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often associated with fatigue,headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, drycough, muscle or joint pain, and back ache. The attacks may occur every other day or every third day. Cerebral malaria and death can occur, sometimes within 24 hours, if the infection is caused by plasmodium falciparum. Fever or other symptoms can develop in malaria as early as 8 days or as late as 60 days after exposure or stopping prophylaxis. For plasmodium vivax in temperate areas, the delay may be up to one year.
Definition of Malaria Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a parasite (plasmodium) which is transmitted from human to human by the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Prevention of Malaria No prophylactic regimen gives complete protection. Speak with your physician or local travel clinic to receive up to date information about the best malaria protection for you. Effectiveness of any given medication varies by the region of the world in which you plan to travel. Effectiveness also varies from year to year, so current information is essential. Prevention is based on: evaluating the risk of exposure to infection preventing mosquito bites by using DEET mosquito repellant, bed nets, and clothing that covers most of the body chemoprophylaxis (preventive medications)
Schistosomiasis is infection with a type of Schistosoma parasite.
Symptoms vary with the species of worm and the phase of infection.
Heavy infestation (many parasites) may cause fever, chills, lymph node enlargement, and liver and spleen enlargement. Initial invasion of the skin may cause itching and a rash (swimmer's itch). In this condition, the schistosome is destroyed within the skin. Intestinal symptoms include abdominal pain and diarrhea (which may be bloody). Urinary symptoms may include frequent urination, painful urination (dysuria), and blood in the urine (hematuria).
Avoid swimming or bathing in contaminated or potentially contaminated water
Prevention There is a Japanese encephalitis vaccine. Nine out of the 11 countries in the Region are known to be endemic for filariasis. Use insect repellents that contain up to 30% NN-diethyl metatoluamide (DEET) on skin and clothing. Avoid bodies of water of unknown safety Snails are an intermediate host for the parasite. Wear clothes that cover most of your body. even death. do not assume it is due to Japanese encephalitis. Tell your doctor if you have any of these: Agitation Brain damage Chills Coma Confusion Convulsions (especially in infants) Fever Headache Nausea Neck stiffness Paraplegia Tiredness Tremors Vomiting Lymphatic filariasis (LF) or elephantiasis is one of the most debilitating and disfiguring scourge among all diseases. If you experience any of these symptoms. These symptoms may be caused by other conditions. The infection is caused by helminthic worms inhabiting the lymphatics. Symptoms of Japanese Encephalitis Symptoms of Japanese encephalitis usually appear 5-15 days after the bite from an infected mosquito. Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito-borne virus that leads to swelling of the brain. . It can affect the central nervous system and cause severe complications. Also. Getting rid of snails in bodies of water used by humans would help prevent infection. It is a major public health problem in many South-East Asian countries. take the following measures to protect yourself from mosquito bites to prevent the disease: Remain in well-screened areas. It is recommended for people who live or travel in certain rural parts of Asia and for lab workers who are at risk of exposure to the virus.
What is Onchocerciasis? This is also referred to as river blindness and infects over 37 million individuals who are living near fast-moving streams as well as rivers of sub-Saharan area of Africa. the female adult worm actually can release up to 1000 microfilariae each day.Onchocerciasis is believed to be the 4th leading cause of preventable blindness. A very small number of cases also have been reported out of Yemen and the Americas. and is transmitted thru infected blackflies bites. and upon dying they create an assortment of conditions: Lesions Rashes Depigmentation of the skin Intense itching Lymphadenitis resulting in hanging groins and elephantiasis of genitals General debilitation Serious visual impairment Blindness Swollen lymph nodes Skin elasticity destruction Thick. After mating. These transport thru the human body.000 of individuals infected with onchocerciasis are visually seriously impaired and another approximately 270. Approximately 500. rough. For instance blurry vision or total blindness.000 have become blind permanently from this disease. Early symptoms of river blindness consist of: Redness Itchy eyes Photophobia . the larvae develop nodules in the tissue of the subcutaneous where these larvae mature to adults. While in the body. wrinkled skin Manifestations of these conditions begin to happen in individuals 1 to 3 years after the injection of larvae that are infective. It is normally blackflies of the Simulium species that are infected and transport undeveloped forms of larva of the parasite from one human to another. Onchocerciasis Symptoms This is a disease which is known as a parasitic disease caused by a filarial worm known as Onchocerca volvulus. The effects on an individual’s vision can be in some cases only mild impairment.
The control of black flies includes applications of insecticides for both larvae and adults. This has only had limited success since it is difficult to locate and treat all the breeding areas. religious leaders) at the district level.Onchocerciasis Prevention Repellents that contain diethyltoluamide or DEET can provide protection from the bites of the black fly. and (b) to prevent the suffering and disability of individuals already affected by the disease. outlines the main learning objectives and provides the basic information and practical exercises required. The module is in two parts: Part 1.g. lfjgff The prevention of disability due to lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a component of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). It has been developed following extensive field-testing in Zanzibar. the TUTOR’S GUIDE. United Republic of Tanzania. social workers. the LEARNER’S GUIDE. also outlines the main learning objectives and provides guidance on teaching methods and materials to be used. and Part 2.. which has two major objectives: (a) to stop transmission of lymphatic filariasis. teachers. The aim of this module is to contribute to the prevention of suffering and disability due to LF by training health and non-health workers (e. who in turn will train others how to teach the principles of home-based self-care to LF sufferers and their relatives in order to prevent the chronic consequences of the disease. Thanks to the African countries participating in the Onchocerciasis Control Program with community-wide administration of ivermection in these areas has greatly reduced the prevalence of blindness in those communities where this disease is endemic. head nets and long sleeves could be necessary for outdoor activity in areas with heavy infestation during peak activity. and a poster illustrating various measures that can be used in the home to manage lymphoedema is to be . The module is to be used in conjunction with a flipchart providing key messages and illustrations on the management of lymphoedema. Heavy clothes.
. Switzerland (fax: (+41) 22 791 4285. In a number of cases. e-mail: cdsdoc@who. blisters. breast. it encourages the active participation of the learners. this module is part of a complete training package. The teaching approach to be used during the training of trainers workshop is primarily interactive. that is to say.int) Signs and symptoms of LF Although LF can be acquired in early childhood. ¥ Every time the limb is washed. minor cuts and scratches are entry lesions. CH-1211 Geneva 27. World Health Organization.given to LF sufferers and their relatives. Lymphoedema can be massive with a number of folds that can be shallow or deep. Prevention and care of entry lesions Entry lesions are defined as any break in the skin that enables dirt and germs to enter the body. Usually the skin thickens. One of the main signs of LF is swelling (lymphoedema) of the limbs. which facilitates the learning process. scrotum and penis. The parasite can be in the blood from an early age even if there are no symptoms. Further details on these publications can be obtained from CDS Information Resource Centre. the skin should be examined for entry lesions that can be very small and hidden in between the toes (or fingers) or folds. Thus. the LF sufferer also develops knobs and cracks in the skin. usually the first signs and symptoms appear only in adulthood. The training workshop using this module should usually take three days to complete (see page 7). balloon-like enlargement of the sacs around the testes). This training module is part of a series of publications on the elimination of lymphatic filariasis produced by the World Health Organization to assist national programmes. Small wounds. and hydrocele (fluid-filled.
the LF sufferer should be referred to a PHCU for examination.¥ Avoid scratching the skin. ¥ If an entry lesion is infected. ¥ Entry lesions should be very carefully washed and dried. .
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