THE

COASTAL
PIONEERS
By
Jeffry David Camm

(Revised Edition 2006)


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LIST OF BOOKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR

q The Gifts, Administrations and Offices of the Holy Spirit
q On the Potter’s Wheel
q Out of Darkness
q In Search of the Truth
q A Cry in the Wilderness
q Showers of Blessings
q The Roots of Our Beliefs
q Getting Closer to God – The Prayer Series
q Thy Word is Truth
All these books are available at: www.nlmcs.com.au. FREE OF CHARGE as pdf files

I believe that Getting Closer to God - The Prayer Series is so important, that it is available to
download FREE from http://www.nlmcs.com.au/docs/PRAYER-1.DOC and you may take it and reproduce it
as many times as you see fit, to give to your friends, provided you don’t do so for profit.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter Description Page

List of other books by the same author 2
Dedication 3
Copyright 3
Foreword 3

Chapter ONE THE FORGOTTEN EXPLORERS 4
Chapter TWO THE FORGOTTEN SETTLERS – THE EGYPTIANS 10
Chapter THREE THE “FIRST” SETTLERS – THE ABORIGINES 18
Chapter FOUR THE DUTCH COME TO TERRA AUSTRALIS 19
Chapter FIVE AUSTRALIA – THE GREAT SOUTH LAND OF THE
HOLY SPIRIT 22
Chapter SIX COOK “DISCOVERS” AUSTRALIA 25
Chapter SEVEN THE FIRST FLEET 28
Chapter EIGHT EARLY SETTLEMENTS IN NEW SOUTH WALES 31
Chapter NINE MY EARLY DESCENDANTS ARRIVE IN THE
GREAT SOUTH LAND 35
Chapter TEN WOOLGOOLGA – A THRIVING VILLAGE 39
Chapter ELEVEN THE ALLEN’S DIAMOND WEDDING 45
Conclusion THE NEXT FORTY YEARS 50
Appendix 1 List of Scriptural References for the name “OPHIR” 52
Appendix 2 List of scriptural references for the name “SINIM” 53
Appendix 3 History of the First Fleet and Sydney Cove 54
Appendix 4 Marriage Certificate – Peter Allen & Margaret King 58
Appendix 5 Birth Certificate of Henry Allen (1867) 59
Appendix 6 Marriage Certificate of Henry Allen & Susannah Moss 60
Appendix 7 Marriage Certificate of L. A. J. Camm & Violet May Allen 61
Appendix 8 Extracts from NSW Dept. of Mineral Resources 62
Appendix 9 Advocate Newspaper Reports 63
Appendix 10 Telegrams 66
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DEDICATION

This book is dedicated to the people who had a desire to search the unknown, the sailors, navigators
and the captains, who sailed into the unknown seas, around an island, which was called in olden times,
“Ophir
1
”, by the Phoenicians, “Sinim
2
” by the Hebrews, “Chui Hiao” by the Chinese, and many other
names, by other nations and civilisations.
All these names were allocated to this land, in the south beyond the Indian Ocean, long before Christ,
and certainly 2000 years before Captain Cook “discovered” Terra Australis, the “Great South Land” - a land
first thought to be worthless, and then found to be productive by early civilisations.
To the authors, who through many years of research, uncovered clear evidence that Cook did not
“discover” Australia - but merely “claimed it for the crown” - I say thank you.
To the people of the first fleet, both convict and free men, who struggled with the wilderness, came here
and cut out a piece of the jungle and made the first “modern” settlement at Sydney Cove, you have given us
a heritage to be proud of.
To the people who went north, to discover gold in a country where the trees were large and the
possibilities for freedom just as big, you are what the second part of this book is all about.
If you were born in Australia – you are part of this heritage. If you were born elsewhere and migrated
here, you are also part of this heritage.
If you are reading this book, you are charged with the responsibility to make the truth known, about our
real, true heritage, and how we can continue to make this nation – the Great South Land of the Holy Spirit, a
place to be proud of, for future generations. The Scriptures says: “The truth shall set you free”.
I trust that reading this book will lead you to that truth and it will set you free and give you the desire to
go on and do greater things for Australia.

COPYRIGHT

The contents of this publication remains the sole property of New Light Ministries & Consulting Services
Pty. Ltd. Permission is given to reproduce pictures, text and diagrams from this publication for teaching
purposes, provided the said text and/or diagrams are not sold for profit.
Where text or pictures have been taken from another source, this source is identified in the footnotes, so
that the reader may continue to expand his knowledge by reading other book sources, or go to web sites,
which have more detailed information about particular issues identified or raised in this book.

FOREWORD

New Light Ministries & Consulting Services Pty. Ltd. is pleased to release the eleventh book in the series
by Jeffry David Camm, called: - “THE COASTAL PIONEERS”.
The early settlers and pioneers of Australia had to suffer hardship and isolation for many months, as they
etched out a place for themselves in this harsh country.
History shows not only did they succeed, but that they were instrumental in establishing a country which
was to become a great nation – a nation referred to as “The Lucky Country”.
As I was doing research for this book, I have come across many interesting facts, by other
authors/researchers, which have drawn me to conclude that this is not the right place to start this story. The
“early settlers” that we were taught about in schools in the 1940’s - 1950’s were clearly not the sailors and
explorers who discovered the coastline of the Great South Land.
Evidence clearly shows that earlier explorers had visited this coastline in Old Testament times and left
their mark(s) to prove it. Please read on and find out for yourselves.


1
See Appendix 1
2
See Appendix 2
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CHAPTER ONE:
THE FORGOTTEN EXPLORERS

In the book entitled : Discovering Australia, by George Collingridge (1847-1931)
3
the author
identifies many items of evidence (from both Portuguese and Spanish writings) to prove that there were
visits by other civilisations to this continent prior to Captain James Cook in 1770.
He points out that the Portuguese, the Spanish, the French, the Dutch, and maybe even the Chinese,
were here on our shores in the 16
th
century, long before the British even considered exploring the Pacific
Ocean.
However, this only touches the surface of this interesting topic, as we look back further in time and find
out that other researchers have found concrete evidence that explorers came to this continent in Old
Testament times. There is evidence they established communities here with productive mining ventures as
well - but more about that later.
In the Indus Valley, around 3000 BC, there was a thriving community, with 2 major cites, with
approximately 30,000 people in each. One city was called Mohenjo-Daro (now called Moen-da-jero) and the
other was Harappa. Both of these cities were on the Indus River. This is in what is now known as the
Pakistani Punjab (since 1947).
In this region they grew wheat, barley, sesame, chickpeas and cotton. They manufactured cotton cloth
for export and records show that they traded far and wide by sea, with some of their artefacts found in the
Persian Gulf and parts of Mesopotamia.
They had their own system of writing, their own religion and were excellent town planners, with double
storey houses, running water and an early form of sewerage system. The houses were of manufactured
bricks, all of uniform size and texture, clearly indicating that they had developed a superior form of brick
manufacture to those civilisations around them.
It is possible that the manufacture of bricks and the export of bricks became another industry to
supplement the cotton.


Inscriptions on clay:
4

[713: Cone inscription of Ur-Nammu, the King of
Ur (2112-2095 BC) mentioning ships of Magan
(Oman) from Ur, in the Ur III Period. (Remember in
the Old Testament Scriptures in Genesis: Abraham
was called by God to come out of the land of Ur and
go to a land that he would be shown.)
[714]: Cuneiform tablet listing the cargo of a
boat going to Magan, from Lagash (Girsu) UR III
Period, circa 2100 BC.
[715]: Cuneiform tablets recording the inventory
of deposits of barley, available for distribution,
including one in a granary in the village of Meluhha.
This village was located in the old city-state of
Lagash. The name presumably reflects the fact that
the original founders, or inhabitants of the village
came from Meluhha. From Lagash, Ur III period,
dated to 2047 BC.

The Lands of “Dilmun”, “Magan” and Meluhha” that are mentioned in the Mesopotamian cuneiform
tablets are believed to be the countries of Bahrain, Oman and the Indus Valley civilisations respectively.
They traded various goods from east to west, as well as from west to east and this surely resulted in the
spread of beliefs and philosophies, along with the material goods being traded.
This is further indicated in writings of this period, where words and phrases in some languages seem to
have been adopted into other language patterns.


3
Discovering Australia by George Collingridge (1895)
4
From the MoenJoDaro.Org website (www.moenjodaro.org)
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Stone Vessels :
Elaborately carved vessels of a soft stone,
known as chlorite, made in eastern Iran, or Bactria
(Afghanistan) were important trade items in the late
third millennium BC. They were exchanged over a
vast area that included Mesopotamia, The Arabian
Gulf and the Indus Valley.

Trading to the West:
The distance from the mouth of the Indus River to Mesopotamia is approximately 2,000 Kms. Indus
merchants from sites such as Dholavira and Mohenjo-Daro covered this distance by sailing to various ports
along the shores of the Arabian Gulf and Mesopotamia.
It is not therefore illogical to suggest that these civilisations had boats, which would allow them to
undertake journeys of 2,000 Kms (or more) and then to return to their homeports.
If these merchants travelled to the West for 2,000 Kms, they would have knowledge of the trade winds
and of the monsoons. It is not unreasonable to assume that these merchants travelled 2,000 Kms in an
Easterly direction also, from India, across the Bay of Bengal, down the west coast of Thailand and through
the Malacca Straits, which we know was the route used to travel from India to China.
This would also have put them in contact with the many islands of what we know today as Indonesia and
probably to the west coast, or even the eastern coast of “Ophir”
5
or “Sinim
6
”.

Map of the Indus Civilisation

5
Please refer to Scriptural reference on “Ophir” in Appendix 1
6
Please refer to Scriptural references on “Sinim” in Appendix 2
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Map showing early trading routes of this area in 3000 BC

The depiction of a boat on the terracotta tablet (below) provides important evidence regarding navigation
by people from this region in ancient times. This boat had a hull made of bound reeds, with a cabin at
the centre and a double rudder near the stern. The birds depicted on this boat may provide evidence of
the practice of releasing birds from boats in order to determine the direction of land from the open sea.


As has been indicated earlier, this civilisation had its own form of measurements, own form of writing,
with a series of symbols and pictures, which were used to communicate their requirements. The symbols
were copied from the website of Moen Jo Daro mentioned previously.


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It is only in researching for this book that I realised that I have 2 replica plates, with symbols and
characters from this era, here in my own home. These were obtained in Pakistan from the area near Moen
Jo Daro, while I was there in the early 1980’s and now because of this research they are on display in this
book.





Plates from Moen Jo Daro

If you look very carefully at the plate on the right, just above the top horn, you will see the “Sign of the
Fish” which was used by Christians in the first centuries A.D. when the church was under persecution.
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Isn’t it strange that this symbol was already being used 3000 years before in another civilisation. Now we
have had this diversion about scripts, writing and early Christian history, let us get back to the sailors and the
explorers.
These early sailors referred to above, would have used the “North Star” as their main reference for
sailing at night, just as the Vikings and other seafaring nations of the northern hemisphere in later times.
In the book “Discovering Australia”, (page 100) it indicates that the travellers in the period 1503-1508
were told by the captain of their vessel that they had travelled so far south, that they were now unable to
use the “North Star” as a reference point for accurate direction, but would instead use a compass,
which pointed “North” as was the custom of European captains.
As a second check, the captain referred to a bright star among 5 other stars, which clearly
showed him the opposite direction to North – (being south). The stars were identified from drawings to
be the Southern Cross. He also stated that if they travelled past the large island called “Giava” they would
find that the days were only about 4 hours long.
[Note: If this is compared to later maps we see that at 15° south of Australia, this situation does in fact
occur, because you would be approaching the continent of Antarctica.]
It is therefore possible that in this period of time (1500-1508) sailor/explorers had travelled down the
western coast of Giava (mainland Australia) into the waters below Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania). I have
used the name “Giava” above. This is one of many names used during early times to identify the great South
Land.
In the book “A Concise History of Australia” by Clive Turnbull
7
, (page 15) he refers to early explorers
in this manner: “Who came next to Australia after the Aborigines it is impossible to say with certainty.
There are rumours in the Middle Ages of southern lands somewhere below India. And earlier myths
would have the Arabs and the Chinese as voyagers to Australian waters, as they may have been. The
Portuguese may have discovered part of the Australian coast before 1542. In 1610, Torres, the
Spaniard, passed through the Straits at the northern extremity of Australia, now called Torres Straits
and probably sighted the continent. The Dutch East India Company’s Duyfken, out of Bantam, Java,
followed the coast of Cape York Peninsula in the same region in 1606.”
We now look at other evidence provided by another researcher and it is used here with his permission.
The following compilation of facts is from the book entitled: Pyramids in the Pacific by Rex Gilroy.
8
This
table shows some of the civilisations that knew of the existence of a “land in the south” beyond the Indian
Ocean. This great southland was referred to by various names, at various times, by various civilisations, but
all refer to our nation, right here - Australia.

7
A Concise History of Australia by Clive Turnbull: ISBN 085902 241 2
8
Pyramids in the Pacific by Rex Gilroy: ISBN 0-646-39633-1 (1995)
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Year Civilisations Country was known as

Phoenicians Ophir – Land of Iron
Chinese Chui Hiao
Aztecs Culhuacan
Sumerians, Maoris & Peruvians Uru
Malays Giava
Hebrews Sinim
2000 BC –
1788 BC
Egyptians of the Middle Kingdom (12
th
Dynasty) Punt and also Kenti-Amenti
950 BC King Solomon (King of Israel) sent out Hiram (King of
Tyre - a Phoenician city) with out a fleet, to find the
legendary “Ophir” and get its riches.
Ophir – land of iron
800 - 700 BC Hebrews:
The Prophet Isaiah refers to the land of Sinim in Isaiah
49:12
Behold, these shall come from far: and, lo, these
from the north and from the west; and these from
the land of Sinim.

H5515, L'1'C , si,ni,m
seeneem' Plural of an
otherwise unknown name; Sinim,
a distant Oriental region:—
Sinim.

600 BC Anaximander in Myletus drew a map describing a
southern continent

300 BC Theopompus of Chios (drew a similar map and wrote
that far beyond India there was a great island where
Australia is now situated.)

239 BC Eratosthenes, the Greek Scholar drew a world map as
a sphere, on which he described the great southern
continent as “Ausio”.
It is interesting to note that in 239 BC people knew
that the world was round – NOT FLAT, as was told by
the people in the reformation times in Europe and in
Britain.
Greeks “Ausio”
It is clear from this and other evidence
that the Greek maritime and geographical
knowledge was far more advanced than
many scholars of later years have given
them credit.

There are many more pages of this evidence in Rex Gilroy’s Book entitled: “Pyramids in the Pacific”
which is available for all those who wish to find out the real truth about their country, as more and more
evidence is put together using available technologies of today - and more people are dedicated to searching
out the truth about the origins of this nation, even if it goes against “established history”.
Whether you want to know the truth or not is your business, all I can do is point you to the reference
books and leave the rest up to you.
In the scriptures, we are constantly reminded that we must
always check the pastor’s messages, to ensure that what he is
saying is true and does in fact come from the Scriptures. In a
similar way, I am challenging you to consider what I have written
in this, and the following chapters.
Please verify its accuracy by referring to the evidence put
forward by these researchers, (who are much more qualified than
I am) and have spent many years evaluating the evidence they
have found and put it into book form, for future generations to
evaluate and refer to, so they can know the truth – the real truth.
Even the Greeks in 300 BC knew that the world was round –
not flat – as the spherical earth in the sculptor indicates.
Hermes Spherical Globe (about 300 BC)

Britain could not have been as ignorant of Australia as
they may seem, having chosen the name “AUSTRALIA”, so
similar to the Greek name “AUSIO” of 239 BC.

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Chapter TWO: THE FORGOTTEN SETTLERS – THE EGYPTIANS

This information was made known to me in an article I received from an industrious Librarian, repeated
here for your information and to encourage you to ask your own librarians: “Where are these articles in our
libraries, so that we may learn to real truth, the real history and heritage of our nation?”

“Pyramids in Australia”

The town of Gympie, at Tin Can Bay, north of Brisbane, Queensland, is the unlikely site of a pyramid
complex. The first Europeans to come into the area in the 1830’s learned of their existence from the now
extinct Kabi speaking people of Gympie, known then as the Dhamuri.
According to the Aboriginals, brown skinned, blue eyed, blond haired beings, with Dolphin pendants
around their necks, came from the star Orion and built the pyramids and the temple sites, but water came in
and destroyed it all a long time ago. The ruins were taboo to the aboriginals, clearly indicating that they
had not built them.
The early European settlers took the stones of the pyramids and other buildings and used them as
foundation stones for the buildings in the main street of Gympie, including the local church wall,
which still stands.
There were stone statues, like the Easter Island statues - and also animal statues. These have since
been destroyed, or are hidden, but photos and sketches of them remain, from the first white men to come
into the area. It is also possible that the early mines and tunnels discovered under the pyramids in Gympie,
were in fact the tunnels used by the inhabitants of the area at that time to mine the gold and export it back to
Egypt and/or to Israel, to be used in the making of the Holy Temple by King Solomon. It is believed that this
temple was built at a much later date than the first people to come to mine at Gympie – long before 1000
BC. The temple was believed to be constructed around 900 BC.
This is further reinforced by the fact that aerial photos show the remains of an ancient rock harbour and
moorings under the sea off-shore at Tin Can Bay. This is explained because the sea water level has risen
approximately 60 metres since that time till the present day positions.
Our later history clearly indicates that gold was discovered near Gympie and that local mining was the
stable industry of that town for many years.
It is unfortunate that the Army decided to close up one of our most historical sites, and as a result,
prevent this nation from reaping the benefit of one of its most interesting tourist attractions.
9

The tunnels under the present township of Gympie, were dynamited by the Australian Army in the
1930’s. All but one of the pyramids were bulldozed into the ocean by the Australian Army in the 1950’s and
the lone survivor remains on private property, with a strict “no trespassing” policy”.
The pyramid was approximately 100 foot high and designed with a series of terraces up to 4 feet tall and
eight feet wide. The army sealed the entrance in the 1930’s, after investigating reports of cattle wandering
into the pyramid and never coming out, when an opening was still accessible. No reports or proper findings
are available.
In recent years, according to locals, the owner has attempted to destroy the pyramid, in the hope of
discouraging visitors to the site
10
. Artefacts have survived including the “Gympie Ape”, which was dug up in
1966.
It is thought to be a statue of the Egyptian God Thoth, who was often portrayed as an ape, another
resembling Ganesha from Indian mythology has also been found..
The Egyptian God “Thoth” is clutching the TAU, or the Cross of Life. This statuette is badly weathered
with age. Thoth was the God of Writing and of Wisdom, depicted as an ape by the Egyptians before 1000
BC, when he became an Ibis-headed human bodied deity, who recorded the judgement of the souls of the
Amenti, the after-world. Thoth’s symbol was the papyrus flower.
Other findings in coastal Australia include:
q Central Coast: A pyramid structure, at least twice the height and dimensions of the Gympie
example, has been found near the NSW Central Coast.

9
The army was requested to dynamite the tunnels because cattle were wandering into the mine shafts and getting
lost, resulting in loss of income for the farmers.

10
From my discussion with local identities it appears that most of the site has now been destroyed, which is a historical
& national tragedy. (Courtesy of the Librarian) www.crystalinks.com/pyramidaustralia.html
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q New Guinea: Five pyramids, identical to the Gympie structure, have been found in north
eastern New Guinea.
q Magnetic Island: There is a pyramid on Magnetic Island and a sphinx.

[Author’s Comment:]

It is interesting to reflect on the fact that these pyramids were known to various levels of State and
Federal Governments from 1830 until 1950 – a period of 120 years and yet our history books do not even
mention, or even hint at any other “visitors” to the Australian coastline prior to the Aboriginals
11
.
I would recommend that a major review of the textbooks on Australian history be made, to include this
information.

“Ancient Egypt Link with Australia” [An Article by Paul White – 1996
12
]

Egyptian hieroglyphs found in New South Wales:

After 5,000 years, Australia's amazing Hieroglyphs still struggle for recognition. The hieroglyphs
tell the tale of early Egyptian explorers, injured and stranded, in ancient Australia. The discovery centres
around a most unusual set of rock carvings found in the National Park forest of the Hunter Valley, 100 km
north of Sydney.
The enigmatic carvings have been part of the local folklore of the area for nearly a century with reports of
people who sighted them as far back as the early 1900's. The site was secretly visited by families "in the
know" in the 1950's and fell back into local mythology for a couple of decades until it was accidentally
rediscovered by a man looking for his lost dog.
The carvings are in a rock cleft, a large block of split sandstone on a cliff-face that has created a small
chasm or "chamber" of two flat stone walls facing each other that widens out from two to four metres and is
covered in by a huge flat rock as a "roof" at the narrow end.
The cleft is most cave-like and only accessible by a small rock chute from above or below, well disguised
from the average bush-walker. When you first come up the rock chute and climb into the stone hallway you
are immediately confronted by a number of worn carvings that are obviously ancient Egyptian symbols.
These are certainly not your average Aboriginal animal carvings, but something clearly alien in
the Australian bush setting. There are at least 250 hieroglyphs.
At the end of the chamber, protected by the remaining section of stone roof, is a remarkable third-life
sized carving of the ancient Egyptian god "Anubis", the Judge of the Dead.
The hieroglyphs were extremely ancient, in the archaic style of the early dynasties. This archaic style is
very little known and untranslatable by most Egyptologists who are all trained to read Middle Egyptian

11
Unfortunately I have been advised that much of this pyramid has been vandalised and/or destroyed. Some of the
stones from the foundations have been used to build a church wall – which is still standing.
12
This complete article may be found on the following website: www.crystalinks.com/pyramidaustralia.html

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upward. The classic Egyptian dictionaries only handle Middle Egyptian, and there are few people in the
world, who can read and translate the early formative style.
Because the old style contains early forms of glyphs that correlate with archaic Phoenician and
Sumerian sources one can see how the university researchers who saw them could so easily have thought
them to be bizarre and ill-conceived forgeries.
The ageing Egyptologist Ray Johnson, who had translated extremely ancient texts for the
Museum of Antiquities in Cairo, was eventually successful in documenting and translating the two
facing walls of Egyptian characters - which stemmed from the Third Dynasty.
The rock walls chronicle a tragic saga of ancient explorers shipwrecked in a strange and hostile land,
and the untimely death of their royal leader, "Lord Djes-eb".
A group of three cartouches (framed clusters of glyphs) record the name of "RA-JEDEF" as reigning
King of the Upper and Lower Nile, and son of "KHUFU" who, in turn, is son of the King "SNEFERU".
This dates the expedition just after the reign of King Khufu (known in the Greek as "Cheops" reputed
builder of the Great Pyramid) somewhere between 1779 and 2748 BC.
Lord Djes-eb may have actually been one of the sons of the Pharaoh Ra Djedef, who reigned after
Khufu. The hieroglyphic text was apparently written under the instruction of a ship's captain or similar, with
the corner glyph on the wall displaying the title of a high official or chief priest. The scribe is "speaking for his
Highness, the Prince, from this wretched place where we were carried by ship." The expedition's leader, as
mentioned before is described in the inscriptions as the King's son, "Lord Djes-eb", who came to grief a long
way from home. The hieroglyphics sketch his journey and his tragic demise: "For two seasons he made his
way westward, weary, but strong to the end.
Always praying, joyful, and smiting insects. He, the servant of God, said God brought the insects. Have
gone around hills and deserts, in wind and rain, with no lakes at hand. He was killed while carrying the
Golden Falcon Standard up front in a foreign land, crossing mountains, desert and water along the way. He,
who died before, is here laid to rest. May he have life everlasting. He is never again to stand beside the
waters of the Sacred Mer. MER meaning "love". There was a moat around the pyramid called the "waters of
Mer" in Egypt.
The second facing wall, which was much more seriously eroded, details the tragedy further. This wall
begins with the badly eroded glyph of a snake (Heft), with a glyph of jaws (to bite) and the symbol for 'twice'.
The snake bit twice. Those followers of the diving Lord "KHUFU", mighty one of Lower Egypt, Lord of the
Two Adzes, not all shall return. We must go forward and not look back. All the creek and riverbeds are dry.
Our boat is damaged and tied up with rope. Death was caused by snake (bite). We gave egg-yolk from the
medicine-chest and prayed to AMEN, the Hidden One, for he was struck twice."
Burial rituals, prayers and preparations are described. "We walled in the side entrance to the chamber
with stones from all around. We aligned the chamber with the Western Heavens." The three doors of
eternity were connected to the rear end of the royal tomb and sealed in. We placed beside it a vessel, the
holy offering, should he awaken from the tomb. Separated from home is the Royal body and all others.
The extraordinary 5,000 year-old story of the death and burial of "Lord Djes-eb" one of the sons of the
Pharaoh Ra Djedef. Visual observation of the site makes it obvious that the very worn carvings exposed to
the coastal weather would have to be several centuries to a thousand years old at least.
When first found the site was completely overgrown with thick vegetation and filled in with smashed rock
and a much higher soil line. A number of excavation attempts by interested parties have not turned up any
artefacts or bodies but sophisticated and expensive laser scanning techniques have not been applied.
There is significant evidence that the ancients were well aware of the Great South land. There
were both Sumerian and Mayan traditions of a "lost motherland" in the Pacific.
Australia appears under the name of "Antoecie" on the famous spherical world map of Crates of Mallos,
even appearing on the Greek map of Eratosthenes in 239 BC.
It seems fairly certain that the maritime civilisations of antiquity were quite capable of extensive ocean
voyages, particularly the early Egyptians, as evidenced by Giza's remarkable "Tomb of the Boat".
In the 1950's, a streamlined 4,500 year-old, hundred foot ocean-going vessel, was excavated from
right next to the Great Pyramid. In 1991 an entire fleet of even older boats was found buried in the
desert at Abydos in Upper Egypt.
According to the Cairo Times, in 1982, archaeologists working at Fayum, near the Siwa Oasis
uncovered fossils of kangaroos and other Australian marsupials.
There's also the strange set of golden boomerangs discovered by Prof. Carter in Egypt, in the tomb
of Tutankhamen in 1922.
The obvious question is this: Was the world created in only 6,000 years as is stated in the scriptures?
This would mean that as the earth continents started to drift apart, the distance between continental Africa,
Saudi Arabia and Australia would have been small, some 3,000 years ago, making it easier for tribes and
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vessels to travel to these places. [Also, according to experts on sea levels, the water level is now more than
60 metres higher than it was at the time of Moses, thus meaning that many areas would have been “dry
land” which now are under water. This also may explain why there are boomerangs in Egypt.]

Some of the rock drawings found in Australia
Egyptian Relics in Australia? – you be the judge




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Some more rock drawings found in Australia

The Gympie Ape:

A stone ape statue, possibility 3000 years old. The statue was unearthed in 1966 on Mr Dal K. Berry’s,
Wolvi Rd. property. The ape is made of conglomerate ironstone and shows a squatting ape figure. It is
believed to represent the Egyptian God Thoth in ape form.
A smaller stone idol unearthed near the Gympie Pyramid is also believed to represent the Egyptian God
Thoth in ape form clutching the Tau - or the Cross of Life. This statuette is badly weathered with age. Thoth
was the god of writing & wisdom, depicted as an ape by the Egyptians until about 1000 BC when he became
an Ibis-headed human bodied deity who recorded the judgement of the souls of Amenti, the after world.
Thoth's symbol was the papyrus flower.
An ancient Terraced Hill at least 6000 years old has been found on the outskirts of Gympie, off Tin Can
Bay Road. The Pyramidal structure is 100 foot high and consists of a series of terraces up to 4 feet tall and
eight feet across constructed of small and larger lumps of stone. It was recorded by the first white man
into the area in the 1830's.
A very small statuette of a squatting ape was found by Widgee Shire workman Mr Doug George from
near Traveston crossing. Mr George picked up the rock while working near the bridge. This is also believed
to be Thoth in ape form. Other interesting finds include:
q Unearthed at Noosaville on the Sunshine Coast, was an ancient Egyptian Jade Ankh or 'Cross
of Life'.
q Toowoomba: A group of seventeen granite stones were found with Phoenician
inscriptions. One had been translated to read "Guard the shrine of Yahweh's message" and
"God of Gods".
Isn’t it interesting that Toowoomba, which is spiritually alive, as a Christian community, would have in
its heritage a series of stones which come from another civilisation, which commands us to “Guard the
shrine of Yahweh’s message” and another which says: “God of Gods”
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We know from scripture that Almighty God is known as the God above all Gods. It is even referred to
quite clearly in the first of the 10 commandments, where Almighty God states that we (humans) shall
have no other gods before Him. He is to be in the number one place in our lives and in our hearts.
q Another inscription reads, "This is a place of worship of Ra" and "Assemble here to worship the
sun." Ra was the Egyptian sun god.
Ra was one of the false gods, worshipped by the Egyptians in the time of the pharaohs, one of the
gods aligned to satan, not to the Almighty, so satan also wants a piece of the action here in Toowoomba.






q Rex Gilroy in 1978 identified ancient Masonic Egyptian symbols among aboriginal cave art,
several miles from the 1910 Ptolemy IV coin discovery site.
q An Egyptian sun disc was discovered in 1950, carved into a cliff. The carving featured the
outline of a chariot, showing one of its wheels.
q Near Bowen, carvings were found on rocks, which looked like Egyptian hieroglyphs.
q A scarab beetle carved from onyx was dug up near the Nepean River outside Penrith (NSW).
q At Penrith a 50 foot stepped pyramid exists.
q West of the Blue Mountains (NSW) a similar 'stepped pyramid' to the Gympie example exists.
Although constructed of huge granite blocks it stands about 100 feet tall.
q In the central NSW late last century, a cult was recorded among the aboriginals who worshipped
a sky being called Biame. The soul judging functions of Biame were parallel to those of Thoth
who, in Egyptian mythology, conducted the spirits to Osiris, The god of the Dead, for judgement.
q Beside the Hawkesbury River,
very old aboriginal rock art depicts
strange visitors to the continent,
including people looking like
Egyptians.
q Aboriginal tribes of the NW
Kimberley's still worship a mother-
goddess identical to that once
worshipped by Gympie district
tribes and which resembles that of
ancient Middle East peoples.
q Kimberley tribes also include some
groups bearing apparent Middle
Eastern racial features and speak
many ancient Egyptian words in
their language.

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The obvious question is this: If the Aborigines were supposed to be in Australia for more than
40,000 years, with little or no contact with the “outside world” (as stated by “modern historians”)
how did they get Middle Eastern racial features – unless through sexual relations with Egyptian
visitors. The same question can be asked about the “Egyptian” words in their language.
In 1931 in the North West Kimberley's, Prof. A. P. Elkin, Professor of Anthropology at Sydney University
came upon a tribe of Aborigines “who had not met a modern day white man before.”
The professor was astounded when tribal elders greeted him with Ancient Secret Masonic hand signs.
He was struck by the startling sematic features present in the natives. He discovered the Aborigines
worshipped the sun. They also had an earth mother and Rainbow Serpent Cult.
Later he discovered many of the words spoken were of Egyptian origin. This is the area of the famous
Wandjina Cave Art. According to legend the Wandjina came from across the Indian Ocean in great vessels.
The Tjuringa sacred stones of the Kimberley region include a sun symbol identical to that of the Aten.
The solar deity worshipped in Egypt around 1000 BC. In Atonist art, the Sun was depicted as having little
hands that reached out to touch mankind. There was an Egyptian God named Aton connected to Akhenaton.
Arnhem land and Torres Straits’ people mummified their dead. On Darnley Island in the Torres Straits,
natives mummified their dead by removing their stomach contents. Then extracted the brains by making an
incision through the nostrils with a bone instrument. After inserting artificial eyes of pearl shell, they
embalmed the corpse and rowed it 2 miles westward out to sea in a canoe shaped like the 'Boat of Ra'
of the Egyptians, for internment on an island of the dead. [As if to imitate the Egyptians who ferried their
dead across the Nile to the West bank tombs.]
The natives of Arnhem Land also believed that the soul was conducted to the after life in a canoe rowed
by Willuwait - the boatman of the dead. If the deceased had led a good life he was allowed to enter Purelko,
the after world, If not, then he would be eaten by a crocodile.
This belief is identical to the teachings of the Osirian religion of Egypt where Thoth conducted the spirits
of the dead into the presence of Osiris for judgement. Here, if the souls sins were outweighed by a feather,
the body was devoured by the crocodile God Ba.
In 1875 the Shevert expedition retrieved a mummified corpse and an example of the canoe used
in funerary rites from Darnley Island. World renowned medical scientist Sir Raphael Cilento who
examined the corpse stated the incisions and method of embalming to be the same as those
employed in Egypt during the 21st to 23rd dynasties - over 2900 years ago.
On New Hanover Island, off the tip of New Ireland in 1964, an administration medical officer, Mr. Ray
Sheridan discovered what appears to be the remains of an ancient sun-worshippers temple of Egyptian
style. Among the monolithic stone blocks there was an idol, facing the rising sun with features half human,
half bird it stood 6 feet tall and weighed four tons.
Near there Ray Sheridan found the carving of a wheel complete with hub. The ruins reminded him of
ancient Sun-worship temples he had seen in Egypt during WWII.
In 1931 Australian Anthropologist, Sir Grafton Elliot-Smith examined mummified remains in a New
Zealand cave. He identified the skull as being that of an ancient Egyptian at least 2000 years old.
A gold scarab was also dug up in the district on another occasion. His papers seem to have mysteriously
disappeared from The Australian Academy of Science Library in Canberra.

The 3 pyramids in Egypt, referred to in the text here in
Australia

The image of the God Thoth found on a local
website, which was used after 1100 BC

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It was revealed in Japan about 10-15 years ago, that the school children were told that the history of
their country about World War II and the atrocities done by the Japanese was not correct.
A major revision of Japanese modern history books took place, to tell the Japanese nation the truth
about the Second World War, their involvement, their atrocities and their defeat.
I believe there is clear evidence to consider adding a few extra chapters to our Australian history books,
showing who the first explorers to identify and live in Australia really were – only time will tell if the educators
do this. All I can do is raise the questions.

Chapter THREE: THE “FIRST” SETTLERS? – THE ABORIGINES ?

Aboriginal folklore claims that the Aborigines were always in Australia
13
. However, most “modern”
anthropologists believe that the Aborigines migrated from Southeast Asia at least 40,000 years ago,
probably during a period when low sea levels permitted the simplest forms of land and water travel – refer
to previous mention of different sea levels.
A rise in sea level subsequently made Tasmania (Van Diemen’s Land) an island and caused some
cultural separation between its peoples and those on the mainland. However, if you use Christian Scripture
for dating then the following is probably more accurate dating.
These “original” Australians were essentially hunter-gatherers, without domesticated animals, other
than the dingo, which was introduced by the Aborigines between 3000 and 4000 years ago. The
Aborigines employed a type of "fire stick farming" in which fire was used to clear areas so that fresh
grazing grasses could grow, thereby attracting kangaroos and other game animals.
Aborigines also may have harvested and dispersed selected seeds. These widespread operations
may have been responsible for the extensive tracts of grassland which existed in Australia prior to the
arrival of the First Fleet (of British white men). There is evidence of careful damming and redirection of
streams, of swamp and lake outlets, possibly for fish farming.
Although the Aborigines were nomadic or semi nomadic, their sense of place was exceptionally
strong and they had an intimate knowledge of their home landscapes. A growing historical record points to
the existence of some permanent or semi permanent stone villages. The most recent 3000 years of
Aboriginal history, were characterized by accelerating changes based on the use of stone tools, the
exploitation of new resources, the growth of the population - and the establishment of long-distance
trading.
By the time of the first notable European settlement (on the east coast in 1788), Aboriginal people had
developed cultural traits and ecological knowledge that showed an impressive adaptation to Australia’s
challenging environments. They also had developed many complex variations between regional and even
local communities.
The total Aboriginal population at that time was estimated to be about 300,000. More than 200
distinct languages existed at the beginning of the 19th century. Bilingualism and multilingualism were
common characteristics in several hundred Aboriginal groups. These groups - sometimes called tribes -
were linguistically defined and territorially based.
During the first century of white settlement, there was a dramatic decline in the Aboriginal population
in all parts of the country. The decline resulted from the introduction of diseases, for which the Aborigines
had little or no acquired immunity; social and cultural disruptions; brutal mistreatment; and reprisals for
acts of organized resistance.
By the 1920’s, the Aboriginal population had declined to 60,000, much to the shame of some of our
forefathers who brutally killed them off for the slightest reason.
It is a terrible shame that the British Government of the day did nothing to stop this genocide, nor
pass laws to make it illegal. They (the British Government) still have a lot to answer for, some 200 years
later, as they have never said “sorry” to the Aboriginal people for the past genocide, nor offered any form
of compensation for their collective crimes. Some of the early settlers must also take responsibility for what
happened. (Remember, the sins of the fathers are passed to their children’s, children’s children.)


13
Excerpts from Microsoft Encarta.
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The picture on the left, is the picture we are so used to seeing – a set of boomerangs with aboriginal
paintings on them and even “Made in Australia”
Recent research however, seems to indicate a different origin for the Aborigines. In the Egyptian
museum there is a set of boomerangs, found not in Australia, but right there in Egypt, and buried for
hundreds of years. There is a drawing on the walls on one of the pyramids showing an Egyptian man
holding a boomerang. This is more than 3000 years ago.
There is also evidence that mining took place in several places in Australia, long before the 16
th
century,
in fact before the time of Christ. Who were these miners? It is unlikely that it was the aborigines, because
their knowledge of rudimentary tools indicate that they had not learned to use metals by melting them into
other forms, to be used to make axes,
spears, swords, etc.
Even though the Egyptians, the
Phoenicians and the Greeks were well
established in the Bronze age, it appears
that this technology was not passed to the
Aborigines.
I believe that these civilisations were
here in Australia long before they (the
Aborigines) came and that even when the
aborigines did arrive in Australia, the
technology was not shared with them.
We know from historical books and
from the Bible that the Egyptians had
chariots at the time of Moses, but there is
no evidence that Aborigines ever used the
technology of wheel making before the
“white men” arrived on the First Fleet in
1788.
There are many questions that need to
be answered to find out the truth about
these things. I hope in raising these issues
it will wet your appetites to dig further, by
asking your librarians for more information
on these subjects.



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Chapter FOUR: THE DUTCH COME TO NEW HOLLAND
(TERRA AUSTRALIS)

Many people in Europe believed that there existed a mighty land in the south, to counterbalance the
weight of the land masses in the northern hemisphere. However there was no proof of this being made
public by the year 1500. Whatever proof existed was kept well hidden, or it was destroyed in the great fire
of London. as it contradicted many theories of the time,
It is believed that the coast of Western Australia was probably visited by Spanish, French and
Portuguese ships in the early 16
th
century,
In March 1606, the small Dutch ship Duyfken
14
sailed
from the Indonesian island of Banda (Java) in search of
gold and trade opportunities on the fabled island of
Nova Guinea.
Under the command of Willem Janszoon, Duyfken
and her crew ventured south-east. They sailed beyond
Os Papuas (Papua New Guinea) and explored and
chartered part of the coast of Nova Guinea. They did
not find gold - but they did find the northern coast of a
huge continent - Australia. Captain Janszoon was the
first European to map and record Australia in history
so Duyfken’s voyage marks the beginning of
Australia’s recorded history. Captain Janszooon
mapped more than 300 miles of what is now the
Queensland coastline.
(The pictures shows a replica of the Original
Duyfken and a bad copy of the original map) In March
2006 (400 years later) it is planned to re-enact this
voyage, so that part of the true history of this nation is made known to more people.



In 1616, the Dutch navigator Dirk Hartog landed on an offshore islet (Rottnest island) and became the
first known European to set foot on Australian soil.
15

It is thought that these sailors would have sighted the west coast of Australia having been blown too
far east in the trade winds, after rounding the Cape at Cape town, on the way up to India to collect spices,
silks, to trade with the Chinese.

14
The Original Duyfken http://www.duyfken.com/original/index.html
15
"Western Australia," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
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Dirk Hartog, when he landed, considered the west coast of Australia a barren wasteland, not worthy
of claiming for his King, but to prove he had been there, he nailed an enamel plate with his name and the
name of his ship, together with the date of their visit on it and hoisted it up on a piece of timber fixed into
the sand some distance inland from the beach and there it stood for more than 150 years without further
recorded discovery.
Today, of course there is a thriving iron ore industry in
West Australian, very close to the discovery of Dirk
Hartog’s plate. What a pity – Australia could have been a
Dutch colony – not British, if Hartog had realised that the
barren hills he was looking at were in fact iron ore
mountains, not just barren desert.
This is a copy of Joan Blaeu’s map, dated 1659. The
64 dollar question is: “who else sailed down the Gulf of
Carpentaria and the West Coast of “New Holland” before
Captain Cook and mapped this coastline?”










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CHAPTER FIVE :
AUSTRALIA – THE GREAT SOUTH LAND OF THE HOLY SPIRIT
[LA AUSTRIALIA DEL ESPÍRITU SANTO]
16


On the 21
st
December 1605, The Quiros Expedition set sail from Callao in Peru, South America to
discover and map the land of Terra Australis (which is Latin for the “south land”). This was to be the last of
three expeditions into the Pacific. The first being the Mendaña Expedition from 1567-69, the second called
the Mendaña – Quiros Expedition of 1595, on which Pedro Fernandez de Quiros was the chief navigator and
finally the Quiros expedition of 1605-1606, where Captain Pedro Fernandez de Quiros was in charge of a
fleet of vessels.
It appears that Pedro was a very religious man and this is what has been written about him in the Word
for Today
17
, daily devotional magazine. “This year marks the 400
th
anniversary of the declaration of
Australia as the “GREAT SOUTH LAND OF THE HOLY SPIRIT” . The following is adapted from the
Christian History Research website: www.vision.org.au/400years.htm
“It may seem somewhat strange to include a Portuguese navigator amongst notable Australian
Christians. However, this remarkable man should not go unnoticed, and his life and deeds are worthy of
tribute. For it is to this man that we owe the very name of our country, and it is to this man’s “vision splendid”
that many look with longing fro a hope and a future – a land dedicated to the Holy Spirit.
This man was Pedro Fernandez de Quiros. He came to believe that he was divinely chosen to bring the
inhabitants of the southern land into the ‘true fold’ of the Catholic Church. With great festivity and
excitement, De Quiros took possession of this land on the 14
th
May 1606.
His proclamation stated: “Let the heavens, the earth, the waters with all their creatures and all
those here present witness that I, Captain Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, in these hitherto unknown
parts, in the name of Jesus Christ, Son of the Eternal Father and of the Virgin Mary, God and true
man, hoist this emblem of the Holy Cross on which His person was crucified and whereon He gave
His life for the ransom and remedy of all the human race … on this Day of Pentecost 14
th
May 1606….
I, Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, in the name of the Most Holy Trinity take possession of all the islands
and lands that I have newly discovered and shall discover as far as the pole (South Pole) …. In the
name of Jesus …. Which from this time shall be called Australia del Espiritu Santo, with all its
dependencies and belongings; and this for ever, and so long as right exists ….”
At a certain signal that was given to the ships, they fired off all their guns with full charges,; the soldiers
discharged their muskets and arquebuses, and the gunner sent off rockets and fire-wheels. In the middle of
all this noise, all shouted with almost infinite joy, and many times: “Long live the Faith of Christ”.
What a dream this man had! Had he sailed further south, Aussies might all have been Spanish –
speaking Catholics! De Quiros came within an ace of discovering mainland Australia, and not for want of
determination or faith. But God’s will was otherwise disposed, and it was left to other Europeans of
another denomination, to found and colonise Australia. However, for many people of faith, the dream of
Australia del Espiritu Santo remains.
For most Christians today, we recognise the term, or phrase, “The Great South Land of the Holy Spirit”
and there are songs which we sing in churches today professing this claim: “This is the great South Land
of the Holy Spirit, a land of red dust plains and summer rains…” but I believe there would be very few
who would know from where this phrase originated – as explained above.
As we move into this year (2006) and approach Pentecost Sunday (and the 400
th
anniversary of the
naming of this nation), let us all come and give thanks for the wondrous bounty and heritage we have had
bestowed upon us. Let us never forget the prophetic words which have been spoken over this nation, by
great men of God in different centuries in the past (and present).
Let us not grieve or quench the Holy Spirit, to whom this country has been dedicated 400 years ago.

16
Please refer to La Austrialia Del Espiritu Santo volumes I & II for more detailed information
17
The Word for Today, written by Bob & Debby Gass, Feb, Mar, Apr ’06 edition
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Map of Australia, with De Quiros’ Prayer for the Great South Land of the Holy Spirit




Map of the three voyages – dated 1606.
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As we can see from the maps indicated above and on the previous page, there is a lot of “Australian
History” which has somehow been left out of the “history” books which the Education Systems of Australia
dish up to school students. It appears that if it is not “British” it doesn’t get a mention.
Isn’t this a form of censorship??? Maybe it should be taken up at the highest level and corrected, or shall
we go the way of other countries who just “pretend” what the truth is.




Quiros Table showing the list of islands discovered with the geographic locations indicated.


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CHAPTER SIX : COOK “DISCOVERS” AUSTRALIA

At first, England’s involvement in Australia appeared likely to go the way of the Spanish and Dutch,
but in the late 17th century the English launched two expeditions. The first one, in 1687 to 1688, was led
by a buccaneer, William Dampier, who landed in the northwest.
When he returned to England, he urged further voyages in pursuit of the continent’s supposed
wealth.(This reinforces the theory that the British already knew of the “Great South Land” and it’s
supposed riches mentioned in ancient documents.) The second expedition—along the western coast in
1699—resulted in a rather dismal assessment of the land’s potential. English interest in the continent
declined accordingly.
The 18th century in Western Europe ushered in the Age of Reason, when philosophers and scientists
stressed the value of global discovery, of learning more about the earth and in collecting unusual flora and
fauna from around the globe. These inquiries fit well with Britain’s growing power as a maritime empire.
18

Cook, James (1728-79), British explorer and navigator, famous for his three great voyages of
exploration in the South Pacific Ocean and the North American coastal waters. Cook, popularly called
Captain Cook, was born in Marton, England, the son of a farm labourer. After spending his early years as
an apprentice with a firm of ship owners, he enlisted in the British navy in 1755. Within four years he had
become a master, and he spent the years 1756 to 1767 charting the North Atlantic coastal waters off
Newfoundland and Nova Scotia and the Saint Lawrence River below Quebec.
In 1768, as lieutenant in command of the Endeavour, he undertook his first great voyage to the South
Pacific, on which he safely carried a group of British astronomers to the recently discovered island of Tahiti
to observe the transit of the planet Venus across the sun in June 1769. He then proceeded to New
Zealand, taking formal possession of parts of both main islands and accurately charting 3860 km (2400 mi)
of coastline for the first time.
In 1770 he “discovered” the
eastern coast of Australia, which he
charted and claimed for Great Britain
under the name of New South
Wales.
19
He also named several
islands along the coast – one being
Solitary Island – which is just off the
coast, where Coffs Harbour is now
established.
Cook got caught up in the Great
Barrier Reef and he was required to
make repairs before continuing his
journey. His journeys and those of
other explorers are indicated on the
map below.






18
"Australia," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
19
"Cook, James," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


Solitary Island with operational lighthouse
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HM Bark “Endeavour”

This relatively small bark class vessel,
sailed by Captain Cook, went around the world
and changed the history of the modern world we
now live in – but research shows that earlier
boats made by the Vikings from Norway went
across to Iceland and then on to the Americas.










This replica Viking ship is found in
Petersburg – Alaska and clearly shows that
Americans now recognise that Christopher
Columbus was not the first person who
“discovered” America.








Similarly, it has been proven that papyrus
boats were able to cross the Indian and Pacific
Oceans, so it is not impossible for the records
and artefacts which have been found here in
Australia to have been left here by genuine
explorers long before Christ, as is indicated in the
Old Testament and in the Egyptian & Phoenician
historical records.



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Omani Boat in Muscat harbour

Sinbad’s Replica ship

Omani Dhows under construction

In Early 1982 a replica of the boat reported to have been used by Sinbad the sailor, was launched from
Muscat in the Sultanate of Oman, (using only old-style traditional methods of construction) to prove that early
ships travelled from the Arabic countries right across to China.
Rani and I were fortunate enough to be in Muscat, Oman when this epic voyage started and we were
there to see the ship returned several months later after this victorious voyage. This only further reinforces
the evidence that early settlements existed in AUSTRALIA, long before “Captain Cook”.

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CHAPTER SEVEN: THE FIRST FLEET

"..at 4 am fired the gun and made the signal to weigh, weighed and made sail, in company with the
hyena frigate, supply armed tender, six transports and three store ships, at 9 fired a gun and made
the signal for the convoy to make more sail."
With these words the logbook of HMS Sirius recorded the departure of what we know today as "The First
Fleet". The eleven ships of the fleet under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip RN took their leave from
Portsmouth, England early on Sunday 13 May 1787 bound for a virtually unknown shore eight long months -
and half a world away. The escort vessel, HMS Hyaena stayed with the fleet until it was clear of the English
channel and into open waters.

Charlotte Borrowdale Alexander
Some the ships of the First Fleet


Fishburn Golden Grove HMS Sirius


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HMS Supply Lady Penrhyn Prince of Wales

Aboard were some 750 convicts from Britain’s
overcrowded prison system. They were bound for
Botany Bay, there to establish the first European
settlement on Australian soil.
20

The first fleet saw the start of the “Boat people”
to come to Australia, however with one major
difference. The boat people of the 20
th
and 21
st

centuries leave their countries to escape the terror or
persecution of the regimes in power, whilst the “boat
people of 1787” were carefully chosen by the finest
magistrates and judges in the United Kingdom and
sent to Australia because of their crimes. They had
no choice in the matter, they were forcibly
transported to this nation.

Scarborough
The ships set off from England under the responsibility of Captain Arthur Philip in the middle of 1787 and
arrived in Botany Bay in early January 1788. They found no fresh water at Botany Bay and decided it was
not a pleasant site for a colony and moved to the next bay, Port Jackson.
This later became know as Sydney Cove, then as Sydney Harbour, where they raised the Union Jack on
January 26
th
1788, the day we now celebrate as Australia Day. But not so the aborigines, who were to
receive a terrible reception from the “new” arrivals.
The sketch below
21
shows how the early colony was to be established. But that is enough about Sydney
Cove, because greater researchers and authors than I have committed many books to the this topic. Let us
go on with the story about The Coastal Pioneers.

20
Extract from the account : The First Fleet 1787-1788 The Voyage
21
from the National Library of Australia
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CHAPTER EIGHT:
EARLY SETTLEMENTS IN NEW SOUTH WALES

From the writings of Rev. Sir Marcus L. Loane, in his book “Hewn from the Rock”
22
we get a rather
interesting insight to early settlements in New South Wales, as he recounts the events and problems of the
early Christian Chaplains, who were commissioned by the Crown of England, to come to New South Wales
and to teach and maintain good Christian moral values.

Development of Towns in New South Wales
23


This is a different method of documenting the development of Australia and the region. I have used the
commencement of “church, or other services” in each place to denote its existence. This may seem strange
to some readers, but many do not realise that Australia was founded on very strong Christian evangelical
principles.
The first Christian Service was held in Sydney Cove one week after the fleet arrived on the 3
rd
February
1788 by the Rev. Richard Johnson, Chaplain to the Colonies.
It was held under a “great big tree” with a mixed group in the congregation of soldiers and convicts. The
text for that first service was from Psalm 116:12: “What shall I render unto the Lord for all His benefits
towards me?”
To some of the convicts this may have seemed a strange sermon theme, especially as they had been
forcibly taken from their homes and loved-ones in England, charged, convicted of some minor crime, like
stealing a half loaf of bread and ordered to be “transported to the colonies”.
But God had a purpose for them here in this land and many cases are shown where their original talents
and skills were made use of here at Sydney Cove, designing buildings, constructing roads and bridges,
which still stand today. Church Services were extended to Parramatta in 1790. This was followed by
services to Toongabbie in 1791.
Many people probably do not realise that Australian missionaries went out into other countries while we
were yet still a very young colony. Richard Johnson commenced services on Norfolk Island among the
soldiers and convicts in 1791 – just three (3) years after the colony was established.
He sent Rev. James Bain to Norfolk Island in 1792, where he remained until recalled by Grose in 1794.
He then returned to England. Samuel Marsden replaced Rev. James Bain as Assistant Chaplain of the
Colonies in March 1794.
Richard Johnson was very concerned with the illiteracy of convicts, free settlers, aborigines and the lack
of formal education in the colony. He should be recognised as the pioneer of education in this nation.
By March 1792 he had established schools in Sydney, Parramatta and Norfolk Island. There were more than
150 students in the school in Sydney some six years later.
It was said by John Newton (the composer of the famous hymn Amazing Grace) about Richard Johnson:
“The seed you sow in the Settlement may be sown for future generations and be transplanted in time
far and near. I please myself with the hope that Port Jackson may be the spot from whence the
Gospel light may hereafter spread in all directions”.
This hope outlined above is what actually happened. The Gospel of Jesus Christ went out from Sydney
Cove to New Zealand, New Guinea, to the South Sea Islands and to most parts of Asia and Africa within the
next 100 years.
Samuel Marsden received a Crown Grant in Hunters Hill of 100 acres in 1794 and later a further 101
acres in grants. He purchased an additional 239 acres from other settlers. By 1805 his holdings had
increased to 1730 acres and he was running over 1000 head of sheep, as well as cattle, pigs, growing fruit
trees and a market garden.
His land holdings expanded rapidly after the discovery of a way over the Blue Mountains by Blaxland,
Lawson & Wentworth in 1812. He had holdings in Hunter’s Hill, Parramatta, Windsor, Richmond, and beyond
Bathurst. His three daughters received grants along the Molong Creek, which later developed into the
property known as Gamboola Station. In 1795, Samuel Marsden was appointed magistrate of the Hunter
Valley.

22
Hewn From the Rock by Marcus L Loane ISBN 909827 68 0
23
Extracts from the book entitled: “Hewn from the Rock” by Rev. Sir Marcus Loane KBE MA DD
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In the early days it was not uncommon for clergy in England to have the role of “moral teacher” and
“legal disciplinarian”. Here in the colonies this was necessary for the civil authorities to be able to carry out
their duties.
Unfortunately for Marsden, his role as a magistrate caused him a lot of trouble, in that his punishments
were more severe compared to other clergy/magistrates of that period.
Can you imagine hearing a sermon on Sunday, then being arrested and facing the same pastor (now the
magistrate) who tells you: “I told you last Sunday in church that the Bible says “ Thou shall not steal” but
here you are before me charged with stealing. Well I have to forgive you for your sin because I am a
Christian – but as the magistrate, I have to order your punishment. Bailiff – take this man out and give him
ten lashes – one for each of the 10 commandments”.
Most people did not understand Marsden’s vision(s) for this country and what potential He foresaw the
sheep industry would have to this nation. In 1813 he exported the first 8000 lbs of prime wool from Australia
back to England and so became the real pioneer of the wool export industry.
Marsden was a many facetted person, who wanted the gospel to be spread far and wide. In 1798
missionaries who had been in Tahiti returned to Port Jackson, among them Rowland Hassall, who was later
to become one of Marsden’s most capable farm managers.
In 1806 Samuel Marsden - purchased with his own funds, a small ship called the Hawkesbury, so that
the missionaries could travel among the islands of the South Pacific. In 1812 King Pomare made a
commitment to Jesus Christ and by 1814 there were more than 50 converts on Tahiti alone.
In December 1815 Marsden wrote to the Directors of the London Missionary Society the following words
about the missionaries: “I rejoice exceedingly that their labours are at last crowned with wonderful success.
The natives of the Society Islands have literally cast their gods into the fire.”
Marsden’s attention was then directed towards New Zealand because of visits by Maoris to Port Jackson
in whaling vessels. In 1803 a Maori chief called Te Pahi visited Sydney Cove and regularly asked questions
about God, Jesus Christ and the English form of religion. In addition he often attended church services in
Sydney and Parramatta.
In 1808 Marsden discussed a proposal with the Church Missionary Society to have missionaries go and
establish a work in New Zealand. As a result of this discussion William Hall, a carpenter and John King, a
textile worker came to Sydney Cove to start this work in New Zealand. They arrived in Australia in February
1810 only to learn that there had been a Maori massacre of the crew of the Boyd in the Bay of Islands a few
months earlier.
In the meantime Marsden set about putting these two “missionaries” to work among the Aborigines in
and around Parramatta.
In 1814 Marsden - purchased with his own funds, a 110 ton brig called the Active, to transport the
families, provisions and supplies to New Zealand. On this voyage was William Hall (mentioned above) and
Thomas Kendall, a school teacher. Their task was to reconnoitre the Bay of Islands and the surrounding
areas. They returned to Sydney with several Maori chiefs and the Governor at last allowed Marsden to go to
New Zealand to commence this important work.
He sailed from Port Jackson on 28
th
November 1814 with Kendall, Hall and King, together with their
wives and five children At this occasion he is recorded as saying: “I hope to erect the standard of Christ’s
kingdom there and to hear the sacred trumpet sound the glad tidings of salvation.”
They crossed the 1,000 miles of the Tasman Sea and anchored inside a cove in the Bay of Island on
23
rd
December 1814. The next day plans were made to hold the first-ever church service in New
Zealand.
On Christmas morning 25
th
December 1814, with the text given by the voice of angels to the shepherds
in Bethlehem some 1800 years before, his voice rang out: “Behold I bring you good tidings of great joy.”
(Luke 2:10)
“In this manner the Gospel has been introduced into New Zealand and I fervently pray that the glory of it
may never depart from its inhabitants till time shall be no more” wrote Marsden of this special historic
occasion.









[Comment]: It is interesting to note that here was a man, called by God to preach the gospel and to
administer moral justice to the community.
“Out of his own funds” he purchased 2 ships to be used for the transportation of missionaries, their
families, goods and supplies to other countries, so they could commence their missionary work.
Some 200 years later I do not see ministers of religion in the Christian churches in Australia with the
same amount of zeal to give up their own lifestyle and comfort zones to purchase transportation
vehicles, to assist missionary work in other countries. Look where we are now and how far we have
fallen.
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Till the end of his life his love for the ministry in New Zealand was very close to his heart and he made a
further 8 trips to New Zealand to inspect the work and to encourage the new converts and the missionaries
alike.
His last visit was in 1837 and Maoris came from near and far to have “one last very long steadfast
look at the old man, because he cannot live long enough to visit us again”.
At this stage there were in New Zealand:
· 11 mission stations
· 35 missionaries
· 51 schools
· 178 communicants
· 2176 worshippers
In 1836 William Grant Broughton became the first Bishop of Australia and Samuel Marsden was able to
transfer some of his duties and live a quieter life.
He had consecrated churches in:
· Parramatta in 1803
· Church Hill in 1810
· Windsor in 1821
· Hobart in 1823
· King Street in Sydney in 1824
He was the first President of the New South Wales Auxiliary of the Church Missionary Society and
promoted missionary projects among the Aborigines, the first being in the Wellington Valley in 1832. He
died in the parsonage at Windsor on 12
th
May 1838 and was buried in St. John’s Cemetery in Parramatta.
After his death the Church Missionary Society paid him this tribute: “With paternal authority and
affection, and with solemnity of one who felt himself to be standing on the verge of eternity, he then gave his
parting benediction to the missionaries and the native converts”
The services of the first two chaplains to Sydney Cove covered a span of fifty years. Rev. Samuel
Marsden was a Chaplain for forty-four years of that period.
It is said that both Richard Johnson and Samuel Marsden were third generation evangelists “of the
awakening” under Whitfield and John & Charles Wesley.
As a result of their untiring efforts their names must be held in honour by the churches in both countries
until “time shall be no more”.
In the late 1700’s the Government of England, under the kingship of George III considered it of great
importance that a Chaplain be appointed, to go with, console, counsel and preach Christian values to the
people who were going to create this new colony and a new nation.
Some 200 years later here in Australia, we have stooped to a position where in some states it is now not
lawful for Christian religious education to be taught in public schools, Creation Theory, as told in the Bible is
forbidden in state schools and Evolution Theory in now widely taught in our schools and universities.
In just 6 generations we have moved away from strong Christian principles to a moral world view which
is satanic in nature, with little or no recognition of a Supreme Power, which rules all of creation.
The sanctity of life, the definition of marriage, and the rule of law, are now all in jeopardy. Now the rights
of sinful minority groups (gays & lesbians) are more important than the truth that is clearly spelled out in the
Holy Scriptures.
Clergymen have been charged under the vilification laws from saying things about Muslims which is
clearly written in their Book – the Quran. They have been charged and found guilty for speaking the
truth !!!
Below is a list of Christian Chaplains and ministers who came to Australia in our early formative years.
We should never forget them.
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Name Arrived
Port
Jackson
Date Comments about their service Died
in
Richard Johnson “ 1788 Returned to England in 1800 1827
James Bain “ 1791 Returned to England in 1794
Samuel Marsden “ 1794 St. John’s Parramatta 1838
Henry Foulton “ 1800 Castlereagh & Richmond 1840
William Cowper “ 1809 St. Phillip’s Sydney 1858
Robert Cartwright “ 1810 Collector 1856
Benjamin Vale “ 1814 Returned to England 1816 1863
John Youl “ 1816 Tasmania in 1819 1827
Richard Hill “ 1819 St. James, Sydney 1836
John Cross “ 1819 Port Macquarie 1858
George Augustus Middleton “ 1820 Resigned from the ministry in 1827
Re-Licensed in 1837
1848
Thomas Reddall “ 1820 Campbelltown 1838
Thomas Hassall “ 1822 Cowpastures (Cobbitty) 1868
Frederick Wilkinson “ 1825 Suspended in 1830
Re-Licensed in 1833
Returned to England in 1837
1866
Thomas Hobbs Scott “ 1825 Returned to England 1829 1860
Matthew Devenish Meares “ 1825 Retired in 1860 1878
John Espy Keane “ 1825 Returned to England in 1841
Charles Pleydell Neale Wilton “ 1827 Newcastle 1859
Elijah Smith “ 1828 Returned to England in 1831
Returned to NSW in 1851
1870
John Vincent “ 1828 Penrith 1854
Joseph Docker “ 1828 Resigned in 1833 1865
William Grant Broughton “ 1829 Consecrated Australia’s first Bishop in
1836
1853
Thomas Sharpe “ 1830 Retired in 1870 1877
Charles Dickinson “ 1831 Hunter’s Hill 1839
George Innes “ 1831 The King’s School, Sydney 1832
Robert Forrest “ 1832 The King’s School, Parramatta 1854
Harold Tarlton Stiles “ 1833 St. Matthews, Windsor 1867
George Keylock Rusden “ 1834 Maitland 1859
William Macquarie Cowper “ 1834 Stroud 1902

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CHAPTER NINE:
My Early Descendants Arrive in the Great South Land

In 1802, Master Peter Allen was born in Lancashire, England. Some sixteen years later, in 1818, Miss
Margaret King, was born in Waterford, Ireland.
Although I have been unable to find out how they came to Australia, or when they met, it is clear that they
did, because in 1850 they were married in Kiama
24
on the south coast of NSW, where they established
themselves as farmers, in a place called Jamberoo, and commenced to have and raise their family.
You can see from the picture that the house is very
rudimentary, with a bark/wood shingle roof over what
appears to be the kitchen (or the original house) and a timber
roof for the extension, which was probably built to house the
growing number of children.
By 1867, when Henry Allen was born at Jamberoo
25
, they
already had six (6) surviving sons and two (2) girls, with one
son dying in that space of time (from birth till 1867). I did not
know it at the time, but he was to become my great-
grandfather.
On the other side of my family comes my distant relatives
Mr & Mrs Bernard Moss (my great-great grandfather & G-G
Grandmother), who I believe were involved in the early
timber and boat building industries, (as later photos show)
finding and felling red cedars for use in the manufacture of
quality furniture. They were married on 6
th
November 1878
and commenced to build their lives together.
In 1881, Miss Susannah Moss was born in Newtown to Bernard Moss and Mary Mc Meneming. At age
15 years of age Susannah married Henry Allen in St. Mary’s Catholic Church in Maclean and they moved to
Mc Auley’s Headland to set up house. I did not know it at the time, but she was to become my great-
grandmother.
All four of the parents were at this wedding.
26
But there are some interesting years missing before this all
happens.

The Clarence Town Settlement

By 1834, settlers had moved into the Newcastle and
Shoalhaven districts in search of timber, to supply vast
amounts for the growing settlements in Sydney, Parramatta,
Richmond and Windsor and a full-time pastor was assigned
to Newcastle (1827), Maitland and Stroud (1834).

Clarence Town had become a thriving settlement on the
banks of the Chichester River, upstream from Newcastle and
was fully navigable to small paddle wheel and other small
steamer vessels.
Several ships were built there, because the depth of the
river was considerable, there was an abundance of suitable
timbers close by - and it was easy access to the sea
downstream.






24
See copy of the marriage certificate in Appendix 4
25
See copy of his birth certificate in the appendix 5
26
See copy of the marriage certificate in Appendix 6
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Early tree felling – using axes and cross-cut saws.
No chain saw back then to make the work easy.
It was just plain hard yakka




Early timber was hauled out of the forest by teams of
bullocks or horses, ready for transport to the mill.
In many cases, the mills were located close to the
actual timber sites.





Early houses built by the timber getters.




Early Timber mill, using a steam engine.



Grace Moss with three of her children. (Edward in
the centre) taken in Clarence Town in circa 1870.
Grace and her husband went on to celebrate their
diamond wedding anniversary (60 years married).
She was still alive when I was born in 1943, with 5
generations alive at my birth.

Grace Moss
Mr & Mrs Henry Allen (Nee Susannah Moss)
Violet Camm (Nee Violet Allen)
Leslie Allen Camm (my dad)
Jeffry David Camm – me!

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A Large load of timber ready to be transported to a local mill
to make timber for many projects in our early nation


In Search of Gold

In the early 1800’s alluvial gold was discovered in “Cavvanba” – (now known as Byron Bay). Eugene
(Garney) Moss and Henry Allen decided to go and make their fortunes, because “it must be easier than
building boats, or cutting down trees for a living”.
They did not have any money, so they decided to walk from Clarence Town to Byron Bay. Of course
they had no idea of how far it was, or what was in front of them, as far as mountains and rivers were
concerned - it was just up north a bit.
They packed up their swags, with a few pounds of flour for making damper and some corned beef, a
couple of fishing lines, an axe and a piece of tarpaulin, to protect themselves from the rain and started off on
their journey.

Map of New South Wales as of 1861

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An early photo of Henry Allen’s house. Circa 1890.
I am sure that these two people did not have a copy of this map, because if they had, they may have
never started this journey and we would not have been established in Woolgoolga and Coffs Harbour in
1896.
Little is known of their journey, except it took a couple of months and a few scares along the way, as
they had to cross large rivers which were salt water. At one stage they had just crossed a large river and
looked back to see a fin coming in toward the bank. They did not wait to see if it was a shark or a porpoise –
but they were off as fast as could run, thankful that they had reached the shore in safety. I think that for
future salt water river crossings they used a raft to cross, as they did not want to see anymore fins up close.
On one occasion I recall my great grandfather telling me that they came to the top of a hill one morning
and out there before them was a wonderful site, the sun just breaking over the mountains, with another river
to cross in the foreground. Maybe it was the view like I have below.




Whatever the outcome, they did eventually
arrive at Byron Bay, and set about searching for
gold.
They must have found some because Mr. Allen
was able to come back and purchase a large tract
of land in what is now Woolgoolga.
He set about building a house and setting up
the Wedding Bells Mine and was able to mine for
more gold. This house was constructed on the land
which now houses the Sunset Caravan Park in
Woolgoolga.
From the Ministry of Mines records
27
I have
found that he was able to mine this site for some
years before water flooded in and it became too
dangerous to continue.
If you review the NSW Ministry of Mines
reports you will see that they extracted 242 oz. of
gold from this mine in one year (1897).
To give you some example of how successful
this mine was, let us compare it with today’s prices of US$ 500 per ounce, making this mine worth over US$
121,000 per annum. The other thing to be remembered was that the whole of the Coffs Harbour basin could
have been purchased for 50 pounds sterling and you could buy 6 loaves of bread for one penny, which in
today’s currency is half a cent.
One must remember that there were no earth-moving machines, no electricity, no automatic crushers,
no ram drills, etc. it was all done by hand, using a pick, a hammer and a chisel and carrying out the ore in
wheelbarrows, or on donkey trolleys, pushed by adults, or pulled by mules, or small horses. However, when
it became too dangerous to mine because of the water seepage, he turned his hand to other things.
Remember folks, there was no unemployment benefits back then – no Centrelink to give you hand-outs if
you were out of work. If you did not work - you did not eat.!!!
Not to be outdone, or defeated, he established the second banana plantation in the Woolgoolga area
and it was not uncommon for them to reap a bunch to the case off this plantation. So in this settlement, he
commenced to eek out a living for himself and his family.

27
See Ministry of Mines records in Appendix 8
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Henry Allen and his son Harry Allen were very good rifle shots and before the First World War, they both
won the King’s Shoot on successive years, receiving awards which I have been able to keep for future
generations.
When The First World War broke out, despite being essential service personnel, they both joined up and
went to war, coming home only after suffering mustard gas poisoning in the trenches. When the war was
over he was one of the returned soldiers who provided the timber, the saw mill and the provisions to build
the first RSL Club house in Woolgoolga. His name and that of his sons and other relatives are listed in the
war memorial there – who served in the First & Second Word Wars. So, we have looked at the Allen’s and
the Moss’s and now a new character comes into the story.
Around 1870, Joseph Camm and his wife Emmie Margaret Lynch arrived in Australia and proceeded to
establish a contracting business in Victoria.
In 1890, in Canterbury, Victoria, Leslie Albert Joseph Camm was born. Little is known of his early life
except that by 1910 he had moved north and established himself as a builder in Woolgoolga and the
surrounding areas. Mr. Camm also signed up to go to the First World War, but first he got married to Violet
May Allen on the 18
th
October 1915
28
. On the 8
th
October 1916 my father, Leslie Allen Camm was born.

CHAPTER TEN : WOOLGOOLGA - A THRIVING VILLAGE

Woolgoolga was increasing in size and timber, bananas, tobacco and sugar cane were being grown and
exported to Sydney Cove by local trading ships.
The problem was that there was no good anchorage and the goods had to be ferried out to the trading
ship at anchor off the coast in small boats, or the logs floated out and hauled aboard by rope winches.
To overcome this problem the locals decided to build a jetty so that the ships could anchor and
load/offload with much more ease. There was plenty of timber so they started to fell the trees, ready to move
them to Woolgoolga beach to construct the jetty.
Another problem was that the area was very marshy and bullock teams were not able to work efficiently,
as the wagons kept getting bogged in the mud. How to solve this problem? Simple – build a railroad.
They did not have steel for the rails – so they made the rails out of ironbark logs – cut to size. They did
not have a steam engine – so they used horses and bullock teams to haul the timber to the beach site to
construct the jetty along to railway line they had constructed.















28
See Appendix 7 – Leslie Albert Joseph Camm Marriage Certificate

After 4 years the jetty was completed

Visitors on the jetty after the First World War


First timber railroad constructed in Australia



Creeks were not a problem to the early settlers – just build a
bridge across it and keep the project going.
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Despite the obvious hardships, the jetty was completed and very soon it became a thriving source of
industry, as goods were exported to Sydney and passengers were able to travel Sydney – Woolgoolga by
boat, without the risk of ending up in the sea after being loaded into a cradle to be let off the ship. One of the
regular ships to come into Woolgoolga harbour was the SS Glenreagh (pictured below).


The Allen’s, the Moss’ and the Camm’s all had one thing in common – they loved fishing, so they used
the expertise that they had learnt in Clarence Town and decided to build a boat, call the “Never Can Tell”.
It is said that it got its name from the fact that when these guys went out to sea to fish, you “Never Can
Tell´ when they would be coming home.



It is interesting to note that the remains of this boat is under the sand of Woolgoolga beach. Sometimes
after heavy seas it is possible to see some of the frame of this boat still there today – over 100 years later.
This is a song I remember my great grandfather singing when I was little.

“We will go to Norwest, where the fish are the best,
And catch a few snapper , you see,
But the kingfish are bad, and they drive you quite mad,
So we’ll have to go home on the spree.

We will walk into town and drink the beer down,
Go home and lay flat on the floor, Then we’ll have to go to sea
To keep off the spree and not go to town anymore.”




SS Glenreagh at Woolgoolga Jetty.
Circa 1905



SS Glenreagh – a closer look


Never Can Tell under construction next to
Woolgoolga Creek circa 1906

Never Can Tell being launched from Woolgoolga
Jetty.
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After the First World War.

When the “boys” returned from the war, it was a very different crew that arrived back in Woolgoolga.
Henry Allen was older, wiser and as a sniper in the war, had seen many terrible sights, which he did not talk
about for many years – endless killing and destruction. Henry stopped his mining and started to work his
banana plantation just south of Woolgoolga. On the other hand, Harry, his son came back suffering from
mustard gas poisoning and spent many weeks in hospital while his lungs tried to repair themselves. For the


Henry Allen 1914



Harry Allen 1914


Leslie Albert Camm & friend

As it says on the back of the photo
(for censorship reasons)
Somewhere in France 1915
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remainder of his life he lived in Upper Orara with us, then back to Arrawarra, where he went almost daily to
fish and to walk the beaches he loved.



Harry Allen – WW II


John Allen – WWII
(Harry’s Younger brother)


Harry Allen later in life (1960’s)



Leslie Allen Camm - WWII

Leslie Albert Camm separated from his wife and went to live in Melbourne where he started the DJ
Camm & Sons Jam factory, which continued under that name until the late 1970‘s when it was purchased by
IX limited.
Violet Camm was left to raise her son alone in her father’s house in Woolgoolga, where my father went
to school, learnt how to grow bananas, how to fish, how to fight, how to shoot and how to cut down timber.
When he was about 17 he left Woolgoolga and went to work in Kyogle cutting timber and it was from
here he enlisted in the Second World War. During his time in Kyogle, he not only learnt how to fight, but how
to repair diesel engines and ride motor cycles.
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He decided to join the army in Kyogle, but he was known there as a timber worker, so he was rejected.
Not to be outdone he went with Eugene (Roy) Leader to Grafton and enlisted there. Roy was too young and
too short, so he was rejected by the army, but he went round the corner and enlisted in the air force, as a
rear gunner - (they needed small guys for that job.)
He was attached to No. 3 Squadron and
served in Egypt, where he had a couple of
rough landings and later was shot through the
throat. After this he was shipped to the UK for
treatment and then back home to Australia to
recover. Later he was re-assigned to work on
black operations (black ops) out of Broome,
supplying food and ammunition to the “Coast
watchers” throughout the Asian and Pacific
region.
Early in 1942 Roy took Leslie Camm home
to meet his mother and a very shy sister, who
worked at the Mater hospital on the North
Shore of Sydney.

Very shortly after this in 1942 Leslie Allen Camm married Nancy Josephine Leader, as the photograph
below shows. My dad (Leslie Allen Camm) was in RAEME and at one stage was a despatch rider, sending
intelligence reports from Sydney to GHQ, which was in bunkers deep in the ranges near Newcastle.
My mum worked as the chef at the Mater hospital in North Sydney and at night wheeled home bags of
peas to be shelled ready for the meals of the wounded soldiers in the hospital next day.
On other nights, she was a warden, patrolling the streets of Sydney, to make sure that no windows were
letting out light, to tell the enemy where the city was. She was on duty the night the Japanese submarines
came into Sydney Harbour and tried to torpedo a warship, but instead, only sunk a small ferry.


Les Camm – the boxer


The “timber fellers” in Kyogle.
Les Camm and Jack Moss on the right of the photo.

Roy Leader shown by the “arrow”.
“Any landing you walked away from was a good landing”.
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Nancy Josephine Camm (nee Leader)
(My Mum)

Leslie Allen Camm
(My Dad)

All hell broke out after that. Many people believed that Sydney was being invaded by the Japanese and
tried to flee the city, heading up the Pacific Highway and out west towards the Blue Mountains, as fast as
their cars (or their little legs) could take them.
My dad had to deliver an urgent despatch to GHQ to inform them of what had happened. When he got to
the Hawkesbury River, the Hawkesbury bridge was not yet completed. Only planks were laid so that the
construction workers could move between the girders to continue construction.
Putting fear aside, ignoring the fact that there were sharks below, he rode his motorcycle across the
planks on this bridge to the other side to deliver this urgent news, thus becoming the first person to travel
across this bridge (by default).
As I have stated in another of my books (on the Potter’s Wheel) I was born on the 28
th
September 1943,
and all my problems began – but that’s another story altogether.
After the Second World war finished, my father was de-mobbed like many others and then had to think
about working in the “civilian world again”. But the easy life was now over.
By the end of the war there was a wife and now two children, this meant responsibility and no longer a
free reign on “going out with the boys” when one felt like it.
With his de-mobilisation pay, Dad came to Arrawarra and decided to go fishing – for a living, with his
family living in a tent, with a sand floor on Arrawarra headland.
There was no electricity, all water had to be dragged up out of a deep well and there was no sanitary
service – only a deep pit “thunder box” toilet. Food had to be cooked, with the pots resting on large boulders,
on an open fire.
This was “culture shock” for my mother, who had been working in Sydney, wore gloves, stockings and a
handbag to work, and who had lived in a flat with all the “mod cons” of that time.
Very soon (1946) we moved to Upper Orara, where dad went back to his “old profession” felling timber
and cutting sleepers for the newly developed railway.
This house was situated at the head of Dingo Creek, which is one
of the creek which starts the Orara River, which in turn runs into the
Clarence River. Adjacent to this house Dad & Mum purchased 400
acres of mixed grazing & timbered land. This land was purchased by
going to the bank and shaking hands. Such was the trust which
people had of agreements back then.
Here, as a 6-year old, I learnt to drive the big timber trucks which
came for the logs, to take them to Allen Taylor’s mill in town (Coffs
Harbour), located opposite where the Park Beach Plaza is now.
At 6 years of age I had to start school, but the closest bus stop
was more than 2 miles away, so it meant getting up and walking
down to the bus, travelling 17 miles to school in Coffs Harbour,
returning at the bus stop by 5 pm and then walking the 2 miles back
home from the bus stop, arriving home about 6 pm each day.

Les Camm at the house in
Dingo Creek - circa 1949
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CHAPTER ELEVEN: THE ALLEN’S DIAMOND WEDDING

In 1946, it was not uncommon for married couples to be together for 50 years and celebrate their Golden
Wedding, so not much fuss was made when on the 25
th
May 1946, the Allen’s celebrated their golden
wedding.. The only photos I have been able to find was of the wedding cake.




Golden Wedding Cake, May 1946.


I have been told that I was present at this
celebration, but at 3 years of age I don’t
remember.

However, 10 years later when they celebrated their 60 years of marriage (diamond wedding) more than
200 guests, friends & relatives were present at this event (and I do remember this event quite well.)




A message from the Queen was the highlight of the
diamond wedding anniversary of Mr. & Mrs. H. Allen.
More than 200 guests, friends & relatives gathered
for the celebration of their 60 years of married life.




Diamond Wedding cake & marriage certificate.

The local postie used to deliver the mail mostly dressed in a singlet and shorts, on his horse and later on
his motor scooter. Much to everybody’s surprise he arrived at the ceremony dressed up in his full uniform
(we didn’t even know he had one up till this point) to deliver the first ever telegram from a reigning monarch
in Woolgoolga.


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Extract from The
Advocate 24
th
May 1956
29


Diamond
Wedding
Anniversary
Of
Woolgoolga
Couple
Woolgoolga, Thursday -----
Mr. & Mrs. H. Allen will in a
few days join the small band
of men and women whose
marriage partnership has
extended more than 60 years.
On Saturday, May 26
th
they
will celebrate their diamond
wedding anniversary.
As a young couple, Mr. &
Mrs. Allen came to Woolgoolga,
two years after their marriage at
Maclean in 1896, in a coach
and four horses, stacked with
their worldly belongings. The
coach was the property of Mr.
O’Keefe of Grafton, who ran a
livery stable at that time.
Mr. Allen had been mining
at McAulays Lead, and when
that was worked out, decided to
seek his fortune at the diggings
on Corindi Creek, to which he
and his young bride travelled
from Woolgoolga by dray. They
initially made their home in a
tent at the diggings.
Fortune eluded him by a
narrow margin. Earth which
he had dug, and would have
been washed in due course
in the normal manner, was
storm-washed overnight and
exposed and eleven ounce
nugget of gold which was
seen by a passerby, who
immediately staked a claim
and cashed in on the nugget.







29
See Appendix 9: ADVOCATE
Newspaper Report
IN TIMBER INDUSTRY
He later transferred his
activities to the timber industry,
working in the forests, falling
logs, sawing & squaring girders
and sleepers, and doing
general sawmill work.
With the growth of the
banana industry, Mr. Allen
became interested and
acquired a valuable property on
Woolgoolga Creek,
which he carried on
successfully, until a few years
ago when he disposed of his
interests.
Of his six (6) children, Mr.
H. W. Allen served in both
world wars, their youngest son
Mr. J. E. Allen of Melbourne in
the second world war. Their
second son, Mr. A.G. Allen is
still in Woolgoolga, also their
daughter, Mrs. Lillian Scott.
Their other two daughters are
Mrs. Violet Harkins (previously
Camm, nee Allen) of
Riverstone, and Mrs. Grace
Beard of Camden.
SAFER TRAVEL
Mrs. Allen, who will be 76
on May 29
th
, is well and active
and runs her large house
without help. She has seen
many changes in Woolgoolga,
and has kept abreast of the
times. Four years ago she
travelled by air for the first time
and was completely converted
to this mode of travel.
Compared with journeys
she has undertaken in the old
Fitzroy and other coastal
vessels, she feels that the air is
not only more comfortable, but
considerably safer.
















MARKSMANSHIP
Mr. Allen was known as a
marksman of repute all over
New South Wales and his
trophies include everything
from biscuit barrels to gold
medals. He was president of
the Woolgoolga Rifle Club for
many years and did not give up
this sport until in his late
seventies. He will be 89 on 25
th

July.
Of later years he has
confined his sporting interests
to racing and is happy to say
that he is well on the right side
of the ledger with his modest
bets.
Successful doubles are no
rarity with him, and on one
occasion he even managed to
bring off a treble.
Diamond weddings are
no novelty to Mrs. Allen,
whose parents, Mr. & Mrs.
Bernard Moss, also lived to
celebrate their diamond
wedding.
Mrs. Allen now confines her
interests to her home and
family. Her six children along
with many of her 22
grandchildren and some of the
27 great grandchildren are
expected to be present at the
celebrations on Saturday.
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Extract from The Advocate 26
th
May 1956
Woolgoolga Couple Get Message from Queen

Woolgoolga – Saturday was a memorable day in the lives of Mr. And Mrs. H. Allen of Woolgoolga,
and a memorable day for Woolgoolga itself when, for the first time in its history, a message was
received from a reigning monarch.
The message from
Buckingham Palace to Mr. And
Mrs. Allen read:
30

“The Queen sends you
warm congratulations on your
diamond wedding day”.
Over 200 guests were
present at the dinner given to
congratulate the couple on
attaining their 60
th
year of married
life, and the guests rose to their
feet in a body as the couple
walked through the hall to the
strains of “The Wedding March”,
to take their place at the head of
the table.
The Rev. Father Buckley
gave the blessings of the church
to the jubilarians, and wished
them many more years of
peaceful life.
Mr. W. Richards, who chaired
the dinner, echoed everyone’s
sentiments when he said: “By
their deeds shall ye know
them”. In the many years of their
association with the town, Mr.
And Mrs. Allen had never refused
to help a fellow being. The test of
a successful life was to prove
adequate to the demands that life
made upon one, and in this test
they had never been found
wanting.
Proposing the toast to the
couple, Mr. A. Parberry recalled
the days when, as a youngster ,
he had received tuition on the rifle
range from Mr. Allen, then a crack
marksman, and how it stood him
in good stead when he joined the
army.
This brought memories back
to many other guests, who
recalled Mr. Allen’s prowess with
an axe --- “how he made the
chips fly” --- in the forests around
Woolgoolga.

30
See a copy of the original telegram
in Appendix …
Recollections
The curtain was lifted for a
moment as the old-timers
searched their memories for the
happy recollections of bygone
days.
Mr. Verdi Schwinghammer,
who made the trip from Sydney
for the occasion, proposed a toast
to the children and grandchildren,
and was thanked on their behalf
by Mr. J Allen from Melbourne.
Mr. “Bunny” Allen, responding
for his parents, drew mirthful
comments from the guests when
he said that the occasion had so
impressed him that even
confirmed bachelors, such as
himself and Clarrie Woolfe, were
now considering ways and means
whereby they could ensure such
a celebration for themselves.
Mr. “Poddy” Roberts begged
just a little patience from the
townspeople to allow him to
qualify for the star role – only
another 15 years or so.
A beautiful three-decker cake
was presented by Mr. P. Baker,
and was cut by Mr. And Mrs.
Allen.
The celebrations were to
have concluded with an hilarious
ballet conducted by Mrs. M.
Booth, featuring bathing belles of
the 1890’s, but at the request of
the old couple, who watched the
performance from a pair of
armchairs which had been
presented to them by the guests,
the ballet was repeated with even
greater abandon.
Congratulations
Telegrams of congratulations
were read from Sir William Slim,
the Governor General, who said:”
My wife and I offer you sincere
congratulations on your
diamond wedding anniversary,
which we understand you
celebrate tomorrow”
31
.
The Prime Minister, Sir
Robert Menzies, said: “ I am
informed by Sir Earle Page that
you celebrate your diamond
wedding anniversary today.
Please accept heartiest
congratulations and continued
good wishes for the future from
my wife and myself of this
great day for you both”.
Sir Earle Page in his
message said: “Warmest
congratulations from Lady
Page and myself on your
diamond wedding celebrations,
and best wishes. Many more
happy years. Regards”
32
.
Mr. W.R. Wriley, MLA, said:
“Hearty congratulations on
your diamond wedding
anniversary. May you both be
long spared to enjoy the
retirement you old pioneers so
richly deserve. Regret
unavoidable absence.”
33

Dr. P. J. Farrelly, Bishop of
Lismore, in his message said: “
Congratulations on your
diamond wedding. May your
life be full of gladness.”
34

Telegrams from the Secretary
of the Woolgoolga Bowling Club,
Chairman of the Urban Area,
members of Woolgoolga
Pensioners’ Association, and
many from friends who were
unable to attend, were also
read.
35


31
See copy of the original telegram
in Appendix…..
32
See copy of the original telegram
in Appendix…..
33
See copy of the original telegram
in Appendix…..
34
See copy of the original telegram
in Appendix…..
35
See copy of all other telegrams in
Appendix …
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Extract From The Sydney Sun 26
th
May 1956
Tiny Town’s Big Boast
Townsfolk in tiny
Woolgoolga today threw out a
challenge to NSW.
Two members of the one
family – mother and daughter –
have celebrated diamond
weddings.
Townsfolk say, with pride
”That’s a real gem of a record
–eh? Bet you can’t equal it
down there in the big city ….
Or anywhere in NSW”.
On November 6
th
, 1938 Mr.
And Mrs. Bernard Moss
celebrated their diamond
wedding anniversary.
Next Saturday marks 60
years of marriage for Mr. And
Mrs. H Allen, who have lived at
Woolgoolga for 59 years.
Mrs. Allen, 83 is a
daughter of Mrs. Moss, who
died in 1954 at age 93. Her
husband is 89.
They married on 26
th
May
1896, and there are six children,
24 grandchildren and 16 great-
grandchildren.
All will attend the
celebrations.






Mrs Susan Allen at her Diamond Wedding
anniversary 26
th
May 1956




Diamond Wedding anniversary.
Mother and three daughters From Left to right.
Violet Harkins (formerly Violet Camm), Susan Allen, Mrs
Grace Beard & Mrs Lillian Scott



Mrs Susan Allen with the O’Toole boys


At the Grafton Races Late 1960’s
From left to right:
Leslie Allen Camm, Susan Allen, Mrs Nancy Camm

Mr H. Allen went on to live several more years and died quietly at his home, in Woolgoolga, aged 96. His
widow, Susan Allen continued to live in the house in Woolgoolga, by herself for some time before she moved
to Coffs harbour to live with my Father and Mother at their house in Combine Street.
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Like her husband she like the racers and one of the last photos we have of her is at the Grafton races.
She died in Coffs Harbour, aged 92 years.

Conclusion:
THE NEXT FORTY YEARS
In closing this book I draw your attention to other members of my family who decided to stay in England
and work their creative juices there. In particular I draw your attention to two notable members, both of whom
have had many books written about them already, so I won’t even try to write about these people.
One was a Mechanical Engineer, who did many designs and was the editor for many years of a
magazine called: the Popular Mechanics.
The second one, Sir Sydney Camm, his brother, became the greatest aeronautical engineer the UK has
ever seen, designing planes which were used in the second world war and later jet planes, which were the
Hawker Hunter and the forerunner of the Hawker Harrier, (the Jump Jet) which has been used successfully
by many countries.
What about me?
Well I went to school, became a Technician for the PMG department in 1959, then later after further
study at night school, got my Electronics & Communications Certificate, joined the Electricity Commission of
NSW and helped design the State System Control Centre in Carlingford. I later joined LM Ericsson Pty Ltd in
Melbourne and was part of the Research & Development team which designed the first fully digital telephone
exchange in the world.
It was while I was in Melbourne that I was involved in a serious car accident and broke my back and I
became a paraplegic. Doctors told me I would never walk again and I would require 24-hour round the clock
care and attention. I had in fact became a vegetable.
36

Well doctors are not always right, God intervened and I became well again after three months of being
completely paralyzed. Because I had some problems with the feelings in my hands I went back to night
school again and got a Diploma in Communication Engineering.
After this development work, I became a consultant and travelled extensively, offering advice in
developing countries on a wide range of disciplines, as System Engineer, Chief Engineer, Project Manager,
or Project Consultant. In the last 12 years I have worked on projects worth more than US$ 5200 Million
dollars.

Successful Consulting Projects


36
For more information about this read: “On the Potter’s Wheel” which can be downloaded free of charge from
www.nmlcs.com.au Christian Books page.
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14 Km Hyderabad Bypass Project in Pakistan,
consisting of a 4-lane road to international standard,
7 bridges and overpasses, as well as the longest
bridge in Pakistan over the Indus River – 1.4 Kms
including abutments and approaches.


National Network Control Centre, Muscat Oman
Height from ground floor to top of tower 270
metres.



This is the Longest 4-lane pre-stressed concrete bridge in Pakistan, over the Indus River,
spanning 1.6 Kms (including approaches)

For more information please read my new book entitled: On the Potter’s Wheel – Again ! which will be
released in 2006.
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APPENDICES

Appendix 1

List of Scriptural references for the name “Ophir”

Gen. 10:29 (KJV)
29
And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab: all these were the sons of Joktan.

1 Kin. 9:28 (KJV)
28
And they came to Ophir, and fetched from thence gold, four hundred and twenty
talents, and brought it to king Solomon.

1 Kin. 10:11 (KJV)
11
And the navy also of Hiram, that brought gold from Ophir, brought in from Ophir
great plenty of almug trees, and precious stones.

1 Kin. 22:48 (KJV)
48
Jehoshaphat made ships of Tharshish to go to Ophir for gold: but they went not; for
the ships were broken at Eziongeber.

1 Chr. 1:23 (KJV)
23
And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan.

1 Chr. 29:4 (KJV)
4
Even three thousand talents of gold, of the gold of Ophir, and seven thousand talents
of refined silver, to overlay the walls of the houses withal:

2 Chr. 8:18 (KJV)
18
And Huram sent him by the hands of his servants ships, and servants that had
knowledge of the sea; and they went with the servants of Solomon to Ophir, and took
thence four hundred and fifty talents of gold, and brought them to king Solomon.

2 Chr. 9:10 (KJV)
10
And the servants also of Huram, and the servants of Solomon, which brought gold
from Ophir, brought algum trees and precious stones.

Job 22:24 (KJV)
24
Then shalt thou lay up gold as dust, and the gold of Ophir as the stones of the
brooks.



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Job 22:24 (KJV)
24
Then shalt thou lay up gold as dust, and the gold of Ophir as the stones of the
brooks.

Psa. 45:9 (KJV)
9
Kings’ daughters were among thy honourable women: upon thy right hand did stand
the queen in gold of Ophir.

Isa. 13:12 (KJV)
12
I will make a man more precious than fine gold; even a man than the golden wedge
of Ophir.
Strong’s Hebrew & Greek Dictionaries
H211
"'L¹R "'LR "L¹R
`ophi,r `ophi,r `ophir ofeer', ofeer', ofeer'
Of uncertain derivation; Ophir, the name of a son of Joktan, and of a gold region in the East
:—Ophir.

Appendix 2

List of Scriptural references for the name : “Sinim”

Isa. 49:12 (KJV)

12
Behold, these shall come from far: and, lo, these from the north and from the west;
and these from the land of Sinim.
Strong’s Hebrew & Greek Dictionaries
H5515
L'1'C si,ni,m seeneem'
Plural of an otherwise unknown name; Sinim, a distant Oriental region:— Sinim.
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Appendix 3

History of the First Fleet and Sydney Cove
37



Captn. James Cook, F.R.S by Francesco Bartolozzi 1727-1815 From the IMAGES 1 collection of the
National Library of Australia. Note: This image is provided for research purposes only and cannot be
reproduced without the prior consent of the National Library of Australia.
In 1770 Captain James Cook finally ended the mystery of Terra Australis Incognita for the European
world. Although partly discovered and mapped to the west and north by Dutch traders and explorers, and
by English pirate, William Dampier, until Cook's four-month cruise on the Endeavour up the east coast of
what he called New South Wales in 1770, the maps of the time showed a blank - the east coast was
unknown to, and uncharted by, the European world.
Of course the local Aboriginal inhabitants had, over tens of thousands of years, mapped the land their
way - through their Dreaming, a complex intertwining of land, culture, language, family relations and
spiritual selves. This was to be put under pressure from the first moment of Cook's landing at Botany Bay
in 1770.
On 22 August 1770 on Possession Island, off what is now northern Queensland, Cook claimed all eastern
Australia for King George III.
Settlement


The First Fleet in Sydney Cove, January 27, 1788 by John Allcot 1888-1973.

From the IMAGES 1 collection of the National Library of Australia. Note: This image is provided for
research purposes only and cannot be reproduced without the prior consent of the National Library of
Australia.
The First Fleet, comprising 11 ships and around 1,350 people, was dispatched to the unknown continent -
the only information about New South Wales was that from Cook's voyage of 1770. From these records it
was decided the first settlement would be at Botany Bay, and a second settlement would be established
at Norfolk Island to provide wood for ships and masts. However, on arrival at Botany Bay on 18 January
1788, Captain Phillip decided the site was not suitable and resolved to look for another. He decided upon

37
Extracts from the reports in the National Library of Australia website:
http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/articles/australianhistory/
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Port Jackson, the site of modern day Sydney, and the people of the First Fleet established Australia's first
settlement on 26 January 1788.

Captain Arthur Phillip and the First Fleet landed at Port Jackson in the new colony of New South Wales
on 26 January 1788.
Until the American War of Independence, Britain had sent convicts to America. American independence
ended the practice and the British prisons and prison hulks were full to overflowing. The island continent
at the end of the world seemed a perfect place to send them.

The settlers

The First Fleet was frighteningly under prepared for the task which faced it. Little was known about the
climate, animal or plant life of the land mass, and many of Cook's encounters with the Aborigines had
been hostile, at least in part. As Cook said in his diaries,” All they seem'd to want for us was to be gone”.


A government jail gang, Sydney, N.S. Wales by Augustus Earle, 1793-1838

From the IMAGES 1 collection of the National Library of Australia. Note: This image is provided for
research purposes only and cannot be reproduced without the prior consent of the National Library of
Australia.
The Fleet consisted mainly of convicts with officers to guard them. There were many more men than
women - around four men for every woman - and this caused problems in the settlement for many years.
Few people in the Fleet had any experience of cultivating the land and this, combined with poor soil in the
area, lead to the development of farms around Parramatta, but, more seriously, to near starvation in the
first years of settlement. Food shortages were severe and the fledgling colony eagerly awaited on the
arrival of the Second Fleet in 1790.
The Second Fleet did provide badly needed food and supplies, but created other problems for the new
colony. 48 people had died on the voyage of the First Fleet, this had risen to 278 on the Second Fleet
voyage. Sickness and disease were so rife, most of those who survived were barely able to walk, the
Fleet has come to be known as the 'Death Fleet'.
In spite of the problems, however, the settlement grew, and is now the site of Australia's largest city -
Sydney.
Accounts of European exploration, arrival and settlement

· A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay by Watkin Tench
SETIS: The Scholarly Electronic Text and Image Service at the University of Sydney
http://purl.library.usyd.edu.au/setis/id/p00039

· A Complete Account of the Settlement of Port Jackson by Watkin Tench
at SETIS: The Scholarly Electronic Text and Image Service at the University of Sydney
http://purl.library.usyd.edu.au/setis/id/p00044

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Convicts

· Claim a convict:
A complete alphabetical listing of the convicts, male and female, transported to New South Wales between
1793 and early 1800, giving place & date of conviction, length of sentence, ship of transportation and some
occupations. http://users.bigpond.net.au/convicts/

· Convict Australia: Convict Life
http://www.pilotguides.com/destination_guide/pacific/australia/convict_australia/convict_life.php


· Convicts landing at Botany Bay (image from National Library of Australia IMAGES 1 database)
http://www.nla.gov.au/pic?8899+d

· Convicts to Australia: A Guide to Researching Your Convict Ancestors
http://www.convictcentral.com/

· Convicts transported to South Australia http://www.jaunay.com/convicts.html

· National Archives of Ireland: Transportation Records Database
http://www.nationalarchives.ie/topics/transportation/search01.html

· Norfolk Island
http://www.pitcairners.org/

· Internet Family History Association of Australia: Genealogy Course
http://www.shoalhaven.net.au/~cathyd/convict.html
Convict women

· Convict Women and Sexual Subjugation in Nineteenth-Century Australia
http://www.postcolonialweb.org/australia/austwomen4.html

· Disrupting the Boundaries: Resistance and Convict Women
(excerpt from the book by Joy Damousi published by Australian Humanities Review)
http://www.lib.latrobe.edu.au/AHR/archive/Issue-August-1997/damousi.html

· The History of Female Prostitution in Australia by Raelene Frances
(published by the WISE [Women's Issues and Social Empowerment] website)
http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/24/230.html
Convict ditties with sample tunes from the Australian Folk Songs website
· Botany Bay
http://unionsong.com/muse/songnet/010.html
· Convict Maid
http://unionsong.com/muse/songnet/026.html
· Female Transport
http://unionsong.com/muse/songnet/038.html
· Moreton Bay
http://unionsong.com/muse/songnet/061.html
· The Transport
http://unionsong.com/muse/songnet/087.html
· Van Diemen's Land
http://unionsong.com/muse/songnet/091.html
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Genealogy and archival resources
· Archives of Australia Network
http://www.archivenet.gov.au/archives.html
· First Families 2001
http://www.firstfa.net.au/
· Get a list of Australian archives websites
http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/
· National Archives of Australia
http://www.naa.gov.au/the_collection/family_history/other_records.html#convictRecords
· South Australian Genealogy and Heraldry Society
http://www.archivists.org.au/directory/data/306.htm
Images of Aboriginal life
· Aboriginal life in Australia (image from National Library of Australia IMAGES 1 database)
http://www.nla.gov.au/pic?17104+d
· http://www.nla.gov.au/cgi-
bin/images1/images1q.pl?FunctionType=Simple+Search&SearchType=All+Indexed+Words&SearchWords=abor
iginal+life+australia&Wantnum=1&KeyId=0&Thumb=Yes&PageLength=10An Aboriginal family (image from
National Library of Australia IMAGES 1 database)
http://www.nla.gov.au/pic?16951+d
· Natives returned from fishing (image from National Library of Australia IMAGES 1 database)
http://www.nla.gov.au/pic?9321+d
Recommended reading on Australian history
· Claiming A Continent: A New History of Australia by David Day
http://www.harpercollins.com.au/title.cfm?ISBN=0732269768&Author=DAY__DAVID
· The Fatal Shore by Robert Hughes
http://www.middlemiss.org/lit/australian/fatalshore.html
· Professor Manning Clark's 6-volume A History of Australia
(Abridged by Michael Cathcart)
http://www.mup.unimelb.edu.au/catalogue/0-522-84523-1.html
· Wide range of titles on Aboriginal history, archaeology and culture
http://www.ciolek.com/BOOKSTORE/AboriginalBookstore.html
· Aboriginal Studies Press titles
http://www.aiatsis.gov.au/archprod/aspc/rasp/frameset_frame.htm

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Appendix 4
Marriage Certificate of Peter Allen and Margaret King (1850)

Unknown – unable to find
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Appendix 5
Birth Certificate of Henry Allen (1867)




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Appendix 6
Marriage Certificate of Henry Allen & Susannah Moss




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Appendix 7
Marriage Certificate of:
Leslie Albert Joseph Camm
To
Violet May Allen





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Appendix No. 8
Extracts from the NSW Dept of Mineral Resources




Geographic Location & mine type

Ministry of Mines Geological Production Reports





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Appendix 9 : Advocate Newspaper Reports





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Appendix 10: Telegrams





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