^turally eliminate the initial I in assimilalittg t } M > iiame into TocUbnlary. Compare the Tsmiliah Ulakam {that which wastes away, or the i^rld) changed into the Sanskrit Loka. If one is guided merely by sound, one may as well derive Lanka from I/ttjfgold or Ceylon and Kai side or region and shew up to >wivttnti(ge the meaning of golden region or Ceylon region. Sound fityimdogy caii rarely he smmd. Apart-t'rom the radical signification of Lanka, it is alleged by some authorities that the name was originally applied to Havana's fort and then, in a wider and extensive sense, to the kingdom of Ceylon over which he ruled. Considering the legendary account that Ravana's fort was situated in the mid ocean, this allegation well accords with the derivation from Ilankai=:ait. III. Sinhala, This is a name which lias baffled the skill of many a scholar both European and native. The Maliawansa says that the name is due to Singh|kbaha's killing his father 8tha or lion. This is clearly a legend or myth which the word Sinha has given rise to, and is deserving of as much credence as the story of Romulus and Remns being suckfed by a wolf. The latter myth or fable is as nraoh attributable to the word Lupa (Tery likely the i^n^Q.^ % woman of-wolfish- habits) as the former to Sinha, a race twth Uim bravery, or which have the hardihood to brave the Urn, It is interesting te see the account of a Chinese writer who says that the race is so called on account ef their, skill in training lions." The island has also been known to th^ ancients at the kingdom of the lion anxiety >to aceoant. for the name has driven foreigners to Mveral fanciful derivations. Among these do we see one ifrom Okiz. Chintseund GaAlas or Chalias, from an absurd belief that tfie

ETYMOLOGIES OF SOME OF THE MA|iS QF CEYl/yH. Sinhalese race is an admixture of Chaliya or Halagama people.

the Glmiese j^iitt^. uid the

This brilliant piece of etymological deduction is fonHd^ on aa much knowledge of th^ history of the word Sinhala and the antiquity of the Sinhalese people, as a deriyation of the term ' G h i ^ (Chinese) from the Sinhalese Siya-lion, and the Tamil InarAd&dtnd wdnld be on a knowledge of the history of the word Chinese and of the celestial empire. Had the author of this ridiculous myth explained the name Sitihala as the Chinese Chilla (a name of South Ceylon) he would no doubt have won a greater number of admirers of his etymological skill. This ignorance of the foreigner is not as deplorable as that of a highly educated native gentleman who, .without the least regard to the history of words, conjectures that the English Sleep and Peace are derivatives of the Tamil 8lupti (corruption of the Sanskrit Sushupti) Yogic sleep, and the Sanskrit Paks^ (partiality or kindness) respectively. Accounts like these are en a par with Home Tooke's Diversions of Pttrley and witli the amusing etymological explanation which a rustic philosopher, with a very limited fund of English words, once gave of the English Court as a place where God is present and dispenses justice. Now the popular etymology of the term Sinhala is as much a feat of the imagination as the brilliant account of sleep or court. It is no wonder that the native mind, which, in spite of znodern^ philological researches, contends thi^' the purely Tamil word Mudaliyar (ex mudal-first or chief) is derived -from au alleged mudalindn (the Mahameru) should, in bygone ages, have accepted as Gospel truth the fabulous derivation in question. If it be a fact that, by ceason of slaying his lion^-father, Sinhabahu and <Ul his descendants were known by the name of ' Sinhalaya' (lion-killers), it is passing strange that no trace whatever of the lion-killets is left' throughout the length and breadth of India where all the 32 childi-en of Smhabahu save Wijaya, and their descendants, are said to have lived and moved, in lire abse^nco of any evidence to corroborfkte this wouderlul story ol the Mahawanso, it is but right to infer thit this is all a fiction or fable tounded on the word Smhala.
S

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DEEPIKA.

It mi^ do well to quote here a few examples of popular etj^mology, no less interesting tlian the one under consideration. which is a ykord of Hebrew origin, and which the English have borrowed through the French-, who use it to mean a lecret or intrigue, has erroneously been regarded by the populace to be derived from the Cabal ministry of Charles II consisting of Clifford, Ashley, Buckingham, Arlington and Lauderdale the initios of whose name happened to compose the word. The term Jerusalem Artichoke is due to a similarly erroneous interpretation of the Italian Girasole (ex Latin gyrus^tnm and Latin sol^the sun) the European heliotrope or turn-sole. The letter h in PoathuinouSf is likewise the result of a fictitious derivation from the Latin post ht^mum meaning * after the father is in the ground! or buried. Its true original, the Latin posttmw (superlative of posteruscoming after, from postbehind) never suggested itself to the popular mind. The Sanskrit Putraflon, is implicitly believed by the mild and religious Hindu to be tlie * averter of the father's would-be fate of si