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Aim the fan so that it will hit the water at roughly a 45° angle. Position the fan at the opposite end of the tray to the sand. Record your observations next to your prediction. Allow water to calm. Record your observations on the table. 5. Record your observations in the table. 4. Using your observations what can you say about the link between wave size and wind. 6. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 1 . What to do: 1. 2. turn it on for 3 minutes. Slowly fill the tray with water to a depth of 3cm. Write a prediction that describes what you think will happen when you turn the fan on for 5 seconds at high speed. 7. Turn the fan on for 5 seconds at high speed. Using the low speed of the fan. Fan Time Observations speed Prediction of High speed for 5 seconds.Activities for Earth Activity 1 Investigating the Relationship between Wind and Wave Size. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Observation of High speed for 5 seconds. Construct a beach with sand and pebbles at one end of the tray. What you need: Electric fan Tray Water Sand and Pebbles. Using the high speed of the fan. 8. Allow water to calm. 3. turn it on for 3 minutes.
Fill the stream tray to a depth of 1cm.Activity 2 Investigating the Relationship between Wave Speed and Water Depth. make a wave pulse by dropping or pushing the wood into the water one end at a time. Record your findings in the table. 2. 3cm. Water Depth Time Observations Explanations ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 2 . 3. Using the shorter piece of wood. Record your observations and explanations you might have. What you need: Tray Water Two different lengths of wood. 4. Use the longer piece of wood at one end to act as a reflector. Time how fast it takes the wave to travel the distance of the tray. 7. 4cm and 5cm. 6. 5. Stopwatches What you need: 1. Complete again with water depths of 2cm.
*Use your creativity to make this experiment a successful one 3 . 2.Activity 3 Formation of volcano What you need: Baking Soda Vinegar Modelling Clay What to do: 1. baking soda and vinegar. In groups students build a mini volcano using modelling clay. Students reflect on the reaction that caused their volcano to erupt and how this is similar to active volcanoes.
You should also mark the point on the circle when the tip of the shadow just touches the circle you drew.1). 12. Mark this line on the concrete or ground. the Sun crosses the line joining the north celestial to south celestial poles (figure 2. 10. Draw this line right across your circle.m. 3. Find a flat place outside in the sun. Join the centre of your circle to the two points where the shadows touched the circle. and continue until about 1. 11. 4 . Take away the nail and use your compass to quickly draw a Figure 1. Make sure the paper or cardboard does not move or blow in the wind. You will need: · a piece of thick paper or cardboard (foolscap) · a 75 to 100 mm nail with a flat head or another suitable pointed object · a pair of compasses for drawing circles · a protractor for measuring angles · blue tack or gum What to do: 1. 9. Remove the nail. Stand the nail or stick upright on the paper on this mark (Figure 1.m.00p. 7. Leave the paper and nail in position for about 2 hours. Mark the position of the top of the nail shadow every 15 minutes. Put the nail back in exactly the same position. 6. Make sure the nail shadow ends where it did before. Be careful not to move the paper. It is a good idea to paint the line or put some white paint on a post or object that is along this line.2). Watch carefully as the shadow lengthens again after local noon time. Now remove your paper. A concrete path is ideal or use a flat board. Times may be different for different times of the year. 4. The highest position of the Sun will give the shortest shadow which lies along the north-south line. Your circle should not reach the end of the shadow. that is. Mark the position when the top of the nail’s shadow again touches the circle. 8.1 Finding North The direction of true north (towards the geographic north pole) can be found by watching the changing length of a shadow during the middle of the day. It can be used for other activities later on. 5. Put heavy stones on it.Activities for Space Activity 1. Use a protractor or your compass to divide the angle between the shadow lines into two equal parts. This line points true north and south. Start your experiment soon after 11.00 a.1 circle with a radius less than the length of the shadow. 2. When the Sun passes the highest elevation in the sky it is said to transit the meridian. Mark where the shadow of the nail ends. Mark a point near the centre of your paper.
Divide the number of hand spans into 360°. You carry with you one of the best and easy to use devices for this It is called your hand. What is the azimuth and altitude of the moon? 5 . To make it simple for you.Activity 1. stand up and stretch your arm out straight. The first is the direction or azimuth from true North which you will find using your hand span. Close one eye and line the outer edge of your thumb up with a distant tree or object. See what your little finger is lined up with. Example: Number of hand spans in a circle = 20 Therefore one hand span = 360°/20= 18° per hand span 3. Keep doing this and keep count of the number of times to go around a complete circle (360°). The activity that follows shows you how to estimate angles with your hand span and knuckle span. Using your hand span estimate the altitude of a tree or building in the grounds. To find the size of your hand span. Azimuth and altitude We need a way of measuring two things to find the position of an object. A student with a hand span of 18° measures the position of the moon early one evening. This will give you the size of your hand span. You now have two useful ways to measure angles. The second is the angle above the ground which you will find using your knuckle span. What to do: 1. This is called the altitude. 2. Question 1. 2. The width across your knuckles (fist) will be approximately half of your hand span.2 Locating And Recording The Position Of Objects To locate and record the changing positions of objects in the sky we need to be able to measure angles in a simple way. Spread your fingers wide apart. 4. The measurements are five hand spans from north and three knuckle spans up from the horizon. most adults with average hands have a hand span of 20° and a knuckle span of 10°. Move your thumb to this position.
Procyon. The stars along the North to South of the chart at that date are the stars that you will see along the line that passes your zenith at 8. The line of stars that passes your zenith would be the stars an ‘hour’ nearer east on the star chart.00 pm. the Southern Cross and Scorpio visible in the Malaysian sky? 6 . a star chart for the Equatorial region is suitable. Betelgeuse. 3. Antares. hours and altitudes along the sides of the chart. Each night the stars move across the sky.1 Using Star Chart to Locate Stars A star chart is used to identify stars and constellations. The star chart shows the North and South direction as well as dates.00 pm. Bright stars are shown by big dots. the stars would have moved towards the west.00 pm • A torch light (cover with transparent red paper) or red flashlight What to do: 1. Use your star chart to identify (a) the constellations Orion. 4. turn the star chart so that south is at the bottom of the chart. let’s say at 9. An hour later. etc. 2. Observe the relative brightness of stars. rising in the east and setting in the west. (b) the stars Sirius. etc. At what time of the year is Orion. Dim stars are shown as tiny dots. The star chart also shows the relative brightness of the stars by their size on the chart. the positions of the stars at your zenith would have changed. Look for the date that you want to see the stars.Activity 2. If you are facing north. If you are facing south. Date North East West 1 hour later hour South Figure 3: A Star Chart (Equatorial region) 3. Question 1. What you need: • A star chart for the Equatorial region set at 8. Since Malaysia is in the equatorial region. 4. turn the star chart so that north is at the bottom of the chart. Taurus. 5. So.
2. 6. Obtain another piece of cardboard large enough to fit over the end of the tube. Most of the names of the constellations are based on the ancient names however many southern star groups were only seen during the explorations into the southern oceans. Twist or rotate the tube and observe what happens to the star pattern. Stand somewhere dark and look through the tube towards light. The Southern Cross (Crux) was named by these early seafarers. Select one of the constellations. 3. It is now ready for use. the Polynesians such as the Tongans call the Southern Cross Toloa (wild duck). You will need: · a piece of dark coloured cardboard · sticky tape · pin and nail · another small piece of cardboard What to do: 1. (Large holes for bright stars!) 4. 7. and tape it. However we should also recognise that the southern constellations were also well known. Tape your constellation card over the end of the tube. Roll your cardboard into a tube.Activity 2. Where is the top and bottom? Question: 1. 7 . Make sure the side you pricked faces the inside of the tube.2 Star Patterns Many stars have been grouped together into recognisable groups or patterns called constellations. 5. For example. by different names and different legends. The constellation Orion rises with the three stars of the belt pointing east. Predict what you would observe when it sets? Sketch the changing orientation of Orion with reference to the cardinal points. What is the effect of the rotation of the earth on the apparent movement of the constellations? 2. by southern civilisations. Observe what happens to the appearance of the constellation. Move your tube from east to west over the top of your head without twisting the tube. Use the nail or pin to make different sized holes to represent different brightness stars. at least 80 mm across. Some of these patterns were made up by the ancients and you need a lot of imagination to see some of the mythical creatures.
black paint or texta pen · Paper fastener What to do: 1. Mark the famous navigation stars by pushing through with your pencil. 5. Pin the two pieces of cardboard together. Mark the outline of the circle and its centre. Place the circular star map (Figure 3. Sydney (34° S). 4. You now have a model of the stars around the South Celestial Pole as seen from Cairns. This happens slowly during the night. 7.Activity 2. 6. 9. Cairns 9.4) given at the bottom of Figure 3. you will notice that some stars appear to move in circles. 2. Cut the slot along the line AB. 8. If you look south. Colour the portion below the horizon black. Do not cut to the edges. You will need: · One sheet of cardboard (A4) · Scissors · Circular star chart on page 10 · Charcoal. Push holes through the major centre e. Rockhampton (23° S). Melbourne (38° S) and Hobart (43° S). The approximate latitudes for the major centres in Eastern Australia are Cairns (17° S). 10. 8 . circle and centre on your cardboard. If you turn your disk clockwise you will see what the stars do at night.3) over the piece of cardboard. Now take away the star map and mark the stars. 3. In this activity you will make a model of some stars that may have been used by Polynesian and Melanesian sailors to find their way across vast expanses of ocean.g. Cut out the circle and push a small hole through the centre. Now use the remainder of your cardboard to mark and cut out the rectangular shape (Figure 3. Brisbane (27.3. The pin or paper fastener is directly above the Earth’s South Pole.5°S).3 Star Movement During the night the stars appear to move from east to west. Put your circle in the slot so that the two holes (hole through centre of circle and major centre point Cairns) line up.
Find any one of these programme from the internet or buy one yourself.1 Relative Size And Distance Of Planets From The Sun The planets and sun in our solar system have different sizes and are at different distances from the sun. Activity 3. Explore the programme that you have. Paste the planets and sun on a wall with a suitable scale of the distances between the planet and the sun. 3. Decide on a suitable scale for all the groups. Look for locations and magnitude of stars and movement of the sun and moon. Form 9 groups. Stellarium) that simulate the sky for different locations and time of the year.Activity 2. 5. Draw. 2.4 Using Computer Programmes There are many computer programs like (Earth-centred universe. colour and cut each planet and the sun. How big and how far is each planet from the sun? What you need: • • • • cardboard pencil colour pencils scissors What to do: 1. each group is to draw the relative size of a planet or the sun. 10 . Starry night. 4. Search the internet for information on the size and position of each planet from the sun.
2 Lines of Nodes and Eclipse Season The moon goes through the full moon and the new moon phases once every month. What is an eclipse season and what is a node? What you need: • • • • cardboard one ping pong ball one golf ball one torchlight 11 . Measure and record the distance of the coin from the wall and the eye from the coin in a table.392.Activity 4. Question: What do you think is the relative distance of the moon from the earth and the sun from the earth? How far do you think the moon is from the sun for the moon to cover the sun? Activity 4. 15 times and 20 times the size of the coin. Move away from the wall until the coin just covers the circle on the wall. Cut out the circle and paste in on a wall at eye level. How can a small moon cover a big sun during an eclipse of the sun? Diameter Moon 3. Repeat with circles 10 times. Hold the ten-cent coin a fixed distance in front of your eye and stand in front of the circle on the wall. Why is it that we do not experience eclipse of the sun every month? An eclipse can only occur during a period called an eclipse season during which the sun is close to a node in the moon’s orbit.476 Sun 1.000 What you need: • • • • black sugar paper scissors cellotape ten-cent coin What to do: Draw a circle 5 times the size of a ten-cent coin on a black sugar paper. Analyse your data and draw a conclusion.1 How Can A Small Moon Cover A Big Sun? The size of the sun is 400 times the size of the moon.
B. C and D at an angle of 5 ° from the horizontal for new and full moon. explain nodes and eclipse season. carried in solar wind from hitting the earth. Based on your observation.1 Earth’s Magnetosphere The interaction of the solar wind and earth’s magnetic field produces a region called the magnetosphere. 4. Place the cardboard at positions A. Place the golf ball that acts as the earth in the middle of the ellipse that represents the orbit of the moon and the ping pong ball at the furthest end of the ellipse as in Figure 1 below.What to do: 1. Sometimes some particles from the solar wind enter the magnetosphere and create the auroral oval lights. The magnetosphere has many regions. 3. 2. 5. Write done your observation of the shadows of the moon and earth. What you need: • • • • Earth Sun Paper cut-out of the earth’s magnetosphere Scissors Colour pencils Tape 12 . 6. The magnetosphere prevents most of the particles from the sun. In this activity. Draw an ellipse on the cardboard. B C New moon A Full moon D Figure 1 Activity 5. you will identify the different regions of the magnetosphere. Place the torchlight in the middle of a bigger ellipse that represents the orbit of the earth.
What are the regions of the magnetosphere? 2. These particles are responsible for many wonderful natural phenomena such as the aurora and natural radio emissions such as lion roars and whistler waves. 4. These regions are composed of charged particles and magnetic flux. A magnetosphere has many regions. Tail Lobes and Inner Radiation Belt. Colour the different regions of the magnetosphere. Question 1. Fold along the crosslines across the page to produce a three-sided corner with the printed picture on the inside. 2. Colors may distinguish the Plasma Sheet (including area marked "Plasma Convection?"). such as the bow shock. If no tape is available. magnetotail. plasmasphere and radiation belts. 5. Plasma Mantle and Low Latitude Boundary Layer (use same color). That gives the shape of the magnetosphere. 3. lobes. The particles move and circulate about the magnetosphere and even generate storms. carefully cut a slot in the marked place to the right of the words "Plasma Sheet" and insert the end of the tab.What to do: 1." to hold the paper in its folded position. Use tape to attach the tab to the back side of the panel carrying the words "Tail Lobes" and "Plasma Sheet. magnetosheath. In the opposite direction. on the night side. plasmasheet. The magnetosphere changes constantly. Cut out the area marked "Cut Out" but leave tab intact. Why is the magnetic field around the earth important to us? Teachers’ notes The solar wind compresses the magnetic field lines facing it on the day side of the Earth and confines those lines into a rounded cavity. even flipping its orientation every few thousand years. the same solar wind stretches field lines into a long "magnetotail" and the cavity then becomes a long cylinder. The region outside the magnetosphere (in the solar wind) may be left white or given a light color. 13 . Print Attachment given. You may link to the color image above and use it as a guide.
Attachment Resources: 14 .
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