SCI 16 General Physics

Unit Information and Learning Guide 2012

Unit coordinator Dr David Parlevliet Engineering & Energy Room 2.003K Tel: 08 9360 2157 Messages: 08 9360 2433 D.Parlevliet@murdoch.edu.au

General Physics
SCI 16

Unit Information

This information should be read in conjunction with the online learning materials which can be found on your MyUnits page.

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CONTENTS UNIT INFORMATION ONE TWO THREE Introduction Resources for the unit Assessment i vii ix LEARNING GUIDE ONE TWO THREE FOUR FIVE SIX SEVEN EIGHT NINE Introduction What is Science? Motion in a Straight Line Newton’s Laws and Vectors Momentum and Energy Gravity and Projectile Motion Heat and Thermodynamics Electricity and Magnetism Wave Motion and Sound Light and Optics 1 9 13 17 21 25 29 35 39 43 QUICK REFERENCE Study Schedule Assignment Deadlines Assignment Submission Information Exam Information v ix xii xiii TUTOR INFORMATION Name Room Phone Email .

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Prerequisites There are no prerequisites for this unit. you will need to devote extra time (beyond the nominal hours) in order to succeed in this unit. or • whose previous study in physics does not give them a sufficient grounding for further studies in the sciences. • who have not studied physics before. or be concurrently enrolled in. If you do not have this mathematical background. SCI16 Unit Information i . It is suggested that you should either have successfully completed. Learning Objectives On successful completion of the unit you should be able to: • Describe the behaviour of matter using the laws and models of physics • Communicate scientific concepts in ‘plain English’ • Solve problems in physics that do not require knowledge of calculus. Aims and Objectives Unit Aims The broad aims of this unit are to: • introduce students to the discipline of physics. or • whose previous study in physics was some time ago.ONE Introduction Unit Overview Welcome to SCI16 General Physics! This is an introductory unit designed to provide a foundation for further studies in the physical sciences for students. • enable students to develop skills which will help them solve problems in the physical sciences. • enable students to develop skills which will help them investigate and communicate the behaviour of matter. UNL32 or equivalent before undertaking this unit.

to think critically and creatively within the context of physics. Away from Murdoch. numeracy and information technology skills. Critical and Creative Thinking: Students will present assignments which require them to problem solve. nano-materials and thin film deposition techniques. using literacy. Laboratory reports and an examination which require them to communicate scientifically. His research interests include solar photovoltaics. As well as teaching. astrophotography and macrophotography. Always put SCI16 in the subject line to make sure your email is noticed quickly. In-depth knowledge of a field of study Unit Coordinator Your coordinator for General Physics is David Parlevliet. he is a photographer dabbling in landscape.edu.edu.Graduate Attributes This unit will focus on the development of the following Graduate Attributes: See http://www. He is also a long-term fencer and vice-president of En Garde Fencing Club at Murdoch. Technical Help For technical difficulties with the LMS or Lectopia contact the IT Service Desk: ITservicedesk@murdoch. Contact Details Contact details can be found on the front cover of this study guide. This unit will also contribute to the development of the following Graduate Attributes: 1. Tutor You will be notified of your tutor at the beginning of the unit. Independent and lifelong learning 2. David is a Lecturer in Physics & Nanotechnology and has been teaching at Murdoch for several years in a range of units in physics. Interdisciplinarity and / or 3. Please write your tutor’s name and contact on the table of contents. Communication: students will present assignments.html 1. semiconductors. 2.au/teach/studyat/attributes.murdoch.au or phone (08) 9360 2000 ii SCI16 Unit Information . he is a researcher in the area of Physics and Nanoscience. Administrative Contact If you have any queries about your enrolment in this unit they should be directed to the OUA Liaison Team at Murdoch (please refer to your cover letter for contact details).

such as practical skills and working in teams. a focus on conceptual (rather than mathematical) physics was adopted. you are welcome to attend as many of the on-campus help classes as you wish. or the content of the LMS contact the Unit Coordinator. Laboratories and Tutorials are designed to enable you to apply what you have learnt and to develop skills which are important in the sciences. External Students and Laboratory Exercises There is no compulsory on-campus attendance for external students. This unit does not have any attendance requirements for OUA students. The unit also has an extensive website within the LMS (MyUnits) environment. In 2006. Lectures and Essential Readings are designed to provide a focus to the unit and to introduce you to the concepts that underpin each of the topics. study and work commitments. In recognition of the changes facing students in balancing life. which includes additional learning activities.For difficulties due to broken links or missing files. Please contact your tutor or the unit coordinator for details about the timetable and venues. assignments and audio files of lectures. Unit changes in response to student feedback This unit has changed substantially over the past few years. However. we expect you to spend on average 10 hours / week for the 15 weeks of this teaching period (or 150 hours overall) working on this unit. this unit has adopted a flexible learning approach with a large number SCI16 Unit Information iii . This change included a change in textbook and a reduction in the number of assessed learning tasks. How to Study this Unit This unit covers the following topics: What is Science? Motion Gravity & Projectile Motion Newtons Laws and Vectors Momentum and Energy Heat and Thermodynamics Electricity and Magnetism Wave Motion and Sound Light and Optics Learning Activities This unit has a variety of learning activities to assist you in your study of SCI16 General Physics. Time Commitment and Attendance As this is a 3 credit point unit. External students should use the “Learning Activities” section in each of the topics as the basis for your self study plan for each week.

open. OUA will advise your academic provider of your withdrawal. depending on the date that OUA receives your withdrawal request. All important dates are on the OUA Academic Calendar on the OUA website. • Between the close of enrolment and the census date: financial penalties apply and you are eligible for a refund of your unit fees or remission (cancellation) of your FEE-HELP debt.au) click on the link “Changing your Study”. Also in 2010 an audience response system has been trialled during the lectures. You are not required to advise your academic provider of your intention to withdraw from a unit.of learning materials available online through the university’s online learning system (also known as the LMS). Should you withdraw – • Before the close of enrolment date: no penalties apply. From 2008 onwards. Full information is available on the OUA website. Your feedback regarding this unit is appreciated! Important Deadlines If you decide to withdraw from SCI16. In 2008.Conceptual Physics Fundamentals 1st Edition (CPF) was selected as the required text for the unit. From the OUA Homepage (www. • After the Census Date: No refund of unit fees applicable unless you can demonstrate special circumstances. your withdrawal request must be submitted to OUA in writing using the Online Enquiry Form on the OUA website.edu. Students should make themselves familiar with OUA’s withdrawal policy as soon as possible. a cheaper textbook . external students will no longer be required to request an external experiments kit and should download the laboratory activities from the unit website. You may incur a financial penalty for withdrawal. iv SCI16 Unit Information . Academic penalties may apply. This was met with some success and will be used again in 2012. In 2010 an activity was introduced which encourages students to observe and write a report on physics out in the real world. • Special Circumstances: Information concerning special circumstances can be found on the OUA website. For Murdoch University the final date for withdrawal without academic penalty is Sunday of Week 6.

Waves and Sound 9. What is Science? 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 2. Gravity and Projectile Motion 6. Newton’s Laws & Vectors Laboratory 1: Velocity Tutorial 2 Laboratory 2: Vectors and Newton’s Laws * Assignment 1 Tutorial 3 Tutorial 4 * Assignment 2 Laboratory 3: Heat of Fusion Tutorial 5 * Assignment 3 Laboratory 4: Exploring Magnetism Tutorial 6 Laboratory 5: Sound and Light 4. Teaching Week 1 Topics Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 1 p 1 – 12 Appendix A p373-376 Chapter 3 p30-51 Chapter 4 P52-77 Appendix B & C P377-386 Chapter 5 p78-104 Chapter 6 p105-132 Chapter 8 p160-176 Chapter 9 p177-196 Chapter 10 p198-224 Chapter 11 p225-244 Chapter 12 p246-270 Chapters 13 & 14 p271-318 Review Week Schedule Diagnostic Exercise Tutorial 1 1. Light and Optics SCI16 Unit Information v .Study schedule This timetable will help you to plan your study over the semester. Momentum and Energy 5. Heat and Thermodynamics 7. Linear Motion 3. Electricity and Magnetism 8.

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The online unit and Lectopia recordings can all be accessed from the MyUnits page. you will need regular access to: Essential textbook 1. You should visit the unit website AT LEAST once per week during this semester. Published by Pascal Press [this text will be extremely useful for SCI19 too] These are both ESSENTIAL texts. This means that you should have your own copy of both as they will be used for each topic after week 1. Assignments also must be submitted via this unit website. QuickSmart Introductory Physics. Other references 2012 Unit Information and Learning Guide for SCI16 General Physics (online or printed version). This specifies the minimum material you will need to do in order to successfully the unit.TWO Resources for the unit Unit materials To undertake study in this unit. 2012 Laboratory Manual & Tutorial Guide for SCI16 General Physics You may wish to read further or complete more questions and problems. ISBN 0-321-50136-5 AND 2. by Turville and Vaille. 2008. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals 1st edition by Paul Hewitt Published by Pearson Addison Wesley. It will be the primary method of contact. Online resources This is an online unit. SCI16 Unit Information vii . If you are unable to access the Lectopia recordings please contact the Unit Coordinator to request a copy of the recordings.

adjacent to the Nexus Theatre off Bush Court. including adding credit to your internet quota contact IT Service Desk on 08 9360 2000.edu.Library resources The library has a range of excellent physics books.murdoch. rather than calculus books. If you are looking for materials to support this unit. You will need your Murdoch student number and password to login on these machines. Past exam papers can also be sourced via the library website.au/exams/ Computing resources In order to complete this unit you will require regular internet access. Internal and metropolitan external students may use the computing facilities in GCL1. If you require technical assistance. viii SCI16 Unit Information . http://wwwlib. look for books which are algebra or Conceptual Physics.

laboratory experiments. Five lab reports. some tutorial work. worth 2% each Worksheets and problems for each tutorial worth a total of 7% 50% 100% Assessment details There are 3 assignments. carrying the following weights: Component of Final Mark Assignments Laboratory Reports Tests Tutorial Work Final Examination Total Notes 18% 15% 10% 7% 50% 100% Three assignments. tutorial work and a final examination.THREE Assessment You will be assessed on the basis of: Assignments. worth 3% each Five tests. Teaching Topic Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 Internal Lab/Tute Schedule Assessment Due Diagnostic Exercise Tutorial 1 Tutorial 1 Laboratory 1 Laboratory Report 1 Tutorial 2 Tutorial 2 Laboratory Report 2 & Laboratory 2 Assignment 1 Tutorial 3 Tutorial 3 Assignment 2 Tutorial 4 Tutorial 4 Laboratory 3 Laboratory Report 3 Tutorial 5 Tutorial 5 Assignment 3 Laboratory 4 Laboratory Report 4 Tutorial 6 Tutorial 6 Laboratory 5 Laboratory Report 5 Review Week SCI16 Unit Information ix . 5 tests. 5 labs and a final exam. worth 6% each. tests.

x SCI16 Unit Information . For each of these you will write up a brief laboratory report. − Your past experiences in maths and physics. Assignments The assignments will be posted on the unit website at the start of semester so you know what you are working towards. The questions and problems will be similar in style to the practice exercises from the textbook. You may not have enough time to get through all the work in the tutorial. The tutorial work is included in the tutorial guide and lab manual. Some of the questions and problems may require knowledge from two or more of the topics. Laboratory Reports There are five laboratory sessions in this unit. The second assignment will be a research activity and report. For external students this test and electronic copies of the tutorial materials will be available on the unit website and should be submitted during the tutorial week. These questions will be on the content of the topic covered before the tutorial. This is to encourage you to keep revising throughout the unit (don’t wait until the day before the exam!). and what additional support activities (such as extra tutorials) may be needed to assist you with your studies this semester. but. Tests / Tutorial Work As part of five of the tutorials. Where ever possible use a diagram in answering the assignment questions as good diagrams will receive marks.Diagnostic Exercise A diagnostic exercise that is common to both SCI16 and SCI19 and it is not formally assessed (does not contribute to your grade). The first and third assignments involve a series of short answer and problem solving questions. It provides a dry run at the assignment submission process and is used by the unit coordinators to determine: − Potential exemption from SCI16 for students who can demonstrate appropriate competency in physics. but avoid the temptation to work "backwards" from the questions to the required reading because this may cause you to skip important parts of the reading. You are only required to complete the pages from each of the laboratory exercises which are included in the SCI16 Laboratory Manual. there will be a short test consisting of multiple choice questions and short answer questions. You will also be expected to complete some set work during the tutorial and a mark will be given on the basis of a ‘reasonable attempt’ at the work. if you have made a good attempt at the work you will get the full marks for it. The weightings of each set of tutorial work are the same. You should read the assignment questions whilst reading the text book.

The assignments must be completed independently. Penalties may include failure of the assignment. the cover sheet with the declaration completed must be attached. direct copying. SCI16 Unit Information xi . If a cover sheet is not attached and/or declaration is not signed. All suspected cases of dishonesty in assessment (unauthorised working together. NO assignment will be marked without a signed declaration on the cover page. They can be downloaded from the unit website in MyUnits.Assignment Cover Sheets Assignment cover sheets must accompany all assignments submitted in SCI16 and you should always keep a copy of the work. your assignment will not be marked until it is attached / signed. ghost writing etc) are reported for investigation. Declaration When submitting the Assignments. The University has strict penalties on PLAGIARISM (see below for additional information). failure in the unit and exclusion from the University.

Tutors do not have the discretion to grant extensions. you should hand in what you have completed. You will find instructions on how to do this if you follow the TurnItIn link from the homepage of the unit website. the reference checking software. In this case.Assignment / Laboratory Report Submission Assignments should be submitted as a single PDF document and must include a coversheet. Any assignments or laboratory reports that are handed in late. Deferred Submission and Late Assignments If you have exceptional personal circumstances or have been unwell you should contact the unit coordinator and seek an extension for your assignment. In this case contact your unit coordinator as soon as you can. Assignment 2 (the research activity assignment) should be put through TurnItIn. The schedule for submission of work is organised to give you a weekly routine of assessment and feedback. tutorial work and lab reports is via the LMS. An assignment cover page must be the first page of this document. Sometimes “life happens” and it is not possible to hand your work in on time. Applications must be made in writing (email is ok) and you should attach a medical certificate if you have been unwell. Inability to complete an assignment due to regular work commitments are not grounds for extension. PDFs can be created from scanned documents or from word processor and graphing software packages. and the TurnItIn report should be attached to your assignment submission. The feedback will include tips on how to improve your assignments and lab reports leading to better marks in future submissions. xii SCI16 Unit Information . External students .The preferred method of submitting assignments. will not be marked. If they are unable to be uploaded they can also be emailed or postmarked no later than 4pm Friday of the week in which they are due. Applications for an extension have to be made prior to the due date through the unit co-ordinator. tests. indicate where you are experiencing difficulty so that your tutor can provide feedback on these problems. The tests and tutorial work will be available on-line and each must be completed in one sitting. If you cannot complete all the questions in an assignment or laboratory report. Please note that extensions will only be granted for valid reasons. This provides proof of delivery and quicker turn around time. without prior warning.

Previous experience indicates that regular submission leads to regular feedback which is important for optimum performance in the final exam. Students who fail the exam. You will receive information in regards to venue selection and exam timetable direct from OUA Exam Services during the study period.Your assignment will be marked and returned to you personally or by mail. and approved by. but are welcome to attend help classes when they are running. Resubmission of Failed Assignments A student who fails an assessment task will not be able to resubmit the failed assignment or laboratory report. The examination may cover material from all topics as well as the laboratory activities. Assignments are not normally returned until after two weeks have elapsed to allow for approved late submissions (see above).edu. Examination(s) A 2-hour examination for this unit will be held during the OUA exam period. Allow at least two weeks for marking. refer to http://our.au/Student-life/Get-organised/About-exams/ Attendance/participation requirements OUA Students OUA students are not required to attend any on campus activities. Assignment submissions cannot be accepted after the examination has commenced unless a written application for deferred assessment has been lodged with. This will be sent to you by email to your personal email account. the head of Student Administration in accordance with the deferred assessment procedures given in Degree Regulation 46. but score a unit mark of greater than 45% will be offered a supplementary examination. The examination will be closed book and you will be permitted one A4 page of handwritten or typed notes (double sided). Students may inspect their marked examination scripts and discuss the marking with the Unit Coordinator within 14 days of the posting of results (Degree Regulation 43). For further information about examinations. SCI16 Unit Information xiii . The final assessment is due by the end of week 13.murdoch. All students sitting for final examinations must produce photographic ID.

A student who scores greater than 50% overall for the unit. xiv SCI16 Unit Information .au/goto/assessmentpolicies Notation HD D C P N DNS Grade High Distinction Distinction Credit Pass Fail Fail Percentage Range 80 – 100 70 – 79 60 – 69 50 – 59 Below 50 The student failed to participate in assessment components that had a combined weighting of 50% or more of the final mark.8 applies.edu.murdoch. Students must pass (score >50%) the examination in order to pass the unit. but fails the examination will be awarded a supplementary assessment. 45 – 49* 45 – 49* SA SX Supplementary Assignment Supplementary Exam *The award of the grade SA or SX shall be at the discretion of the Unit Coordinator except where clause 11. Component Assignments Tutorial Tests Tutorial Work Laboratory Reports Examination % value of final grade 18% 10% 7% 15% 50% Moderation of assignment and laboratory marks may be used to ensure consistency of marking across tutors in this unit.Determination of the final grade Your final grade will be determined by the addition of each of the component marks. See Section 11 of the current Assessment Policy regarding grades http://www.

Material copied from another student’s assignment or work without that person’s knowledge. The Coordinator may have added a link to Turnitin in your online unit. Please note that when you or your Unit Coordinator submit assignments electronically to Turnitin. Plagiarism and Collusion. can lead to serious penalties.edu. SCI16 Unit Information xv . Material copied from another student’s assignment with her or his knowledge. experimental results.murdoch. The version of the Assessment Policy applicable for this unit can be found at http://www.edu.au/index/policies/index?Filter=assessment Assessment roles and responsibilities Please refer to section 8 in the current Assessment Policy http://www. Academic integrity involves behaving ethically and honestly in scholarship and relies on respect for others’ ideas through proper acknowledgement and referencing of publications. An assignment written by a third party and represented by a student as her or his own work.murdoch. Find out more about how to reference properly and avoid plagiarism at: http://our.University policy on assessment Assessment for this unit is conducted in accordance with the Assessment Policy. designs.au/goto/assessmentpolicies Academic Integrity Murdoch University encourages its students and staff to pursue the highest standards of integrity in all academic activity.au/Student-life/Study-successfully/Referencing-and-citing/ Plagiarism-checking software The University uses software called Turnitin which checks for plagiarism. computer code etc used or adapted without acknowledgement of the source. a copy of your work is retained on the database to check collusion and future plagiarism. Plagiarism Inappropriate or inadequate acknowledgement of original work including: • Material copied word for word without any acknowledgement of its source • Material paraphrased without appropriate acknowledgement of its source • Images.3 of the Assessment Policy.murdoch. including the examples listed below.edu. Ghost writing Collusion Purloining Adapted from Section 9. Lack of academic integrity.

In cases where the appeal of a student is upheld by the Student Appeals Committee. the committee will consider what remedy.au/vco/secretariat/appeals/appeals.murdoch.murdoch. the committee will not reconsider a student’s performance to determine whether a different grade should be awarded. transparency and accountability. in other words. This process is a mechanism open to all Murdoch University students and there is no fee.edu. the provision of regular procedural review. Students seeking a review of a grade or mark are instead encouraged to follow the procedures set out in the University’s complaint process at http://www. Rather. it is a procedural review and will investigate whether proper process has been followed. In cases where this is not possible.edu. and 4.The University has a legal agreement with Turnitin that it will not share or reproduce student work in any form. is appropriate. the University has in place a Student Appeals process.au/Student-life/Rights-and-responsibilities/Yourresponsibilities/Non-discriminatory-language-guidelines/ Student appeals Murdoch University encourages students to resolve issues initially through their Unit Coordinator and/or appropriate Faculty staff member. The fundamental principles of this process include: 1.au/Educational-technologies/Turnitin/ Non-discriminatory language Please refer to: http://our. if any. 2. the enhancement of the appeals process and outcomes.edu.murdoch. Advice on using Turnitin can be found at http://our.murdoch.html xvi SCI16 Unit Information . 3.au/vco/secretariat/complaints/ Information on the Student Appeals process can be found at http://www.edu. An appeal is not a merits based review. natural justice and procedural fairness.

php?docid=724&mode=view Students should ensure that they regularly read and understand these policies and regulations.au/documents/index. SCI16 Unit Information xvii .Student complaints Please refer to http://www.murdoch. see https://policy.au/vco/secretariat/complaints/ Conscientious objection in teaching and assessment (This relates to an objection based on an individual’s deep moral conviction of what is right and wrong) For guidelines on conscientious objection.edu. You are required to acknowledge on the cover sheets on your assignments that you have done this.edu. Ensure that you have read each of these policies before commencing the work required for the unit.murdoch.

And. Mick wasn’t entirely convinced. So how would Mick? That’s why you should never share assignments. Dave. as it turned out. told him it took more than one time at cheating to do that.MICK WAS SCARED HE’D BECOME A PLAGIARIST1 His mate. It was what Dave added to it that made it easy to spot the plagiarism . but he didn’t want to fail. Failing an assignment is depressing enough – Plagiarism can make you fail a whole unit…or worse! Any similarity to posters found in campus bathrooms from the Australian National Council on AIDS is purely intentional! 11 xviii SCI16 Unit Information . the real harm wasn’t done by him failing.a mistake. You see. So they shared an assignment. Dave was bad at maths. but like many other people didn’t know it.

General Physics SCI16 Learning Guide .

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To guide you through your learning activities. You can now test your understanding of the material by attempting the practice questions and problems. You should then read the recommended sections from the textbook and complete the notes alongside the objectives. Unlike most texts. To use this guide.Introduction How to use this Learning Guide This unit has been designed to enable you to develop skills and knowledge using a variety of learning activities. It is important that you are able to master these more difficult tasks. they will help you consolidate your learning and assist you in becoming an independent learner. just like part of the assignments. For external students. These will be discussed in workshops. You will find that these are graded in the textbook from single-concept to more involved multi-concept tasks. I suggest that you first check through the objectives and alongside each you should write what you already know . Hewitt doesn’t have answers in the back of the book. you will be able to access these from the unit website. etc. The examination questions consist of a mixture of written answers (similar to the questions) and numerical problems (similar to the Challenge problems). SCI16 Learning Guide 1 . critical and reflective learning.definitions. Although the study questions/practice exercises are optional. Intro Physics has answers in the back of the book. this printed Learning Guide and the online version contains topic by topic information including: • Objectives and introductory notes to each topic • List of required readings • Study questions and practice exercises • Key concepts • Learning Activities This information is designed to help you move through the unit in a way which will lead to thorough.

Getting the most from the topic pages Introductory text about the topic or how it fits into the grand scheme of things This is the time you should spend on this topic. including any assignment questions What you need to learn! Key equations which you need to know The MINIMUM Reading you need to do to pass the unit These questions will be discussed in the workshop / tutorial & you should do these BEFORE the class (you may be asked to present your answer!) 2 SCI16 Learning Guide .

Learning Activities: What you need to do. or prepare for the workshop class. or plan your study around for External Students The key things you should know at the end of the topic Assignment & General reminders SCI16 Learning Guide 3 .

Last semester a student failed the exam even though he got every answer ‘correct’. lecture 2 you will see that this approach and format for problem solving is presented. You don’t need to rule lines on the page. particularly week 2. but sectioning your page is useful as it encourages you to leave ‘white space’ so that I can follow what you have done. not necessarily the answer that you get 12 • Assumptions and explanations What is the physics involved and what assumptions have you made to answer this question • Relationship What equation or relationship will you use 4 SCI16 Learning Guide . I teach this overly prescriptive approach to problem solving so that you can develop a set of problem solving skills which you can apply to almost any situation.Getting the most marks for numerical problems I know that this seems overly pedantic and not at all relevant for the ‘real world’. It also means that you are not overly penalised because you made an error when you wrote the numbers down from the calculator. but certainly across other areas of the sciences and engineering. important as the correctness of the answer. I hope that this additional information helps you to understand why I am so pedantic about the approach!!!! What a well formatted answer looks like • List of known's What do you know? • Diagram Draw a diagram of how you understand the situation described in the question • Working out You need to show your working out…I’m interested in your ability to solve problems. if not more. In the lecture notes. because the process of problem solving is just as. the assignment and examination problems are all marked using this approach. To encourage this logical approach. or similar.

0m/s and the drop to the saddle is 3. or what is even worse. (a) What must be the horizontal distance between the saddle and branch when the roustabout leaves the branch? (b) How long is the roustabout in the air? SCI16 Learning Guide 5 . starting with the calculations without first stating the equations in general terms. The horse is travelling at 10. Being able to communicate how you solved the problem is also an important skill for a scientist to acquire. clear and a reasonable size o Putting on the diagram all known factors • A list of all known variables and an explanation of the physics stating any assumptions relating to the question. if there are any (30%) • Giving the equations that will be used in their general terms 10% of the marks • Calculations and working out leading to a correct answer 20% of the marks • The correct answer 20% of the marks o The correct SI units o An appropriate number of significant figures Suggestions on how to do assignment problems First you have to get the physics right before you can attempt a numerical solution.00m. So in order to reflect this in the marking of the assignments there will be minimal marks for getting the right answer. You will get marks for: • A good diagram 20% of the marks o Correct.Marking of Assignment Problems Learning how to solve problems is as important as getting the right answer. Do not start writing down equations without any comments. Problem Example A roustabout is sitting on a branch of a tree and wishes to drop vertically onto a horse galloping under the tree.

An Example of a Good Answer: Sometimes it makes more sense to do the second part of the question first. So plan how you are going to do it. Then decide which direction is positive. Always solve the problem in terms of a general equation before you enter numerical values. The time of flight can be found from the equation yf = vyit + ½ayt2 so t = √(2( yf . where the initial velocity (velocity of the roustabout) is zero. g = 9.vyit) / ay) t = √(2(3. 1. Begin with a good diagram and put on the diagram all known. 3.8m/s2 vx = 10 m/s vyi = 0 m/s yf = 3 m It takes the same amount of time for the roustabout to drop from the tree into the saddle as it takes for the horse to move into place. List the known variables. Has the situation been idealised? If so state the assumptions. Explain the physics involved. The horse moves an unknown displacement (position at the start of the drop to underneath the roustabout at the end of the drop) at a constant velocity and has to be directly under the roustabout at the end of the drop. The roustabout moves a given displacement (distance between the tree branch and the saddle) at constant acceleration (g). 2.8ms-1) 6 SCI16 Learning Guide .00m) / 9. The time between the start of the drop and contact between roustabout and saddle can be found. Give the equations that will be used in their general terms and do the calculations leading to a correct answer with the correct SI units and an appropriate number of significant figures.

8ms-1) t = 0. e. ms.e. i.78246s t = 0.82m About units Every physical quantity has two components a numerical value. SCI16 Learning Guide 7 . the quantities should be entered with their numerical values and the units.82 m An Example of a Really Bad Answer: x = 7. km/h. there is an error in the equation. such as cm. m/s.82 m An Example of a Bad Answer: yf = vyit + ½ayt2 t = √(2(3. 5. Once you have derived the equation which is a partial solution to your problem. Do not assume that all the terms are expressed in SI units. they occur often in derived units. mm.t = 0. If the units are not correct. ms-2 The physical units are not always in SI units. such as 3. if you obtain m/s2 instead of the expected m/s. 7.g. you should proceed as follows: a) Enter the physical quantities as they appear in the equation. such as m. Always include the units in your equation. This way you can partially check your result before you do any numerical calculations.782 x = 7.6 x104 a physical unit. Work out the values in one column and the units in another b) Reduce all units to basic SI units and check the final units of this procedure. A good way to tackle this is to have a two-column layout.00m) / 9. y. s.456.5.782s (correct to 3 significant figures) The distance of the horse from the tree can be found using the formula x = vxt so x = 10 x 0.782s x = vxt x = 7.

You should develop the ability to estimate your answer to within one order of magnitude. g) Check you have the right number of significant figures i. 8 SCI16 Learning Guide . c) Work out the result of all basic numbers. then it is most likely wrong. you can not have more significant figures than the values given in the problem. As the assignment questions have the answers at the back of the book it is important to show your working and explain your answer to get full marks.e.0 m/s then the answer can have no more than 2 significant figures so the distance from the horse to the tree is 7. Check for order-of-magnitude only. Compare with known numerical results.Remember your units have to be right. d) Work out the result of all powers of ten. Important Note: You should always use this approach in all your answers. as it will assist you to understand the physics of the problem and enable your tutor to understand what you are doing. e) Combine the results of (b) (c) and (d) for the final answer. except for simple or very straightforward questions. For example in the problem given above if the horse is travelling at 10 m/s rather than 10. If your answer is off by one or more powers of ten from what you expect or from what seems reasonable.82 m.8 m not 7. f) Check this result is reasonable.

The word science comes from the Latin meaning to know and representative of common definitions of science. We could spend many years trying to define science and explain its role in society. you will explore some of the fundamental aspects that underpin science as a field of study. see the list of suggested readings on the unit website. Nominal time to complete topic – 7 hours Learning objectives When you have completed this topic you should be able to: Define and distinguish between • Hypothesis • Theory • Scientific Fact • Scientific Law • Système international (SI) System of Units • Non SI Units Explain • The role of ethical behaviour in the sciences • Types of and penalties for dishonesty in assessment at Murdoch University Use • The scientific method in simple experiments • SI units in conceptual and numerical problems • SI prefixes and scientific notation in place of orders of ten SCI16 Learning Guide 9 . such as the search for truth. we do not have that long! If you are interested.TOPIC ONE What is Science? Introduction In this first topic. Alas.

7 2. They are designed to increase with difficulty. Appendix A.Essential reading 1. experimentation and measurement of the physical and natural world is a key feature of scientific activity. pages 373–376. (CPF) a. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals 1st edition. p1 . but you have preparation for next week. Science is a social activity.4 3. Key Concepts 1. Scientists use a range of tools to convey scientific information. pages 1 –12. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals 1st ed. Chapter: Review Questions 1. 2. QuickSmart Introductory Physics There are no problems for this topic. 2. 3. which can be described as an evolving body of knowledge about the physical and natural world as well as the process of adding to the body of knowledge. The observation. b. Challenge Problems There are no problems for this topic. The Scientific Method is a term used to describe the principles and procedures used in the process of adding to the body of knowledge on the natural and physical world. 13 Exercises 1. Students should master the Challenge problems before moving on to the next topic. 1. scientific notation and units of measurement. 4. 3. SCI16 Tutorial Guide and Laboratory Manual Study questions and practice exercises For each topic 3 different sets of activities may be set. Chapter 1. 10 SCI16 Learning Guide . including mathematical formulae. Introductory Physics. 3. Learning Activities There are no laboratory or workshop activities this week.

After you have done the readings for this topic. what do you have some idea about. go on to the next topic. What do you know already. such as plagiarism at university. Assessment The DIAGNOSTIC EXERCISE is due this week. Can you add to them? Do you need to go over any section of the reading to improve your understanding? If you are happy with your progress. SCI16 Learning Guide 11 . and what do you need to pay particular attention to in your reading? Try defining some of the terms and explaining some of the concepts before you turn to the readings. There is a system of moral and ethical behaviour in the sciences which is very similar to the concepts of dishonesty in assessment. Reviewing what you have learnt Look back over the learning objectives.5. look back over the notes you made on the learning objectives. General Reminder Internal students You need to make sure that you have signed up for a workshop class.

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In this topic we are concerned with the simplest motion: in one direction . We can also describe this as motion in one dimension in space. With this simplification we can begin to understand the meaning of terms such as velocity and acceleration.a straight line. Nominal time to complete topic – 10 hours Learning objectives When you have completed this topic you should be able to: Define • • • • • Acceleration Force Free fall Gravity Particle Distinguish Between • Displacement and distance • Speed and velocity • Instantaneous and average speed • Instantaneous and average velocity Explain • How to calculate velocity and acceleration from graphs and measurements of displacement and time • What units are used to describe motion Use • The equations of motion to solve problems in non accelerating and uniformly accelerating situations: d Some texts use different symbols in o v= t these formulae v f + vo d is interchangeable with s o v = vf is interchangeable with v. when u 2 is used in place of vo or vi v f − vo o a = ∆t o v f = v o + at SCI16 Learning Guide 13 . in one direction as in a sprint race or in a complicated pattern as in dancing.TOPIC TWO Motion in a Straight Line Introduction Almost any activity involves movement. The movement may be 'fast' or 'slow'.

The speed of a toy rocket shooting straight upwards increases from v to V at a uniform rate in a time t.10m iii. Chris tosses a ball straight upwards at a speed v. 14. b. 2. What is the acceleration of the electron? ii. 10. 30 7. 13. How long does the ball take to reach its highest point? ii. Sections 2. Quicksmart Introductory Physics – Chapter 2 1.2 and 2. Calculate the time in seconds that it takes for the ball to reach its highest point when thrown upwards at 32ms-1.o o 2 d = vo t + 1 2 at v f = vo + 2ad 2 2 • Graphs to illustrate linear motion • The laws of linear motion to explain the motion of particles Essential reading 1. Calculate the acceleration in ms-2 for an electron that starts from rest and reaches a speed of 1.3 (don’t worry about the material on differentiation) Study questions/Practice exercises 1. Chapter 3. Calculate the maximum height of the ball. i.8x107ms-1 over a distance of 0. Challenge Problems a. 9 14 SCI16 Learning Guide . Introductory Physics. An electron placed in an electric field accelerates uniformly from rest to a speed v while travelling a distance x.5s c. 26. iii. Calculate the distance (in m) covered if the initial rocket speed is 110ms-1 and increases uniformly to 250ms-1 in a period of 3. 16 3. 8. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Exercises Problems 2. Chapter 3 25.1. i. Ignoring air drag. 5. 12. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals. How far does the rocket travel during this time? ii. i. Calculate the time required for the electron to attain this speed. pp 30 – 51 2.

d. If you found you were struggling with any of the problems.1 moles of air molecules in each breath. acceleration. How does the number of people who ever lived compare to the number of air molecules in a single breath? Learning Activities This week’s tutorial includes: − An icebreaker − The M&M Science activity. − Tutorial 1 Key Concepts 1. Review You should now start reviewing the previous topics in preparation for the assignment. Scalar quantities have only a magnitude component. Assessment The Tutorial 1 (Test & Tutorial Work) is to be submitted by 4pm Friday. time interval or position of an object can be determined by knowing information about the other quantities. 2. whereas vector quantities have both magnitude and direction. the present world population is approximately 6 billion. The velocity. ask your tutor for help. Using a problem solving approach and the following. this is 5% of the total number of people who have ever lived on Earth and there is approximately 0. SCI16 Learning Guide 15 . 1 mole is 6.023 x 1023 molecules.

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scalars by italic type. Examples are: Scalars: distance. which form the core of this topic. Vectors: displacement. velocity. since force and motion are connected via Newton's Laws of Motion. displacement and velocity are defined as vectors and must have their directions specified. energy. Those variables that have a direction in space are called vector quantities or vectors. In this case we shall be using vectors to represent forces. time. vector quantities are often denoted by bold type. acceleration. It is convenient to distinguish among physical quantities according to whether they are directional or non-directional in space. work. force. speed. mass. We won't be neglecting motion altogether though. Thus distance and speed are defined as scalar quantities and denote magnitudes alone.TOPIC THREE Newton’s Laws and Vectors Introduction In topic two we considered motion in one direction but of course life isn't always that simple so we need a way of handling other directions. those described fully by their magnitude alone are called scalar quantities or scalars. Rather than throwing ourselves into a full consideration of vector motion in many dimensions we are taking an interlude to consider vectors in static situations. Nominal time to complete topic – 20 hours (this topic will be studied over two weeks) Learning objectives When you have completed this topic you should be able to: Define and Distinguish Between • Scalar and Vector quantities • Force • Inertia • Friction • Mass and Weight • Resultant • Equilibrium Explain • The nature of action and reaction • The causes of motion SCI16 Learning Guide 17 . momentum. In printed text. frequency.

How big a force acts on Crate A while Mark continues pushing? v. 15. A friend says that Crate A accelerations because Mark’s hand push it.State • Use • Newton's Laws of Motion (Newton’s 1st. What would be different in this problem if Crates A and B were interchanged? vi.3. 27. Draw a vector diagram for the system consisting of Crate A and Crate B. while crate B has a smaller mass. Draw a vector diagram for Crate B. The crates are mounted on tiny rollers and move with negligible friction. How big a force acts on Crate B while Mark continues pushing? iv. Mark exerts a force F on two crates.1 – 1.1 . 11. Challenge Problems a.6) – Newton’s Laws Study questions/Practice exercises 1. Chapter 4. ii. Chapter 3 (3. 0. but Crate B has no force on it so just rides along with Crate A. 42 Problems 1. Introductory Physics – Chapter 1 Even questions up to and including question 12. Introductory Physics – Chapter 3 Even questions up to and including question 12. i. one in front of the other. 4. pp 52 – 77 b. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals a. 12 1. Appendix B & C pp377 -286 2. What physics is your friend missing? 18 SCI16 Learning Guide . Crate A has mass m. 11. 2nd and 3rd Laws) Newton’s 2nd Law F = ma to calculate the acceleration of an object subject to an unbalanced force Essential reading 1. 7.7) – Vectors b. Introductory Physics a. Chapter 1 (1.5m. 4. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals: Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Exercises 11. 8. Draw a vector diagram for Crate A. What is the acceleration of the two crate system? iii. 3. 14 2.

Gymnast Alana of mass m is suspended by a pair of vertical ropes attached to the ceiling. i. and for when they are 53° to the ceiling c. as shown. What is the tension in each rope if she is hanging straight down? ii. Calculate answers for the tension in the pair of vertical ropes. with the ceiling? iii. one at angle θ1 and the other at θ2. SCI16 Learning Guide 19 . Suppose that Alana has mass 55kg.b. What are the rope tensions if they comprise a V-shape. 2. ii. i. Week 4 This week’s tutorial includes: − Tutorial 2 − What makes a good lab report? − Marking criteria for Assignment 2 − Tutorial questions Key Concepts 1. A street lamp is suspended by 2 cables. the object is at equilibrium. θ1 is 40° and θ2 is 60° Learning Activities Week 3 In this week’s workshop you will… − Complete the Velocity activity from the Laboratory Manual. Find the tension in each cable for a lamp of mass m. When the sum of all of the forces acting on an object is zero. each at an angle θ. We can interpret and predict the behaviour of particles in motion using Newton’s Laws. Calculate the two tensions when the mass of the lamp is 15kg.

Tutorial 2 (Test & Work) is to be submitted by 4pm of the Friday of week 4. 20 SCI16 Learning Guide .Assessment Laboratory report 1 – Velocity is due 4pm Friday of week 3.

Nominal time to complete topic – 10 hours Learning objectives When you have completed this topic you should be able to: Define and Distinguish Between • Momentum and impulse • Elastic and inelastic collision • System and isolated system • Kinetic energy • Potential energy • Potential energy in springs • Mechanical energy • Work • Power Explain • How Newton's Third Law is equivalent to the law of conservation of momentum • The work – energy relationship • How energy changes between different forms during motion • The situations to which the law of conservation of energy may be applied • How kinetic energy and momentum are different to each other State • • • • Use • • The law of conservation of momentum to describe the effects of interactions between objects or particles The following equations o Ft = ∆mv o ∑ mv o = ∑ mv f SCI16 Learning Guide 21 the law of conservation of momentum The law of conservation of energy Newton's Second Law in terms of momentum change The law of equivalence of mass and energy . It is also intimately related Newton’s Laws.TOPIC FOUR Momentum and Energy Introduction This topic is probably better described by bangs and crashes as momentum and energy are of central importance in collisions.

the length of the plank is 5. and the platform is 1. Introductory Physics Chapter 4 3. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 5. 12 3. Introductory Physics Chapter 6 1. 50 Problems 4. 8 4.2m above the road. 13 5. 7. 6. 10. 3. the applied force is 490N. 6. Introductory Physics Chapter 4 1. What is the increase of potential energy of the crate once on the platform? iv. Introductory Physics Chapter 5 4. 4. 8. Calculate Andrew’s work input if the crate has a mass of 100kg. 9. Andrew finds that a force F is required to push a crate of mass m up a plank of length L into a truck whose platforms is a vertical distance h above the road. Introductory Physics Chapter 5 2. iii. 3. 7. 12 2. 5. pp 78 – 104 2. How much work does Andrew do in pushing the crate up the plank? ii.0m. Challenge Problems a. 11. 10. 40. i. 5. How much work did Andrew do in overcoming friction? 22 SCI16 Learning Guide . 27. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 5 Exercises 2. 11. Introductory Physics Chapter 6 Study questions/Practice exercises 1.o PE = mgh 2 o KE = 1 2 mv o W = Fd o W = Fx 2 o F =1 2 kx o W = ∆KE ∆W o P= t Essential reading 1.

v. What is the efficiency of the plank? b. Toyota Prius of mass m and velocity v travelling north on the Murdoch Drive collides, at the intersection of Murdoch Dr and South St, with a Honda Civic Hybrid with mass M and velocity V, but travelling west on South St. i. What is the magnitude and direction of the resulting momentum of the vehicles if it is an inelastic collision? ii. Calculate the resulting momentum if the mass of the Prius is 1325kg, mass of the Civic is 1190kg and their initial speeds were both 18ms-1 c. Two minutes into launch, the space shuttle Discovery jettisons, or releases, the Solid Rocket Boosters are after the fuel has run out. At this point, the shuttle is doing 4828km/h. i. What is the average acceleration experienced by the crew on board the Discovery during these two minutes? ii. How does this compare to the acceleration due to gravity experienced by the Astronauts on the ground? iii. If the commander of the Discovery, Eileen Collins has a mass of 60kg, what is her average weight during this first two minutes of space flight? iv. How much kinetic energy does Eileen Collins have the moment the boosters are jettisoned?

Learning Activities In this week’s workshop you will… − Complete Laboratory 2 – Vectors and Newton’s Laws. Assessment Laboratory report 2 – Vectors and Newton’s Laws is due 4pm Friday of week 5. Assignment 1 is due by 4pm Friday of week 5.

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TOPIC FIVE Gravity and Projectile Motion
Introduction
We are going to finish our look at mechanics, or motion by looking at the behaviour of projectiles. A projectile is any object which is moving through the air (or space) under the influence of gravity. If you think about the path that a ball, say a cricket or tennis ball behaves after it has been hit, it follows a curved path and because of this we need to describe its motion in terms of two directions, x-direction (forwards or backwards) and the y-direction (up and down). Nominal time to complete topic – 10 hours

Learning objectives
When you have completed this topic you should be able to: Define and distinguish between • Gravity and gravitational fields • Projectile motion Use • • • The equations of motion to calculate the vector components of an object following the path of a projectile mm F =G 122 d Inverse square laws

Essential reading 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals, Chapter 6 pp 105 – 132 2. Introductory Physics, Section 2.4

SCI16 Learning Guide 25

Find Matt’s velocity when he lands on the net and his time in the air if the helicopter’s velocity is 12ms-1 at an angle of 15° below the horizontal and is 26m above the safety net when he begins his drop. what is the speed with which the rock hits the piñata? ii. Nathan aims and fires a small rock from the ground at an angle θ above the horizontal. drops from a helicopter that is flying at velocity v slightly downward at and angle θ with respect to the horizontal. Challenge Problems a. The rock strikes the piñata just as it reaches the top of it trajectory. iii. i. Write the values in the boxes for ascending velocity components and your calculated resultant velocities on the downward path. or reasoning for each box 26 SCI16 Learning Guide . Ignoring air resistance. A ball is tossed upwards with initial velocity components of 88. He fires it at velocity vo. c. How high is the piñata? iv. an extreme sport enthusiast. i.4 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 6 Exercises Problems Introduction to Physics All questions related to section 2.Study questions/Practice exercises 1.8 ms-2. 9 2.0 ms-1 horizontal. 4. 5. How long will it take Matt to land in the safety net a vertical distance y below? iv. 6 2. Calculate the speed of the rock when it hits the piñata assuming an initial speed of 9. a piñata hangs from the branch of a very tall tree.0ms-1 and an angle of 65º with respect to the ground. What is Matt’s initial velocity when he drops from the helicopter? ii.5. What is Matt’s velocity t seconds later? iii. How long will it take the lollies inside the piñata to hit the ground once the piñata breaks? b. The location of the ball is shown at 3s Ignore air resistance and use g = 9. Show your working. Matt. In a new twist on the birthday party game.2ms-1 vertical and 8.

How does this difference relate to the existence of tides on the Earth? SCI16 Learning Guide 27 .0kg blobs of water on opposite sides of the Earth. Earth Moon distance is calculated centre to centre) ii. Hint: you will find the information you need on the inside front or back cover of the textbook. i. Calculate the gravitational force of the Moon on the blob on the side of the Earth farthest away from the Moon iii. Calculate the gravitational force on the Moon on the blob on the side of the Earth closes to the Moon. Calculate the percentage difference between these two forces Fnear − Ffar x100 % Fnear iv. Consider two identical 1.d. one on the side facing the Moon and the other on the side farthest away from the Moon.

Can you add to them? Do you need to go over any section of the reading to improve your understanding? If you are happy with your progress. When an object moves in more that one dimension. 2. 28 SCI16 Learning Guide . angular methods are used to describe the motion. Assessment Tutorial 3 (Test & Work) is to be submitted by 4pm of the Friday of week 6. Review Look back over the notes you made on the learning objectives. go on to the next topic. When an object moves in a circle.Learning Activities This week’s tutorial includes: − Tutorial 3 − Diagrams − Self review of your draft of assignment 2 − Tutorial Questions Key Concepts 1. vectors are used to describe the motion.

Nominal time to complete topic – 20 hours (studied over 2 weeks) Learning objectives When you have completed this topic you should be able to: Define and Distinguish Between • Temperature and temperature scales • Absolute zero • Heat • Internal energy • Specific heat capacity • Thermal expansion • Conduction • Convection • Radiation • Insulation • Evaporation. Note: we are going to assume that you have already looked at the phases of matter – solid. liquid and gas (we won’t worry about plasma in this unit…. This may come in handy for both Energy Studies students and those doing thermodynamics. If you haven’t. liquid and gas and how they behave within the context of sciences that you have studied before.). so this topic is all about applying what we have already learnt about energy and work from mechanical systems to matter. condensation and sublimation • Boiling • Thermodynamics • Latent heat of fusion • Latent heat of vaporisation • Phase change • Entropy • Efficiency of heat engines SCI16 Learning Guide 29 . you should review the relevant material. In the second part we will look at what happens to substances when they change between the phases of matter – solid. or it has been a while.TOPIC SIX Heat and Thermodynamics Introduction This topic is the start of a new module on the properties of materials. In the first part you will look at the difference between heat and temperature and the effect these have on and between materials. which literally means heat and work. We also introduce thermodynamics.

in terms of energy • The laws of thermodynamics Use • The following equations: o ∆L = L α∆T o o o o o Q = Q = Q = ∆U mL mc ∆ T Pt = Q +W W Qin T − Tcold o ε = hot Thot ε= Essential reading 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals. 11. 6. 4. 8 2. 4 2. 5. 43 Problems 1. Energy is needed to change the phase of water to steam i. 7. Calculate the quantity of heat that must be added to 133g of water at 32°C to turn it into steam at 100°C? 30 SCI16 Learning Guide . 2. pp 177 – 196 Study questions/Practice exercises 1. particularly around 4°C • The processes of boiling and freezing • How a heat pump works • How a heat engine works • What happens to substances when they undergo a phase change. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals. Chapter 8 Exercises 2. 32. Challenge Problems a. Chapter 9. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals. Chapter 9 Exercises 3. What quantity of heat must be added to m grams of liquid water at To to turn it into steam at 100°C? ii. pp 160 – 176 2. 21 Problems 1. Chapter 8.Explain • How heat transfer occurs in materials and how it can be prevented • Newton’s Law of Cooling • How the sun is able to provide energy for life on Earth • The unusual behaviour of water.

In winter the temperature of the outside air is Tc = -0.1kg of canned Dole cola from 23°C to perfect SCI16 Learning Guide 31 . Some houses in Australia have instantaneous. How much energy is required to raise the temperature of x L of hot water from Tcold to Thot? ii. these heaters start heating the water when you turn the hot tap on. i. ii. A small geothermal power plant in Europe uses hot water from the ground as a high temperature reservoir and the outside air as the low temperature reservoir. How much ice would you need as a minimum? Hint: the final state of the ice will be water and assume that the properties of the aluminium can are exactly the same as the cola – i. Rather than storing the hot water in large tanks. ii. or on demand water heaters which heat water for washing and bathing. Suppose that you wanted to place ice into a perfectly insulating esky to cool the cans down from Ts to a final temperature Tf. d. The ice is initially at a temperature Ti. c.0L of water from 15°C to 50°C each minute. ignore the presence of the can. Hint: 1L of water has a mass of 1kg). suppose that you use x litres of hot water each minute. Calculate the theoretical power output of the geothermal plant. How much heat is supplied to the power plant each second? (hot groundwater is cooled from To to Tf). initially at -5°C. A six pack of Dole cola contains m grams of liquid. At this geothermal plant.e. Hot ground water of mass m kg is pumped through the power plant each second. How much power is required to heat x L of water from Tcold to Thot in one minute? iii. i.4°C. What is the maximum power output of the geothermal plant? iv. When you shower.b.4°C. Waste heat is ejected to the environment at a temperature Tc. and heat the water only whilst the hot tap is on.8kg per second of hot groundwater enters the plant at To =79. Calculate the mass of ice. Hot ground water enters the plant at a temperature To and leaves the plant at a slightly lower temperature Tf. i. if the temperature of the hot reservoir is taken to be the average of To and Tf)? iii. What is the theoretical maximum efficiency of the geothermal plant. 5. needed to cool 2. Calculate the power rating for a perfectly efficient heater designed to heat 3.6°C and leaves the plant at 79.

If the microwave delivers 750W to the coffee. How much time should you set the microwave to heat your coffee to the perfect temperature? iii. How much energy will it take to restore your coffee to its “perfect” temperature? Assume that coffee has the same thermal properties as water and that the cup itself gains negligible heat from the microwave. You put your cup. containing x mL of coffee.drinking temperature of 4°C. Week 8 In this week’s workshop you will… − Complete Laboratory 3 – Heat of Fusion. how long will it take to reheat the 140mL of the coffee from 22ºC to 83 ºC? Learning Activities Week 7 The week’s tutorial includes: − Tutorial Questions. (5 marks for the total of all 3 parts) i. ii. You like your coffee to be at the perfect temperature Tp. e. Assume 1mL of coffee has a mass of 1g. Your half-finished cup of coffee has cooled down to a temperature Tc. The microwave delivers energy to the coffee at a rate of P watts. into the microwave. 32 SCI16 Learning Guide .

3. General Reminder The exam is fast approaching… If you haven’t started preparing for the exams. you should start now! SCI16 Learning Guide 33 . 2.Key Concepts 1. Laboratory report 3 – Newton’s Laws & Vectors is due 4pm Friday of week 8. 1. 4. Heat is transferred either by conduction. 2. Assessment Tutorial 4 (Work) is due by 4pm Friday of week 7. 3. Heat pumps do work to transfer heat. The temperature of a substance doesn’t increase during a phase change. Heat engines use heat to produce work. convection or radiation. Assignment 2 is due by 4pm Friday of week 7. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance. The laws of thermodynamics are some of the key ‘laws of physics’. Heat is a form of energy.

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electricity in the form of lightening. but hopefully not experience. electricity and magnetism are all around us in the natural world and they are intricately related to each other. two point charges and flat plates Use • • • • F = kq 1q 2 d2 V d F = qE E= F = qvB SCI16 Learning Guide 35 . Nominal time to complete topic – 20 hours (This topic will be studied over two weeks) Learning objectives When you have completed this topic you should be able to: Define and distinguish between • Electricity • Electrostatics • Electric fields • Electric potential energy • Electric potential • Magnetism • Magnetic fields • Magnetic force • Electromagnets • Electromagnetic induction • Generator • Transformer Explain • the type of interaction observed between electric charges • the different methods of electrostatically charging objects • the electric field patterns of isolated point charges. How many times have you felt the bite of a static electric shock – perhaps walking on synthetic carpet or when you accidentally touch someone who is pushing a trolley through the supermarket? We can also see.TOPIC SEVEN Electricity and Magnetism Introduction Although we can’t see them.

Introductory Physics. chapter 15 1 – 7 inclusive 3. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 10 Exercises 1. Chapter 11 11.3 Study questions/Practice exercises 1. Introductory Physics Section 15. Should Atomic Physicists ignore the effect of gravity within an atom based 36 SCI16 Learning Guide . By how much does the force change if the charge on only one particle doubles and the distance doubles? c.1 – 17. pp 225 .1 – 15. What is the force on an electron at her scalp? b. Calculate and compare the gravitational and electrical forces between an electron and a proton separated by 10-10m. By how much does the force change if each charge is doubled and the distance between them also doubles? iii. i. If she stands with outstretched arms so that her head is 50cm from the dome and the charge on the generator is 3C… i. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 10 pp198 – 224 Chapter 11. Challenge Problems a. 36. 31. A young girl with long (50cm) hair touches the Van de Graaff generator at a science museum and her hair stands on end. which the distance remains unchanged? ii.Essential reading 1. 7 Problems 2. 15. 38.3 Section 17. 4.2 4. Two identical particles which charge q are separated by a distance d and repel each other with force F. By how much does the force change if each charge is doubled. chapter 17 1.244 2. what force does an electron at the end of her hair experience? ii. Introductory Physics. 50 2. 4.

If the electric field between the plates is uniform. − Error analysis. i.05m and a multimeter shows a 100V potential difference between the plates. If the acceleration of a charged particle between the plates is a when it is halfway between the plates.on what you have calculated? d. If the electric field were increased in strength by 10%. Key Concepts 1. We can explain the behaviour of charged particles in fields using Coulomb’s law of electrostatics 2. by what factor would the force on the charged drops increase? Learning Activities Week 9 This week’s tutorial includes: − Tutorial 5. A certain parallel plate capacitor has a plate separation d and a potential difference between the plates of V. Electricity and magnetism are intricately related SCI16 Learning Guide 37 . e. (NB 1 Vm-1 is equivalent to 1 NC-1) iii. Week 10 In this week’s workshop you will… − Complete laboratory 4 – Exploring Magnetism. Ink jet printers spray charged drops of ink onto paper. − Tutorial questions. What is the strength of the electric field F ? ii. why will the particle experience the same acceleration if it is only one quarter the distance between the plates? Defend your answer.8x10-4N on a drop having a charge of 1. Calculate the strength of the electric field if the distance apart is 0. An electric field in the printer head produces a force on the ink drops i.6x10-10C ii. Find the electric field strength that produces a force of 2.

Tutorial 5 (Test & Work) is to be submitted by 4pm of the Friday of week 9. Laboratory report 4 – Exploring Magnetism is due by 4pm Friday of week 10.Assessment Assignment 3 is due by 4pm Friday of week 9. 38 SCI16 Learning Guide .

we will look at light. Nominal time to complete topic – 10 hours Learning objectives When you have completed this topic you should be able to: Define • • • • • • • • • Frequency Wave speed Wavelength Plane wave Standing (stationary) waves Beats Resonance Fundamental frequency Harmonic Distinguish Between • Transverse and longitudinal waves • Compression and rarefaction • Constructive and destructive interference • Nodes and antinodes of standing waves Explain • The origin of beats in the addition of waves • The interaction of two waves travelling in the same direction State • • How sound is produced How sound is transmitted Use • • v = fλ Displacement-time and displacement-distance graphs to explain wave motion SCI16 Learning Guide 39 . we start by looking at the causes and forms of waves and finish by looking at sound waves. In this topic. which is a form of transverse wave.TOPIC EIGHT Wave Motion and Sound Introduction The Boxing Day Tsunami demonstrated that waves could carry enormous amounts of energy. In the next topic. which are a form of longitudinal wave.

pp 246 -270 2. Pretend that some way.Essential reading 1.09 x 1014 Hz emitted by a sodium lamp. the radio signal travelled all the way around the world before reaching you. because radio waves travel at the speed of light. you leave the venue to meet your friends out on the main road and listen to the same concert broadcast on RTRFM 92. What is the frequency of light whose wavelength is 5. 24. If there is a delay of 0. Light travels at 3.5 x 10-7 m? c. Chapter 12. 25 4. i.1MHz. not the speed of sound) iii. Find the wavelength of light of frequency 5.00x108 ms-1. how far from the stage are you? (assume that the radio signal is instantaneous compared with the speed of sound. Does this rule of thumb have a scientific basis? Hint: The speed of light is 3. How far away from the stage would you have to sit so that the sound from the stage and the sound from the radio arrive at the same time? 40 SCI16 Learning Guide 22. Chapter 13 Study questions/Practice exercises 1. A rule of thumb for estimating the distance between you and a thunderstorm is to divide the number of seconds between seeing the lightening flash and hearing the thunder by three. the sounds from the radio or the sound from the concert stage? ii. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals. Chapter 12 Exercises Problems 2. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals. i. Which do you hear first. Introductory Physics. The speed of sound is 343 ms-1 at 20°C and standard atmospheric pressure. ii. 10 . Introductory Physics. At RTRFM’s In the Pines concert. 6. Chapter 13 Even questions from 6 – 16 inclusive 3. Challenge Problems a.00x108 ms-1 through a vacuum and for most practical purposes through air at this speed as well. b.5s between the radio signal and the sound from the stage.

Tutorial questions . Waves are a special form of motion which can transmit energy. Assessment Tutorial 6 (Test & Work) is to be submitted by 4pm of the Friday of week 11.Challenge question. 3. Sound waves are longitudinal waves which can be produced from open and closed pipes as well as stretched strings. 2.Tutorial 6. Key Concepts 1.Exam preparation. . SCI16 Learning Guide 41 . transverse and longitudinal waves. .Learning Activities This week’s tutorial includes: . There are two different forms of waves.

42 SCI16 Learning Guide .

4 and 14. 14.5 SCI16 Learning Guide 43 . Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 13 pp 271 – 293 Chapter 14 pp 294 .1. Many great scientists have undertaken the study of such light and it continues to be the source of fascination for modern researchers.318 2. refraction and diffraction State and Use • The law of reflection • The law of refraction (Snell’s Law) • Huygens’s Principle Discuss • • The origin of the single and double slit interference patterns Interference in thin films Essential reading 1.TOPIC NINE Light and Optics Introduction Because the eye is uniquely adapted to 'see' a narrow band of radiation we call it visible light. Thus we have many theories and explanations and many technical devices constructed to make use of the properties of visible light. Nominal time to complete topic – 10 hours Learning objectives When you have completed this topic you should be able to: Define • • • • • Electromagnetic wave Electromagnetic spectrum Refractive index Diffraction Polarization Distinguish Between • Reflection. Introductory Physics Sections 14.

5 marks) i. 26 Problems 6. Chapter 14 1.3311 for red light and n = 1. 17 3. 23. Once light is inside a diamond it may reflect from an inner surface. 2. Assuming the ball obeys the law of reflection.50) to the speed of light in diamond (n = 2. Light for both colours travels at very nearly the same speed in air. How does the angle of reflection inside the diamond compare with the angle of incidence in the diamond? d. 3.3330 for yellow light. at what angle does it bounce from the cushion? ii. what is the angle of refraction in the drop for red light refracted at that point? ii.42) ii. 8. What is the angle for yellow light? iii. Which one is slowed down more when it enters the drop? Defend your answer. 3 2. 11. Find the ratio of the speed of light in glass (n=1. A pool ball strikes the cushion at an angle θ to the normal as shown in the diagram. Water has an index of refraction of n = 1. 34. 11. i. (2. Under what conditions will the ball not obey the law of reflection (hint: the phrase to put English on the ball is used to describe one situation) c. Rainbows are formed when white light from the Sun meets raindrops in the atmosphere. Challenge Problems a. 14. Light travels at different speeds in glass and in diamond i. The 44 SCI16 Learning Guide . A pool table has dimensions W x L. If the sunbeam shines on a raindrop at an angle of 41° with respect to the normal at a particular point of the drop. θ. How far does it travel before it strikes the opposite cushion? iii. 13. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 13 Exercises 1. b. Introductory Physics. 8 Chapter 14 3.Study questions/Practice exercises 1. A beam of light is incident upon a plane mirror at angle. 49 5.

When light waves interact with each other. Light travels as an electromagnetic wave 2. By how much is the angle of reflection changed? ii. Assessment Laboratory report 5 – Sound & Light is due by 4pm of the Friday of week 12. ask your tutor for help or send in partially complete answers if necessary. Light can be reflected. If you are unable to submit work by this deadline. If you rotate the mirror by 2° how far will the spot of the light on the screen move? Learning Activities In this week’s workshop you will… − Complete laboratory 5 – Sound & Light. you MUST apply for deferred assessment. diffracted or polarized 3. Key Concepts 1. General Reminder All Students NO work will be graded after Friday of the Review Week (13). i. refracted. SCI16 Learning Guide 45 . this is known as interference That’s all folks! Last Chance to Get Help! You should now start reviewing the previous topics in preparation for exam.mirror is then rotated a bit by angle α as indicated in the sketch. If you found you were struggling with any of the problems. A beam is incident at an angle of 30° with the normal and reflects onto a vertical screen 10m away.

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