Univerzitet u Kragujevcu Fakultet Inženjerskih nauka Smer: Industrijski inženjering
Seminarski rad Engleski jezik 2
Internal transport in system of logistics
Profesor: Sandra Stefanović
Student: Stevan Borisavljević 394/2012
Priority is given to those enterprises and companies whose business is based on speed of information. The right information at the right time and right place enable timely and adequate response to the stringent demands of the market. from production to distribution to the end user. it is also needed in all links of the logistics chain. and thus finds favorable ratio of the relative size of the physical and technical. Use of modern information technology is necessary to provide information about the product along the entire logistics chain. influencing production bottlenecks. which covers all aspects of the final product from the warehouse of finished products to the end users. • Logistics subsystem and supply drawing that include all waste materials. where there is a strong competition. readiness for delivery. there is a demand for cost-effective and high-quality production. semifinished materials. which would achieve the optimum total production capacity. In the market-oriented economy.
The goal of logistics is necessary to reduce downtime by identifying potential sites of problematic places. both in production and trade. • Logistics distribution subsystem. return flows of products and empty containers. etc. less scrap. The distribution is laying claim to quality service delivery (delivery reliability. in which information plays a crucial role.
. • Logistics subsystem of production. delivery time. Product information is not only essential to the consumer. worker’s fatigue. and quality service delivery. auxiliary materials and spare parts from suppliers to warehouses in intermediate goods production company.). which includes all the flows of raw materials.
The logistics can be divided into four functional subsystems: • Logistics procurement subsystem. which includes all the material flows that pass (processed or consumed) through the processes of production.Technological changes in the world require innovation and improvement of business strategies of the enterprise and the companies. less wear tools. overloading the lines with a combination of technical and economic factors. Manufacturers are laying claim to the management and monitoring of the production process for managing and tracking inventory in order to ensure the smooth production process.
customs fees or demurrage charges or parking fees. external means of transport with its tariffs. mining. In this environment it impacts include existing infrastructure. and quality of logistics services. and • Internal transport used to transport materials within the company.
. producers and consumers. it can be said that the transportation of materials and supplies is used to bridge the spatial distance between suppliers. Transportation is important due to the fact that rarely coincide place of production and consumption.
External transportation is considered one of the parts of the logistics that most affect external conditions. The costs of handling. maintenance and security matters. Other logistics costs and Acting above the cost of logistics. carries out the transfer of the case. Incidental transportation costs. forestry.
Transport can be seen as: • External transportation (or as they also call it input-output) is used by transport carried out by the supplier to the customer and the manufacturer to the customer. as well as documentation during the transport. that is. but also the interaction among previous and upcoming tasks. services and trade. while transport in the narrow sense can be briefly defined as transporting things from one place to another. agriculture. Transport in the wider sense includes all activities necessary for the performance of transport and other transport operations. construction. the means of labor or workers to jobs where the manufacture or traffic. fees for the use of ports. and incidental transportation costs such as tolls.In all economic activities in society: industry. regulations. Within the logistics-oriented procedures in transport must be taken into account not only clean change of goods. Any means of transport can be evaluated on the following criteria: Cost: Transport costs.
side effects.Reliability . Inside the plant.Technical affordability of transport . Transport relocate material forms of working capital within a manufacturing complex and the purpose of internal transport is the transport itself: • • • • • • • • • • Inside the warehouse entrance. From the shop floor to the internal storage.
. From the warehouse to the output carrier.Frequency of transportation .Performance criteria: . Within the internal storage. In the output storage.
Internal transport takes place within the company and is the subject of the transfer.Capability of networking . the funds for the work and the workers in the production. From the warehouse to the internal drive.Flexibility . Raw materials can bi transported by: • • • • Road transport Rail transport Water transport Air transport. From the entrance to the storage facility. Output from the plant to the warehouse.During shipping . Among plants.
chemical or other changes to the work piece. • Spatial and temporal coordination of production to places of storage for transport technology changes or other technological demands • Connectivity and optimum performance of the entire reproduction process corresponding to logistic chain. • Reloading (combination of loading and unloading and reloading clean) at all required places where there is a change in the flow of materials and products) and • Unloading (removal of finished goods (intermediate) in the shipping warehouse operation within it. energy production in the handling of the admissions stock) • Transfer (transport of materials. it can be seen that there are two key spatial segments in which the transport is realized: Process and inter-operating. assembly. to the work units such as processing. as well as preparation of finished products for distribution). combining them into a single unit. spare parts.Internal transport consists of four transport operations: • Freight (transportation from the central (specialized) receiving storage materials. or other production units). components and finished products through technological phase. Based on the transport functions within the manufacturing process.
. The process involves the implementation of transport of material within the production plants. along product lines. between jobs that are implemented on physical. Several basic functions of internal transport are: • Covering all phases of the production process through the required equalization of volume range of materials from the moment of entry until the moment of release of finished products. departments. • Connecting the various stages of the production process across spatial and temporal changes in the position of the material and /or without changing its physical-chemical properties. His (fictional) technology limits are rounded to the production phase.
Internal transport is carried out in the production process. and by the use of going back to the warehouse. The narrow definition of internal transport refers to the transfer of objects within production: • From the storage of raw materials to the workshop. Non. it depends on the types of processes themselves. which needs to be processed or change their shapes or internal characteristics. serial or mass production methods require the introduction of an appropriate internal transport. When the internal transport is done in the manufacturing process. The transfer of the case is made from the warehouse to the plant. Individual processes. which should be especially productive. • Between the work and control of inside and workshops • From workshop to finished products warehouse. Its goal is to provide continuity of work and movement between storage and work and control of the manufacturing process. The temporal integrity of transport (depending on whether it is done with or without a break interrupt) can be: • Interrupt (cyclic). when there is no clock.strike the case of a worker to its preparation or assembly). and then drives within and between the warehouses. characteristic for mass production: rhythmic and non-rhythmic (rhythmic. where transportation and manipulative means work in cycles. when the case is removed does not work with the means of transport and if the job is next to the means of transport then moving means of transport determines the rhythm of the workplace and work out the time.Inter-operating transport is achieved between spatially separated production plants in the production complex. or both during the manufacturing process.
. Internal transport is mainly in the production of transport objects from the receipt of raw materials to delivery of finished products. semi-finished or finished products. characteristic of the individual and mass production. • Continuous. and no spatial position on the transport vehicle . In forestry. which largely depend on the types of processes themselves. agriculture and mining within the production and transport workers it has become a part of internal transport. cost-effective and profitable. The tool is also transferred from the warehouse to the tools of jobs where it is used. and this implies the type and mode of internal transport.rhythmic. Here we mean the case of raw materials.
including transportation and admission within and /or between warehouses. tractors and trains.Since we know that the type of production influences the distribution of jobs in the manufacturing process. Internal transport can be divided according to the level of equipment and means of automation machinery. it tells us that the internal transport depends on the distribution of jobs. underground and overhead). and admission control with or without weighing. • Technological (transport and handling of materials through various processes. The transition from individual to serial and from serial to mass production should increase the level of mechanization and automation of funds. the internal transport distinguishes three phases: • Preparatory (delivery vehicles outside material transport. transport to the receiving warehouse or directly to the beginning of the production process (if no auxiliary storage). between certain jobs. The level of mechanization and automation of handcarts is based on the least mechanized assets used in individual production classically appointed. both within jobs and between work units) and • Final (transport finished goods from the end of the production cycle through the dispatch of finished products to warehouse loading in external transport vehicles). If group schedule jobs at small batch and individual production uses carts. auto windows. conveyors and cranes. to such highly mechanized conveyor means. it can be divided into: • Constant movement paths (below-surface.
. According to the movement of the subject areas of internal transport.
According to the production stages. or the intermediate storage depending on the type of production. Preliminary and final phase of the less technological phases of internal transport which involves the movement of objects from auxiliary storage to work in the facility. • Combined with alternate ways of moving around the floor or area. including the control of. which are used in mass production of modern equipment.
This determines the direction of movement.
All developments. which makes vertical or oblique motion. In the rhythmic transport workers doesn’t strike the case of the transport vehicle in most cases during the drafting of the case. which can be either reentrant stack. Straight-line movement can be made in a horizontal. all trends in these areas must be repeated in the same direction. vertical. The manufacturing processes of movement are combined and they depend on the disposition of stock. while the curvilinear movements are performed on the curve. however. Before and after the horizontal movement regularly comes to lifting and lowering objects.
Transport has existed mainly in the mass production of a so called liquid transport. and control of the working places are easy to perform which is not the case with non-rhythmic transport. slant or combined mode. in the horizontal plane is called to horizontal movement. Rectilinear and curvilinear movement is done to the subject matter of a work tool or brought into the warehouse or export them from it. This movement is achieved by man's power supply or operating machinery.
. Internal transport in the workplace often consists of highly automated and mechanized operations while the treatment and control are made mechanized and automated without the participation of the workers. Semi. and that would be passed on from one generation to another. It can be a continuous movement and non-rhythmic movement.According to the level of equipment for internal transportation means. The most common modes of transport are carried out in straight and horizontal motion. and the control of working. production and control of it. transport. If the rhythmic movement. The transfer of cases from the place from where it is to where it’s needed the present case. In the non-rhythmic internal transport worker strike the case out of the conveyor to its manufacture or assembly in the workplace. mechanized. which can be round or rhythmically accurate. or control operations. every course has its own direction. semi-automated and Automated. and the completion of it goes back to the conveyor. regardless of the use of funds can be linear and curvilinear. In case of transport without interruption of continuous flow between warehouse. it can be: • • • • • Manual.
then the transport routes on the ground. and it should be optimally determined and provided to allow the subject to work time exceeds the minimum for the shortest time with the least expenditure of energy in the average. external transport means in the receiver. Machinery lifting and lowering loads significantly contributed to the development of internal transport. as well as for the combined movement of all three elements of production. storage of raw materials and finished goods to the warehouse. This was used in the mechanized and automated process and thereby increased transport efficiency and efficiency of other process in general. production and control jobs that are stages of production. primarily because it provides efficient transfer of cases between the working and control of the rational use of storage.A good way to increase the efficiency of the vertical movement of the hand is to remove the vertical movement because it is hard for the human force.
. on the ground and above-ground transportation routes. and the approach of these funds in the stock dispatch.
Internal transport pathways in the production depend on the type of production. and they are places of approaches. The main transport routes specifically designate and transport them with an advantage over other roads. transport routes are however designed to move the pieces of work in the manufacturing process. at work or control of production.
The introduction of mechanization and automation of internal transport requires a thorough study of the modes of transport by type of movement. and specially the kind of energy that is used instead of the machines. This road is done most of the transport. The main transport routes in the production are according to their position along the production buildings. to the major and minor. Transport routes can be divided into those that are open to those who are indoors. These routes and direction depend on the schedule of work and control of the production process. and the technical and economic calculation and planned ways of transport. provided that the employee and his height at these locations. Combining these three types of movement in the internal transport is one of the most important properties of internal transport. Internal transport pathways can be divided. first. These routes are set through storage. power of gravity. For the determination of the direction and the directions of transport affects the workplace and employment status of workers in the process. All these. which leads to the conclusion that their driveway should be as resilient. and they are used at the same time and for the movement of tools and workers. and they are larger in length and width. depending on whether it is in a sitting or standing position.
not only for efficiency but also transports for the protection of people and transport vehicles. They are located in an enclosed space. Each transport path should have a floor that needs to be resistant to loads such as pressure and shock. then slip.6 to 0. These pathways occur in three forms: as a transport path.4 m (0. above the production area should build overpasses. or iron or brass nails with a wide head. and they are predominantly located in the open space between the buildings inside the perimeter but can also be inside the factory building. The ups are usually marked with red or white. Table 3 shows the means of transport used for internal transport in the transport paths. covering the most common one layer. The radius of turn and spin transport in this type of trail is from 2. Depending on the type and size of load funds there shall be approved types and dimensions of road transport on the ground to provide maintenance burden. but should consist of a substrate and coating. Transport routes should be flat and cannot have a slope of 6-10%.5 feet on each side of the transport path as the width for the passage of workers). or a meter. Width of bidirectional transport paths is equal to twice the width of the loaded vehicles increased by 1. the choose from various flooring materials depends on the purpose of the transport paths. Surface transport floor contains one or more layers. Therefore the transport routes are marked on the ground.
. Transport on the road doesn’t have an advantage over the main and. but smaller in size). there is no high-wear. It is preferable that is elastic to reduce noise. Another form of internal transport is in the ground transportation tracks. which means that they are not in the work piece or funds for which are not in use.
Transport path can be one-way and two-way.4 m in the middle of the track that would not bother a second vehicle in transport). The secondary transportation routes are less in length and width than the main. The transport tracks are directed transport route with narrow or normal track with a range of 0. in the form of lines and sidings as well. These three aspects often intersect each other at the same level.75. as such.5 to 4 m. These paths should always be free. Width of direct paths equals to the width of a loaded vehicle increased by one meter (0.5 m with the addition of each party transportation routes taken 0. it describes the side lines of white or yellow. these paths should be correct and clear. must be specially marked. Transport routes in the ground are located within the production area and are oriented so that the surface is divided into technological areas (deferred workshops and plants). For this reason. in terms of putting a large inland traffic and road signs (identical signs in public transport.The secondary transport routes according to their position are transverse to the main transport routes that intersect or cross over them flyovers. The first type of road transport on the ground is inside the conveyor track. but at the same time. but must weigh a minimum number of such intersections. if the high incidence of domestic transport. and between buildings within the factory premises.
Rails are made of rolled steel. Rational use of internal transport and storage needs to ensure continuity of production. Continuity is ensured so that the material flows at a pre-determined order. Beam transport track shall be greater than the range of rail for 2x2 feet if outdoors. takes double width space of places. which adds width and conveyor belts. volume and space in all phases of the business process. most of the default profile 14x70x125x142 mm dimensions. if it comes to roller. Turning radius should be at least 5 m. Tractors with trailers or trains with carriages can move within the production process on transport tracks. belt. The track is usually found at railway’s links to twist and turn and means of transport for crossing some tracks on two levels. but can also be inside the factory premises as a transportation link between the open and closed space. the width of the transport route. and then the width of the conveyor line width of space takes the job which adds width and conveyor belts. plate and screw conveyors. In the case of the transportation lines and also the technology on the one hand there are jobs.
The main task of the warehouse is a dynamic balance of material flow.
The third form of internal transport is in the soil transport lines. • during the movement of materials within the production process. protection and maintenance of the physical and chemical properties of materials. As the technology in line positions may be located on either side of conveyor line. gutters. or 2x1 m if it indoors to provide a path for the movement of workers. This applies in the following situations: • the inputs of labor and the production process. systematically and continuously. then channels and pipelines with support with water and air carriers. In stock must maintain a constant quality of material storage. Storage process should be implemented at low cost storage and with the least possible financial resources involved in controlling inventories. they are usually found indoors inside buildings. and refining its manufacturing process and • t he output of material for sale. Under the width of conveyor means frames with brackets fixed to the floor.
. pipes or casings with the sliding rails and worm conveyor. Gauge is usually in the floor or ground level so it doesn’t interfere with the movement of other vehicles. and in this case.
tools. In the framework of the implementation of internal transport there is an effort to apply the systems with the required level of flexibility that would integrate into the production system. breakage and other losses in the value of inventory. and the number of calculations needed movers. All this makes the contents of the design of internal transport within the organization design of the production process. and store-operated to accelerate the flow of materials. • Intermediate storage inside the production facilities with the task of balancing the flow of materials between jobs or some machines and plants. warehousing and material is very useful in the industry. as a primary mission. and the organization and distribution of work and control of the manufacturing process. The designing of internal transport is to determine the optimal organization of internal transport within the phases of the production process. production cycle) and thereby accelerate the turnover the coefficient related to stock.
The basis for the design of internal transport seems to set organization of the production process. In industrial production processes are highly significant for storage are associated with the production: • Extra storage to individual plants. etc. to determine its optimal economy. This depends on the type of organization and type of production. the type and quantity of items being transported.
. with the aim of supplying these plants with materials. which will lead to a reduction in production costs. in order to shorten the process operation (e. Proper inventory management.
Rationalization of any part of the production process is a step that all production systems in the future should seek to introduce. allowing the production of a wide range of products. failure.g. then the choice of means and equipment of internal transport in terms of their type and capacity. the position and type of storage. For some funds design includes determining the speed and force of the means of internal transport and rational exploitation of the establishment of internal transport..There should be no waste.
The shorter period of mechanization is achieved by using the most appropriate means of transport.Since transport costs are directly proportional to the time. Internal transport machinery can increase the effect of significantly increasing production and productivity. Since in the transport there are plenty of empty strokes. it is the work of a rational use of means of transport through detailed studies of road transport. and the reduction of the transmission time can be achieved by the organization and mechanization.
. any relief surface at the workshop as well as the circular transmission. the time should be shorter. Transport means save the space in workshops and warehouses. increasing the speed of any material. warehouse location and organization of workshops and manufacturing jobs.