The Effect of Ovine and Bovine to Texture of Iranian Cheese | Cheese | Milk

doi: 10.1111/1471-0307.



The effect of ovine and bovine milk on the textural properties of Lighvan cheese during ripening

Faculty of Food Industry and Agriculture, Department of Food Science & Technology, Standard Research Institute (SRI), PO Box 31745-139, Karaj, Iran, 2Transfer Phenomena Laboratory, Department of Food Science, Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Agricultural Campus, University of Tehran, Karaj, 31587-11167, Iran, and 3Department of Marine Living Resources, Iranian National Institute for Oceanography, Tehran, 14155-4781, Iran

The effect of milk origin on the physicochemical characteristics, microstructure and texture of Lighvan cheese was investigated over a 90-day ripening period. Besides fat, other physicochemical properties of Lighvan cheese were affected by milk type. The moisture content of Lighvan cheese decreased when half or all the ovine milk was substituted with bovine milk. The Lighvan cheese’s microstructural properties and porosity were affected by type of milk and ripening time. Compaction of cheeses manufactured from ovine and mixed ovine and bovine milk is similar, and more than that of bovine Lighvan cheese. Ovine Lighvan cheese is harder and less brittle than bovine and mixed bovine and ovine. Keywords Lighvan cheese, Cheese microstructure, Hardness, Brittleness, Milk origin.

INTRODUCTION Lighvan cheese, one of the most popular Iranian traditional cheeses, is a starter-free cheese from the Azerbaijan region, in the north-west of Iran, and manufactured from raw ewe’s milk. It ripens in 10 to 12% salt brine for 3 or 4 months at an average temperature of 10 ± 2 °C. In spite of the increasing popularity of Lighvan cheese, there are few studies on its chemical composition and microbial communities (Abdi et al. 2006; Kafili et al. 2009; Aminifar et al. 2010). Lighvan cheese is traditionally produced from ovine milk. Recently, Iranian researchers have endeavoured to make it from bovine milk due to the limitations of the seasonal production of ovine milk and short lactation period of small ruminants in Iran. Currently, some cheese traditionally produced from ovine milk is industrially manufactured using bovine milk; examples include Urfa in Turkey (Atasoy and Turkoglu 2008) and Belir Sir U Kriskama in the countries of former Yugoslavia (Anifantakis and Moatsou 2006).

*Author for correspondence. E-mail: © 2012 Society of Dairy Technology

Texture is one of the most important cheese characteristics for consumer acceptability. It is greatly affected by factors such as milk type, processing technology, operation temperature and ripening time (Pappas et al. 1996; Tsigkros et al. 2003). The texture of cheese made with bovine milk is significantly different from that of ewe’s and goat’s milk cheese. Differences have been noted between industrial Halloumi cheese (which has bovine milk as the major constituent) and the traditional product made with mixture of sheep’s and goat’s milk (Papademas and Robinson 2000). Cheese ripening is a complex process, consisting of a series of biochemical reactions (Singh et al. 2003) that convert rubbery bland curd to a mature cheese with a desirable texture (Fox et al. 1990). The texture of traditional Lighvan cheese changes significantly during ripening (Aminifar et al. 2010). The texture of cheese can be evaluated by studying its mechanical properties using uniaxial force compression (Hort et al. 1997; Awad 2006). Moreover, studying the microscopic structure of cheese provides beneficial information about its texture (Mckenna 2003). In the 45

Vol 66, No 1 February 2013 International Journal of Dairy Technology

The suspension was heated to 40 °C and held there for 1 h. (2007). The supernatant was then filtered through glass wool and the WSN was measured using the Kjeldahl method (IDF 1993). WSN in total nitrogen (WSN/TN). physicochemical. According to this method. 85. Microstructure Preparation of cheese samples for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis after 1. After the cheese pieces had been dried to a critical point. 5 Transferring the curd cubes to a basin. 6 Keeping the cubes in 12% salt brine for 3 months at an average temperature of 10 ± 2 °C. Total nitrogen was determined according to the Kjeldahl method (IDF 1993).. Physicochemical analysis The cheese samples were analysed for moisture content according to the standard (4A) IDF (1982). This software has been used previously in the analysis of cheese microstructure and SEM images (Aminifar et al. 6. BalTec Inc.2. then washed in six changes of distilled water (1 min each).7 ± 0. (1996). SAS Institute Inc.2 ± 0. 60 and 90 and analysed in triplicate.1% total solids.2 ± 0. National Institutes of Health. Switzerland) was used to apply gold coating for 6 min. or brittleness. 20 g cheese were homogenised with 40 g water in a stomacher for 10 min at 20 °C.7% fat.9 ± 0. The fat content of prepared Lighvan cheese produced from ovine. Bethesda.. Pfäffikon.05) was used to evaluate the effect of time and type of milk on the physicochemical characteristics of cheese samples. Eindhoven.18.8 ± 0. Bohrweg.7 ± 0. The samples were examined with a scanning electron microscope (XL Series. 30. 3. bovine milk and mixed milks were 6. Cary.0 kV. Appropriate 3D images were created with these settings: z-ratio: 0.31. NC. All physicochemical properties (moisture content. This method had been used previously by Aminifar et al.9 ± 0. 1000. respectively. The cubes were dehydrated in a graded (40. 2010).3 and 10. Utrecht. scale: 1.0.2 ± 0. 90 and 96%) series of ethanol baths for 30 min at each grade and defatted with three changes of chloroform (10 min each). Texture profile analysis The fracturability. Ten samples (25 9 25 9 25cm cubes) were collected on days 1. pH and acidity) were measured in triplicate. 5–6 mm3 cheese cubes were prepared by cutting the cheese blocks with a sharp razor.Vol 66.8% fat. Photomicrographs were recorded at 500. 70. the cubes were turned upside down between nine and 15 times for better whey removal. The prepared cubes were covered with ethanol and refrigerated until SEM analysis.4% fat. textural and microstructural properties of Lighvan cheese made with bovine milk and a mixture of bovine and ovine milk were compared with those of traditional cheese made with ovine milk. The pH of cheese samples was determined using a Knick 766 calimatic pH-metre (Niels. According to this method.2.1% total solids and 4. 30. sprinkling sodium chloride crystals on their surfaces and storing for 3–5 days. and SAS statistical software (version 8. MD. lightening: 0. MATERIALS AND METHODS Cheese making and sampling Lighvan cheeses were prepared from raw bovine milk (3. 3D images were prepared with an interactive 3D surface plot function from image analysis software (ImageJ. Netherlands).6 ± 1.9% total solids.5%.34 and grid size: 512. the Netherlands) operated at 15.2 ± 0. total nitrogen in dry matter (TN/DM). 30 and 90 days of ripening was performed according to the method previously described by Drake et al. (1999). No 1 February 2013 present study. The fat content of ovine Lighvan cheese determined in a previous study (Aminifar et al. 2000 and 4000 magnification levels. smoothing: 12. 19. Their salt content was measured by Kirk and Sawyer’s method (1991).2% protein) according to a method previously described by Kafili et al. USA) was applied for the statistical analysis of the experimental data.5 ± 0. 55. In this stage.5% (w/w) gluteraldehyde fixative (Merck Chemical Ltd. 3 Compressing the cotton bags with a four-kilogram mass for 2–4 h (depending on season) for better water drainage. 4 Cutting the curd mass into 25 9 25 9 25 cm cubes and placing the cubes in a 22% brine stream for 6 h. a sputter-coater (Balzers. salt. and hardness of cheese were determined after 1. model XL30. 12..6 ± 0. 16. with modifications suggested by Madadlou et al. Germany) for 3 h. Type SCD 005. (2010) to study the microstructure of traditional Lighvan cheese. Philips. 60 and 90 days of ripening using uniaxial force compression performed with a texture analyser (Testometric M350-10CT. then 46 centrifuged at 3000 9 g for 30 min. USA). The cubes were freeze-fractured in liquid nitrogen into approximately 1-mm pieces according to the method described by Sipahioglu et al. Lancashire. 2010) was 15. Kuchroo and Fox’s method (1982) was used to determine water-soluble nitrogen (WSN) as a proteolysis indicator. Multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the least significant difference (LSD) test (P < 0. Production of cheese consisted of several steps: 1 Coagulation of milk at 28–32 °C (depending on the season) by adding lamb rennet. Microsoft Excel 2007 was used for table drawing. salt-in-moisture. (2009). UK) fitted © 2012 Society of Dairy Technology . Darmstadt.5% protein) and bovine milk (1:1 mixed milk composition: 5. The cheese cubes were immersed in 2.3% protein) and a 1:1 mixture of raw ovine milk (7. 2 Cutting the coagulum into walnut-sized pieces and transferring them to rectangular cotton bags for whey drainage.

w/w) WSN/TN (%.19 0.76a1 14.65b1 4. Means of each parameter in the same column of the same day with different numbers are significantly different (P < 0. 1–3 a–d © 2012 Society of Dairy Technology 47 . results from Lighvan cheese made from sheep’s milk were picked up from our previous research (Aminifar et al. moisture content.26a1 5.01b1 10.15 0.14b2 4.43a1 61. (2006) found that Teleme cheese made from cow’s milk had higher moisture content than cheese made from ewe’s and goat’s milk.80a3 17.16 0.8a2 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.41 0. The force required to compress the sample to 70% of its initial height determined hardness (Szczesniak 1963). the cheese cube samples (20 9 20 9 20 mm) were tempered to 12 ± 5 °C.21 0. Similar results were reported by Kehagias et al.Vol 66.20 0.13b2 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0. This could be related to the balance between the two determinant pH factors.11a1 14.29 0.70a1 5. the pH of bovine and mixed Lighvan cheeses.69a1 5. w/w) Salt (%.23 0.59a3 73.63b2 64.37b2 65. This difference could be attributed to the higher level of total solids in sheep’s milk in comparison with cow’s milk. 2009).75a2 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.13b2 4.29 0.69a1 5.15b2 13. Regardless of the kind of milk. From the statistical analysis of the moisture content of Lighvan cheeses made with the different kinds of milk at different stages of ripening.08 0.53 0. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Changes in the pH.68a1 5. the pH of all samples was around 4.92a2 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.60a1 14. the moisture content of cheese made from mixed milk was higher than that of ovine cheese.20a2 7. salt.11 0. but after 90 days the moisture content of both types was the same.59a1 4.19 0.14b2 13.15a1 70.26 0.05a1 4.16 0.66 0.72a1 5.11 0.14 0. Prior to analysis.36 0. 2010). w/w) Means of each parameter in the row with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.21 0.41 0. 1974). Because of the inhibitory effect of salt on yeast and proteolytic bacteria (Guinee and Fox 1993).04a1 14. bovine Lighvan cheese had higher moisture content than cheeses made from ewe’s or mixed milk cheeses.12 0.15 0.45b2 8. w/w) TN/DM (%. the pH of the samples did not change significantly in the 60 days of ripening.13a2 14.26 0.15 Moisture content (%.17b1 62. Because the pH of cow’s and sheep’s milk does not differ significantly (Jenness et al.15a2 5. the pH of the Lighvan cheese was not affected by the type of milk.54a1 62.09 0.11b1 5.23a2 18. 1986).18a2 5.44a1 5.30 0.18b1 62. cow’s (C) or mixed milk (M) during storage (mean ± SD of three trials) Physicochemical characteristics pH Kind of milk S C M S C M S C M S C M S C M Ripening time (days) 1 5.26 0.16 0.09 90 4. This depletion could be related to storage of cheese cubes in 10–12% salt brine and the movement of water from cheese to brine due to the high osmotic pressure of NaCl (Zerfiridis 2001).08 0.25 0.23 0.15 0.19 0.66 0.45 0.20 0.54b1 4. like that of ovine Lighvan cheese.12 30 5.11 0.43 0.33 0.26 0.26 0. The first break of the compression curve was considered as fracturability (Fredrick et al. In all stages of ripening.43b1 4.07 0.45a1 5.23 0.45 due to lactose fermentation.15 0.25a2 19.16 0. Sd For better comparison.09 0.49b1 61. 40 mm in diameter. The pH of the cheese samples is affected by two main factors: lactose fermentation and production of amino groups by yeast and bacteria (Fox 1993).71 60 5.48 1.10b1 8.20 0.10 0.61a2 14. the moisture content was constant between 30 and 90 days.75b1 62. All samples were analysed using three replications in each stage of ripening.31 0.34 0.03a1 14. At day 1.13 2. Table 1 Changes in physiochemical properties of Lighvan cheese made from sheep’s (Sd).07b3 12. As a result of equilibrium between the adsorption and desorption of water. Adsorption of water could be related to the water-holding ability of proteolysis products (Creamer and Olson 1982).03 0.04a1 14.26 0.05). They were compressed to 70% of their initial height with a plunger.08b2 65. decreased between the 60th and 90th days due to the production of lactic acid. cow’s or mixed milk (1:1) are shown in Table 1. No 1 February 2013 with a 0-50-kg load cell.05).38a3 16. TN/DM and WSN/TN during the ripening period in cheeses made from sheep’s.56a3 16.15b2 13.75a1 5.68a2 14. moving at 30 mm/min.23 0. salt-in-moisture.21b2 19. Pappa et al. a sharp decrease was observed between days 1 and 30.02 0. (1995) for whitebrined cheese. As after 90 days lactobacilli were the dominant group of bacteria in the Lighvan cheese (Kafili et al.69b1 4.36a1 68.21a2 13.

When bovine milk is mixed with ovine milk. Because equilibrium had been reached after 30 days. the ratio of WSN to total nitrogen in all samples did not change significantly. while ovine Lighvan cheese had a compact protein matrix with a few void spaces. SEM micrographs of ovine Lighvan cheese were compiled from our previous study (Aminifar et al. (2007). For better comparison. (2000) demonstrated that when fat content of cheese increases. which increase casein linkages and result in a more homogenous texture (Rowney et al. the protein matrix of Lighvan cheeses made from bovine or mixed milk packed less densely. Regardless of the type of milk. the salt content did not change from the 30th to the 90th day. At day 1. 2010). its fat globules were larger as a result of clumping and coalescence. Micrographs of ovine Lighvan cheese showed a large hole which was not found in bovine or mixed samples (marked in Figure 3a). due to the inhibitory effect of salt on proteolysis. The higher WSN/TN (%) values in cheese produced from ovine milk compared with cheeses from bovine or mixed milk in all stages of ripening could be attributed to the composition of ewe’s milk. No 1 February 2013 Regardless of the kind of milk. As ovine Lighvan cheese had a higher fat content than cow’s or mixed milk cheeses. Salt plays an important role in the homogeneity of brined cheese. As a result of this process. Guinee et al. This increase could be attributed to proteolytic activity of raw milk proteases and microorganisms (Ardo 1999). WSN/TN (%) values increased significantly in the first month of ageing. 2007). Blending of bovine milk with ovine milk did not alter the percentage of TN/DM significantly. who found that the diffusion coefficient and the quantity of the salt absorbed by Gouda-type cheeses during brine salting increased as the moisture content of the curd increased. its ratio of WSN to total nitrogen changed significantly. Chloride anions produced from NaCl diffusion enhance hydrophobic interactions. Byers and Price (1937) reported similar results for brine-salted Brick cheese. Regardless of the type of milk. Cheese made from bovine or mixed milk had higher salt content than cheese made from ewe’s milk. Figures 1–3 show a greater difference between the microstructures of cheeses made with different kinds of milk at the start of ripening than at its end. This homogeneity could be related to the higher salt content of ovine cheese than bovine and mixed cheese. cheese made with cow’s and mixed milk became denser after 30 days. 3D images after 90 days (Figure 3) showed that compaction is similar between cheeses made with sheep’s and mixed milk. As Lighvan cheeses are made from raw milk.Vol 66. with cavities filled with whey (Figure 1). and greater than that of bovine cheese. the percentage of TN/DM decreased during ageing as a result of proteolysis and diffusion of soluble nitrogenous compounds into the brine (Abd El-Salam et al. the SEM micrographs suggest that bovine and mixed Lighvan cheeses contain more moisture than sheep’s cheese. Texture profile analysis Figure 4 shows changes in the hardness of Lighvan cheeses made with different kinds of milk during ripening. 30 and 90 days of ripening. This was borne out by physicochemical analysis. (1974). This difference could be related to the higher moisture content of Lighvan cheese made with cow’s milk relative to the other two kinds of cheese. 1993). This large cavity could be attributed to a fingerprint of large fat globules that was removed by chloroform during sample preparation. The higher density of the ovine cheese structure relative to cow’s or mixed milk could be related to its lower moisture content. Tri-dimensional images of the cheese SEM micrographs are shown below the original 2D images. the percentage of TN/DM in ovine Lighvan cheese was higher than in cheeses made from bovine or mixed milk. 2004). Between 30 and 90 days. Because ovine milk has a higher level of protein (casein and whey) and other nonprotein nitrogenous compounds than bovine milk (Gil and Sanchez Medina 1981). therefore. physical homogenous aggregation of casein produced pores in cheese texture after 30 days (Figure 2). Pores were shown with white holes in 3D images. 2 and 3 show SEM micrographs of the Ligvan cheese samples produced from sheep’s. Due to the rearrangement of the casein network as a result of water expulsion during cheese ageing in brine. brining could lessen the difference. regardless of the kind of milk. the NaCl content of Lighvan cheese increased significantly during the first month of ageing due to the difference in osmotic pressure between brine and cheese water (Guinee and Fox 1986). Regardless of the type of milk. cow’s and mixed milk at 1. 48 A low-density casein network results in a high-moisture cheese (Kalab and Modler 1985). © 2012 Society of Dairy Technology . Microstructure Figures 1. a homogenous casein network surrounded a large number of holes in the cheese after 90 days (Figure 3). microbial fermentation was the main source of gas production and pore formation during ripening. Lower levels of WSN/TN (%) in Teleme cheese made from bovine milk in comparison with cheese produced from ovine milk at the age of 60–180 days was reported by Pappa et al. clumping and coalescence of the fat globules becomes pronounced. Our results agreed with those reported by Geurts et al. Changes during brining in the microstructure of Lighvan cheese manufactured from different kinds of milk could be attributed to curd synaeresis (Fox 1993). Homogeneity in ovine cheese was more pronounced than that of cow’s and mixed milk cheese during ripening (Figures 2 and 3). the intact fat globules might join into one larger globule and act as a protein matrix breaker (Lopez et al. Disintegration of some fat globules from lipolysis during cheese ripening increases serum release and therefore raises protein matrix density. Salt content was affected by the kind of milk used.

f) milk after 1 day of ripening. 2010). e) and mixed (c. (e) and (f) are magnified 10009. No 1 February 2013 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Figure 1 SEM micrographs of Lighvan cheese made from sheep’s (a. 3D images are shown below the original 2D images. cow’s (b. © 2012 Society of Dairy Technology 49 . (b) and (c) are magnified 500 9 and (d). (a).Vol 66. SEM Micrographs of ovine milk cheese were compiled from our previous study (Aminifar et al. d).

(b) and (c) are magnified 500 9 and (d). 3D images are shown below the original 2D images. e) and mixed (c. (e) and (f) are magnified 10009. 50 © 2012 Society of Dairy Technology . (a). d).Vol 66. f) milk after 30 days of ripening. cow’s (b. No 1 February 2013 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Figure 2 SEM micrographs of Lighvan cheese made from sheep’s (a. 2010). SEM Micrographs of ovine milk cheese were compiled from our previous study (Aminifar et al.

Pappa et al. 2010).Vol 66. (2007) showed that type of milk affected Teleme cheese hardness. Because in our study Lighvan cheeses were manufactured from different kinds of raw milk.3–5.9 kg) than cow’s (3.7– 6 kg).0 kg) and sheep’s (3. hardness became constant (Guinee and Fox 1993). 3D images are shown below the original 2D images. Regardless of the type of milk. (b) and (c) are magnified 5009 and (d). No 1 February 2013 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Figure 3 SEM micrographs of Lighvan cheese made from sheep’s (a. Substitution of cow’s milk instead for sheep’s milk in Lighvan cheese production decreases its hardness significantly. Tsigkros et al. cow’s (b. hardness decreased during first month of ageing. d). (e) and (f) are magnified 10009. and proteolysis. They reported that goat’s cheese was significantly harder (5. which decreases hardness due to casein breakdown (Fox et al. e) and mixed (c. 1996). hardness of cheese during storage in brine depends on two main factors: decreases in moisture during brining. SEM Micrographs of ovine milk cheese were compiled from our previous study (Aminifar et al. (2003) demonstrated that textural 51 . due to © 2012 Society of Dairy Technology the inhibitory effect of salt on proteolysis. which increases hardness (Kaya 2002). Generally.6–8. proteolysis was dominant. (a). After 1 month. f) milk after 90 days of ripening.

In Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation. (2006) showed that migration of water into empty mashes of Halloumi cheese reduced its matrix rigidity. Sheikh-Zeinoddin M and Soleimanian-Zad Z (2006) Identification of lactic acid bacteria. A similar trend for the elastic modulus of Halloumi cheese made with bovine and ovine milk during ripening was reported by Raphaelides et al. Food Chemistry 110 598–604. ed. For better comparison. No 1 February 2013 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 30 60 Sheep Mixed Cow 90 Ripening time (days) Figure 4 Effect of milk origin and ripening time on Lighvan cheese hardness. London: Chapman and Hall. Physics and Microbiology. which could also play a plasticising role. Hamedi M. Journal of Texture Studies 41 579–593. sheep’s milk Lighvan cheese data were compiled from our previous study (Aminifar et al. 2010). Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 9 99–103. It seems that migration of water. Raphaelides et al. Figure 5 shows the effect of types of milk and ripening time on Lighvan cheese brittleness. in contrast to the beginning. (2006). For better comparison. but at the end of ripening this value had fallen to 7 N. Fox P F. pp 4–9. In Cheese: Chemistry. Alichanidis E and Zerfiridis G K (1993) Domiati and Feta-type cheese. Regardless of type of milk. Aminifar M. Anifantakis E M and Moatsou G (2006) Feta and other Balkan cheeses.Vol 66. CONCLUSIONS Force (N) properties of Feta cheese are affected by milk composition. compositional and textural properties during ripening of Lighvan cheese. Ovine Lighvan cheese was significantly harder than bovine or mixed milk. Ayr: Blackwell Publishing. also microstructure and porosity. microstructure and textural properties of product during ripening. and its hardness is increased when caprine milk is added to ovine milk. The texture of mixed milk cheese became more elastic as a result of its increased fat content. Brussels: No 337. Emam Djomeh Z and Mehdinia A (2010) Microstructural. In their study. particularly in later stages of ripening. from the cheese into the brine reduced the elasticity of all types of Lighvan cheese. pp 43–76. © 2012 Society of Dairy Technology Force (N) 0 30 60 90 Ripening time (day) Figure 5 Effect of milk origin and ripening time on Lighvan cheese brittleness. Tamime A Y. which were not significantly different at the end of ripening. it becomes more brittle. which could play a plasticising role. TN/DM and WSN/TN changes. The physicochemical characteristics of Lighvan cheeses produced from different kinds of milk showed significant changes in fat content. salt content. a traditional raw sheep cheese. and the hardness of bovine Lighvan cheese increased when half of its milk was replaced with ovine milk. The greater elasticity of ovine Lighvan cheese in comparison with the two other kinds could be related to its fat content. 52 . REFERENCES Abd El-Salam M H. ed. According to Larmond (1976). decreases. moisture content. 2010). In Brined Cheeses. Substitution of ovine milk with bovine or mixed milk led to a more brittle product. Ardo Y (1999) Evaluation proteolysis by analyzing the N content of cheese fractions. all types of Lighvan cheese became more brittle during the first month of ripening. when ovine milk was added to bovine milk in a 50:50 ratio. Atasoy A F and Turkoglu H (2008) Changes of composition and free fatty acid contents of Urfa cheeses (a white-brined Turkish cheese) during ripening: effects of heat treatments and starter cultures. Kalatzopoulos (1993) showed that differences in textural properties of cheese produced from different kinds milk could be related to different casein structures or their concentration. sheep’s milk cheese was 12 N harder than mixed milk cheese. This phenomenon could be related to pore formation and decreases in moisture content during ripening. This phenomenon could be related to their moisture contents. when the brittleness value of a cheese sample 25 20 15 10 5 0 Sheep Mixed Cow This study investigated the effect of substituting ovine milk with bovine milk or mixed ovine and bovine milk in Lighvan cheese production on physicochemical characteristics. the hardness of bovine milk cheese increased significantly as result of an increase in its total solids. At the start of ripening. Abdi R. pp 301–355. but the rate of these changes differed. sheep’s milk Lighvan cheese data were compiled from our previous study (Aminifar et al.

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