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**Peter G. Doyle Version dated 1985 GNU FDL†
**

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Abstract I describe a 27-vertex graph that is vertex-transitive and edgetransitive but not 1-transitive. Thus while all vertices and edges of this graph are similar, there are no edge-reversing automorphisms.

A graph (undirected, without loops or multiple edges) is said to be vertextransitive if its automorphism group acts transitively on the set of vertices, edge-transitive if its automorphism group acts transitively on the set of undirected edges, and 1-transitive if its automorphism group acts transitively on the set of paths of length 1. If a graph is edge-transitive but not 1-transitive then any edge can be mapped to any other, but in only one of the two possible ways. In my Harvard senior thesis [2], I described a graph that is vertextransitive and edge-transitive but not 1-transitive. It has 27 vertices, and is regular of degree 4. This beautiful graph was also discovered by Derek Holt [4]. It seems likely that this is the smallest graph that is vertex-transitive and edge-transitive but not 1-transitive. The question of the existence of graphs that are vertex-transitive and edge-transitive but not 1-transitive was raised by Tutte [5], who showed that any such graph must be regular of even degree. The ﬁrst examples were given

Derived from the Harvard senior thesis of Peter G. Doyle, dated June 1976. Copyright (C) 1976, 1985 Peter G. Doyle. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, as published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.

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1

) Setting c = ba−1 . While Bouwer’s method of construction diﬀers from the method used here. k2 ∈ K . and is regular of degree 4. consider the subgraph Γ 2 . Ronald Foster has pointed out to me that the 27-vertex graph described here can be obtained from Bouwer’s 54-vertex graph by identifying pairs of diametrically opposed vertices. p. The group-graph ΓG. and it is easy to show that condition 3 also holds.K ∪K −1 is shown in Figure 1. φ(c) = a. Bouwer’s smallest example has 54 vertices. we ﬁnd that G can be described as the group with generators a. Recall that given a group G and a set H ⊆ G − {1} such that H = H −1 . there is an automorphism φ of G such that φ(k1 ) = k2 . 52. b3 = 1. will be to ﬁnd a group G and a set of generators K ⊆ G − {1} such that: 1. Setting K = {a.K ∪K −1 will then be vertex-transitive and edge-transitive. These relations are not independent.by Bouwer [1]. Hall [3]. a3 = c−3 . we see that K satisﬁes conditions 1 and 2. To see that it is not 1-transitive. b and relations a9 = 1. we know that this graph is vertex-transitive and edge-transitive. For any kl .H by taking G as the set of vertices. The idea. a−1 ca = c4 . c and relations a9 = 1. Although it is not obvious from the drawing. and connecting every g ∈ G to every element of the set gH . we construct the group-graph ΓG. 2. If φ is an automorphism of G such that φ(K ∪ K −1 ) = K ∪ K −1 . 3. K ∩ K −1 = ∅. then φ(K ) = K . For the group G we take the non-abelian group of order 27 with generators a. Their redundancy allows us to see at a glance that there is an automorphism φ of G such that φ(a) = c. and we may hope that conditions 1–3 will preclude its being 1-transitive. c−1 ac = a4 . c3 = a−3 . (Cf. b−1 ab = a4 . The graph Γ = ΓG. c9 = 1. c}. which is inspired by work of Watkins [6].

3 .Figure 1: The graph Γ.

Figure 2: The subgraph Γ . 4 .

Toronto. 13:231–237. [4] D. New York. Graph Theory. Watkins. On transitive graphs. [3] M. Doyle. J. Combin. 5 . Bouwer. 11:95–104. the restriction φ of φ to Γ would be an automorphism of Γ such that φ (1) = 1. Z.obtained by removing all vertices whose distance from the identity is > 2. On the action of non-abelian groups on graphs. F. References [1] I. Macmillan. 1971. Hall. φ(a) = a−1 . 1981. 1959. Hence Γ is not 1-transitive. (See Figure 2.) If there were a graph-automorphism φ of Γ such that φ(1) = 1. April 1976. Theory. but not 1-transitive graphs. but it is easy to verify that no such automorphism exists. I would like to thank W. The Theory of Groups. T. Connectivity in Graphs. University of Toronto Press. 1966. Harvard College. Holt. Senior Thesis. 1970. E. 5:201–204. [5] W. Acknowledgements. [2] P. [6] M. J. G. Bull. Tutte. φ (a) = a−1 . Tutte and Ronald Foster for helpful correspondence. A graph which is edge transitive but not arc transitive.. Canadian Math. T. Vertex and edge transitive.

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