A diagram is a two-dimensional geometric symbolic representation of information according to some visualization technique. Sometimes, the technique uses a three-dimensional visualization which is then projected onto the two-dimensional surface. The word graph is sometimes used as a synonym for diagram.

The term diagram in common sense can have a general or specific meaning: • visual information device : Like the term "illustration" the diagram is used as a collective term standing for the whole class of technical genres, including graphs, technical drawings and tables.[]

Sample flowchart representing the decision process to add a new article to Wikipedia.

• specific kind of visual display : This is only the genre, that show qualitative data with shapes that are connected by lines, arrows, or other visual links. In science the term is used in both ways. For example Anderson (1997) stated more generally: "diagrams are pictorial, yet abstract, representations of information, and maps, line graphs, bar charts, engineering blueprints, and architects' sketches are all examples of diagrams, whereas photographs and video are not".[1] On the other hand Lowe (1993) defined diagrams as specifically "abstract graphic portrayals of the subject matter they represent".[] In the specific sense diagrams and charts contrast computer graphics, technical illustrations, infographics, maps, and technical drawings, by showing "abstract rather than literal representations of information".[] The essences of a diagram can be seen as:[] • a form of visual formatting devices • a display that do not show quantitative data, but rather relationships and abstract information • with building blocks such as geometrical shapes connected by lines, arrows, or other visual links. Or in Hall's (1996) words "diagrams are simplified figures, caricatures in a way, intended to convey essential meaning".[2] These simplified figures are often based on set of rules. The basic shape according to White (1984) can be characterized in terms of "elegance, clarity, ease, pattern, simplicity, and validity".[] The elegance for a start is determined by whether or not the diagram is "the simplest and most fitting solution to a problem".[3]

while the relationships are expressed as connections between the items or overlaps between the items.g. examples of such techniques: tree diagram network diagram flowchart Venn diagram existential graph • Chart-like diagram techniques. and express them by giving each item a 2D position.. . Some more examples follow.Diagram 2 Main diagram types There are at least the following types of diagrams: • Graph-based diagrams: these take a collection of items and relationships between them. which display a relationship between two variables that take either discrete or a continuous ranges of values. e. train diagram exploded view population density map Pioneer plaque Three-dimensional diagram Many of these types of diagrams are commonly generated using diagramming software. examples: histogram bar chart pie chart function graph scatter plot • Other types of diagrams. Thousands of diagram techniques exist.

memory. visual thinking and problem solving Ladder diagram Line of balance Link grammar diagram .Diagram 3 Specific diagram types A • B • • • • • Bachman diagram Booch – used in software engineering Block diagram Block Definition Diagram (BDD) used in SysML Business & IT Diagram (B&IT) – used in business and IT modelling Activity diagram used in UML and SysML L • • • M • • • N • • • • O • Object diagram – from UML N2 Nassi–Shneiderman diagram or structogram – a representation for structured programming Nomogram [Network connection] Martin ERD Message Sequence Chart Mind map – used for learning. brainstorming.

x Communication diagram – from UML 2.0 Commutative diagram Component diagram – from UML Composite structure diagram – from UML Concept map Constellation diagram Context diagram Control flow diagram Contour diagram Cordier diagram Cross functional flowchart • • • • • • • • • • • R • • • • • Package diagram from UML and SysML Parametric diagram from SysML PERT Petri net – shows the structure of a distributed system as a directed bipartite graph with annotations Piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) Phase diagram used to present solid/liquid/gas information Plant Diagram Pressure volume diagram used to analyse engines Pourbaix diagram Process flow diagram or PFD – used in chemical engineering Program structure diagram Radar chart Radial Diagram Requirement Diagram Used in SysML Rich Picture R-diagram .Diagram 4 P C • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • D • • • • • • • • • E • • • • • • Entity-Relationship diagram (ERD) Event-driven process chain Euler diagram Eye diagram – a diagram of a received telecommunications signal Express-G Extended Functional Flow Block Diagram (EFFBD) Data model diagram Data flow diagram Data structure diagram Dendrogram Dependency diagram Deployment diagram – from UML Dot and cross diagram Double bubble map – used in education Drakon-chart Carroll diagram Cartogram Category theory diagrams Cause-and-effect diagram Circuit diagram Class diagram – from UML Collaboration diagram – from UML 1.

"Introduction to Diagrammatic Reasoning" (http:/ / zeus. Volker Haarslev (Eds. Chichester. energy or cost flows with quantity proportional arrows in a process network. Proceedings. used in software engineering References [1] Michael Anderson (1997). [2] Bert S. Braigie (ed. Sequence diagram from UML and SysML SDL/GR diagram – Specification and Description Language. cs. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 2000. Sentence diagram – represents the grammatical structure of a natural language sentence. Smith chart Spider chart Spray diagram SSADM – Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology (used in software engineering) Star chart/Celestial sphere State diagram are used for state machines in software engineering Swim lane Systems Biology Graphical Notation – a graphical notation used in diagrams of biochemical and cellular processes studied in Systems biology System context diagram System structure Systematic layout planning Timing Diagram: Digital Timing Diagram Timing Diagram: UML Timing Diagram TQM Diagram UML diagram – Unified Modeling Language (used in software engineering) Use case diagram – from UML and SysML Value Stream Mapping Venn diagram Voronoi diagram Warnier-Orr Yourdon-Coad – see Edward Yourdon. Theory and Application of Diagrams: First International Conference.) Picturing knowledge: historical and philosophical problems concerning the use of art in science. Wiley. Garcia. Peter Cheng. M (Ed) (2012) The Diagrams of Architecture. . ISBN 978-0-8230-1572-6. SDL is a formal language used in computer science. Scotland. edu/ ~anderson/ intro. html). Edinburgh. • Michael Anderson. Retrieved 21 July 2008. Digital diagrams. September 1–3. Hall (1996). Trevor (2000). hartford.Diagram 5 S F • • • • • • G • • • H • • I • • • • • J • K • • Karnaugh map Kinematic diagram Jackson diagram Internal Block Diagram (IBD) used in SysML IDEF0 IDEF1 (entity relations) Interaction overview diagram – from UML Ishikawa diagram Hasse diagram HIPO diagram Gantt chart – shows the timing of tasks or activities (used in project management) Grotrian diagram Goodman diagram – shows the fatigue data (example: for a wind turbine blades) Family tree Feynman diagram Flow chart Flow process chart Fusion diagram Free body diagram • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • T • • • U • • V • • • W • Y • Sankey diagram – represents material.9 Further reading • Bounford. p. UK. "The Didactic and the Elegant: Some Thoughts on Scientific and Technological Illustrations in the Middle Ages and Renaissance". Diagrams 2000. in: B.) (2000). New York: Watson-Guptill Publications.

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