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International Journal of JOURNAL Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 INTERNATIONAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 6545(Print), ISSN

N 0976 & 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May June (2013), IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJEET)
ISSN 0976 6545(Print) ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), pp. 95-114 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijeet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.5028 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJEET
IAEME

APPLICATION OF SVC FOR VOLTAGE CONTROL IN WIND FARM POWER SYSTEM


Dr. M. P. Sharma AEN, RVPNL, Jaipur Swati Harsh Asst. Prof., EE Deptt.,AICE, Jaipur Devandra Saini Asst. Prof., EE Deptt., SIT, Jaipur Sarfaraz Nawaz Associate Prof. Deptt., SKIT, Jaipur

ABSTRACT Most of wind power plants are installed far away from load centers, hence require long EHV transmission lines for evacuation system for pooling the power and transmitting to far off load centers. Wind Power Generation is infirm and variable subject to vagaries of nature. Due to large variations in wind power generation, power flows on transmission lines are also vary and accordingly there is a wide variation in power transmission system voltage from minimum 0.8 pu to maximum 1.20 pu. Due to low & high power system voltages, transmission lines are tripped resulting constrained in wind power evacuation. In this paper Static Var Compensator is proposed at wind power plants penetrated power system. In this paper simulation studies have been carried out to validate the effectiveness of the SVC for voltage control with the variation in wind power generation. Case studies are carried out on 18-bus Rajasthan power system to demonstrate the performance of the SVC during high and low wind power generation conditions. Wind power plants penetrated part of Rajasthan power system has been modeled using Mi-Power power system analysis software designed by the M/s PRDC Bangalore. Results of tests conducted on the model system in various possible field conditions are presented and discussed. I. INTRODUCTION In Rajasthan, most of wind power plants are concentrated in western part i.e. Jaisalmer which is far away from load centers. As on 31-3-2013, total 2140 MW capacity wind power plants are installed in Jaisalmer area. For evacuation of wind power generation from Jaisalmer to load centers, 2 nos. 400 kV lines, 3 nos. 220 kV lines & 2 nos. 132 kV lines
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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), IAEME have been constructed. There is a huge variations in wind generation i.e. variation is from zero to maximum generation. Variation in wind power generation on typical days is shown in following figures:-

Fig-1: HOURLY AVERAGE WIND GENERATION for 15 March, 2013

Fig-2: HOURLY AVERAGE WIND GENERATION for 23 March, 2013

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), IAEME

Fig-3: HOURLY AVERAGE WIND GENERATION for 10 April,2013

Fig-4: HOURLY AVERAGE WIND GENERATION for 15 April, 2013

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), IAEME Due to variation in wind power generation, power transmission voltage is fluctuated. Voltage fluctuations are mainly due to Long EHV transmission lines Lack of load in western Rajasthan Erratic variation in generation pattern Wind Generators do not provide the required VAR support Over-voltage causes over-fluxing in transformers resulting in tripping of transformers. Due to over voltages, transmission lines also tripped. With the help of FACTS devices, it is possible to regulate power system voltage with the variation of wind power generation. II. SVC AND POWER SYSTEM V-I CHARACTERISTICS

SVC V-I Characteristic SVC composed of a controllable reactor and a fixed capacitor. The composite characteristic of SVC is derived by adding the individual characteristics of the components. SVC are defined by the slope reactance when the controlled voltage is within the control range.

Fig 5: SVC V-I characteristics

The V-I characteristics are described by the following three equations: Within control range (-Icmax Isvc ILmax ) V = Vref + XsL Isvc When V<Vmin , the SVC will reach its capacitive limit B= -Bcmax When Isvc>ILmax , the SVC will reach its inductive limit B= BLmax

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), IAEME Power System V-I Characteristic The system V-I characteristic is determined by considering the Thevenin equivalent circuit as viewed from the bus whose voltage is to be regulated by the SVC. The Thevenin impedance in Fig-6 is predominantly an inductive reactance. The corresponding bus voltage versus reactive current characteristic is shown in fig-7. Bus voltage increases linearly with capacitive current injection at bus and decreases linearly with inductive current injection at bus. Fig-8 shows the effect of source voltage on the V-I characteristic of the power system bus. and Fig-9 shows the system equivalent reactance on the V-I characteristic of the power system bus

Fig-6 : Thevenin equivalent circuit of HVAC network

Fig-7: Power system bus Voltage-Reactive current characteristic

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), IAEME

Fig-8: Effect of varying source voltage on V-I characteristic of power system bus

Fig-9: Effect of varying system reactance on V-I characteristic of power system bus Composite SVC-Power System V-I Characteristic The system characteristic may be expressed as V = Eth Xth Is Where V = Power system bus voltage Is = Bus load current Eth = Source voltage Xth = System Thevenin reactance For inductive load current Is is positive and for capacitive load current Is is negative.
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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), IAEME The SVC characteristic may be expressed as V = V0 + XSL Is Where V = Power system bus voltage Is = SVC current Vo = SVC reference voltage where net SVC current is zero XSL = SVC slope reactance For inductive SVC current Is is positive and for capacitive SVC current Is is negative. For voltage outside the control range, the ratio V/Is is determined by the ratings of the inductor and capacitor. The solution of SVC and power system characteristic equations graphically illustrated in figure 10. Three system characteristics are considered in the figure, corresponding to three values of the source voltage. The middle characteristic represents the nominal system conditions and is assummed to intersect the SVC characteristic at Point A I = Is . If the system voltage increases by Eth , due to decrease of where V = V0 and system load level, bus voltage V will increase to V1 without an SVC. With the SVC, the operating point moves to B, by absorbing inductive current I3. Therefore, SVC hold the voltage V3 instead of V1 without the SVC. Similarly if the system voltage decreases by Eth , due to increase of system load level, bus voltage V will decrease to V2 without an SVC. With the SVC, the operating point moves to C, by injecting capacitive current I4. Therefore, SVC hold the voltage V4 instead of V2 without the SVC.

Fig10: Graphical solution of SVC operating point for given system conditions

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), IAEME III. RESPONSE OF SVC DURING LOW VOLTAGE AND HIGH WIND POWER GENERATION CONDITION SVC of (+)150/(-)150 MVAR capacity is connected at 400 kV GSS Jaisalmer through 400/33 kV transformer (Bus-19). Due to high wind power generation SVC reference voltage is set to 1.10 PU. The slope of SVC is 0.09. The purpose of connecting SVC at Bus number 19 is to regulate the voltage at bus number 2 i.e. Jaisalmer 400 kV bus with the increase in wind power generation. To demonstrate the effect of SVC on voltage and system losses, load flow studies have been carried out without and with (+)150/(-)150 MVAR SVC at Bus-19 for various wind power generation schedule. Following four cases have been considered in the load flow studies:S. No. Particulars Connected capacity of wind power plants (MW) Case-1 (45 % of IC) 603 342 18 963 Net Wind Power Despatch (MW)

1 2 3

400 kV GSS Jaisalmer 220 kV GSS Amarsagar 132 kV GSS Jaisalmer Total

1340 760 40 2140

Case-2 (55 % of IC) 737 408 22 1177

Case-3 (65 % of IC) 871 494 26 1391

Case-4 (75 % of IC) 1005 570 30 1605

OUTPUT OF LOAD FLOW STUDIES Case-1 : 45 % wind power generation of installed wind farms capacity Power plots of load flow study without SVC at Bus-19 is placed at fig-11A and Power plots of LFS with (+)150/(-)150 MVAR SVC at Bus-19 while other conditions remains unchanged is placed at fig-11B. Case-2: 55 % wind power generation of installed wind farms capacity Power plots of load flow study without SVC at Bus-19 is placed at fig-12A and Power plots of LFS with (+)150/(-)150 MVAR SVC at Bus-19 while other conditions remains unchanged is placed at fig-12B. Case-3: 65 % wind power generation of installed wind farms capacity Power plots of load flow study without SVC at Bus-19 is placed at fig-13A and Power plots of LFS with (+)150/(-)150 MVAR SVC at Bus-19 while other conditions remains unchanged is placed at fig-13B.

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), IAEME Case-4: 75 % wind power generation of installed wind farms capacity Power plots of load flow study without SVC at 400 kV GSS Jaisalmer is placed at fig-14A and Power plots of LFS with (+)150/(-)150 MVAR SVC at Bus-19 while other conditions remains unchanged is placed at fig-14B. EFFECT OF SVC ON POWER SYSTEM VOLTAGE Power system voltage without and with SVC are tabulated in Table-1. With the increase of wind power generation, transmission voltages are decreased due to increase of power flow on transmission lines. With SVC fall in transmission voltages are much lesser than without SVC. Table-1: Bus voltages (kV) without and with SVC in high wind power generation condition
S. No. A 1 2 3 B 1 2 3 4 5 C 1 2 3 4 D E Particulars Wind Power Generation (MW) 400 kV bus voltage 400 kV GSS Without SVC Jaisalmer With SVC 400 kV GSS Barmer Without SVC With SVC 400 kV GSS Rajwest Without SVC LTPS With SVC 220 kV bus voltage 400 kV GSS Without SVC Jaisalmer With SVC 400 kV GSS Barmer Without SVC With SVC 220 kV GSS Without SVC Amarsagar With SVC 220 kV GSS Phalodi Without SVC With SVC 220 kV GSS Tinwari Without SVC With SVC 132 kV bus voltage 220 kV GSS Without SVC Amarsagar With SVC 220 kV GSS Phalodi Without SVC With SVC 220 kV GSS Tinwari Without SVC With SVC 132 kV GSS Without SVC Jaisalmer With SVC Without SVC SVC Bus voltage With SVC Without SVC MVAR loading on SVC (Capacitive) With SVC Case-1 (45 % of IC) 963 401.48 406.91 402 405 402 405 221 223 219 222 219 221 202 203 205 205 131 133 115 116 119 119 130 131 33.97 34.73 57 Case-2 (55 % of IC) 1177 396.19 402.76 398 402 398 401 217 221 216 219 216 219 198 200 203 204 129 131 113 114 118 118 128 130 33.52 34.43 66 Case-3 (65 % of IC) 1391 388.46 396.93 392 397 392 397 213 217 212 215 211 215 194 196 202 203 126 129 109 111 117 117 125 128 32.87 34.01 79 Case-4 (75 % of IC) 1605 377.40 388..86 384 390 384 390 206 212 205 210 204 210 187 191 199 201 122 126 105 107 116 116 121 126 31.93 33.43 98

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), IAEME EFFECT OF SVC ON POWER TRANSMISSION LOSSES Power system voltage without and with SVC for various wind power generation schedules are tabulated in Table-2. Table-2: Power System Losses without and with SVC in high wind power generation condition S. No. 1 Particulars Case-1 (45 % of IC) 963 Case-2 (55 % of IC) 1177 Case-3 (65 % of IC) 1391 Case-4 (75 % of IC) 1605

Wind Power Generation (MW) 2 Without SVC 31.10 43.71 60.14 Losses (MW) 3 With SVC Losses 30.63 42.88 58.30 (MW) Above tabulated data indicates that with SVC transmission losses are reduced of system voltage and decrease of reactive power flow on transmission lines.

82.62 78.06 due to increase

Fig.11A: Without SVC at Bus-19 (45 % i.e. 963 MW wind power generation)

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), IAEME

Fig.11B: With (+) 150/(-)150 MVAR SVC at Bus-19 (45 % i.e. 963 MW wind power generation)

Fig.12A: Without SVC at Bus-19 (55 % i.e. 1177 MW wind power generation)

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), IAEME

Fig.12B: With (+) 150/(-)150 MVAR SVC at 400 kV GSS Jaisalmer (55 % i.e. 1177 MW wind power generation)

Fig.13A: Without SVC at Bus-19 (65 % i.e. 1391 MW wind power generation)

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), IAEME

Fig.13B: With (+) 150/(-)150 MVAR SVC at Bus-19 (65 % i.e. 1391 MW wind power generation)

Fig.14A: With SVC at Bus-19 (75 % i.e. 1605 MW wind power generation)

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), IAEME

Fig.14B: With (+) 150/(-)150 MVAR SVC at Bus-19 (75 % i.e. 1605 MW wind power generation)

Fig.15: Bus-2 Voltage without and with SVC with variation in wind power generation

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), IAEME

Fig.16: Loading (MVAR) on SVC with variation in wind power generation IV. EFFECT OF SVC DURING HIGH VOLTAGE AND LOW WIND POWER GENERATION CONDITION SVC of (+)150/(-)150 MVAR capacity is connected at 400 kV GSS Jaisalmer through 400/33 kV transformer (Bus-19). Due to low wind power generation SVC reference voltage is set to 0.90 PU. The slope of SVC is 0.09. The purpose of connecting SVC at Bus number 19 is to regulate the voltage at bus number 2 i.e. Jaisalmer 400 kV bus with the decrease in wind power generation. To demonstrate the effect of SVC on voltage load flow studies have been carried out without and with (+)150/(-)150 MVAR SVC at 400 kV GSS Jaisalmer for various wind power generation schedule. Following two cases have been considered in the load flow studies:S. No. Particulars Connected capacity of wind power plants (MW) Net Wind Power Despatch (MW) Case-1 Case-2 (35 % of (25 % of IC) IC) 469 335 266 14 749 190 10 535

1 2 3

400 kV GSS Jaisalmer 220 kV GSS Amarsagar 132 kV GSS Jaisalmer Total

1340 760 40 2140

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), IAEME
OUTPUT OF LOAD FLOW STUDIES Case-1 : 35 % wind power generation of installed wind farms capacity Power plots of load flow study without SVC at Bus-19 is placed at fig-17A and Power plots of LFS with (+)150/(-)150 MVAR SVC at Bus-19 while other conditions remains unchanged is placed at fig-17B. Case-2: 25 % wind power generation of installed wind farms capacity Power plots of load flow study without SVC at Bus-19 is placed at fig-18A and Power plots of LFS with (+)150/(-)150 MVAR SVC at Bus-19 while other conditions remains unchanged is placed at fig-18B. EFFECT OF SVC ON POWER SYSTEM VOLTAGE Power system voltage without and with SVC are tabulated in Table-3. With the decrease of wind power generation, transmission voltages are increased due to decrease of power flow on transmission lines. With SVC rise in transmission voltages are less than without SVC. Table-3 : Bus voltages (kV) without and with SVC in low wind power generation condition
S. No. A 1 2 3 B 1 2 3 4 5 C 1 2 3 4 D E Particulars Wind Power Generation (MW) 400 kV bus voltage 400 kV GSS Jaisalmer 400 kV GSS Barmer 400 kV GSS Rajwest LTPS 220 kV bus voltage 400 kV GSS Jaisalmer 400 kV GSS Barmer 220 kV GSS Amarsagar 220 kV GSS Phalodi 220 kV GSS Tinwari 132 kV bus voltage 220 kV GSS Amarsagar 220 kV GSS Phalodi 220 kV GSS Tinwari 132 kV GSS Jaisalmer SVC Bus voltage MVAR loading on SVC (Inductive) Case-1 (35 % of IC) 749 Without SVC With SVC Without SVC With SVC Without SVC With SVC Without SVC With SVC Without SVC With SVC Without SVC With SVC Without SVC With SVC Without SVC With SVC Without SVC With SVC Without SVC With SVC Without SVC With SVC Without SVC With SVC Without SVC With SVC Without SVC With SVC 427.04 412.80 427 419 426 419 235 228 234 228 233 226 218 214 218 217 140 136 125 123 127 126 139 135 36.13 34.11 158 Case-2 (25 % of IC) 535 428.39 414.14 428 420 428 421 236 228 235 229 233 227 219 215 219 218 140 136 126 124 127 127 139 136 36.25 34.21 161

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), IAEME

Fig.17A: Without SVC at Bus-19 (35 % i.e. 749 MW wind power generation)

Fig.17B: With (+) 150/(-)150 MVAR SVC at Bus-19 (35 % i.e. 749 MW wind power generation)

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), IAEME

Fig.18A: Without SVC at Bus-19 (25 % i.e. 535 MW wind power generation)

Fig.18B: With (+) 150/(-)150 MVAR SVC at Bus-19 (25 % i.e. 535 MW wind power generation)

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), IAEME V. CONCLUSION Most of wind power plants are installed far away from load centers. Long EHV transmission lines are being constructed for evacuation of wind power generation up to load centers without planning reactive power management and voltage control. Reactive power management using shunt reactors and shunt capacitors is not successful in wind power plants penetrated power system due to large & sudden variation in wind power generation. SVC is able to regulate the power transmission voltage with the variation in wind power generation. With the help of Static Var Compensator high as well as low transmission voltages can be controlled. During high power system voltage, SVC absorb reactive power and function as shunt reactor and there is less rise in system voltage with SVC as compared to without SVC. During low power system voltage, SVC generates reactive power & function as shunt capacitor. Therefore, there is less drop in system voltage with SVC as compared without SVC. VI. REFERENCE

[1]. N.G. Hingorani and L. Gyugy, Understanding FACTS, Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission System. New York: Inst. Elect. Electron. Eng., Inc., 2000. [2]. J. J. Paserba, D. J. Leonard, N.W. Miller, S. T. Naumann, M. G. Lauby, and F. P. Sener, Coordination of a distribution level continuously controlled compensation device with existing substation equipment for long term var management, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 9, no. 2, pp.10341040, Apr. 1994. [3]. K. M. Son, K. S. Moon, S. K. Lee, and J. K. Park, Coordination of an SVC with a ULTC reserving compensation margin for emergency control, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 11931198, Oct. 2000. [4]. Task Force no. 2 on Static Var Compensators, Static Var Compensators (1986). [5]. IEEE Special Stability Controls Working Group, Static var compensator models for power flow and dynamic performance simulation, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 229240, Feb. 1994. [6]. R.A. Schlueter, ,A voltage stability security assessment method, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 13, no. 4, November 1998, pp. 1423- 1438. [7]. D. Jovcic, Pahalawaththa, N., Zavahir, M. & Hassan, H.A. (2003) SVC Dynamic analytical Model_ IEEE Trans. On Power Delivery, Vol. 18, No. 4, (October), pp. 1455 1461. [8]. FACTS Controllers in Power Transmission and Distribution By- K.R. Padiyar. [9] Ameer H. Abd and D.S.Chavan, Impact of Wind Farm of Double-Fed Induction Generator (Dfig) on Voltage Quality, International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 235 - 246, ISSN Print : 0976-6545, ISSN Online: 0976-6553. [10] Dr. M. P. Sharma and Sarfaraz Nawaz, Understanding Operation of Shunt Capacitors and Oltc for Transmission Loss Reduction, International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 344 - 357, ISSN Print : 0976-6545, ISSN Online: 0976-6553. [11] T. Nageswara Prasad, V. Chandra Jagan Mohan and Dr. V.C. Veera Reddy, Shunt Compensator for Integration of Wind Farm to Polluted Distribution System, International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 89 - 101, ISSN Print : 0976-6545, ISSN Online: 0976-6553.

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), IAEME BIOGRAPHIES

Dr. M. P. Sharma received the B.E. degree in Electrical Engineering in 1996 Govt.
Engineering College, Kota, Rajasthan and M. E. degree in Power Systems in 2001 and Ph.D. degree in 2009 from Malaviya Regional Engineering College, Jaipur (Now name as MNIT). He is presently working as Assistant Engineer, Rajasthan Rajya Vidhyut Prasaran Nigam Ltd., Jaipur. He is involved in the system studies of Rajasthan power system for development of power transmission system in Rajasthan and planning of the power evacuation system for new power plants. His research interest includes Reactive Power Optimization, Power System Stability, reduction of T&D losses and protection of power system.(email: mahavir_sh@rediffmail.com)

Devendra Saini received the B.Tech. degree in electrical engineering from Rajasthan
Technical University, Kota, in 2011. He is currently pursuing the M.Tech.degree in Power System from the Jodhpur National University ,Jodhpur. He is currently an Assistant Professor at the Electrical Engi. Dept. Shankara Institute Of Technology , Jaipur ,Rajasthan. His research interests are in the areas of FACTS power system problems, controls and transient stability (email :devendrasaini786@gmail.com)

Swati Harsh has received her B.E. degree from University of Rajasthan. She is currently
working as Assistant professor in department of Electrical Engineering at Anand International College of Engineering. She is currently pursuing M.Tech. (Power System) from Swami Keshvanand Institute of Technology, Management and Gramothan (SKIT) (email: swatiharsh1st@gmail.com)

Sarfaraz Nawaz has received his B.E. degree from University of Rajasthan and M.Tech.
degree from MNIT, Jaipur. His research interests include power systems and power electronics. He is currently an Associate Professor of the Electrical Engg. Dept., Swami Keshvanand Institute of Technology, Management and Gramothan (SKIT) , Jaipur, Rajasthan. (email: eesarfaraz1983@rediffmail.com)

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