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DETECTIONOF LOCALFAULTSIN ROTATINGMACHINES
Author1 Author2 Mechanical Engineering Discipline PDPM Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing Jabalpur Jabalpur-482005, Madhya Pradesh, INDIA. ABSTRACT Gears are very common machine elements, which are used to transmit power. Monitoring the condition of large gearboxes in operating industries has attracted increasing interest in recent years owing to the need for decreasing the downtime on production machinery and for reducing the extent of secondary damage caused by failures. Vibration monitoring has been widely reported as being a useful technique for the diagnosis of the condition of rotating machines. This paper considers the fourth normalized statistical moment, kurtosis value for detection and diagnosis of faults in gearbox. Experimental studies conducted on the gearbox include healthy gear, and faulty gear with gradual removal of tooth. Kurtosis values of raw vibration signals and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based kurtosis values are considered in gear fault detection. Results show that DWT based kurtosis values serves as a good inspection tool to examine fault severity and it improves the ability of fault detection in a gear transmission system. 1 INTRODUCTION Monitoring the condition of large gearboxes in operating industries has attracted increasing interest in recent years owing to the need for decreasing the downtime on production machinery and for reducing the extent of secondary damage caused by failures. Typically, vibration signals collected from a gearbox have a low signal to noise ratio (SNR), especially when faults occurring in the gearbox start to propagate. Vibrations generated by large structural components and noises often mask fault-related vibration signals generated by the smaller gears making it difficult to identify the fault related features . On the other hand, it is known that local faults in gearboxes cause impacts, as a result of which transient excitations may be observed in the vibration and acoustic signals. In the presence of growing local faults, the vibration and acoustic signals from gearboxes have nonstationary characteristics. The presence of a crack in one tooth introduces short duration changes in the vibration signal. On the contrary, distributed faults viz., geometrical imperfections and uniform wear on gear teeth surface introduce “slow” modification of the vibration signals. For advanced faults time domain technique may be sufficient to detect the damage, but the early detection of defects requires more sophisticated signal processing methods. The non-stationary nature of the signal suggests the case of time-frequency techniques, which makes it possible to look at the time evolution of the signal frequency content. Such methodologies exists in literature [2-13], authors have successfully applied Wavelet Transform technique for the detection of cracked teeth in gears. These researchers have used wavelet analysis to predict simulated faults on gear teeth. In the present work, experiments were carried out under accelerated test condition (to get gradual wear under controlled load) which results in partial lubrication and boundary lubrication conditions in gear teeth contact. A combination of lubricant film thickness and vibration signal analyses techniques has been used to detect and diagnose surface wear severity of spur gears. Experimental work presented in the literature postulated the advantage of wavelet transform in detection and diagnosis of simulated local faults in gears viz. crack at tooth root, partial tooth removal, adjacent tooth removal etc. Boulahbal et al.  considered both the amplitude and phase maps of wavelet transform in conjunction to assess the condition of an instrumented gear test rig. Their investigation shows the application of the continuous wavelet transform technique to detect developing fatigue cracks in gears. The technique excels in extracting transients, which are often indicators of incipient damage in geared systems. The cases studied include a healthy gear, one with a simulated crack and one with a simulated chipped tooth. The study reveals the results of both amplitude and phase wavelet maps used for positive assessment of a tooth condition. © InnDeM 2012, xxx-yyy Paper: InnDeM-1234, http://inndem.iiitdmj.ac.in Author3
Yoshida et al. using discrete wavelets of the form of Eq. Wang et al. Experimental studies proved that WT of vibration signal and WT of dynamic tooth root strain to be very useful in diagnosing the condition of the gear transmission system when one tooth has failed. and b0 is the location parameter which must be greater than zero. The main short coming of kurtosis value is its higher susceptibility to spurious effect of noise at high frequency. In the present work.  extended the experimental studies of Boulahbal et al. The fourth normalized statistical moment (kurtosis) is a major diagnostic index and has been widely used for detection of faults in rotating machine elements such as gears and bearings. cracked. filed and chipped gears. in turn.. it was found that acoustic signals are very effective for early detection of faults and may prove to be a powerful tool to indicate the various types of progressive faults in machine elements. the discrete steps to each location b is moved. kurtosis and crest factor values of vibraton signals are calculated to obtain diagnostic information. as well as realistic signals measured from the test setup. WT was able to clearly identify the frequency shift associated with bearing defects. Results obtained from experimental investigations offer good potential for the early detection of faults in geared system. Dynamic tooth root strain was measured using a wire strain gauge which was bonded to the compression side of the tooth fillet of the gear.2 Dialpiaz et al. . . Kurtosis values of raw vibration signals and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based kurtosis values are considered in gear fault detection. They used Daubechies wavelet as the mother wavelet to locate gear defects in a back to back gearbox operating with spur gears in which gears were worn naturally. xxx-yyy Paper: InnDeM-1234. was examined. including investigations on the sensitivity and robustness of the well accepted techniques viz. The authors further demonstrated the advantages of multi resolution property of wavelet transform. Continuous wavelet transforms provided a good visual inspection tool especially when residual signals were used. Morlet wavelet was used in conjunction with conventional vibration techniques. x(t). Baydar and Ball  have conducted an experimental investigation which demonstrates the effectiveness of acoustic signal along with the vibration signal to detect various faults in a two stage gearbox. such as skewness. x(t). http://inndem. Sung et al. Gao and Yan  implemented STFT followed by wavelet transform in bearing health monitoring. (1) is then Wm . to the size of steps taken between b locations. The wavelet transform of a continuous signal. described the fault signals of a gear transmission system which have several salient features such as: transient nature of the signal (similar to an impulse).iiitdmj. in some cases. a and b. Test cases comprised healthy. Their studies confirmed that their approach might improve fault detection of a gear transmission system. The results of acoustic signal analysis were compared with vibration signal analysis.ac. is directly proportional to the wavelet scale. It can be seen from the above equation that the size of the translation steps. can be obtained by considering discrete values of the dilation and translation parameters. phase and amplitude demodulation. root mean square root. beta kurtosis and wavelet transform. especially when a faulty gear rotates at an angular speed close to that of other gears. Hence. low energy due to defect and non-stationary nature. The fatigue test of gear was done on a circulating gear testing machine. The control parameters m and n are contained in the set of all integers.in . The short time Fourier transform. The effectiveness of both techniques in capturing transient features from time 2 varying signals.  carried out experimental studies on a power circulating testing machine composed of two identical single stage gear set units mounted back to back. To link b to a. In contrast. High order statistical values. impulse indicator. Scalograms using Daubechies wavelets provided better accuracy in localizing the simulated impulses due to gear defects. upon selection of appropriate window size was able to detect frequency shifts associated with bearing defect propagation. which are proportional to the a scale. the adverse effect of noise on the values of kurtosis is more than the benefit gained from the higher sensitivity of kurtosis to incipient faults .n = ∞ −∞ ∫ x(t ) a 1 m 2 0 −m ψ( a0 t −nb0 ) dt (2) which can also be expressed as the inner product © InnDeM 2012. The vibration acceleration of the gearbox was detected by a piezo-electric pickup through an amplifier. a0 is a specified fixed dilation step parameter set at a value greater than 1. A simulated system was employed for detecting the possible location of defects in the gearbox. both positive and negative. ∆b = b0 a m . 2 DISCRETEWAVELETTRANSFORM The wavelet transform of a continuous time signal. This kind of discretization of the wavelet has the form : ψ m . The measurements on the test gear pair were conducted at regular intervals during the fatigue test. Phase demodulation was found to be very sensitive to gear imperfections.n (t ) = m t − nb0 a0 ψ m m a0 a0 1 (1) where the integers m and n control the wavelet dilation and translation respectively. A natural way to sample the parameters a and b is to use a logarithmic discretization of the a scale and link this.  discussed the dynamic characteristics of the gear mesh due to change in tooth profile during the fatigue test using Gabor based wavelet transforms. 0 m a0 . on the basis on their practical observations.
The accelerometer outputs were conditioned using B&K 2626 charge amplifier. 3-phase induction motor with a rated speed of 1440 rpm. Tyre couplings are fitted between the electrical machines and gear box so that the backlash in the system can be restricted to the gears. n = x. 3 EXPERIMENTALSETUPANDPROCEDURE Fig. This is avoided in this case by using D.1 shows the experimental setup. The gear box is driven by a 5. http://inndem. the values Wm. gear box and generator are mounted on I-beams. Table1 Details of helical gearbox First stage Number of teeth Speed of shafts Mesh frequency Step .n are the discrete wavelet transform values given on a scale–location grid of index m.C motor (which is used as generator) to generate 2 kW power. the speed of the pinion shaft in the second stage of the gear box is 1200 rpm. additional torsional vibrations can occur due o torque fluctuations. The motor. 1 Experimental setup of two stage helical gearbox 3 © InnDeM 2012. The setup consists of a 5 HP two stage helical gearbox. With a step-up ratio of 1:15. The speed of the motor is controlled by an inverter drive and for the present study the motor is operated at 80 rpm. Wm. which are anchored to a massive concrete block. The pinion is connected to a D.in . Table 1 summarizes the specifications of the test rig.C motor and resistor bank. For the discrete wavelet transform. In the case of traditional dynamometer.ac.n are known as wavelet coefficients or detail coefficients.iiitdmj. which is dissipated in a resistor bank.ψ m .3 Wm .5 HP. In other words the speed of the first stage of the gearbox is 80 rpm.up ratio Power Transmitted 44/13 80 rpm (input) 59 Hz 15 5 HP Second stage 73/16 1200 rpm (output) 320 Hz Accelerometer Micro phone Inverter drive Two stage helical gearbox Resistor bank Three phase induction motor DC motor Coupling Coupling Fig. n. xxx-yyy Paper: InnDeM-1234. A piezo-electric accelerometer B&K 4332 was studmounted to measure the vertical vibration signals generated on the bearing housing of pinion shaft.n (3) where.
. 33. It is clear that the kurtosis values vibration signals fail to reveal the increase in fault severity. D. rolling element bearings. 5 CONCLUDINGREMARKS Experimental investigations have been carried out on a two stage helical gear box to diagnose gear faults using vibration signals. 2 Vibration signals in time domain for 100% tooth removal 4 RESULTSANDDISCUSSIONS In the present experiment. Golnaraghi. xxx-yyy Paper: InnDeM-1234. whereas a gradual increase in kurtosis values from 6 to 20 of db32 is observed for growing fault conditions. Vol. It can be seen from the plot that the kurtosis values of vibration signal increase from 3. incase of worn tooth increase in amplitudes are seen in the plot.iiitdmj. Local faults in a gear box can be classified into three categories. pp. 13(3).in m/s 2 . These kurtosis values were compared with kurtosis values of unprocessed vibration signals. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing. 60%. (a) surface wear spalling (b) cracked tooth and (c) loss of a part of tooth due to breakage of tooth at root or at a point on working tip (broken tooth or chipped tooth). pp. 6 REFERENCES  Wuxing. 14(3). P.4 to 9. Vol. This type of fault is common in many industrial applications [10. and Tielin.. “Amplitude and phase wavelet maps for the detection of cracks in geared systems”. A. pp. viz.  Baydar. More investigations are required to study the effectiveness of the procedure discussed in the present work. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing. Y. 18. H.W. “Diagnosis of tooth surface failure by wavelet transform of dynamic characteristics”.5. 273-279 4 © InnDeM 2012.25 s) Fig. A. Vol. 17(4). 15 and 16]. 787-804. Ohue. R.F. from healthy gear and increase in fault in the gear tooth (% of tooth removal) were calculated.  Dialpiaz. 20%.. conventional analysis of time domain vibration signals is carried out to extract kurtosis values. 40%. Tse. Mechanical Systems and Signal processing.4 Overhaul time of a new gear box is more than one year. 2000. 0%. Vol. seven conditions of gear are investigated such as: healthy gear and gear with six stages of depth wise tooth removal i. S. 20%. This simulates the damage due to breakage at a point on the working tip. for vibration signals kurtosis values of mode db32 can be effectively used for gear fault diagnosis. A. Tribology International. machine tool spindles etc. crank shaft of I. 40%. There are different methods to simulate faults in gearboxes. 10%. pp. The acquired signals were decomposed using EMD method in MATLAB 6. Hence. Guicai. 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 0 500 1000 1500 2000 T i m e (0.  Boulahbal. Initially. 2000.5 where as the kurtosis values of DWT based kurtosis values 6 to 20. In the present experiment.e. 1999. 60%.e.  Yoshida. Seven conditions of the gear were investigated such as: healthy gear and gear with six stages of depthwise tooth removal i. Mechanical Systems and Signal processing. Fig.C engine.. 387-412. 2004. 10%. and Ball. 2003. G.. 0%. pp.. and Ishikawa... It would be worthwhile to use this methodology on the other machine elements. For all operating conditions both vibration and acoustic signals were acquired and recorded after proper signal conditioning. Similarly kurtosis values of DWT db32 are calculated. “Effectiveness and sensitivity of vibration processing techniques for local fault detection in gears”. Kurtosis values for unprocessed signals for seven operating conditions i. “Classification of gear faults using cumulants and the radial basis function network”. It is very difficult to study the fault detection procedures without seeded fault trials. 80% and 100% tooth removal conditions.. 80% and 100% tooth removal conditions across the tooth width.. N. L. 423-436. 11. Vol.ac. Rivola. DWT based kurtosis values extracted from vibration signals provide good diagnostic information than that of Kurtosis values of unprocessed vibration signals. 381-389. and Ismail F. and Rubini. 2 show vibration signals of 100% tooth removed case. The X-axis is time in seconds and Y-axis is acceleration in m/s2. Z. “Detection and diagnosis of gear failure via vibration and acoustic signals using wavelet transform”. The simplest approach is partial tooth removal. depthwise damage was induced on the helical gear tooth by grinding operation.. M.e. http://inndem. Comparatively.
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