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Rov' KinEsb,ury anĞ Guy liletlınan

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Read and wrlte
Roy Kingsbury and Guy Wellman

Longman Flrst Certificate Skills


For students and Teachers
who this book is for
Read and Write has been specialliı written for students studying for the Cambridge First Certificate Examination. More specifically, it aims to give practice in the skills and language needed in the Reading Comprehension Paper 1 and Composition Paper 2 of the examination. It is ideally suited for use with a full First Certificate coursej such as the Longıman First CertiJicüte course, but is equally useful for the general post-intermediate student who wants to improve his or her reading and writing.


How to use the rnaterial
Practice in certain exam skills (for example, dealing with multiple-choice questions) is built up slowly over a number of lJnits, so there are reasons why students are advised to work through the Units in chronological order - though this is not absolutely essential. Indeed, since the preparation for composition writing is carefully cycled, students might instead concentrate on one composition 'type' (letter writing, for example) and work through the Units devoted to that type (in this case Units 1, 6, 11 and 16). There is no set procedure tbr Units, but there is one suggestİon we would make regardİng many of the
exercises to be done in class: as often as possible, students should check their answers to exercises with a partner, and then wİth the rest of the class and the teacher before checking with the Key. This means that students constantly have to justify their answers, choices, opinions etc. Outside the classroom, read as rnuch and as widely in English as you can. The more you read in English, the easier Paper 1 will be.

How the book is organised
The book contains 20 Units. The first
the same Unit format, while Units 19 and 20 aim to give final guidance and advice for taking the two Papers. Units 1-18 are each divided into three parts, A, B and C. Part A aims to help prepare for Reading Comprehension Paper 1; part B 'bridges the gap' between parts A and C; and part C gives careful guidance for Composition Paper 2, Units 2, 4,,8, 10, 14 and 16 provide specific preparation for Section A of the Reading Comprehension Paper, but Part A of all Units gives practİce İn a variety of reading skills which the exam expects students to have mastered and which are tested through multiple-choice questions in Section B of the Paper. Part B of each Unit is the 'language link' between parts A and C and gives practice in language (often) presented in reading comprehension passages (part A) and required for composition preparation and writing (part C). Part C of each Unit is designed to help prepare for Composition Paper 2 and is generally connected with the first part of the Unİt by theme or subject. Preparation for the different kinds of First Certificate

Units follow

Special note to the self-access student
steps as if you were working in a class, you can do all the Units, except some of the classroom discussion phases. 2 If you do not understand something, look it up in a dictionary or a lexicon. 3 Check your answers in the Key after each exercise. (Unfortunately, because of space, we have not been able to give a model for each composition.) 4 Whenever you can, try to sit down with another student to discuss and compare what you are doing. 5 If you think something is too hard, don't give up.

1 Following the

composition (Letter, Narrative, Description,'Speech' and Argument) is cycled three or four times (see

6 trinally, don't move on to a new Unit until you have got the most from the Unit you are working on. If you do leave a Unit before you have really finished

Keep trying.

it, come back to it later when you are fresh, and try

NB: Twenty rnofe cornposition topics

provided at the end of the book (pages 86-87) for practice in freer compositİon writing after the more controlled practice given in Units.


Open-ended story (fact or fiction) Open-ended factual questions.. and advice. Scanning for numbers and names. Language of invitations. on my left. True/False exercise (with reasons). . city UN|T 4 What's happening? . Open-ended questions.Contents Composition Focus Pages Composition Focus Pages UN|T 1 LETTER 6_9 UN|T 6 What's your excuse? LETTER 26_29 What about coming to see us? Reading and matching. but on the other . On the one hand.. . Argument for and against Multiple-choice (with 2 options). 38_41 Preparation for Paper 1 Section A. etc. Preparation for Paper 1 Section A.SPEECH. Describing a house. Multiple-choice (with 2 options). What is more.g. since doing.SPEEcH. Inference questions. . Speech of farewell. etc. True/False exercise (with reasons). * acceptance/refusal * reasons). Article the or no the.g. beforelafter doing. Past narrative using so. hasf haae been done. personal letter of invitation Language of apologies. town.g. excuses. . done. . because. Personal letter giving advice UN|T 2 What happened? NARRATlVE 10_13 UN/T 7 How did it end? NARRAT|VE 30_33 Preparation for Paper 1 Section A.. thanks ( Multiple-choice (with 3 options). Identifying source of texu True/False exercise (with reasons). for 'speech' Multiple-choice (with 4 options). add to points (e. . And then . . UN|T 5 Are you for or against? ARGUMENT 22_25 UN|T 10 ARGUMENT 42_45 What are the pros and cons? Preparation for Paper 1 Section A. 18_21 UN|T 9 What can l say? . Describing your village. Identifying source of texu Language to contrast ideas e. and 'ordering' phrases e.) and introduce examples.. before and when. Deducing vocabulary from contexu Story from a 'Starter' or 'last sentence' UN|T 3 What's it like? DESCRİPTloN 14_17 UN|T 8 DESCRlPTloN 34_37 Can you describe the place? had been done and haae something Identifying source of text. Deducing vocabulary from context. apartment. Language to exaggerate or emphasise. . while doing. .g. after. including inference.g. The first point I would like to make.). 'Position' phrases e. Argument for or against 4 . True/False exercise. First . . Language to introduce points (e.

used to do. Deducing vocabulary from context. explain a fault and request action. Describing a person etc. etc. Preparation for Paper 1 Section A.SPEECH... Argument for and against. UN|T 12 What did you do NARRATIVE 50_53 next? (with 4 options). would do. 58-61 UN/T 19 1 7B-B1 How to tackle Paper General instructions Preparation for Paper 1 Section A. despite. rernemberfforget doing. advice and warning. Multiple-choice Reporting did. fiction) DESCR|PT|ON UN/T 17 What did you use to do? NARRAT|VE 70_73 Sentence patterns for narrative writing tenses wasf were doing. . . Language of opinion: In my zı Golden Rules A brief revision of composition writing Multiple-choice questions. What I would like to know is. Argument: suggesting a solution Twenty fiıore composition Key to Exercises topics 86-87 . Multiple-choice (with 4 options). Language of instructions. Language for posing a question. although. Open-ended story (fact or speech. had done. etc.. Language to express annoyance. . as well as. like? with reasons. wİth opinİon argue UN/T 14 How can l help you? Multiple-choice questions.. Explaining something to someone Reading Comprehension Exam Advice: Golden Rules Sample Test Sections A and B UN/T 20 82_85 UN|T 15 What's the solution? Predicting from headline. Narrating past experiences UN|T 13 What do they look 54-57 UNlT 18 What's your own opinion? Multiple-choice questions. but as I see it .. suggesting a solution and giving examples.Composition Focus Pages Composition Focus Pages UN/T 11 LETTER 46_49 UN|T 16 What can you do about it? LETTER 66_69 Could you tell me about it? True/False statements. ARGUMENT 62_65 How to tackle Paper 2 Composiiion Exam Guidance for the whole Paper Exam Adı.. for habits. etc. Some would . Multiple-choice questions. Letter of complaint Formal and informal letter style. ARGUMENT 74_77 True/False Vocabulary Combining facts with and. etc. . to describe people. Formal letter requesting information Multiple-choice questions..

vhich? or who ansrı.ç:. the weekend after next with Zı/la 1 mz.x?.i.*^r.. ftotıı Thank you very much indeed for inviting me to spend.. to nncr* ı'fr.ou know? I shall be delighted to come to your party.Ş. all about? Now.i "do:. fhat HoLı wor.e. if.. Perhaps .. Read them quickly to answer this question: E What are the}.3 and 4) .ıarf nıc f/ıe uıor/d.rn-"are.. you İr you. Pu+ as T'm comirı7 olown wehavevt'+ seerı each L+Vıoı.."#.. r.|tr J ru::/r. . .? parf . # . r y% #/i:... Read it and do the exercise on page Horv do you think each extract continued? In pairs c.* . "'.: 3E r". ir: _*fİ|i !!a. The extracts on the right (a. in pairs.wl. be oLq" to come or.n" İ. of hle ^a4 i. :ıı{ rfl f./ t?zL caJL t. like this: E 7. * d f f: r.d y... ffi rx iii: İ/i«...i x:İ:rr{ r..ıght olh{ .. U eş .ı r:!. rf.h.d like to % We were wonde .r.ü ii|. ı§}us dğrü t goıı It *as so nır..:.! "_::9.*.ofter olL tshut tİme . ç:.9':_*. read the extracts again and match them.vriting to Tony and Jane...T./ ffi"W.._**ff İm a{.orJ . #.:X" .re#rİ"{Yr'r ac/t ad a much biççer t /h a . " a:r ffi6 . a.:'n..+h gou'd [İke -fo John is r./ooıı.İ* t .our r..'o?#J.T. gr monilı uıor/d af ıhe na o{İİ.oe uJoçi.^rJo"tr hu.ır U3r:-_Y..but whİch is the ans\ver to r.. arld aears.t?h.4ş fr ?w .ı..#..ered w-hose letter? How do 1. but you forgot to say what time it tı-eor frorn Uoıı. up and stay vıith 111o.u:z& not fu ınznicoru ttız{ıJ?ta.İ +haİ gr^İ{""İ{"r #y} r. y rrİ: . Sd. *' lr #'. 2.UN|T r 1 What about coming to see us? Below are brief extracts from eight personal letters..i.P??eP onwe aııı7 tıızze bt .ear rS W€ } € <end .omplete the unfinished sentencesJ then compare ü._r.ersions with those of other students. c and d) are answers to those on the left (1.ıry to.

c Study it carefully) cover it and then do exercise 82.. 3 John will earn a lot more in his new job. Read the following conversation and fill in the parts which have been left blank.iı}. (that) we won'tl§han't be able to [come].] (ıWe can also use.. has probably beeır asked to leave her job at the hospital.^.}lJ:'T:İ:"'l::"":jj.lled with expr. for example: \We wondered . .e're(ver5ı) sofry I'm/\ü7e're afraid (You see. (5).. \üould (6). l [ ınvltlng me/us lto SPeno a lew I'd/\Ve'd like to thank ı / +L^ j_. Hello. Read the whole conversation first so that you get the gist of what it's about.g. I'm glad I've met you. and then accept or refuse. 2 Mary 6 Mary will have to fi. Thanks wondering (3). .vİtatİ. 7 John and Mary had arranged to visit Tony and 8 John invites Tony and Jane to stay with them. but I'm afraid a shame.. 4 The children are excited about their father's new job. ..on \V'ould yoiı lİke/care to [corne tCI .a party next Frİday]? IiıWe wonder if you'd likeicare to [İome to a party next Friday.. All the blanks can be f.) Thank yo. thank someone. John is tired of working for a newspaper.nd another job immediately. _ (1)? (2) §[e've got tickets for Saturday night. Thanks Thanks (very much) . Perhaps another time. r a b Here is some of the language we use in order to invite someone to something (e.Are the following statements true or false? Give reasons. Ref. . | :::.) the thing is.j+^+i^_ ı+^ ...'l'}]:.^.ı^. and give a reason for a refusal. Mike...ı you ./Ve were wondering . .d _ a nice idea. E 81.ı wltn Youl' oaYS Accepffinte I'd/§fe'd love to.ry much) (indeed)' l ro. Jane. thanks - Ann: IJnfortunately I'm going to London for the weekend. Ç. an event) or to do something.. §fhy not? - . Ann? (4)? you later. 5 John and Mary have just moved to London.. that's §7ell.essions from those in John: Hello. I'd/We'd be delighted/very pleased to [come].. Ann. Susan and I were I. .[corrre]. I was going to ring Mike: The theatre? That sounds John: ıüi/hat about you.._ ^^*+_. unfortrınately [we shall be on holiday at that time]. Ann: John: Oh. Irı. The reason is.u§al Rur*o- I'nı/\üf.

d. then house number and street/road.jııg (5rd. 2 ıx/hat do you notice about the address in English? The address is written in the top right-hand corner: .ııe dinner wiEh us ot cıır hcıteL. As o mcltten of focü.bcnıE ti orı. messo. It wotıl.[ sto. noını.. Leo. Do uğu knoııı wh.o. Then check with the Comments.rğ " W" |. or rtncİ'the hotel o. Then complete what John said to his wife Mary after he had letter from Tonl. and country (if writing to someone abroad).uoıen' ü plarırıed.ııg (atrı) ? ff ğoıı l..t gotı.ı. county. be d. to hearin g frorn gou and. It is fairly informal. ı986 ycn.dıg eve::. Pleose trg ortd. rnoke ü.Septeınb es.we werd w-cnıaÜ ın g f ıJcru'd cdre to ho.rıJc o. name of house (if it has one).. ofteı nertr fcır o shorğ holidog ond woııLd tiJ<e to see uoLt orıd Moru ond tiıe chiı. Green Park.o<rı. You coJ1 thi. Londcrrı Rocıd. We orrive iı Yoİlc Ön ttıe Frı. Bg the bime this Letter reoches goıJ.İ Vol" frorrı 3rd to 5üh OcEober.) ond Leove cırı ü. Wittshire HT6 qGP High Town.r Read this letter.nq . town/city. They 25. ong thüıg r.soıı r'm reaııy wriUhg .* Your signature at the bottom tells the reader who the letter is from.ş to see gou i (or-starued l) Lt . -r"-g cıııd Jarıe E The letter above is a personal letter. post code. to seeing Ucrlt ifı York. Ücl< İThe rea. tr With otı besü wishe'.and Jane.ıe Sı-ırıd-o.rğn.owk forword. lVhat do you notice about it? Cover the comments on the right and discuss the questions on the left. Arulwot4. weire stoa4i. Questions 1 \What don't you write at the top of an English letter? cornrnents You never write your name at the top of a personal English letter.d r{nq for uğ wherı we oİrive. Note the use of capital letters with places and months.d be moıvellou. a-oajn.rrı.'The İork Housel Yoıı dgrı'L hcıııe tn decide rkht.u ofte. you wUl proboblg lıaıe stoıt€d bhe neıı joö gcrL( t§|A us abolıt tn gcnır Losü Letüer. but the layout is still important. We'd be deüght€cl af go1+ coıuld corrıe. tr ZZnd.'tJ. when€ver yqı.ııe o.ı is to tetl thot we're corning Lo goıır-porü of tfıe couıntrg the ırıeekend.otng crrı ğne Soturd-og euİıi. hoııoııer.rıd. good.

April 1st.*First name(s)'? 'With 6 No.'.' Note the comma after 'Dear Johnr'. Other letters end wİth 'Yours faithfully' or 'Yours sincerely'.for example. ıJğrite the letter. Return the tickets and suggest someone else who might enjoy the concert.'(Lots of) love' * first name. Obviously remembered how much you like classical music. Regret you won't be able to go. sİgn İt wİth your first name. pay|ng careful attention to the layout. 3 All best wishes. and a has three main parts: an introduction (paragraph 6 Do all Eng|ish letters end with something like all best wiİhes. . and using some of the prompts to guide you. staying with an English family as a student and add the letters'c/o'1:care of. Say why . 4 Do allEng|ish letters begin with name. or away on holiday/business? Add:. c/o Mrs J. Kind of him/her to think of you. another appointment that evening. 1). 1 April 1988. etc. as I think. and E \Why not try composition 1 on page 86 as well? . \Who do you think would like the chance to go? 2 1 short letter enclosing two free tickets to a classical concert in ten days' time.? 'Dear*First 4 No. 1-4-'88. only friendly letters. which maY end with phrases such as'Best wishes'.'See you'. but giving reasons why you will not be able to go. There is one time when you might put a name at the top of a personal letter. but you only use a person's first name in a personal letter. ŞıTh--the correct punctuation and layout. 5 \what do you notice about the 'body' or main part the 1etter? of 5 It conclusion. . for examPle: lst APril. Most begin with 'Deaf . I'm returning the tickets in plenty of tiıne. paragraphs 2 and 3). or staying at) like thls: Small Town BX3 TH13 England E \write out the following addresses and dates (with months in writing). Smith 35. as if for the top of a personal letter: 1 the firs / 54 larkshill road / little village / northington / surrey l 2I_3_87 2 flat6l I78 bristol road /southtown /yorkshire YY3 5AB / 19_10_'86 3 163 westwood avenue / east moors / ringwood / hampshire |2T B34 l 4c 3_7_87 o mr and mrs james 23_5_. + family name' or 'Dear Sir/Madam/Sirs/Sir or Madam. First ask yourself tııro questions: what address are you going to use _ your home address or a fictional one? _ and who are you writing to? Paragraph Paragraph Thank friend for letter and tickets. \üfrite a letter expressing your thanks. 1988.3 \x/hat do you notice about the date in English? \ü[here does it normally appear? How else can you write 3 The it? date appears under your address and there are different forms you can use. High Street. 1988. the message (here. |l4l88. for example. Add: See you soon. Note the use of commas in the address and the date.87 l 57 |ong drive / exbourne / kent / england / E Here is a typical First Certificate letter-writing task. and that is if you are.' 'A frİend has just sent you a Paragraph Thank the friend once again. Other letters begin 'Dear Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms/Dr etc.

I think the jeweller was so surprised that I had turned up after all those years. Months went by and I hadft the nerve to go in and ask for it.00. turn up she employer refused to give him a reference for his lastly A before B soon C previous D E The following text is from a newspaper. Read it as quickly as you can and answer these questions: 1 §7hat's it about? 2 Can you give it a headline? How about this for service? I took a wristwatch into a jeweller's here in town to be repaired. so I asked. Nothing unusual in that. I left it so long I thought they must have sold it.. A afforded B charged C cost D Choice B is the correct answer. Sure enough. Mirror 10 . so he suggested I write to yotı about it. on Monday I collected it. by his father! The jeweller said his record for holding a watch before was eight years. but the others thought that 7. adverb. It still had on it the ticket in my maideır name which was put on it. noun. whether it was still there. etc. r ı I knew_ they had me too much in the shop when I noticed that the price tag said 75p and I had paid 85p. I wasn't charged a penny. Dcıilı. 2 He took his to the watchmaker's to have the metal strap A clock B alarm c wristwatch D 3I be better. until İ tell you when I took it in to be mended. etc. But on Monday I had cause to go into the shop again. only the verb charge fits here. of ınoney for sonıething. you might say. Why? spent Although all four verbs are to do with money. Study number 1 and the answer and ıeason below. on the off-chance.). may depend on the grammar of the sentence) on the kind of word needed (an adjective. but A-emerge B 5 John's new job. giving reasons. The correct answ. on collocation (the way a word is always used with another word).30 would A arranged B suggested C appointed D put forward 4 After she moved house she couldn't find her umbrella anywhere. the son of the previous owner of the shop found it for me. meaning ask soıneone for a stated alnount. clockwork meeting at 7. felt absolutely sure it come would out C arrive D eventually. Jt was twenty-six years ago! I was not then 15 years old and I forgot to collect it. then do items 2-5 and discuss your answers. adjusted.UN|T 2 What happened? Section A of the First Certificate Reading Comprehension Paper 1 contains 25 multiple-choice items like the ones below.

ll in the other blanks in the same way) and check with the original text. Or possibly: lasr. the jeweller bought the shop from a stranger? Again. Then f. And what would make sense here? . It follows the verb took. It can't be it haıe: it would have to read 'to _ repaired'. \X/hat Now read the text again and answer these questions. etc. to. after to (: in order to) . . untirl tell you when I (5) in to be mended. How about this for service? I took a wristwatch İnto (l) a jeweller's here in town to Monday I collected it. by.even will. took (6)! I was It was twenty-six years (7) and I forgot not then 15 years (B) and to collect it. on (* day). 2 \X/as the writer a man or a woman? How do you know? Had. the son of the previous BLANK of the shop found slaN« for 11 . The InFormation you need here is not so clear: you haxe to infer or deduce the answe. The answers are did the writer take into the jeweller's? \Vhy? 2 §fhen had the writer taken it in? 3 How old was the writer at the time? 4 \x/hat was the longest time the jeweller had held a watch before that? 5 How much did the writer have to pay to have the watch repaired? E 1 Read the text once more to find answers to these questions. 2 \X/hat kind of word is missing? It must be a verb. E For fun.' 'Sure enough.6. at (*time).a choice| maa. But on Monday I had cause to go İnto the shop agaİn. 3 \ü7hen did the writer collect the watch? or haxe. Nothing unusual in that. leaving blanks (and using the word 'blank'). Prepositions of time: in (*year or month). - be (2) repair. work in pairs and take it in turns to read out more sentences Eom the same text. on. Months went I hadn't the nerve to go in and ask (9) it. you might (4) say. On (3) 1 \ü7hat kind of word is missing? A preposition . (1l) I asked. So it must be be.UN|T 2 E 1 clearly given somewhere in the text. can. ınight.a word |1ke for. Read it with the words that have been filled in and the kinds of questions you should ask about the blanks _ what kind of word is missing? what went before? what comes after? and so on. I left it so long I thought they must (10) sold it. So it's on. mLıst. etc. like this: me. how do you 3 How old is the writer now? know? E Look at this part of the text from page 10 in which words have been left out.rS. on the off-chance) _ (l2) it was still there. so it must be a 'direction' preposition to or into. 4 What kind of word can go between you and say? A word llke will. would. could. at.

I went straight to and: I went straight to bed when I got home because I had had a hard day. Then they began their discussion. It might be fact or fiction . She was very worried. §7hen I got home. 1 I checked the contents. Then she phoned her office. r Here is a typical F'irst Certificate composition of this kind: '§7rite what happened when you were delayed on the way to an İmportant meeting. But before you prepare to write one. - once with so and once with because. Then I went and bought one. She asked her friend for some advice. Notice the tenses that are used. a hard day. after. of the composition types in the First Certificate is a story. 5 I thought I was going to be late for my appointment.|El o". The words and phrases on the right are there to help you to put your ideas together and to make what you write sound English. I asked a passer-by the way to the Town Hall. I went straight to bed. here are two exercises to help you with some of the kinds of sentences you might use. 3 They watched the film. and what you did to inform those concerned that you would be late. E when. I didn't hurry. answer the following questions to guide you in writing your story. I called 3 The man went to prison. 2 1 I had plenty of time. You write: I had had a hard day so. Then he rang his newspaper. 12 . r so or because? Join the following pairs of sentences Example: I had had bed. 4 I was lost.something that really happened to you in the past. Then he locked the door. or a story you make up or imagine. 5 I read all about the computer. The man was found guilty of stealing.' your first decision: Are you going to write about or are you going to make up a story? a real event? ıvhen you've decided. 2 The journalist heard the judge's verdict. 4 She went to see the doctor. You write: He put out the lights beforehe locked the door. and: He locked the door after|when he had put out the lights. Then I locked my suitcase. rıhen I got hoıne. before and when once withbefore and. a taxi. Join these pairs of sentences once with after or Example: He put out the lights.

"ra. Ey* tüdr§.iııcobiıey*j.or*p*tiarı a. I aın *!*.c."M "ry İ** i {eeL r n".UN|T 5 Are you for or against? r Read this letter quite quickly. güıüü- İy:.ifr*ri"şL şrı tiıç flow tışpeaş" fu be makiıış '. a ılnıi_tsd anoııı* a{ aenwal"_ ı..n ıa{*L to the .*e. ??Largare* Wlsllaııu ( n-) 22 . ! o* aoo rathw tİıan waıste eüıı§arage ıİı5 awn"dorr5frİ.fl. "-l. wherı ahe ia ol. ırLrıL§ r waı /ıurği/ıed. "y"% Ü io*1{". ThiJ"uLg n*.a. hoıpita.*y* ta br[ng trç ahoul. tha *ho.. *'uooore.about fo"'A.o.*.at o.: g:.*P!" tewrıt mııçh ***.İ" P.e.:arı iıüa the Yy. "t ^arİ.İ weıL aa valııa.. İ r.-r.-'Ş. *rh.d.saiatarıiıı: aııd.nğ. Daızı- quaıbiırı..ı_ to dfr *nd cşmşuteı* hw tiıne with aoap op*u.İlıne. . {a.nuirton"u" lg *u periopa a aıtıgie-parent.tı *rd .. aradeıniı. *nnıg}. then say what you think the 'recent editorial' was about and what point of view it expressed. cc*ıta. a {aınfu in whisiı {ınıııııi.opte wİıo deti. erıougtı.r^rüİ ir| j"b: haxwıg hoıi^d"a$ o."'5 rY ofto.d.ffr d'o ?ffi -*. like'.le) **j*. !o*ıgaY^ "h: .n a the farhu_ ia ııııernplaılea ur or daugiıtw aııİt*r rY it ııae{ııİ axlwieıııe iab"ı te. cohererıİ'ı*.. _thfrt r"**. an1 ire given oxpeı.b ** f.t..uCI'maıw .i )"[rİ'lrgkal ". {r aaaure you that not ati y**.t witk r"o.İrnur* for achov{ı_hitdıvrı" p:rcİıİ/3 need tİıe .atııderıfrs Another org.utT.t"'part. co{iege.ğ ühe ffi 5::.d lwbbie. gotuıq PeğPb d.L _*: _ rçcerıü gd.*.r ıı1 your ı_L ^L ır.ver expre. ilŞ* irğ* İııİr."."u*ğ cçrı"brİbfury /§orn€iiı"ing pteaaure ** . wçul. r **rla a^dr üırP wheıı I waa ğJLd. time attıa- P. ta read Sir.'or *'( oro" penp[e q in achoo{ı./.ıaiııg :İ'.g In caı7çiıışUn.rffia:...!.rJr::Y*ıırı*ta *q* k Ort *hwe ğre .f he had. İertaiıılq . t" were a {r W.ieııce. o*ilnnd.g g***ü. {or. a. a.*.g tnu t.btp to ifrcal awbğ.J naııg^ O*: 5*ura {aıth{ullg.İJowed.ı. {"r. aac!ı aA Lravel {"ia* aııd ahop a. *" İn" pe. tha yowıg .do.wo you"tiıa X^ new*paper/ı are * fi-Jİn alıd aısh"İ^t arti... a ı.eııaqer/ı Caİı do whi*İı give thwrı p"İ* İ İ*Y * Y .t.l*.ot . derive here o{ joba therıuelvea cLearl{ and."..Eİrİ" ıı. One {urther mdq I wİr* fu ooy :.işb.

. .go to catch the bus? walk to the Did you think you had plenty of time? Did you hurry or not? Naturally I thought . It also means that you have time to check your work carefully when you have finished. . . you late? \X/hat did you decide to do? Did you look for some other form of transport? Did you look around for a I had been . [where?] with . . [when?] or The experience I'm going to write about happened §fhy will you always remember it? or \üZhy will you never forget it? §7here were you going?/ §(hat were you supposed be attending? \where was the meeting? to §fho was the meeting with? for? Why? I shall always remember it/I shall never forget it because . . 10 o'clock in the morning? 3 in the afternoon?] .. [time?] . . .] What happened? How long had you been waiting for the bus/walking/riding/driving when it happened? \ü7hat did you think? Did you think you still had plenty of time. .. . [what?] . .g. . let's assume it started then. so . (about) ten Paragraph 1 What I'm going to tell you about happened (to me) etc. to get there as soon as you could? I sent . . in early spring 1976. . . . [what?] . when . [whom?] .. . [what?] . . telephone?Why? Paragraph 4 Did you manage to finally? Did you find. @ Why not try composition 2 on page 86? An irnportant note The instructions for the First Certificate Composition Paper say that the That's not very long . lI was supposed to be attending af an . Iwhen?] When was the meeting arranged Paragraph 2 \What time did you leave your house or apartment? §7hat did you do . . so . .) . [what happened?] I immediately thought . any other transport. because I left . 13 . and . [what time of day? e.İn fact the short artİcle İn A2 (page two compositions you write 'must be between |2O and 180 words each'. [how long?] .e. . . . . [what?] . . inlatlnear/not far from/about (10) kİlometres from .years ago. station? get out your bicycle/motorbike/car? rVas that when the trouble started? or later? [For this exercise. \When did this happen (to you)? (Remember: in 1973. . [doing what?] . in July 1980. . or couldn't you find. . .g. . . [when?] or This happened to me . . [what?] and explained . . last year. 10) İs just over _ you write and take to plan want you what to can take time 180 words so care when writing. . . Did you send your apologies? Did you explain why you had been held up? And did you promise anything? . . . . [why?] I was going to af an . or a telephone? get a message through to sothat. or did you think the delay would make Paragraph 3 That was . . for . . . . . . . during the winter of 1976. . [why?] them briefly Eventually I managed . .

. These descriptions are taken from different sources . Read them carefuliy and say where each c.u mav haı.UN|T 3 What's it like? r In Section B of the Reading Comprehension Paper 1 r. a novel. etc. .e to answer questions about three texts on the same subject but from different sources.ın-ıes from and why.a perstınal letter.t-.

on indicate that Look carefully at extract 4 again. Which words. There was a thick layer of (10) _ on the furniture and an equally thick layer of (11) _ on the cooker in the tiny kitchen (7) (1) cracked faded damp worn dust stained rusty torn grease peeled twisted I stood for _ a off. lived or might live in four of the houses described? Say why you think so. a university student. a Dr and Mrs Smythe-\Welby and their three teenage children. His father was less religious than his mother. There was very little space in the house. The carpet was very (2) . 'f. . then put them in the gaps in this extract.15 . the curtains were (3) _ with what looked in places and were (4) _ to a like blood or red ink.D. momelıt at the top of the stairs.'the woman replied. phrases or lines 1 this is not from a national paper? it is from an evening newspaper? no one was hurt in the fire? the house owners were well-off? no criminal action was involved? it was not a new house? it was not a bungalow? some people were awake when the fire started? E 2 3 4 5 6 or false? Give reasons. with the result that most of the wallpaper }. Are the following statements true 1 Bridlington is probably situated on the south coast. Campbell. much to her surprise.35 a week.Imovedacrosstheroom. 'I'll take it. She pushed open the door for me and I looked inside.' I said.E §fhich of the people below do you think live. 'FIow much did you say it was?' I asked. All the paintwork had (5) _ patches on three of brownish yellow and there were large (6) _ the walls.. b Harry and Sue Matthews and their school-age children while c d E 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 holiday. Lord and Lady Beaumont and their five-man staff. looking up at a few wires which presumably had once helped to provide a decent light for the landing. The writer spent most of his childhood in that house.Everypaneofglasswas(8)andthemetalcatcheswereSo(9)-IwasSurethewindow had not been opened for years. He had four brothers and sisters. Look carefully at extract 5 again. His mother did not want the front garden to look untidy. Check you know the words in the box (look them up in a dictionary if necessary). r Describing a house or a room requires an 'eye for detail' and some fairly precise descriptive vocabulary. H.

- :.oil 8 some furniture ..clean 5 woodwork .!1 -.. :-. Make sure you choose correctly between lıasf haııe been done and had been done in each case.:'lr". Tlıe l _. .polish 6 some floorboards .:.e'ı:.iş..j'.. and There are . (the centre light i replace by wall lights..ffi ..paint 2 wooden floors .fuiİi..wash 7 carpets . I hardly recognised it. The İİonework had been painted brighİ pink and a new roof had been put Now build on the following situations in the §ame way. new photocopier. It has . nice evergreen bushes l plant) 2 There's a much cosİer atmosphere İn our lounge now. (two rooms / convert into 16 .. 4 Make sure you don't get lost if you go upstairs to their toilet... . although of course you can use them. There z} . It needs a Go through situations 1-4 again and express the ideas using this structure.]..'.''l §rhİ I drove past my olJ nor* last year. E in renting and you're talking about your impressions now.|*|ai.. (all the rubbish / clear away.t 'fuöfi ..'' . Look carefully at these examples: E My sister has completely transformed her kitchen. old fashioned fireplace / put in) 3 I was amazed when they iııvited me back to look round the office in (all the furniture / move around.. 1 By the end of the year their garden looked much better.. . computer..UN|T 3 Apart from interesting vocabulary.':.'..t l..: i : :i: ::: ]':: ] ]] ll:i .:.J Make similar comments with these prompts: 1 windows .. iffi iriffi.niia.1 ffi" had the stonework painted bright pinkand (ıhey'd$grıia.aıı along.: a new »wners h.'.i. . small bedroom / turn into shower room) done| These 'stories' could also be told using the structure haae sornething #.nail down 3 curtains .9nç . a descriptive composition should have more varied structures than simp|y It is . . -.#İ!J*pı*İ*lytransfor*.aii andi}*.shampoo Imagine you have been shown round a house that you're interested 4 door hinges . coffee machine install) 1981. For example: 'The grass is ver}ı long.:. §olid *ood cupboards have been fitted all alonğ one wall and the other walls have §fhen I dİove past my old house last year.. There are some problems. l tıaraİy recogniseJ it.. .bÖ. .-1'.:.#:diıi w.

Say something about when. . The following notes and questions -Eııglİsh-speaking E should help you.i _. .'>-1 -\1iı/ =--/=>.-_ \wrıte the middle part of a personal letter in which you tell an friend about the new house or apartment that you (and your family?) have just moved into. (e. . or had done) to make the place more 3 some of the things that need doing. . why and hor..v you moved Paragraph How did you feel about leaving your old home? And how do you feel about starting life in a new one? - Mention some of the things that are not in good order \ü/hat are you going to do or have done (or what have you already done.. r enjoy picnic look relax admire visit around If you want to) think of a castle or a palace that you know in your country.'1 'The lounge is furnished .J' . Begin like this: 'Enjoy a day out in a 14th-century castle!' .) §fhat furniture have you (or your family) put in different rooms? How have you decorated it? Or how have you had it decorated? 2 comfortable or to give it more 'character'? Paragraph settled İn. 'The kitchen is now equipped with . a- - -"*/( /'/''-\ /-5=- - ((1''/çv. ..vhen you have sorted everything out and have really 4 17 .aj . .g.-. 'The house is situated . Invite your friend to come and visit you. Refer back to the language used in extract 2 on page 14. . and write about that.'--'ş--. -. Paragrapln Descrİbe the house or apartment and the dİfferent rooms.{.: *W^rrrr..Look at the picture of the castle below and write a piece for a Şr6Tlclty brochure to go with it. Paragraph 1 house.. rz//.A{r-n:.-.-." stroll see climb wander have lunch marvel at ^' u*.'. perhaps r.. and consider the verbs in the box to start your sentences...-..r' \l /. -/.

l victcry 'They have suffered some losses.. The high-pitched screams and deafening exploslcns oFüe recent battle are stiil ringing in my ears Apart from that. And yet they have not come to finish us off Did we inflict more damage than we thought? Wishful thinking. Hıs right eye is developing a twitch I see. .crld and . there can be number of reasons why one answer is right and the other three choices wrong.-: ::: -. although they can go with 2 I was pieces. in other circumstances we would have been horrıfied by its closeness Far below us the rings of Saturn are c]eaı]. damaged. ciıckıng faster and faster not far short of ' world's media that we are safe and we]l. to find that my favourite vase had been smashed to A delighted B horrified C frustrated D A hopeless B simple C sceptical D 5 Nothing much happens here task. but it was a victorious .}. so it's the perfect word here.: :: an astronaut when I grow up ani sn-. . the clue is in another word or phrase in the sentence. as in the items below.s_bje And far far away I can see a little j::-.. C and D. Why? A. Choice B is the correct answer.: :_::_ Saylng to hls sceptıcai mother: 'I \n.l ı l medıum-range mıssıles He looks strangely like iı. but we krıow they cannot be far away They must know they outnumber us. then do items 2*5.i. proud 3 I tried to change that stubborn man's mind. would suggest a bad crash.. We are waiting for the next attack.s_::]ng on a garden swing and can :=. no doubt To my left Crewmember McKilroy is twiddling the bank of dıals in front of him in a hopeless attempt to repair our damaged a young boy frustrated by a home video game that ıs beyond him._::_:-:__:_. there ıs a strange silence a]] around me: total silence except for the whırring of the monitors recording our posıtıon and the occasional update from Mission Contro} These are not acknowledged as our ıntercom lıes smashed to pıeces on the floor. and I can hear Mission Control assurıng the l] :6| |:i. The words fortunately and only us that the accident was not too bad.. but our flagship ıs preparing to ' Some ]ossesl take on the enemy and I can see a meteorite glıding past on my rlght.:! t 4 Surprisingly the explosion was quite A loud B quiet C strange D deafening . i can hea:-. Slightly means a little.. There is no sign of the Multicon fleet on our screens. .UN|T 4 What's happening? In Section A of the Reading Comprehension Paper 1. he 1s-begınning to feel the pressure..-. )inila A not to mention B apart from C _ as well the occasional party.1iılıi . Despıte a}l his traınıng.. Sometimes. Presumably the ]ast. as D including E Now quickly read the extract below and answer this one question: l1 §7here is the writer sitting? Don't worry at this stage about any vocabulary you do not understand.a:]. Study this example. r a 1 Fortunately the car was only A seriously B slightly C badly D tell| terribly damaged in the crash... Two Multicon crai: :]: :l]:earıng on our screens. then..

It isn't going to pass close to them.E Now read it again more carefully and decide whether these statements are true or false. but to Start you off. worried by the meteorite? \üZhy aren't they A B . and then do and discuss items 2_5. Who are Mission Control talking to? A B Reporters. In Section B of the Reading Comprehension Paper. ' 4 They have fewer 'ships' than the Multicons. 3 They can hear Mission Control but can't be heard 1 The last battle ended a long time by them. to THE CHOICES OR OPTIONS close. The enemy. 8 Mİssİon Control İs tellİng reporters the truth. They have enough to worry about. 9 The writer is shocked to see the meteorite so 7 damage to the enemy. Ş7hich of the words or phrases underlined are connected with sound or noises? How do you know? can hear 'the occasional update from Mission Control'. B is correct.) Look at this example.>* A B \X/hat are they The enemy fleet to return. 2 h. we're giving only two. B He doesn't understand the dials. Help to arrive from Earth. ago. waiting for? 3 Why is McKilroy's attempt hopeless? A The missiles can't be repaired. you have to answer multiple-choice questions about texts. A is wrong because they E See if you can deduce the meanings of some new words from their context. sometimes the choices are answers to a question. Because their intercom is broken. E 2 A|| of their equipment is broken. Mcl(ilroy is showing signs of nervousness. 5 The writer doesn't really believe they did a lot of THE QIrESTTON 1 Why don't they answer Mission Control? 6 Crewmember Mcl(ilroy probably won't be able repair the missiles. The text says their 'intercom lies smashed to pieces on the floor'. 10 The Multicon craft bring the writer back to the preSent. (In the exam there are always four choices. Give reasonS. A B Because they can't hear them properly.

/-/ beyond the trees on the other sıde of the road just round the corner near (to) me --//'.z/ -Şl=_ behind the barriers. on the far side of the streel hundreds of people are leaning out of office windows.r In the examination) you may be asked to write a commentary on what is happening in a particular situation. and in the distance l think l can see them coming. white and blue as"% --: . we can see the royal coach approaching . Just in front of me there's a group singing the Nationa| Anthem at the tops of their voices and further along to my right l can see children who can't be more than four or five sitting happily on their fathers' shoulders and joining in. To do this you will need a number of 'position' phrases like these: far above to/on my left me high up in the sky in the distance on the horızon directly in front of me straight ahead of me not far from here to/on my right --:41 §. -4 '{. // rl/r-r /. and below me the police are having a hard job keeping the crowds . * Nş . here they are: on the other side of Parliament Square. To my right and left there's a sea of red. scarves and banners are waved in the air. .f here nearby rİght close opposite me behind that house wav over there by all around me a long way below me This is how some of them might be used in a radio commentary: The noise all around me now is deafening. Far above me the television helicopters are hovering over the procession route. Yes.

. who'll be putting the final touches to their articles. 'ordering' phrases like these will be useful: Afterwards.' E And why not try composition 4 on page 86 as well? 21 w . tidying equipment in tiny viilage .cooking. Finally. Then we'll spend some time wıth the journalists. tryİng to escape) are a reporter at the scene of a street riot: / 2 You Ş. Now plan and write this composition. ...chanting. . When we've had morning coffee with them. before we leave. we'll have a chance to see the editorial staff making any last-minute changes that are necessary.. later. shouting. .al. you may find a picture of yourselves staring out at you from tomorrow's front page. . . throwing stones / police . (But) before we [do that]. on horseback trying to disperse the crowd / bystanders (rioters rushİng.i Next. . .people like ants) . . . 1 You are half-way up observer: (the peaks a mountain with a climbing expedition. EI words. . . and if we're lucky we'll see the first edition actually being printed. screamİng. . Welcome to the offices oi The Dally News. (And) then. the ordering phrases above. y - E Another thing you might have to write in the examination is your talk to a group of people telling them the arrangements for a day trip or an afternoon visit.. 1 You are the organiser of a student visit to spend } a q. we're going to meet the Personnel Manager and she'll take us on a tour of the offices. . Now first. . . putting up tent. etc. First. .Foliowing that style. . Write between 120 and 18O 'You are showing some English-speaking friends around a local festival which is held in your home town or village every year. \Write down what you say as you take them round and point out the events and ffi t Eü attractİons. as an . . how would you describe the scene and what is happening in these situations? IJse these prompts with the 'position' phrases opposite. .linking arms) carrying shields.approaching the summit / other climbers . there'll be a photo session and who knows. A little finally.. (And) See how they are used in this short talk: §7rite similar short pieces for the following situations. we'll be taken down to the printing presses. t h day with a city orchestra: (meet members of orchestra / attend rehearsal travel to concert hall / go backstage / meet conductor / watch concert) / 2 You W g @ ş are a courier in a city with a group of tourists: (visit art galleries / museums / go on sightseeing tour by coach / lunch / free for shopping / meet for dinner / evening cruise on river / disco) Good morning. IJse these prompts.. (And) when we've [done that]. and after that. pushİng. and add your own ideas.covered in cloud / the leading climbers . For this task. ladies and gentlemen.

books. Section A5. -you E THE STEM 1 W'hen Mis Williarüı§ §a}rs şhe was sürprised. .In Unit 4. 3 She feels that working A B to see the world. hospitals and with the elderly. Look at this example. 6 When she talks about her daughter. she says that A B they were not to blame. . then do and discuss items 2-6.) 3 Mrs Williams gives a number of examples to illustrate her points. help themselves and others by working. In which three 2 paragraphs do they appear? Summarise in three short sentences the contents of paragraphs 2. she means THE CHOICES OR OPTIONS A B she was pleased to read about the subject. Discuss these questions and do the exercises with a partner or in 1 Mrs 1Villiams' argument has three main points. as a travel guide will help a young person to learn to guides and shop assistants. \What are these examples of? . . hobbies and academic studies. they were not typical. 2 §7hen she taiks about the two youths. Mrs \Williams makes it clear that she A B can will A B bring her up in the same way that she was brought up. B parents losing their jobs to young people. Sometimes must choose the right way to complete a sentence. she was probably angry rather than pleased about what she A is wrong. 5 In the fourth paragraph her main point is that young people have fun while they are working in schools.3 and 4. encourage her to make good use of her time as a teenager. she thinks the newspaper was generalising schools. şhe didn2t think the article waş İight.soap operas. (Look for the main sentence in each paragraph. B is correct. 4 How is the last paragraph different in content from the others? 23 . read. computer games and discotheques. 4 In the third paragraph she mentions two families as examples of A households with relatively little money. you chose answers to a question. E small groups. .a family in which the father is unemployed or perhaps a single-parent family on a low income.

.":l .]l. iorget that IJse some of the expressions above to build an argument for paying everybody the same wages or salary. or an 'argument'.*'iS". . using the phrases abor-e. must { we must I 1 we should remember bear in mind noı. . . E Developing and adding to points . This applies not only to .nt) Itr. .all people work about the same number of hours. .onsı reason argument {HJ*:1?. these If we take . .J not to mention . Another l1IlUıIlcr Jti*nn". E Introducing exarnples 24 . ıVhat is equally important is the fact that . . \üZhat is even more important is that . it is obvious that ..most religions say that people should be treated equally. _* that One final thing (that) I want to say/which should be said is that . . . For example. tlrere are also . I am thinking here particularly of . . The first point I would like to make is that .. such as There is/There are . (And) last but not least/And finally *. Here are some points for you to make: ." 'JıS doing .why pay less? . ."^:iil fu tdr" . but also to . . . . Do the short exercise after each group. .UN|T 5 one of the composition types you can choose in the First certificate is a discursive composition. . Let's say you have just stated in your composition that there are a lot of people who don't earn very much. for example/for instance.unskilled work is not as much fun as skilled work .'. such as/like . r Introducing points in an argument .Ji..r*'. (And) apart from .. . . .all jobs are important. Try to develop each of the sentences you made in 81.. . . you may be asked to argue for or against an idea or proposal. . ıX/hat is more. Give examples.] (H.". . study these three groups of phrases: they will help you to structure an argument. using one of 'Starters ' .

. \What is equally important is (the fact) that .work for almost nothİng. out late at nİght or early mornİng.' - Paragraph being a student is a full-time job . . homework. (Pupils lose touch with the real world) (They only meet a certain type of person) (What can be the consequences?) (No contact with members of the opposite sex) (§(hat type of school?) (Day schools have many advantages) (§rill you send your children to a boarding school?) Paragraph Paragraph One final point I want to make is that .keep the family unit strong 25 . Paragraph The flrst thing I would like to say is that .g.whatever you may think personally! Use the 'starters'. 4 . also spend more time with family . §üe are giving you some points to choose from. background reading. . Paragraph This of course can result in . notes and questions to help you write the composition. I would say that . . giving reasons why school and college students should not do part-time work. research and project work need a lot of energy and concentratİon a job is a distraction .r Here is a typical First Certificate 'argument' composition: 'Give reasons why boarding schools are not the best form of education. (There may be too many to include İn a short composition. develop hobbies.a great deal to do e. often have contact wİth strangers e. . door-to-door selling 2 1 Paragraph - Pardgraph a working life of 40 years is long enough * why make it longer? increases unemployment by taking jobs adults could do 4 3 - Paragraplı young people should broaden their interests. . 3 . . (Chİldren need parental influence) (In what ways do children need it?) (\X/hat can happen if they don't have it?) Another strong argument against . I am thinking here particularly of . Your composition topic is: '\Write a composition of between |2O and 180 words. . . @ In this final task.g. young people can be exploited .leads to extra pressure there are dangers e.) Choose from the language on page 24 to introduce and connect your points. delivering newspapers. not spend hours doing boring work to save to buy new shoes. In conclusion. . etc.can't study so well . .g. .' You must argue against boarding schools . 2 1 . I strongly believe that . we are not going to suggest which phrases you use. . etc.

UN|T 6
What's your excuse?
This is an extract from r a novel. Read it and answer this question: what kind of novel do you think it comes from? Give reasons.

mainly because Ray Wallace had not been present. And what had surprised most of those attending was that James, as Chairman, had not received an apology from him, verbal or written. 'Very strange,'James thought to himself as he switched on the light. 'Not like Ray at all, especially since -' His thoughts were cut short by the sight of an envelope on the mat just inside the door. He had stepped over it as he entered in the dark. He bent down, picked it up and looked at it. On the front, in hastily scrawled handwriting was his name: that was all. 'Obviously delivered by hand.'He ambled into the lounge,
sat down at his desk, turned on the lamp and sat back. He opened the envelope and pulled out a letter. Unfolding it, he read: 'The Vicarage',

James Read unlocked the front door absent-mindedly and stepped from the cold foggy night into the warm hallway of his own home. He was still thinking about the meeting. It had not gone at all well, and had not lasted very long,

Lytch Lane, Deverill
Dear James,

10th May 1963

Please accept my (now somewhat belated) apologies for not attending the meeting this evening. However, I feel sure that you and the others will forgive me when you read what has occurred. (I will also apologise for my handwriting, but this must be written in some haste - speed is of the essence now!) Just before I was about to leave the hotel to come to the meeting, I received another 'communication' from the kidnapper. It just said: 'This is the girl's last chance. Come to the churchyard at 11.30 with §10,000. Come alone. We are watching you.' As usual, he (or she?) signed it with the 'Evil Eye'-

promise you.

Clearly I had to make careful preparations, so I came to the vicarage first to have a good look at the churchyard once again. The vicaı, has kindly lent me the use of his desk and writing things. you would be well advised not to contact the others oıı the coıı,ıır-ıittee. My instinct tells me there is one we should not trust. But you can put your trust in me. We shall get Alana bcıcli ıııılıcırnıed,I

James placed the letter carefully on the desk in front of hıııı aırd sat thinking for a moment. 'I'd better warn the others that he suspects.' ire saıci to himself, a rather grim smile spreading over his face. He turned to the telephoııe. picked up the receiver and dialled 634534 very deliberatel1,.


written answers) or ask and answer them in pairs:

Read the whole text again and answer these questions with short

1 Why did James enter his house 'absent-mindedly'? 6 \X/hat was Ray's excuse or explanatİon? 2 Why had the people at the meeting been surprised? 7 Why did Ray advise James not to Contact the other committee members? 3 \x/hat was written on the envelope lying on the 8 Why do you think James might be involved in the floor? kidnapping somehow? 4 ıwhat did James do before he read the letter? 5 \What did Ray apologise for?

E These numbers appeared in the extract. | |963 2 II.30 3 d10,000 4 634534 E

\ü7hat do they refer to?

see again how multiple-choice items work. This time there are choices or options in each. Study this first item, then do and discuss items 2-4.

1 James had not noticed the envelope immediately because

he was normally absent-minded. the hallway was in darkness.

he had stepped on it when he came in.

Remember, if the stem is not already in the form of a straightforward questİon, try to transform it into one. The stem here ends wİth the word because, so the question is Why had James not noticed. . .l And the answer

A? No.

§7e are not told he was normally absent-minded, just that he opened the door absent-mindedly. B? Yes. §7e are told 'he had stepped over it as he entered in the dark' and 'he switched on the light'. But always check the rest of the choices or options just in case . . .! C? No. He hadn't stepped on it; he had stepped over it. So B is deflnitely Correct!

2 James opened and read the letter


he was sitting in a comfortable armchair. he had switched on all the lights in the house. he had settled himself comfortably in his lounge.


[\What's the question?]

3 The kidnapper had contacted Ray §fallace


telephoning him. sending him a short note. asking the vicar to give him a message.


[\ü[hat's the question?]

4 Ray rVallace wrote his letter on 'Vicarage'

notepaper because [\What's the question?] A he couldn't afford any of his own. B he didn't want anyone to know ın,here he was staying. C he had gone there to look over the churchyard.

UN|T 6

paper 2 is a letter of apology. often it is connected with giving advice or giving news or information about your family, school, college or work, country, etc.

p or,.

of the letter types that sometimes appears in the composition


Here is some of the language we use in order to apologise for not doing (or having done) something, and to give advice. Study the language carefully, then cover it and do exercise 82.

APO.L(IGI§ING. ,, ] ],, ] ,. ı, Iüfö ietter or notbtö'a;frloııa

Sorry.trhaven:twritteı,beföre,1 .,, Sorry I haven't answered your last letter until now, but Sor,ry for not *rltl:ffieİOİ]* İ:ݧwering your last l",t.o .'.,.

Neutral (to an acquaintance, for

Ilm solterribly sorry (that) I wainjt






a corııüaııy,

ıııd,le.tter, on,noti io.,



I (really) must apologise for not writing beforelearlier, but . . . Please accept my (sincere) apologies for not writing beforeinot replying to your last letter . . .

I think/don't think (that) you ought to/should . . If I were you, I'd1I wouldil wouldn't . . The best thing you can do is (to) / not (to) . .
. .


(I think (that)) you would be (well) advised to

You might consider [doling . .

advice (to you) is to . . .1not to . .




Rewrite these sentences beginning with the words in brackets. You might want to make some of the vocabulary more formal/informal.

2 Sorry for not ringing you to discuss the problem. (Please accept . . .) 3 Sorry I haven't returned your book before. (I really must apologise . . .)
4 The best thing you can do is to forget the whole thing.
(You would be . .

Inforrnal + Forrnal 1 I don't think you should tell anyone about it. (My advice . .


thing . . .) 6 I just can't apologise enough for leaving you to arranğe everything. (Sorry . . .) 7 My advice to you is to consult a solicitor. (I think you . . .) 8 Please accept my apologies for causing you so much trouble.

Forrnal -+ Inforrnal 5 I think you would be well advised to reconsider the matter. (The




'A month ago you received a polite letter from an Australian who wrote to you on the advice of a friend of yours. Yours sincerely. [The date here+ _19??| Dear Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms Thank you for your letter which l received [How surprised were you [When?].butlknow you will understand when l tell you that [What's your brief explanation or excuse for not repIying earlier?]. [Sign your name here] [*You could write the person's name and address here or. so you might add the name and address of the person you are writing to. You have only just got round to answering the letter. First of all. lf you have time.lfeel-[Well. §7rite a letter to accompany some information and leaflets that you have collected. omit it completely. l would suggest that [What would you suggest he/she tries to see? Where would you suggest he/she goes first? .UN|T 6 Here is a typical First Certificate 'apology' composition. lf you are planning to come to [country/continent] for a twoweek touring holiday. l wıll [What can you do to help?]. l look forward to meeting yo'u. lam enclosing a few [What? and about what?] for you to |ook at. paying careful attention to the layout. Please accept my sincere apoIogies once agaın [lnvite him/her [For what?].and then where?].] 29 .' ıWrite the letter. because this is not a 'business' letter. l really must apologise _ [For what?]. l must admit that _ to hear f rom a total stranger?] but since fyour friend's name] suggested you should write to me. The writer asked for some advİce about a two-week tourİng holİday İn your country or contİnent. please to visit you and your family].howdoyoufeel?]. and using some of the sentences) questİons and prompts below to guİde you. IName and address of the person you are writing to-] V I not your name!] [Your address here but remember. Note where we normally write this name and address. It is fairly formal. - t l Mr/MrsiMiss/Ms [ * family name]. however.

apoiogised tor ı-ıot being able to help more. not help. He crashed into a water-filled drainage d. me" Miss help please me..and asked to write the story which leads up to it: 'The1. Instantly crash.. passed Five minutes bravery. And so it went on for 40 minutes. a married man. said: 'Susan showed tremin10 .g. Miss Seymour hold out for only rrr"" coilapsed and cou]. said: I am sure I would sault. Upper Dicker. Water completely submerged her as she groped for her belt release. of hapthing amazing an Then was it But handle and pushed.d keep her head above water. then drove offwithout giving their names. was jacket which padded drove off without a then and lıeip more. and all the F"rd the And on skidded jeans flood. upside down. _He realised tnat at all costs he had to keep her conscious. jammed.'Discuss what might have led up to thİs last sentence.\26 between Seaford and Lewes.l.. Imagine you are given this last sentence of a stor1.' Water was up to her arrived not had more. And opstone. where she lived and what had happened. while her neck.r".d . Mr Holla"a climbed out of his car and scrambled down the bank. shouted.-". cover it and do this exercise. "lderly seen Miss Seylıad wife water flooded in Ji."rr"lri"g marvellous.". . until police finally found the spot just north of the village of Tarring Neville on the .UN|T 7 How did it end? Before you read the ner. he on to find a tele"o"tiıİued police. D Driver saves girl trapped underwater by Alfred Lee RAIN lashed down and rviı-ıcls :r:am a of double crash strong Her arms and legs were numb..the the call to . then.. names. The top of her head hit the .ubl"a Despite should. He told her his . also driving a Sussex. Sb lre talked. pened. Miss Seymour found the door a few minutes Mr Holland. car.. drowned if he floorboard of the upturned car. But.water and !h" not being able to for time Miss Seymour. lage you all right?' "Suddenly are 'Hello.. lruj- Realising he could. Seymour and . what she did.too appreir"".' Er"ort. finally found it. İmbulance somer'Kevin was absounderwater an did she for the accident.. . mour --- And 3l-year-old Miss Seymour was trapp"". and too rveak to police and ili:iiti . §7hat's the articie going to be about? Then read the article and answer the questions in exercise A3. *ro"g. but the person could do injuries.. Rescue She waİ gulping water when she Later Miss Seymour.vspaper article beloır.he i. EI E Now read the headline. ll"lp skidded. soaked with water. . '-M.r"d outskirts of a Sussex vila voice from th^e heard Then she in her Ford Escort. hurtled through a fence. Coldharbour Road. there's a car in the water and a woman is trapped.1ork". .. Susan Seymour drove through the Weak .rr.. He put his arm through the winao* to support Miss Seymour. strained so she cou]. . was getting Seymour's their giving Holtn" old man called to Mr colder and more tired."o*i"g neck. land: 'Quickly. h"üd by her seat belt."" İocation he gave for the accident Şu.river who with his **l" ditch on its roof. hit the same patch_of mendous elderly couple? They utes . l-rİtelv was still trapped. wearing apologised Miss just 15 yards from . * her car hit floodwater."İl"a over twice down a bank.. So when the couple glazing company manager. Kevin Holland.." the bank returned to the scene . of Bishwere still miles away.'_ _ blew as schoolteacher Miss was aching. He asked her name. 20 minutes. too old.3s . a. abouİ his job as a double- through the broken windscreen and windows. about his hobbies.

E 1 The se questions are all about numbers . and the use of past tenses 7. scene 40 minutes after Miss Seymour had crashed. Mr Holland had been talking to Susan for over half an hour before the police arrived. §flhat was the name of it? d ıWhere did Miss Seymour live? e §fhat make of car were both Miss Seymour and Mr Holland driving? f What was Mr Holland's home address? E . before. and. had done and did. \il/hen Mr Holland arrived.'*y F{ere are some statements about the order of events or actions in the Are the statements true or false? Look out for words |lke after. IMp6RTANT: the first set of questions followed the order of the events in the just look for numbers. Miss Seymour had just got out of her car. 1 The elderly driver first arrived on the scene after Miss Seymour had 2 The police arrived on the 3 4 crashed into the water. Then use the context to work out what mean. with the wind blowing it? 2 skidded 3 hurtled 4 flooded in 1 (darkened) outskirts 5 6 7 10 numb 11 hold out 8 did a somersault 12 scrambled submerged groped gulping 9 jammed 3-1 . a \X/hat was Mr Holland's first name? b What was Miss Seymour's first name? c The accidents happened near a village.0as doing. -thıwords Find these words in the text. when Give reasons for your answers. E yourself the same kinds of questions as those in the example. These do not.) Ask Example: lashed down \ühat was the weather like? Was it sunny? \Was it snowing? \Was it raining? §7as there a wind? How strong were the winds? So how was it probably raining? lust drizzling? Or pouring down. (Use a dictionary to check the meanings if necessary. a How old was Miss Seymour? b How long was Miss Seymour in the car before she heard a voice? c How close to Miss Seymour's car did Mr Holland's car stop? d How long did Mr Holland talk to Miss Seymour before the police e \x/hat was the number of the road they were on when the accidents arrived? happened? 2 These are all about names _ so just look for words beginning with capital letters and ignore everything else.

and crashed into a ditch. I started the engine. . It plunged into the long grass. Then I drove off as fast as I could. Decision tirne! Decide a b who 'he' is: a guard or warden in a prison or camp? a teacher who might catch you rvhere you shouldn't have been? or .with colnrnas I and Example: It hurtled through a fence. a fence. I ran to my car. The bird hovered for a few 3 moments. A series of sirnple actions in the past . . they . they . 5 Not wanting any publicity. The guard opened the door. . . . 3 Thinking that perhaps the driver of the second car could help. I closed the door. He looked out. 4 Having been given the wrong location. 2 Realising that he had to keep her conscious. .. . It rolled over down a bank. hurtled through rolled down a bank..) 1 Being old and weak. Complete the following sentences about the story on page 30. . It caught sight of a movement below. . He took out his revolver.? 32 . he . . Then he fired. r is some more practice (see Unit 2) in joining sentences. sometİmes r Here İs a typİcal Fİrst Certificate composition with a 'starter': "'r knew that if he didn't see meJ I had a good chance of escaping. he had continued on to find (: Because he realised he could not help. Suddenly her car hit floodwater. .? where or what you wanted to 'escape' from: a prison? an unpleasant or embarrassing situation? a nextdoor neighbour? or. I put it into first gear. In either case you will almost certainly have to ınake up a Story." Complete this story in 120-180 words. 1 He shone his torch right at me. Re-order each group of sentences below.P U. . 2 It flew out carrying a mouse in its beak. He shouted. I got in. E -ing forrns used in clauses of reason a telephone. then make one long sentence. . like this: Realising he could not help. skidded. .. the last sentence. It crashed into a ditch. ğ Sornatİmes you are gİven a 'starter' sentence for a story.' How might this story continue? Use the questions below to guide you. like this: You write: Suddenly her car hit fioodwater. he . .. . It skidded.

and that .. . §7here were you? behind a wall? lying in long grass? behind a door? . . you should make clear So . . with a photo of me by the river. . . . It was a small boy! and I didn't have time to think.. where and when? 'This is the last sentence of a story: "The next day there was a small article about it in our local newspaper." §7rite.. when was it? .. Suddenly a large motor boat went past. . It annoyed everyone because |Why? Did it the fish? Were the PeoPle on it haıing ?] We were watching and it was |Where?] when we heard someone scream and someone fell off it.. SoI. and I was free at last! or I had escaped! . wıake so ınuch noise? Did it upset . . locked door. |What did you dol] \When I handed the boy to his . .. . .about 10 years ago? when you were _ 12 years old?l My father had just bought me my first canoe/sailing boat/ fishing rod |Which?l and I had gone down to our local river rvith a friend to do some canoeing/sailing/fishing |Which?l. . I . 33 . and _ mother. [what?] I was now . \ürhatdidyoudo? [Anumberof actions] How had you done those things? _ slowly? carefully? \Was there another obstacle you had forgotten? . |Whaı did she do andf or say?] I must admit I she felt |What? ıery proud? eınbarrassed? ()r ... for example? Paragraph \il/hat did you do to overcome 3 How far were you now from (the How long did it So how did you [do it? it]? take? guard)? In order to get . . .. . [where?l . \X/hatwasyourbestmeansof yard? over the wall? . . [what?/where?]. I took off my apartyfmaking anoise? Or . .. . |What?l. . . [how long?] . .. with a photo o[ me bı. in 120-180 words. the Story that led up to it. . . . .did you save someone from drowning? or did someone save you from drowning? did you catch a large fish? or win a canoe race? or .. . . dived ) -. \Vhen had you seen 'him' (the guard?)? §fhat was he doing?/What did he do? [what?] . but there . . I was . -. and I had seen 'the guard' as he . [how?] .. . and. I had a good chance of escaping... It was a beautiful sunny day |Or zoasn't irl] so there were lots of |Or not many?l other people on the river/by the river |Which?l. . . [how far?] It only took . . . . .the river. so . 1 . .Paragraph I knew that if he didn't see me.? and which river was it. I had (moved) .. Paragrapln 2 escape?-acrossthe -a I decİdedthat. Read the complete 'skeleton' before you begin.decision tirne again! Decide: why your photo was in the local newspaper . . ?] The next day there was a small article about it in our local newspaper. [how?] E Here is a typical 'last sentence' First Certificate composition: \what might have led up to this last sentence? decisions (and notes) about what led up to the ending. was I have only ever had my photo in a newspaper once in my life.. |Well.' Now complete this 'skeleton' of a story by answering the questİons and fllling in with your own ideas and details.

ı.. oifer shops "f 6'Ğİİ i *d " . The around our village is really beautiful in autumn.. bankıng.*".UN|T B Can you describe the place? r then do items 2-5.olsome 1OO mi}es in a but oniy 14}ıeauty teaches.i... where you thınk it comes from and why.'İİ i s]. *ii*.it. choice doesn't mean variety here... but range) choice C.j. A anarea B adimension C ameasurement D arange JInthepaSttenyearSthe-ofourvillagehasincreasedfrom A personnel B people C population D 5 There is -_iO to 910.ion by the French J"y.İJ".io1 a of the was armies is]and abounds Deacefu} form . Stud1.. il*n iT il "". does..f England. Here the choices are all nouns.l..İ İ. A scene B countryside C suburb D province 3 The factory covers of about five square kilometres.ii.ırticle and a factual brochure . most_ southerly largest the Jersey. . "İİal"free prices . It is .. i.. So that's the one you want.. a newspaper . o.ut"j South-.. *".. st s . ciiffs.#. Why? A 2 and B are not used with the adjective wide."* =""ı.il Portland from ""O French coast :l§İ::l#.üation approaching has an area oü 45 square souti.0OO.f .ğ ıi. difference Choİce C İs the corlect answer.but which is which? |-_tır[l groups of three and read one text each.. the example..u"g..i. and.and'."i*i"o"yir-ir.. 34 . "o."ıu".hat vı)ur text İs about..r* ln" The withagocd. Then tell the others r."i"nal finance and.. 1 The town offers visitors a wide A kind B number C range D of entertainment. ..d the c :..:" o a stline miles from the j'.1 .l1. BJ.u. a'popl..JJi.*:::i.Channe} islands. Here are some more items like the ones in Section A of the Reading Comprehension Paper. of the...urra r.. we would say many kinds of or a large number o/ (plus plural).JJİ.. J u. in the more remind one of b.. neighbourhood A voyage B way C E a helicopter service to the island from the mainland and the takes 20 minutes...ofrestau. The word difference.. passage D flight The three texts in this section are from a personal letter. *. and b o a " " an lmp " y"ars has become and in more .Themanyfine g.uiui "orrit.."İİİ ji*q.iiJ"y_uı. lTşig ji :Hli.

" ffiiT{ a_ı ü ffiffiff For the past few years there has been considerable discussion about development on the island.' So what can the authorities do? 35 . however. this debate has become more and more important. more holiday accommodation needs to be built: but one of the things that attracts tourists in the first place is the countryside and lack of massive hotels and holiday apartment blocks everywhere. Tourism is the major industry. With some of the most recent proposals for building developments.Arethefcılloıı'ingStatementstrueor expenSlVe. The complaint already from some 'regular'holidaymakers is: 'It isn't the Jersey I used to know: the island's changing.LJNıT 8 ENowreadallthreetextsagain. and in order to attract and cater for more tourists. The island finds itself in a dilemma.

Then look up in a dictionary or some other reference book the places (countries. (5 _) poverty is still a terrible problem in this country. etc: think of the geography in and around your country. the USSR Rome. Some people say we are making a lot of (14 _) progress in this -) and many are amazed at (15 country. etc. the Pacific (Ocean) tlıe Mediterranean (Sea). . the Rhine the Andes. look at this. our country not only exports (3 _) coal abroad. the West Indies Africa. . rir-ers. (11 _) chemistry. but it is not only (8 _) education of children that is important. but in particular something must be done about (6 ) poverty you find in our large cities. . EuroPe. . But first. but the region I live in supplies all (4 _) coal needed by the rest of the country. town or village you live in. oceans. . industry is vital to the region I live in. the deaelopment which is taking place here now .) you may want to mention. Greece. and main industry is coalmining.') 36 . . the USA. General of concept (no rüe) (with (1 (2 idea Beauty is all around us. discussion about deııelopınenz on the island . For example: tlıe Atlantic (Ocean). the beauty of the beaches . the Himalayas. E Time to use your dictionary! One more important point to check before you write about your own town. . the Philippines. Asia. mountains. . . Check the English spelling and whether they need the or not. Mount Fuji. and its surroundings. . the Caspian Sea tlıe (Rizıer) Nile. . .r In Unit 3. then put the where necessary in the blanks in the text below. the town or village you have just moved to. Lisbon. too: we need as many experts in (10 engineering. Tokyo EI Here is a typical First Certificate descriptive composition of this kind: 'Describe. Specific rfte) _) _) . . But it isn't enough. France. the Gulf of Mexico. In fact. (|2 _) banking and (13 _) medicine as we can train. Many adults need (9 _) further education. Here you are going to practise writing about your home town. (7 _) education must be the answer to many of our problems. . island. you practised writing a description of a house or apartment. Brazil the lıletherlands. as if in a letter to an English-speaking friend. ) progress we have already made in the past few years.' (or İt mİght say '. the city. Mount Eaerest the Canary Islands.

. İlot of .iirer with thesJ prompts you have supplied Now write the composition..roİl . [In which part of the country?] and is . tbo vo.. . . has it changed [ten] years.. . in factories tr on farms n what eise? recently? Yes n No I Yes tr No I Why?/Why not? @ and in the boxes .. industries of the area/ in [the place] are the people there are employed in_.gothrough"thisquestionnaireabouttheplace you live in.. 1 Paragraph .. . near [the place] and visitors often. which n in the suburbs D just outside If a village.oo". describe it!. tog.*. İ. .. etc. So Beforeyouwriteanything.?]. l. Paragraph I live in it-i. or have you started more [tenl it like Did notZ or it like İ.. U"İ/İo [. using the information questions.Inotherwords. . . work . people still live in m. ..a to *.. it? which is the nearest town/city? and how far away is it? Is it quiet and How would you describe What is it famous old and picturesque? sleepy? l tr. about forget you can İ"..]. which is .rcn o..itrrt"j . . . İu.. ... §7hat is . in. . . . 3 Paragrapn.. [. [the place] [.n. surrounding countryside İlr. 37 .lt" a letter.... part of İ lurtn. .pr.. . busy and noisy? ! modern and lively? ! ! for? wine? what eise? tr clothes? l tr its museums? n ! its cathedral? What sort of area is Surrounding ıt? countryside? rurai flat ! industrial agrıcultural where is it situated? what are the main industries? Most popular jobs: Has it changed much Do you like it? hilly tr' mountainous ! in a valley tr on a plain tr on the side of a hill n in tourism l I.. . . .asifinaletter. Tick or fill in the boxes.-y they usej to. but to addresses.h.. . . of and most . .UNıT 8 Thefirstthingtonoteisthephrase. Do to .. . . people . imagine that what you you are not being"rı.. AND CAN YOU DESCRIBE IT? What is it? a city tr the capital Where ıs If it? area? in the midd]e of the country on or near the coast ın the north I the south E the west E the east tr in the centre l on the outskirts ! ! a medium-sized town I ! a vıilage ! E a city. . kilometres .r/cousins/brothers. . WHERE DO YOU LIVE.] is .. 4 . years ago?] . for example.t sort of area is it in?] and the İrt.] Patagrapln 2 and is famous for.i"i" Ivİv from. .

.UN|T 9 What can l say? Imagine you have just won an Oscar.' Marvellous. '. with literally hundreds of people contributing. the very highest accolade our H a.' She moved to the microphone. can I express my . 'Flying High'. . Joe Harper. will you please wel/ İ come the winner of this year's other top award.' As she spoke the words. . . Actress of the . Prestenburger.' Gratitude was not the word. . who got everything off the ground and was always there with a sympathetic ear when needed. Sophie thought she detected a slight nod and even the trace of a smile on the other's face. without whom the film would never have been made. . them rı. our appreciation to our director. . Neither was affection.' And of course. . not half as well. She looked briefly again towards Peggy's table. 'A film is always a joint effort. head bowed and shoulders gently shaking. Then do the exercises that follow.Welldone. Harry Silverman. . then compare trİ E planned. on behalf of everyone associated with the film. I She realised she sounded like every other award-winner that evening. she would have been standing here in my place. She caught a glimpse of Peggy to her left. . . Year for the second year running. in which . \üZhat ıvould you say? Make a few notes for your 'thank you speech'. .' 'I also want to say a personal thank you to my agent. express my respect for Peggy Byrne.Wonderfulachievement. 'Many congratulations . You deserve . feeling she had finished. .İth a partner' John J.Iprofession has to offer.v similar the speech in it is to what you had Read this extract from a popular romantic novel. the award for Best Actor or Best Actress. but I'd tike to take this opportunity of thanking a few very special individuals. 3B assure you. Sophie had risen to her feet as in a trance and was already squeezing between the tables when her name was announced.' She paused. Or if it had been. A gesture of friendship at last? . but her eyes it. she realised that she really meant them. clearing her throat as the applause died down. See hor. The list is too long for me to mention everybody. were still lowered. It does make me feel very humble. for her role in ' A ND finally tonight. but the platitudes continued. .' She was saved by a burst of applause. who first interested me in the project and overcame my initial reluctance. I owe a lot to our producer. Her mind was still racing as she climbed the steps to the stage and passed along the line of grinning celebrities and mumbled clich6s. 'I'd also just like to express my . . was there to be no reconciliation? 'I'd like to say first how honoured I am to have been presented with this truly magnificent award. who played the part of Angie's mother with so much . Her gaze went once more in Peggy's direction. but then found herself continuing. ffi@X'İuı. at this year's Hollywood ceremony. 'I think if I had been one of the judges tonight. Their eyes met. .

an honour brief sight 4 unimportantr modest Study these multiple-choice questions. l.?r A a number of entertaining comments.: ] İ -_. l*_ . you will have to deduce (or infer) things from the text. D some rather arrogant statements. »:._ . find words which match these definitions: semı-conscıous state To help you with some of the new vocabulary in recognition of talent. !rj: i: 6]' 5 Sophie genuinely believed that Peggy A hated her. . 4 Who persuaded Sophie to take part in the film? J.'Ii . B one or two old jokes."s"i 3 The opening lines of Sophie's speech consisted of 1 Ja . D should have won the award. B Sitting at a table. B was enjoying the evening. clich6s 6 co-operative.i!ı. A B C D Harry Silverman. looking for meanings almost between the lines.ji " i] i. Prestenburger.. ı'". _..E 1 üe 2 a 3 a 5 7 İext. :l] z!§ '1-saj '\!q. .."la: |..r'. Peggy Byrne. D They were very good friends.. couldn't stand the people on her table. John J. A B C D She She She She was Peggy's head bowed? was coughing.ii. ]1 _4& . was most probably very disappointed.:! !x: .] - < . shared 8 unwillingness or opposition a small sign or indication A Looking at Peggy. D Trembling with excitement... ı|... Peggy? 6 What was the relationship between Sophie and A They were rivals appearing in different B They were actresses in the same film.:A1. -' ji.6. C \X/alking towards the stage.:. 'f" * 'l.l. In order to answer ınost of them. |tr". Joe Harper.i. 39 . C They were mother and daughter. 2 Why .:1.: ll '-. C agreed with her.*:-. . .'i. l. dull remarks. So.r : i i.. didn't want people to see her laughinğ. with the questions in mind." . C a series of unoriginal remarks. E 1 What was Sophie doing when her name was announced? flat. . read the text again very carefully. 'i. films.

İorrn*. \ using the structures above. '" It might be a speech of welcome. I think she's a good actress.v higtıest accolade 1 or. I'd like to say |m sorry..) l!'.nlle working for Radio 4. for example.UN|T 9 the First certificate composition paper you may be asked to write a 'speech'. list his or her achievements.+It delicious meal! was an absolutely 1 2 3 Thank you for a nice evening. or of congratulation.c@@a. (:After he left . ' '''... S aCOlr'e do l does l did for. say what the a choosing iİrong adjectives: mağnificent i wonderful rr. phrase or sentence would be to replace those on the right.e..) ı!eİ:.tarti'dğih'i.taice. we generally use quite emphatic language when we are speaking in public and we sometimes exaggerate the facts and our feelings.n:ıour. B. of the finest films of all time '. | (You are welcoming Sheila Bloom. . 1 marvellous : *lrU suPerlativ. and 'ordinary' word. . E Emphasise or exaggerate the simple statements as in these examples: It was a good meal.tiog'.inai.. or of goodbye. make sentences from the following prompts.*#İu'go."ry hr*b !e.'' .ıİai. . Afıer leaııing college.h. . .-|hr.+iİi-r. I didenjoy your performance. oıe inteİested in raalo. he decided to try and write a novel. to your school) play 'Juliet' on the London stage i be discovered by a Hollywood producer meet that producer / make ten films and win dozens of awards become an actress / want to be a singer leave Drama School i work in the theatre for some years 40 .+fi lıj.'Befote. Let's look at one way of doing this. 6 I'm not as clever or as talented as our next guest on 4 5 the show. §fhatever the message.J e strengttr"ning.§. F{e's a good player.§ . Note that you will have to arrange each set into a logical sequence. He has been a very good friend to me fQr some This is time.l.-+FIe must be one of the most talented players in the game today. you may need to summarise a person's career. E |ET] Study the different ways in which we can do this.tartec some years in the BBC studios. he worked for wr*. (:While he was workinİ . it might be a speech of thanks. [E3] During a speech of welcome or introduction.güe§ü' a.ı(. a happy day for me.a.i*.. a well-knot]))n actress. It dLoesmake *e reel .İ. or introducing a guest to an audience. etc." * f.

Mr Harper will be remembered here as a first_class / an excellent . whose lessons have always been While working here. staff and pupils on your teacher's last day at work. today we are saying goodbye to / losing Mr / to become Harper. who is retiring from the company) come to work here / have a number of positions in the company work here for 40 years / become assistant manager five years ago come to this company / work as a teacher in a language school work there / learn a lot about people r Here is a typical First Certificate composition of the 'speech' kind: 'Your English teacher is leaving after teaching your class and others for five yearslYou have been asked to give a short farewell speech on behalf of parents.) Ladies and gentlemen. and has helped hundreds of pupils / students to'pass the First Certificate l|earn to speak and write English / understand English grammar better.' Read through this speech. he will be sadly missed" on behalf of everybody here. Many of us are grateful to him for his help with the sports club / enthusiastic participation in our film society and his interest in our excursion programme / work with the older boys and girls. |. §flrite what you would say. l have great pleasure in . ln short. choice exercise: the pairs or groups of phrases. are equally good alternatives. Since joining the school.d like to wish him / may l wish him success / alI the best in the future / in his new position. We hope it will remind you presenting you. at 41 . noting the suggested alternatives and thinking (This is not a multiPlehow you would flll İn the blanks (__). he has done a great deal for the school / been a most popular member of staff. but at the same time we are extremely sorry to see him go / to lose him. appointment / his promotion. he has contributed an enormous amount both inside and outside the classroom / to all aspects of school life.uNlT 9 2 (You are saying goodbye to old Mr Smith. and fellow pupils/students! As you all know. and as a token of our thanks / gratitude / appreciation. who is leaving to start work in l'm sure we all congratulate him on his Director o{ _ =-. sir. with this of five happy years spent at =--=-. separated by a'f '. E Now adapt the above as necessary to write a speech of 120_180 Şoİds saying goodbye to the Secretary who İs retİrİng after twentY Years your School or college. never teacher.

These weIe the maın options [see map opposite]: i By rail through an expanded Furzebrook terminal 2 By pipeline to a deep water terminal ın Portland Harbour.000 barre]s a day. However. therefore A proceed B adopt C change D follow 3 is the most practical and least expensive. Unprecedented consu]tation on all elements of the deveJopment proposal took place. then Items in Section A of the Reading Comprehension Paper quite often do items 2-5. ]t also avoided ecologically sensitive areas. 1 one argument in work to the area. leading to major changes in BP's original plan In March 1986 applicatıons were submiİted to İhe Dorset CountY Councıl to develop the oilfield and in Octolıer of that year permıssion was granteC. The route was carefully chosen to avoid residential areas and amenity areas as far as possibie. Why? 2 The Chairman presented three clear options A before B at C to D 3 These goods will Committee.ith that Plan. In December 1986 a public enquıry was he]d into the route and ır: Juiy 19B7 the Secretary of State for Energy found in BP's favour and gave Permission for the Wytch Farm-to-Hamb]e pipetine. the with A at B on C by D through 4 one of the arguments A of B to C about D against 5 'We have decided that Plan the Chairman said. study and discuss the example.' E Read the text below to find answers to these questions: 3 ıWhat was the major problem. 3 By pipelıne to an exıstıng oil termınal at Hambie on southampton Water 4 By pıpeline to a new tanker termina] in Poole Harbour After Very wide consultation BP fett that a new pipeline to Southampton Water wouid be the best soiution anC therefore proposed a pipeline routÖ to an existing terminal at Hamble.UN|T r 10 What are the pros and cons? test your knowledge of prepositions. and what were the 'options'? 4 Did Bp decide on its own that a new pipeline to Hamble was the 5 Why solution? was the route for a new pipeline chosen carefully? 1 When did BP start producing oil at Wytch Farm? 2 \X/hen did BP apply to the Council for permission to develop the oilfield? best The internationai petroleum company BP has been producıng oil at the Wytch Farm oiifield on the South Coast of England since 1979 In J"lv l9B4 BP announced Pians to develop the oiifield from the existing productıon ]evel of 4. '\ü7e shall have to be transported -- the scheme is the enormous cost.500 barrels a day up to 60. favour the plan is that it will bring Afor Bof Cto Dat Choice B is the correct answer. Construction on 1he projeci began soon afterwards and is expected to take about two years 42 DoRSET BOURNEMOUTH Harbou r Poole WYTCH FARM oILFIELD SWANAGE .u. there was one major problem how to transport the increased amount of oi] away from the Wytch Farm area. listed buildıngs and scheduled ancient monuments. _ sea.' .

As an 'outsider'. . but worry about its transport. claims Hurn parish councıl. and agree with the option. Then tell each 2 which option was thought best. My family and ltravel into your area by rail and would certainly not come if rail to Poole and to wareham was not available. have lived near railway lines that are much busier than any will ever be in Poole and area.) !/^ l.}- E_ E f*A HAM PSH l RE -.Forest \?. lcan assure people who are concerned that the daytime operations which are pIanned by British Rail to transport the oil will hardly be notıced. and give reasons. l ( 19th November) {J . A Y-^'İ"*fl aA_sa aA"gq_a aqç} 8 4?aq a E? ta (. and the grass. (27th September) Harbour.ı. not by rail Moves to transport thousands of barrels of Wytch Farm oil by rail are on the wrong track.' he said.TH Lymington CHRlSTCHURCH k( l . The two texts below were written r. lt decided it would be better to stop pollution by building an underground pipeline through the New Forest to Fawley rather than start a rail link that would create jobs.| refer to recent items about the Wytch Farm oil deposits. and why. The additional oiI trains will ensure 20 years or more contjnued development of the railway west of Bournemouth.t a q. but one who has spent many happy holidays in Poole. Sopley and Ripley. There seems no danger of pollution and the countryside is rinscarred.) Y q. Alan Whipp and his coIleagues were concerned that raiI transport could not guarantee against pollution in Portland and Poole 'We have experienced gas pipelines running through the Avon Valley. Chairman Cllr. crops and hedgerows have grown back over them. Underground route. |SLE oF W|GHT 7 .outsider's view Sir . l hope you will not mind if l comment. 4 whether you personally 3 what other valuable or interesting information the text gave. Şfork in pairs and each read one of them silently. |'m most puzzled by the virulent anti-rail bias that seems to have sprung up in Poole/Bournemouth. q a q What is the route of the pipeline? q.P. Rail oil . Bournemouth and Swanage areas. l am delighted that oil has been found from a national point of view.UNIT 10 E other -g"-g 1 where you think it was taken from (and give a reason).vhile the 'options' debate was on. Members favoured the pipeline after considering the four transport options that BP had presented to Christchurch policy committee.

ib) It may be the only way to help some species to survive. The passage is about the pros and cons of keeping wild animals in captivity. Rewrite the following paragraph by joining each pair of sentences (la and |b. study these ways of contrasting ideas.. -rrtİrhould . students. ho*noer.lly ) important argument againsı them is that they disrupt students' learning. study and discuss it useful or wasteful? ıwrite between 120 and 180 words outlining some of the arguments for and against space travel. the advantages and dİsadvantages. Here you are r One thing you will almost certainly want to do is to contrast ideas. or expressing the pros and cons. In Unit 5 there is practice in arguing for or against an idea or a proposal. learning orı the otlıer hand. r Here is a typical First Certificate composition in which you have to argue for and against.. 4a) Animals breed best 'in the wild' or in their own natural habitat.create the animals' natural environment. neaert heless l ç un A lıhoughl Though l Whi le """" [orıunately they disrupt students' learning.going to practise putting the arguments for and against.lons school holidays may be a good idea.2a) Alt wild animals are obviously happier living f. l they . one of ıhe (mosı irnportanı1 argumenıs infaaour of long school holidays is that it gives students a rest. 3a) There are many old-fashioned zoos which were built in the nineteenth century and which are worse than many human prisons..r^. 3b) There are many new 'wildlife parks' which t. 'Space travel . but *. rest.t that an ( equa. ()n ıhe one hand long school holidays give students _a --.rot r*g. " but on ıhe oıher (haİa l . I l. then do the exercise below.1or:İ İto. F{ere are some notes you might make. etc.ree. 4b) It is becoming very difficult for some animals because Man has changed or is changing their environment in so many different ways.) using the sentence types above as appropriate. 2a and 2b. disrupt . i Despit} tlr. and add any more points you can think of for or against: 44 .y to r. 2b) Certain forms of captivity can still give them some freedom. \X/hat kind of language might you need to write a composition like this? lB I Remember that one of the composition types you can choose in the First Certificate is a discursive composition or 'argument'. la) Many people agree that no animals should be kept in captivity.

UN|T 10

For (: Space travel is useful) 1 Man - conquered Earth - now time - look at space, 2 Increases knowledge of universe, Earth - and our
origins? 3 Bonuses for medicine, weather-forecasting, communications, etc. 4 Future - people emİgrate to other planets - solve Earth population problem?

Against (: Space travel is wasteful) 1 Enormous cost - $ millions to send one/two men 2 Manned
space flight - up to now (1988) only reached Moon. 3 Only unmanned flights to nearest planets (e.g. Mars) - how much to send men? 4 Vital problems on Earth: overpopulation, hunger, disease, poverty - all need money. IJse money to try to solve these problems.

into space.


Even if you don,t use all the points above in your composition, there are two ways 1n which you could write the arguments. This is the first way you could write the composition. Read it carefully and notice the kind of
language used.

One paragraph listing all the arguınents for, , , One of the most important arguments in favour of space travel is that it is in man,s nature to İi..orr.r and explore new places. Now that we have
conquered Earth, the oceans and space are the only real challenges left, ,..o.rd reason for continuing present programmes is the enormous help they can give us in terms of medical research, communications and weather-forecasting. And then there are also the benefits future generations may enjoy, \who knows, perhaps space holds the answer to our present population and pollution problems, . . . and one


listing all the arguments against

On the other side of the argument, however) one of the great disadvantages is the huge cost of all ,pr.. exploration. Many would say that the billions of dollars spent or, ...rdi.rg just a few men around the Earth and to the

moon has been a complete waste of money. They argue that we have many problems here on this planet and that those billions are needed to solve İh.*. The fact that in future even more money would be needed for space programmes is also an argument against them.

you could also write the same composition Şİ"ch you constantly coınpare for and against,


as a series of paragraphs in

\write the same composiıion as the one above, but this time constantly comparing for and against. Use some of these sentence patterns: _ One of the most important arguments in favour of space travel is , , ,, but we must not forget that - . .. On the one hand . ., but on the other hand , , , _ One of the great advantages of space travel is . ., but at the same time there is also a major disadvantage, and that is that , , , _ While space travel/space exploration may be a good idea, nevertheless , ,, - Despite the fact that space travel . . .,.,(un)fortunately, ,,, nevertheless space of the exploration Although -



Nou,trü- ctımpı_ısition 10 on page 86.


11 Could you tell me about it?
Work in pairs. One of you look over text 1 and the other look text 2 for about 20 seconds. Then tell your partner as much as vou can about it.
multi-media Notable among our facilities are a fuIly a and studios, uiOeo Iearning centre,


equipped library. WHY CANADA? This vast and varied country standards of llving in the highest wltFfie;ath; world has succeeded in marrying Amerıcan based technology with institutions and culture on European models, lt is not {or nothing that caIl us their European 'cousins',




This is one of in the industries owth most ıı]]porİZn means world and EngIish ıs undeniably the main it, inside of communication


,n 1956 as part of the Camden the Foundation, a non-pro{it-making trust, for its reputation worldwide a enjoys College İ;;ıi;n toİ Special Purposes courses It offers in a tnJopportunity of studying the language a following whıle atmosphere f riendly but serious the of aspects all in course training f ull hospitality industry.

Four-week courses begin on every month. of Monday the first have Mcorı,ıuoDATloN Over the years we f ırst-cIass of network nationwide a established welcomıng host families.

Participants may expect to their course: during ffis - selıing communications - tow operations - relatıons cashiering and customer and skills basic administration inancial f - basic road travel, international law - air, sea, rail and by W; lay empr,asis on actıve participation activities different of variety wide a in students and video İrnging from role-plays, simulations *oÜ to text analysis and research projects, C1NTENT

e6un§E DATES

For further details and enrolment form, ffitrre pl"u.. apply to: Ottvan College of Tourism, ottowa po Box xyz

1FEES1 We have a special grant-assisted


Far and away
6-week courses

NEw zE A.ANDI *,::'":*:*i: ,J.:# cademy fotnded Here's your chan"o r^>
t,l|,.",ffi g

thermal .p.;ng., ;;İ;;1:''rıes Piateaux, rivers, ]akes and rich pine forests.

yourseif tır"

U."u tı, tu"k'iŞıüIü

,1r nl

lCen i_: erY, l:!.j,



iscovp" r.^



.rrl1l:l";of our

"u.f,ö Experience for

fa b ul



i ;: İl :


in 1979 op'i** İ"lr---=İ.,İ courses in Hotel,Receptlol, ;;d Service and Hote]


a choice of speciulir'

,'Jrl: t? T* ;lı;,ı eis nr-,,l,r, o ı,,, a u ckıai a J.ll"}i;';;l.ı.j# H.,.,,-, "" - fu]l Engiish
ı i

Whiie you'r? here, kil] two birds one stone and tal<e , ,..İrl.";;" in with the

ınternational me
..recrea tiona] acti


Hfl;iJj:5"fl :;,,J, r..,;; ;i io"n"or bjlıs cgve,red,)
accommodutinlS,1re fu]]

Operaticns. (Subjects like




a student hosteı or


knoınr,-^-> (,om.";#}.fft:İ";;Jrat il."iq. ı,he Directo.,

If You want to

programme every morning

*".k"nJ ;;;;;r:"ıs evenings. haif-day and ; :l1 l"; y ü;ffiT : J:.T§ *"Ş::,x ffiJ -;;Jl't,' ıı a f";.; giun t ;: l:,T5.Waipo

viti.r, b;;;;;;:,

of leisure and

;;İ""İ,PrrCeS arll,X'"5-İ:*'^:i:r"p.yj, Academv, a,"ı,iu;;,'N-; Zeaiand

we do, ou

and the sPecial sponsorship we can

uNlT 11

mole E Read both texts_ a little (Tick İffi*, the questions below.

carefully now, compare them and the boxes in the columns.) S-till try to you have to read every word to get the don't quickly and rememberı read information you want. According to the adverts, which of the centres

İ ha§ the more varied sociai programme? 2 hts been in existence the longer? İ-6 n,ıt a conımercial enterprise?
has the shorter courses?


u look after yourself?

6 has imprassive equipment? 7;llow§;tudents to choose what they study? 8 offers the broader look at tourism?

e:Canada NZ:New


§ühat have you noticed so far about the different styles of the two advertisements?


Answer these multiple_choice questions about the texts,

1 Canada is described


more like America than Europe. a growing nation. European İn İts attİtude to technology.

as being a wealth3ı country.

2 In the New Zealand

advertisement, 'killing two birds with one stone' refers to A being excited and challenged. B taking cour§es in tourism and travel. C seeing the country and doing a course. D opportunities for hunting and fishing\X/hat do



They They They Thelı

both centre§ have in eommon? stress the importance of a leisure programme, arrange trips by road, rail and sea. realise the importance of technology. can afrange a reduction in the fees to be paid,


go to? Why?

§[hich of the two places (C,anada or New Zea|and) would you like to


(For notes on the layout. . Provided. §7rite when vou can_ 5 Thanks a lot in advance. YoU rS. . . get in touch as soon as .) Here are Some Pairs of phrases. There was no mention in your advertısement of any social or leısure activities Cou]d you please send me such a programme if you have one? I ]ook forward to hearing from you Yours raıtlırul|v Dear Sir or Madam. I was very interested to read your ad-vertisement in the November issue of 'G]obal Tourists' for four-week courses in Travel and Tourism. (Eo. of course. . referred to. i l I ı l . .? you can. . cost and whether the cost of travelling to and from Canada is ıncluded ın the grant-assisted scheme whıch your advertisement E In the examination. you may be asked to write a semi-formal letter to a comPanY or Some other organİsatİon. 2 3 I'd like to know if . 1 . how?) Dear Sirs. contact me at your earliest convenience. pages 8-9 and 29. Read them and then discuss in small groups how they are differer1. . further details regarding . . How much does it all cost? lf you ınclude the return flight from lsaw an advert ın a paper recently il perhaps? Hope to hear from you. you did not refer to Now cover each column in turn and try to remember the 'equivalent' phrase. . Have you got any brochures you could send me (l can't remember which) about hotel courses in New zealand. 6 I would be grateful if you could let me have Can you send me . ] wou]d be extremely gratefu] if you could send me further details regarding the course content and more information about accommodation arrangements. Do you thınk you could a]so let me know exactly how much a course would. . example. 8 You didn't say anything about . . more information about 4 I look forward to hearing from you in the near future. Thanking you in anticipation. that the price was right. . . For this it is better to imitate the style of the second letter above. is one more formal than the other? If so. .? 7 Could you write back soon? An early reply would be appreciated. l i Rome. lt sounded great and lthink |'d be very interested. beginnings and endings of letters. that is. Decide in each case which is more formal_ Could I enquire whether . . . . 48 .uNlT 11 E Here are two letters of reply to the advertisements on page 46. . . see Units 1 and 6.

noting the layout. W6 9EL Madam. Ask for clarification of things you would like to know more about.. r Read this letter carefully. British Tourist Authority. like this: \X/hat What §fhat §7hat would really like to know is ) ( whether / what / why am really interested in is I J *r. Hue 49 . 244ı Peking Road. HONG KONG Quarry Bay. ı 7-ila R. . Thames Tower.. Hammersııith. r would be very grateful if you coulh as seno nıe some brochures and any other relevant İnforrnation you have prices.n i which 1 whose did not understand was | ] wrro / how / how long would like you to explain is J I how much / how many . Thanking you in anticipation for your help. should also like to spend some time on the continent. style and content.UN|T 11 E §[hen we want to have something explained or clarifled. Blackls Road. towns and one or two large industrirı citıe". unspoilt villages. Look back at the two advertisements on page 46 and write at least eight sentences like this. a few nights in London. acconmodation and car rrire facilities.p... ı+ould like to see as much or iııe countr} possible. Yours faithfu}ly. . we often start a sentence with a what-c|ause. Then useJt as a model to write a similar one to the Tourist Information centre of an English-speaking country which you have always wanted to visit. E Now plan and rvrite composition 11 on page 87. we England. -regarding What we are really keen to see is the sort of place that few tourists go to. London 24th January 1988 Dear Sir or r: i r am plaruıing to take a three-week touring holiday ın Britain with my wife and two teenage chılaren this coıning May" We shal1 be arriving at HJatıırow Airport on 2nd May and. could let us have details about weekend visits from London you to other European cities sueh as Paris and Amsterdam. after spending. smallish perhaps r could ask you to sugge=t .oote which would give us a general impression of both rural and urban As this wi1l be our first tirne in E. .

u. I attempted to pass_ his Field gold Maİ. was error first _t9 helpful.u. the door.J resoiutions as I drove İront door. greeted me there. is unfortunately so p"*"rrU a colour that it is virtual}y impossible to remove the stain completelr front door.. E The text below is about how things went wrong when an artist was asked to go and paint the portrait of an important military man at the man's home. his drawing room.i.. \ / 50 ."". "ware that the 1oo was making to the strangest noises. " --fleterm"ined to prove that painters to are not really ciumsy idiots..deliberately painting with rhythmic arm movements. as I eased past him with a . I watched as the water-level several .ı-iing."İl".e.. I went across .İ t*o sittinğs were rather than iır my studio.n""" ...İÜ. I was filled with up to the . . The next time I had a sitting at the Pi"ld-iUurshal's .. Then the col1apsilıle.üd Marshİl gl"J t" be rid of me for a bit. starting J"İ"rg""tl Before ""k"Jit Fr. trying when. 'Goocl ı-ıror. }eg on the easel fell open.. Since th" Jo-"*tl" background in the pictur". I set paint a I had been commissioned to We had to stop for twenty minutes whilst I did what I could to put right his ." of extreme care. *İgnt with my turpentine and f again. bin. painting the ribbon of . _that J.o.'tlrut fully-loaded. My .^İUyİne Queen just two weeks n"İ. he gave me a weak smile...l"p." on the one bit of g"i"g in the far corner. or-. '. of İlre Bath.hen everything seemed to go wrong? a partner or the class about it. wo.. . . the "^-Wnİl" there.of out u. He. incapable of u"tlo". u loİln at it and."pp"a with an echoing thwang into not That. velvet-covered.tJ. Vhat things-do you think could go wrong in a situation like that? Make a list. Tell 2 Form small groups and tell each other about times in your life when you felt very embarrassed and w.. though..h..]".the İj. ho*u ^'l-"1rl""d and laid out my equipment we tried out his chair in and h."r. But l knew.."l ğo-"nÖ* I missed . and İİr*İ"a me to the littie cloakroom by I might wash my hands. I thought I would take the opportunity first to spend a_penny. still surprisingly open courteou*: holding the door wide for me as I carried -y portabie e_asel llrrorgü.1rui""a I thought. Hu *u. I . his in held be to nr.". b:. iooking slightly .anted to disappear into a hole in the ground.and it a a.k .. l *u=ned my hands.hal's baton to him (delicate presented fiİrJ.o.UN|T 1 Have you had 12 What did you do next? a day recently u.-rouch carpet.rror-ecl a 1arge chunk of _ \=....'positions in different lights.lj. Field Marsha}!' I beaıııecl.. though.._The was obviously only too deft. E of nortrait of the newly-appointed Chief a be to was there b"fe. and Alazarin Crimson...... tin wastepaper aia not go down very well.. . Now read the story and see how many of your ideas were rİght."" Staff.İ"d over the brim and the over ail deposited EulĞ"* were floor. brush sprang like a rocket hurtled and rru"a -v it was u". İn" İrrnrsson that I had not protected with dust-jrıst .

UN|T 12 E A B C D A B C D Now answer these multiple-choice questions about the story. \ü[hat happened on the artist's next visit? 6 A He crashed his car into the Field Marshal's The F'ield Marshal was extremely rude to the artiSt. as the artist arrived. C It fell onto a dust-sheet. painting rvork not done in a 3 ıX/hat happened to the artist's brush in the second The The The The artist had too much equipment. There was another accident in the house. After the paiırting had been started. picture was going to have a home setting. D It happened because the toilet made funny noises. The trield Marshal felt much better. B It wouldn't cost a penny to put right. As soon did the first accident occur? 4 \ühat did the artist do during the trventy-minute A B C D He tried to remove the paint stain. C It was a result of the artist washing his hands. ll lf" / 51 . Why studio? ı. the 5 what do we learn about the incident in cloakroom? A It was not the artist's fault. He mended the damaged paintbrush. Two weeks before the sitting. B c D house. He spent a lot of time in the cloakroom. B It landed in a bin. He took a well-earned rest. break? \ü7hen Just before the artist started nervl_v-appointed. Chief of Defence w.vas the earl1. sitting was going to be a long one. D It travelled some distance. incident? A It just dropped out of his hand.

The glass broke and the rest of the rr-ine rııent over the Carpet. I / start to cross the road the baby changed And then to cap it all. I promised myself I would never drink wine at a hostess didn't speak I / not move again much they . If you like. as soon as I saw what had happened. everything went wrong. I had just I .never go out babl. But from then on.not go back to sleep the film on TV sit on bus on way hon-ıe promise . 52 . _Just as she was handing i. using the same sentence patterns as in the model. everything went wrong. Middle one or two paragraphs: The event(s) For a start. I had no sooner bent dorr.tell her a short story / the baby . . - ago asked to babysit for friends of my parents. From then on. MODEL STORY Disastrous party situation Some time ago I was invited to a party by Road accident situation About six months ago / I STORY 1 Eventful babysitting situation A couple of years They / STORY 2 First paragraph: Before the event(s) some distant friends.knock me down And finally. you can write about something that really happened to you. I . so I got there early. As if that wasn't enough. I stood up and knocked the glass out of her hand. finish I .pick her up / the six-year-old get up / go to over floor She/spill shampoo all came in and fell over me. From then on.turn on the TV / the five-year-old wake up I . I was looking forward to it.invited to visit friends in country. I / clean the bathroom - want to be / Last paragraph: After the event(s) My to me again until I had promised to pay for all the damage.take my leg out of plaster I . §7hile I ıvas saving up to pay her can invent a story.look forward to it / Set out early.sell my car as soon as possible / The1. rx/rite the two stories.lie in hospital / promise . bathroom I .ine went all over her dress.turn into main road arrived at the party rr-hen my hostess offered me a drink. l I whenIarrived/I/quite put children to bed happy.t to me. And to cap it all.n to pıck up the pieces than someone carr__ving a I / reverse / cycİist come along / ride into the side of car crying - As if that wasn't enough.wake up / start the ş.UN|T 12 r In the examination you may have to write a composition about a dramatic event in your life.sitting again party again. motorcyclist ran into my car door / get out of the car / As if that wasn't enough. In this exercise we have given you one short story and the prompts for two more. everything \\-ent wrong. fruit salad to help the cyclist / taxi . to cap it all. ()r - and this is sometimes easier . I coughed and crash into another car / I .

Queen had.] 53 . [\X/hat? unpacked Paragraph 2 his things? laid out his brushes?] .lıe. 3 'I'll soon get rid of this stainr' said the painter.Iıe Field asked the artist. .- ba-ton twrı week§ ]agor" .- .' artigt. . [§fhat? that it would be a good idea to .{a.UNıT 12 \when you write a story. These prompts are to help you to structure the composition and to use a variety E of sentence patterns. than .. . 2 'There's some detergent in the kitchen.&(ar. . $rshal :rhe'n'l'il. than . tDid you know it would be a disaster? Did you feel that something was wrong?] He had no sooner .ffist jf. Now read the story on page 50 quickly again and write a composition İ6odt what happened from the Field Marshal's point of view. [§[hat?] [And what did you say to hİm at that poİnt?] Paragraph [Then what happened while he was painting?] [\Where did the brush land?] [How did you feel? But did you show your feelings?] [How did you feel when he left the room? How long did you have to wait?] [lffhat did you hear while he was in the bathroom?] [\XZhat did you do as soon as you heard the noise?] [\Yhat did you find?] [What did you tell him?] 3 Patagraph [How did 1-ou feel the next time.ourself after this experience? _ that you 4 wouldnever.l. '.givsn'hirn t}ıe bat<ı. 7 'I'm sorry about what happened. .. you might often want to write what people Şy-.. told]the Field . T. . [X/hat happened to the easel? and to the door?] [\What did ı-t-ıu promise 1. when he came for your second sitting?] He had no sooner .(that) the. .o§ Report the following as in the examples above: 10 'I'm looking forward very much to seeing the final resultr' he said. 1 'I think the picture is going very well. trield Marshal?' the artist said. \#. Paragraph contact?] I had just been appointed Chief of Defence Staff. .'the painter said to the Field Marshal. look at the two ways you could write what the artist and the Field Marshal said to each other _ with direct speech or reported speech: E 'Can you corne. I thought .n]two. 9 'Can I pass you your baton. 8 'I'm sure things will go better tomorrowr' he said.süıid to the Field Marshal: *I]m rçady tg Thş begin. .(that) ÜA: ready to begin.] [So what did you do? \üüho did you 1 As soon as he arrived .Qn.h. .e 'The Queen gave me this sa.Cqırlç on Monday. 5 '§7here's the cloakroom.. ...a§ked the. -The artist.t. . . . 6 'Do you know how much that carpet cost?' the officer asked the artİst. . .befofe.weeks.rshal. ' offieei §aid. .' said the artist. . please?' he asked the Field Marshal. . 4 'May I wash my hands?' asked the artist.şhatr .co:lı. M<ınday?'.' the officer said to the üe officer.

Lord and Lady Galloway bent stiffiy. with glasses. and in boyhood had known the Galloways . Hor. a pale and pretty girl with an elfish face and copper-coloured hair. black-eyed and opulent. with silver hair and a face sensitive and superior. black-eyed and opulent also. a typical F'rench scientist. and blueeyed. He had left his country after some crash of debts. 6 had blue eyes. When he bowed to the Ambassador's family. and with her her two daughters. clean-shaven. He saw Lady Galloway. and Lady Margaret looked away. He saw Father Brown of Cobhole.v would you describe yourself so that the person can recognise you in a crowd? E In the following passage. This was Commandant O'Brien. Who's Who? Read the passage again to find out which of the people 54 . Read it. A glance at his drawing-room when Valentin entered it E 1 had black eyes. 4 had a beard. the English Ambassador . 3 was (or were) noticeably slim. who had bowed to the Galloways without receiving any very hearty acknowledgement. wearing the blue ribbon of the Garter. Lady Margaret Graham. He was by birth an lrish gentleman. He saw all the other pillars of the little party: he saw Lord Galloway. 5 had dark or black hair. 8 had a red face. He was a slim yet somewhat swaggering figure. 7 had a pale ccımplexion. and a forehead barred with wrinkles which come through constantly elevating the eyebrows. a pointed brown beard. and who now advanced alone to pay his respects to his host. at any rate. He saw the Duchess of Mont St Miche]. He saw her daughter. He saw Dr Simon. the writer describes a small group of people. He saw . of the French Foreign Legion. he had an air at once dashing and melancholy. dark-haired.a choleric old man with a russet face like an apple. slim and thread-like. in Essex. and as seemed natural in an officer of that famous regiment of victorious failures and successful suicides.UNlT trİ 13 What do they look like? Imagine you are going to an English-speaking country and that someone is going to meet you when you arrive.perhaps with more interest than any of those a tall man in uniform. whom he had recently met in England.especially Margaret Graham. then say which (one or more) of the people is or are not described physically was enough to make certain that his principal guest was not there. and now expressed his complete freedom from British etiquette by swinging about in uniform sabre and spurs. 2 was (or rvere) clean-shaven.

o_. etc. 2 Lord Galloway had been invited as the main guest. r A fairly common First Certificate composition involves describing a person. bluish. reddish.en : shaved cleanly). neatly-brushed (: brushed neatly) 3 And don't forget that }-ou can add -İsh to many adjectİves to mean about or apQroxİıııatİııg . The party was held in England. üroungish.UN|T 13 E Read the text again and say whether the followİng statements are true or false. dark-haired. F{ere is some of the vocabulary you might need to describe someone. O'Brien was a heavily-built. 1 Valentin was the host at the party. The Galloways greeted O'Brien warmly. well-groomed (: groomed well). and refer to it as necessary as you do exercise 82.hirtr-ish. weatherbeaten clean-sha. Study it carefully. 3 Lady Margaret had the same colour hair as her mother. long-legged. darkish. 4 The Duchess of Mont St Michel's daughters looked nothing like 5 6 7 8 their mother. Give reasons.. blue-eyed. 55 . bearded man.. 1 Facial features partlng crown (of head) (AmE: part) forehead eyebrow eye cheek (bone) noSe (AmE: mustache) temple eyelashes nostrils lips moustache beard sideboards ch in (AmE: sideburns) throat JaW Adam's apple 2 Cornrnon coıııpound adiectives to describe people's features broad-slıoulclered (:with broad shoulders). deepl. Dr Simon had lines on his forehead. but rr-atch the spelling of some of them! Here are some examples: fairish. t. sunburnt. tanned by the sun).r-lined (face) sun-ıaııııed (: .

fair. she's got blonde hair which she often wears in a bun. friendly. old. sunburned.. (he/she's got) a fringe a And how does he or wear it? she How would you describe his or her general complexion? eyeS.?f. a Situation: You are supposed to meet a foreign friend or colleague at your local airport/station. in ponytail. then do Cornbining facts He rııas extremely well-built and had enormous shoulders. his or her general build? slim. black 'goatee' beard. broad-shouldered. very long legs. Don't forget to say first who you are describing. These sentences show how you can combine two or more pieces of information when writing a description of someone.İ ffi . Study them. walks with stoop. agains t each o the r ?. Think of a relative or friend and ask or tell each other the following in order to describe that person. freckled face. wavy. (sun)tanned Tell me about his or Any other physical characteristics? her big brorı. (He's) bald shoulder-length. \§l J:: Hİ L .n eyes.. snub nose.o. (of) medium build/height. auburn. reddish. light brown/ dark brown.. in a pigtail/bun. brunette. and her face is quite pale with freckles. How old is he or she? 40.with long eyelashes/bushy eyebrows. ı-. brushed forward/ back. and make notes as you go. she çalso) has a very fine figure. grey. blonde.UN|T 13 E Work with a partner. ıx/hen you have finished. write the description. etc. getting on in years How would you describe short. Describe him or her as fully as you can. dark. :. like this: E 1 You can't miss Alexis: he's aborrt 30. l. about 40. well-built Tell me about his or hair.. . and he's got black bushy eyebrows and a full beard. 56 . small black eyes . fat(tish).J. pale. etc_ etc. HoweverJ you can't go.. quİte young. black. fortyish.. elderly. middle-aged. thin. that go together As a^ell as having a pretty face. he \.* ı-. that seem to go Although he was slightly-built. light.. he's got short brown \^. quite old...vas extremely muscular. mousy.. he is also tİemendotısiı athletic. 2 You can't mistake Marie: she's in her late she's about medium height. kind. Cornbining facts He was reall5. teens. Choose from the vocabulary on the right (using a dictionary if you want to). in his or her teens/ twenties/thirties/forties. so you ask a friend to meet the Person for you. curly.oh. thin lips. stocky. short muscular [":^. but looked remarkably young. cold. in plaits. he's tall and well-built.]. tall. youngish. light. o. dark(ish). her fair. E the exercise. quite o|d.avy hair . straight. naturallY [ıı addiıion ıo being very good-looking. l i. red. with a parting. brown.

. Wrİte the letter. You found the photo a few days ago and are now sending it to a good friend with a letter. I noticed [his hair l particularly becaııse. . §7hen you have flnished. helping the friend to remember who was who.5ft 8ins: Age .. .' 57 ... Slight build: Light complexion: Blond greasy shou lder-|ength hair: Unshaven: High cheek bones: Very smail eyes. but . And the one on the far right rvith the long black hair and glasses was called Richard.g. . . @ Below is a photograph of an athletics club you once belonged to. . . YoUR ASS|STANCE lS URGENTLY REQUESTED lN TRAC|NG THlS MAN Height Any information to Hightown Police '. \)ürite that statement. .. Imagine you were a witness to tEe armed robbery in Hightown on that Saturday and the police descrİptİon of the man was taken from a wrİtten statement that you made. . write a similar '§ranted' poster for a member of your class..) and use phrases such as As far as I can remember. Although. As well Qs . .: try to use some of the language you have practised in the Unit to join ideas (e.UN/T 13 Make sentences with these promptsJ choosing from the structures given: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 extremely handsome / great charm somewhat plump / extremely graceful dancer still in his twenties / nearly bald slightly cruel eyes / a rather mean mouth quite good-looking / reasonably charming Scandinavian / surprisingly dark-skinned at least fifty years old / still very athletic fairly well-built / pretty weak physically r Read this '§7anted' poster carefully. ARMED ROBBERY lN H|GHTOWN SATURDAY gTH AUGUST 1988 WANTED FoR HlGHTOWN PoLlCE E For fun.40-45. or He had. etc. . Note: Don't simply write a series of short sentences with He was . read it out and see if the other members of the class can identify the wanted person.. making this sort of comment about some of the people İn the picture: HAVE YoU SEEN TH|S MAN? . I couldn't see very clearly. I think he got married and is living . . and so on.

ins §gtwtşçş ğfuş:. Look at this example. Why? 2 Hold the racket you can control it easilrı. For this job. back and biting surfaces of the teeth. ı.Şeğüh Each tooth has five separate surfaces that need cİeanİng to protect them against decay.o* 3 surfaces of aıı your teeth.brush filaments flat ontş thJteeth. r Ia | l . A not to hurt B not hurting C 5rou didn't D . with a partner. A to pr. lil* §iliff:Trrr.l .!.. Hold. Finaİly clean the biting şurfaces of all your teeth.ısing the short vibratory brushing action to remove food particleş from the grooves and çreviçes. t The İrvıporta§rb şf ]. then compare. Take care not to brush too vigorously. but in fact is made of over a hundred fine filaments desİgnğd to spread across the sides of your teeth for efficient plaque remçıvai" 58 ]l l- . thş. routine jobs are often A neglecting B to neglect C neglected Choİce D neglect C İs the correct answer. dental sticks. Careful brushing removes plaque from the front. 1 The inside surfaces of the teeth are ea§lly neglected .ı E This extract is from an information booklet on teeth care.Aİşgfi. But even the finest conveniional toothbrush cannCIt remCIve plague from the sides. What iş ügntai Fişş*? Dental Floss looks like a single thread. . then do items 2-5. what it says aboüt the ıqay yııu look after Tiıg Sşçd §ruşftin§ ıüuid*. Read it.__ a computer can't help with this sort of problem" A Also B Even C Yet D Except 5 Take carc 5.UN|T r 14 How can l help you? Multiple-choice items in Section A of the Reading Comprehension Paper sometimes test your knowledge of grammar. A so that B because C in case D so as 3 I think you'll find that these ornaments need regularly.ılish B polishing C being polished D to have polished 4 . 1 In the office. you need either dental floss. or an interdental toothbrush.oursel|.! İ I don't hurt n . Do not scrub your teeth _ u§e short vibratory back and . Keep hotding the brush head at an angİe and u§e the short vibratory brusİ"ıing clean them first.. Hold the toothbrush §o that the filaments point at an angle.

\ . Clean right up to the gum margin.. then clean each side oİ tl. A regular brushing of one's teeth. should be used with dental floss. of flossing tr...\ .*nv dentists recommend is aş follows: 1 üut 2 off 60cms bf floss and wind around your middle fingers. C It only works ıvith dental sticks. 4 For all lower teeth. . D It is only effective if one particular method is D using the right sort of toothbrush. lnsert the floss carefu]ly.\ .* tğeth by pulling floss gently up and down.::r}2. Use a fresh portion of floss for each . One shouldn't be too vigorous in one's ş. rinse the mouth ta dislodged. 3 --:.t.p. Stretch the floss. /' _ 1l \| For the left upper teeth.u' .1.*.' . can help to remove plaque.ffi How to Use Dentai Floss A simple and effective method. . B the correct action when brushing.. . The extract suggests that an interdental toothbrush used.. A B C D is really just like a conventional one. get rid After flossing. unwinding floss from one finger. : ::]]ii." % **r. B C D The movement is always up and down. §tarting with the right upper tceth. -'.:iil 1 .tı o} .UN|T 14 E Read the extract again and answer these multiple-choice questions: 3 ıWhat is one feature of Dental Floss? The Good Brııslıing Guİde stresses the İmportance of A It is the best way cıf cleaning the tops of teeth.:. +\ ".. movements. B It is quite complex in its construction. i]::i '.bötween right thumb and işft forefing*r. ueıween the teeth. One should always rinse food particles away. C leaving the biting surface until last. stretch flosş between your two forefingers. taking care not to damage the gums by too vigorous flossing. stretch floss over left thumb and right forefinger and repeat the procedure. . l(eep abğut 3cms of floss between them.r-----. is better than a conventional one.:Ei. 4 ıx/hat brushing? has using Dental Floss got in common with A The upper and lower teeth are treated in the same order. and taking up slack on the other. have you plrqru *[l.

otherwise [this] will/mig}ıt [happen]. r First of all. III were you. 6 The last thing you want to do is to give yourself a nasty cut. Finally [do that]. I'd start at the top of the wall in case the paint drips. If I were you.) In general terms. Study the language. we can divide the language we use when giving instructions and advice into the following groups. Next [do thisl. Look at this example: To paint a fooııı: §fhatever you do. Şfhatever you do. make sure you don't [do that]. Make sure you stİr the paint well first. . Try moving your hand up and E verb phrases. Be careful you don't [do thatl. Then [do that]. .a lot of mistakes 60 . look at these numbered sentences. Advice Warning First. otherwise it'll be difficult to get smooth when 1 If I were you. For each of the following tasks. And make sure you keep your arm still. 3 Be careful you don't let the mixture become too hard. instructions or warning(s). Or you could try fdoing that] while you're [doing this]. 1 To prepare vegetables: wash l cıt l not overcook . Make sure you [do this] while Ithat is happening]. I'd [do that]. so always pick it up by the handle) never the blade. Don't [do thatl until you've [done [This] must be [done] before you go on to the next step. don't get it on your hands. 'ıX/hat do you think each is referring to? §fhere do you think you would hear each of them? How would you describe each one? As a warning? Instructions? Advice? or more than one of these? a little bit brown before taking it out of the oven. [this] will/could fhappen]. don't forget to wash the brushes when you've finished.die 3 To push-start a car: take handbrake off . It won't wash off and it can be quite painful. Otherwise tlrey'll go hard. 5 Your wrist's still not flexible enough when you play an overhead shot. one piece of advice and one warning. (you can replace do thisldo thatphrases by appropriate Instructions [Do this] first. Never Ido thisl without [doing that] first. then do the exercise.UN|T 14 One kind of 'speech' composition you might have to write is one in whıch you have to give advice. I'd wait until the top's just 4 Whatever you do. it's actually on the wall. It might be an idea to [do this] before you [do that].put car into second gear l 4 To get two Strong people to help / not try to Start engine until car is . if you do.taste horrible 2 To plant flowers: dig / water / not plant when below zero . or else Ithis] wilt Ihappen]. down for a minute without the racket. [do this]. / You should [do this]. .not start write a composition: make a plan and some notes / decide what is going to go in each paragraph / clıeck . 2 The best way of doing it is to make a hole in the earth with your finger and just drop the seeds in. thisJ. Take care not to [do that]. use the prompts to give one instruction.

show your opponents what you've got? move your counter onto a red square? answer too quickly?]. At any time during the game) a team can [. can't go? haven't got a similar card? don't know the answer?]. but you can of course use your own ideas. The ideas in brackets are possible options. two? three? four?]. pieces? cards? counters?] on the [. I'd choose a partner (or partners) who [. exchange their cards with those in the pile in the middle? consult a dictionary? challenge the other team(s)?]. . The winning team is the one that . .agree to marry you 6 start the 5 the first coat E'" the First Certificate. have played all their cards? reached the centre square? answered all the questions correctly?]. . You/They/Your opponent(s) have to [. @ı \. . Thİs goes on untİl one team [. When you've done that. Then look at the notes below and see how they can help you as you write the explanation.' Think of a game. . you may be asked to write what you would e. one member of each team [. how to cook a particular dish. Anyway. .lose a turn? have to stop? have to start again?]. E Don't switch on until you have checked everything. and it's great fun. otherwise you [. decide which prompt should be used first.UN|T 14 Study these Structures.. §flhile you're actually playing. . If I were you. . throws the dice? turns over the first card? calls out anumber?]. In each case. . . . . It's the sort of game that . play safe? let your partner answer? keep your best cards until the end?].dry / paİnt a second coat composition / make a plan 7 read the question carefully / write an answer 8 buy the ring / she .. . Here is a typical First Certificate composition: *v r you had to explain to someone how to do something 'You are explaining a (card or dice) game to a friend.i!"z. . §(rite what you would say as you explain how to play. First. . .-_ ll-z ---- 4'ştE) -- |<7 'Z4» !iü. . . .finish / turn off the record player . has/have different interests from you? has/have played before? understand(s) the rules?]. won't know what's going on? are bound to lose? might have problems?]. they [. move your/their counter? play another card? answer the question?]. Whatever you do. Only switch on whenlafter you have checked everything. 1 2 3 4 do the second part l do the first part sign the letter / read it turn off the gas / the water boil the record .g. . . . you form teams of [. . the best thing to do is to [. . if they [. I'm sure you would enjoy it. then write more Sentences like them with the lro-mpts given. use a piece of equipment or play a game. . . board? table? floor?]. Then you place the [. don't [. . 61 .

Correct. The text says nothing about more people driving everywhere. Before you read the article itself. E Why? Read paragraph. Study this multiple-choice example and then do items 2-5 on page 1 §/hy might more pedestrians be killed or injured than any other road users in the l990s? A Recause o[ the increase in traffic. 990s'. This might rvell be true . try to learn to ignore them. 3 children's deaths are hidden by the general rise in road casualties. read the article carefully and answer these a they? §fhat is the problem?/What are the problems? Has anyone suggested a solution to the problem(s)? If so. British roads are safer for pedestrians now.000 young teenagers were killed or seriously injured on \ü7est-Oram is the vice-chairman of the European Road Safety E 64. Answer: The question refers to paragraph 3 (beginning 'The Department of Transport') and the first few lines of paragraph 4.ra 2 again. False. what is it?/are IMPORTANT: There will often be words and expressions in a text that you do not understand. False. the brief introduction. and answer this question: ıx/hat is the article going to be about? fE E Now answer (or ask and answer) these more speciflc questions: clearly? 1 Did the headline tell you clearly what the article would be about? 2 ıwhat did you learn from the 'introduction'? Did it state the problem 3 \X/hat r. so pedestrians might well be 'the largest single road-user casualty group in the 1 Because more people are driving everywhere. F'alse. unless they are vital to understanding the text.Are these statements true or false? 1 In year conference. l . 2 Mr Frank British roads. There has been'a decline in casualties among motorists'. 62 . or on your own (and using dictionary if necessary).but the text does not say so. 4 DesPite what people think. look at the headline.vas the effect of the photograph? 4 what did you learn from the graph? Did it tell you any more than you had already learned so far? \XZhy?/Why not? E questions: Now. 1984 about 3.if the amount of traffic does increase) more pedestrians might be killed in the 1990s .UN|T 15 What's the solution? The article opposite appeared in The Tirues on 24thJuly 1986. Because of the attention of road safety engineers. the photo and the graph. in pairs (helping each other). Peter Bottomley has suggested that road safety engİneers should start to thİnk more about people than vehicles.. B Because fewer drivers are being killed or A: B: C: D: C D injured.

Thcy will bc killed or hurt.*l.* said in April.l. "A third of all iourneyİ arc madc entirely on [bot. İ-. ycar la[cr. since nowhere are children taught iail that the way most adults cross the roads iı both difficult and stupid. Too often olanners scem to forget that"" timc most successfully master the dangerous trick of choosinu a sa"p in the traffrc. such children are bcginnlng to explore on their n*-n undtend to give up thc -'Grecn Cross Code" ritual.rong reasons for that of the 10 60 50 pehcral declinc arc stronger İorr. You receivb a pİovisional licence aııer the first but it is made o. "We M.o.s.. and marching into the road.r. bavid smith..* drivers in the decline in road İ16r. driİers travel in towns".ı." The Department of Transoort is a\^ure o[ these facts.*. We need to narrow the said.rr. and*usc slceping policemen to slow down cars ne tion wants to sec bettcr policİno and improved driver to switJh their attention from İ. hc İasualties İavs.-chairnıan Pedestrians' Association. has gone further Minister casuaıtics occur in rcsidcntıal areas becausc drivcrs ignorc children and not the other way . profestno* ftom the work of . has similar should be introduced İo. But no successtul action for reducing 1n...i.** casualty for Roads.. City oI London.İ passing two tesı.i .. Peİer Bottonlley.cry year. 90 B0 ..1 difficulties. West-Oram said.İ. Beforc the year is over about 3. tl-. head o[ road safety. n.. Salcty Ycar conlerence at Öuil<İlıall..l..oİa.İ a driving licence only will tl.000 voung 6oys and girls "Thc Pedestrians' Associa- ırİining as well.İ. "This killing of children is a national disaıter but it .UNıT 15 Putting safety flrst Adult casualties may have fallen but more ff. said earlicr this year ınut İn.. The result is that people thln\ the roads arc .is tÖst. wearing oI seat belts unO l.r. ln Norway . "R. something abort thc speed at *l.l-. dccline in casualtics among motorists "Scems likely to leave pedestrians the largcst teenage casualties been taken. Thev learır to cross the In than any ol'his predccessors in advising road sal'ctv cngtncers . the l1-1+İ presents Reducing casualties among special sinulc road-uscı.i{ r * sleeplng pollceman a narrow raised part placed across'a road to force traffic to move slowly children than ever are being killed on **'Green Cross Code' to follow when learnıng how to cross a road set of rules for children a Britain's roads During the late l950s about 1_500 voung tcenageı. Most oıher journeys involve walking to some degree.nt only aftcr another İ"rt. although for pedestrians 40 so 1968 60 62 64 ( ja 7'6 1B Bo 82 yet 84 thev are becoming more ano moİe dangerous. To some extent this is not surprising. to pcople.Ş lİn Howarth at the Uni. By ı9l4 thc toll had doubled. That mus1 make pedesİrians the most important class of road user. aiming lo7 ıhİ İcar bumper of the car ahead o[it.s wcre l<İllel Ör baCly injurcd on the roads in Briıaİn e. o. .. ." "Thc tirst priority is to.O by -as a whole". walking-.. figures and the masking of thcir"relentless rise will be İaiseO at a European Road today by Frank West-Oram. roads'by copying adults.ty ol Nottinghan '|-ı.d.on.o-rp in tlıc l990s".ni. Something Terence Bendixson ..

. §ühat is needed is a . Study some of the language we might use to ask or Pose the question.2. .? (So) what can be done about itıthe problem? solution Suggesting a The most sensib]e solution to the problem is7would be . and not walk everywhere. . then. Drivers not paying enough attention. might consider [doingl . [This] should be [done]. according to the A B C D experts? C A 'crossing the D A cycling test. Here is the kind which asks you to suggest a solution (or alternative solutions) to a problem. and to r give examples. . B Fewer people are killed on the roads there than in Britain. . 3 Ş7hat's the reason for most accidents in towns. . casualties? Drivers must be made to travel at slower speeds in towns. rn* n. . .000 youngsters fail this year? A Their driving test. . thing ] ıve need to do is (to) [dol . Then do exercise B. is the solution (to the problem. The increase in traffic. Town planners must study more carefully the needs of drivers. Narrow streets. A First Certificate 'argument' composition can take different forms.. / This is what should be done: One answer may/might be for X to do Y . . .r.a written and a practical. Posing the que§tion So what is/might be the answer to this (terrible) problem? §(hat. B A test to see if they can hit car bumpers.. people should use public transport more. . road safely' test. . lo. Giving an exarnpIe This solution has been most effective/very successful in Iplacel This is one solution that has worked (very) successfully/ with considerable success in [placel. . C Their police are more strict with drivers. 5 §7hich 'test' will 3. On the other hand. 4 Why does Mr \West-Oram refer to Norway? A He suggests they have a better driving test system than Britain. Children ignoring drivers. The first priority is to do something about .*r*pl. . . D They have two tests .. - 64 . to suggest a solution (or alternative solutions). for \ŞZhat or alternative solutions .UN|T 15 2 ıJfhat is the first thing that must be done to reduce pedestrian A B c D More traffic-free zones must be created. . l X to do Y. .

ıWhat do you think can be done about the problem?' (120-180 words) Note: you are not asked to say whether you agree.The . for some it's too cold. caused by industry .) limit outside the factory. caused by laziness . gases. what . a speed is Here is a typical First Certificate composition of this kind in which have to suggest a solution (or alternative solutions) to a problem.and fines for litter. Give examples of solutions used in certain countries. discuss them and add any more points you can think of.) . 'In many countries of the world. etc. caused by animals]. (Yes.people don't bother to clean streets. There have been too many accidents outside the factory. (I agree.dirtier and dirtier * - Paragraph 2 (Suggesting solutions . - Paragraph 1 (Stating the problern and posing the question) True . - temperature in the offices: some complain it's too hot.UN|T 15 E in brackets. The most sensible solution . Situation: You are at a meeting to discuss various problems at work.g. . . \What's the solution? . Here are some of the problems which are discussed and some suggested solutions which you agree with. Rewrite the solutions with the words given problerns . large cities and even small villages in the countryside are becoming dirtier and dirtier.. (I agree. These Paragraph 4 (Conclusion: surnrning up) .) 3 Each office should have its own thermostat so that solutions 1 we need to have a number of different lunchtime 2 4 The first thing we need to do is to impose they can regulate the heating. cars. Suggest ways animals and cars could be less of a problem e.The .governınent action) Help and encourage industry to reduce air pollution.) Someone from each department should fetch their post from the Post Room.many cities. towns and villages . Here are some notes you might make. dust. think about the possİble causes.smoke. towns and villages clean. Spend more public money on keeping cities. (The first priority . What . Nevertheless. Then write the composition. Find different ways of disposing of waste from factories. .but will take time and money.) 5 The first thing we need to do is to find out what making people feel ill..The - canteen is too crowded at lunchtime.individual behaviour) Different kinds of dirt: caused by untidiness .just some solutions to problem . etc. Paragraph 3 (Suggesting solutions . (Yes. Staff have been complaining about feeling sick. nor what you think the causes of dirtier cities might be (if in fact it is true). mornİng post İs being delİvered to departments very late. .litter thrown down. 65 . study them. Encourage people to take more pride in surroundings. houses. etc. 'sittings'. dog-free areas) lead-free petrol. . one answer .or different solutions? Educate people to be tidier . because you might want to refer to them İn suggesting solutions. . .

foIlow our Champions' Checklist and learn from other readers' successes and failures.vould you do in the different situations described in the text? DON. the company will A have B do C put D E E ıı riting).IST' opposite and read the first part beloıv.UNlT 16 What can you do about it? items in Section A of the Reading Comprehension often test your knowledge of collocations . turn Har.rite compositions as neatly as carefulness D risk 5 If anything should go wrong with the machine. And the council seems to have designated the road ın front of your house İT apprentice hole-diggers. Multiple-choice r paper 1 Most large stores would put 'good customer list of principles for running a good business. and rvhat happened" it right the 'CHA^4PIONS' CHECKL. the powers A small --_ B hardly C short D 4 It's worth taking -A trouble B worry C to w. and then kick yourself for letting them get away with it? lf you wish yoU CoUld do better when it comes to complaining and getting action.e }rou ever complained about goods or ser. what you complained about. point in asking him for any help: he's far too little 3 When complaining about anything officially. 66 . we say get something wrong.a certain verb with a noun) an adjective with a noun) etc. The buiIders siill haven't been back to your house to put right the work they got wrong in the first place. miss your chance to complain firmly. NOT'get soınething /alse'. Your neighbours regularly wait until you've got the week's washing on the line before burning their garden rubbish. it's important to know your legal =___-. What do you do: dither. ' hİgh on acquaintances a A friendship B relations C neighbours D B is the correct ans\\.er. and take a delight zn. what r.T LET THEM GET AWAY WİTH You buy a pair of shoes and the first time as a permanent practice zone for you wear them the heel falls off. Whv? Choice 2 There is selflsh. For example. NoT 'hazıe or do a delight in '. horv (in person or in This extract is from a consume r magazine report 'Getting Action on Complaints'. then do items 2-5.ices? Tell the class or a partner about it: when. A standards B duties C rights D you can. Coı. Study this example.the way certain words always appear with others .

Get the name and address of the right person .l . 1/ Complain as soon as possible excuses and demolish them. 1/Keeo the paperwork Keep { ii-üU 9oll-ıg g. sit and think about your legal rights first. might not have a right to complain. Try to anticipate Y _ of a complaınt you should ask yourself what you want to achieve. 1 t}Ji. complain to the right person as quicklv as possible. lt's sometimes worth going straight to _ /9"r. propose a number of alternatİves to complaİnİng. receipts.orgn./ don't Y The longer you oelay. Some of you would certainly qualify for the titIe Champion Complainer . your problem may be so|ved there and then.hen complaining.. the top. unless it realIy does look as though the costs will exceed the gains.UNıT 16 E Now read this 'CHAMPIONS' multiple-choice questions. 1/Praise when it's due Tnere are A B C D A B C D A B C D \)ühat is the purpose To To To To ':|']:: ''::'l of the'Champions'Checl<liİt'? :] suggest the kind of language to use ı.ou might tr_v complaining in person 1or face to f-ace) first of all? A So that you won't need to keep ci-ıpies of letters aı-id so on. lf you can manage it. it s worth turning up in some peop|e who seem lo taxe a delight in compıaining about even the most trıviaI things. and notes of when things went wrong etc.. . 67 . ıoo quick to quote them. And a little humour can 1/Know your rights But don't be With a friendly manner.s rı. or the hope that things might improve for the next customer. But they never think of praise.rite a letter to the person -Vou are complaining about.ı.vou might just be offered rveak excuses. If vou rı.ze included the bes1 oI the tips in our checklıst. list a ırumber of pieces of advice to do with complaining. and the less sympathy you are Iikely to get from the firm at fault. the best you'll get will be an apology.ish to make a complaint. Marking your letter for the personal attention of the named indjvidual can be a good ruse. c so that -vou don't spend mone\I on postage and telephone calls. might be funn_v about things. complaining is alwa5. ü.switchboards may help.plain y lhere s little point copies of your letters to them.o..though we don t know how much you'd |ike to be saooled wiıh ill we.: .i J| J. at least for the firsI round. the weaker your legal rights may be. complain immediatel1. dates of telephone calls. ö?]ı. Yet taking the troubIe to remark on good service can also improve standards.. CHECKLİST problems. help anyone allval.s very difficult. Give shops for example a chance to sort things out as part of good 'customer relations'. lt s straightforward enough if you want something putting right for yourself. But often.riting a letter of complaint. and theır letters to you. Why does the Checklist suggest ü. i:l::']:'|'ii::::i:': You should'ask yourself what 1ou want' because . Are you prepared to carry on? / §:r"i:.vou ma_v have to accept just an apolog_v.L??": : . to the right person in tackling a British RaiI ticket collector if you lose your money in a platform chocolate machine. . V Last May we asked for your help and many of you wrote in to tell us about your complaining tips and lessen the sting. 1/stıcı< at İt Don t give up when Y _^/Co yourse|f Y person. CHECKLIST' and answer the cHAMPıoNS.. fbr example. i:. D Recause _vou might be able to solve thc problem on the spot. forget to date it and give your name and address.:r[ #i :li:. the advice is this: ner. B Because .il.ı. a shop.

explaining the fault or problem. (a 5 Decide what's wrong with the watch .lXl:::Hİ:: { ros s i b ıe r Here is a typical First Certificate letter in which you are expected to complain about goods. . surprise. Study it and write a few sentences that you might use in Expressing annoyance. but before you write. . if you are studying in an English-speaking fortnight back from the day you sit the exam?). I would be grateful1I would appreciate it i .' Decision tirne! The situation is quite clear. [the first time I switched it on.TT #:i . etc. by the way) was he or she polite? helpful? not very 2 You must invent a name and address for the shop.England? Australia? Canada? New Zealand? Ireland? on the other hand. or compensatİon. To my annoyancelsurpriselamazement. or give the name of. the number of the invoice and how much you paid.] f you co u ı d / wou ı d ::ş *i'rT.l .) 4 you might want to describe. there are a number of things you must decide: 1 You might have to invent an address where you are staying in the English-speaking country . explain a fault. I was rather/extremely annoyed to discover that . 'You are spending some time in an English-speaking country. . (And.UN|T 16 of the letter types that sometimes appears in the Composition 2 is a letter of complaint or a letter asking what a company can do about something which is not working. rü7rite a letter to the shop expressİng your annoyance. Here is some of the language you will almost certainly want to use in a letter of this kind. . the shop assistant who served you.and make sure you can describe 6 Decide what you want from the company: do you want an apology? do you want them to mend the watch? or replace it? do you want your money back? etc. etc. (And as with any real complaint letter. 3 You may need to invent and quote the date you bought the watch country) use your real address. you must give any relevant information and reference numbers. The new watch you bought only a fortnight ago in a town a few hundred miles away is not working properly. (You can) imagine how annoyed I was when . the fault in English! helpful?) 68 . and request action.HT. O". . Explaining a fault Requesting action The problem is this: [the machine just won't start. and asking what they can do about it. P paper a letter complaİnİng about a holİday that went wrong. often it is connected with explaining what has gone wrong (a fault or condition) and requesting actİon.

. Almost everythİng you can thİnk of goes wrong: it is in fact a disastrous weekend . and print your name underneath] @ Now plan and write this letter: '\While as a student in an English-speaking country. Sİnce then. ManageT. [the watch I would like to know what you can do about it and. . (For notes on the layout..] would you like the manager to do? Return your money? Oİfer to repair the watch free of cost? Or ..and expensive! \ü7rite a letter to the company expressing your feelings and requesting some form of compensation. following the model and questions below.' 69 . [Sign your name here.) Flat 4.. I{ightown Town House.?] I enclose a copy of nıy receipt and would appreciate it if you could give this matter your immediate attention. . fWhat ..? When? For how much?] [What? Have you had nothing but trouble with it? Haven't you been able to use it? Hasn't it kept time at all? Has it been running fast/slow?] time r. pages 29 and 49.UN|T 16 E Now write the letter about the watch. would be grateful if you could/would. .The Clock Shop. you go on a long holiday weekend (by coach) organised by a local company. lThe Cloak Shopl. beginnings and endings of formal English 'business' letters (and examples). refer back to Units 6 and 11.. 01d The Middleton Dear Sir. irst I was extremely annoyed to discover that. East Street. [What do you iook {orward to doing?] Yourş faithfully. .. 15th January 19BB . [What? wore it? put it on? wound it up?] The f [What in I bought. IIarbour Walk.[What?] The problern is/seems to be this..

pictures of Victorian children on the walls. I have a gnawing suspicion that my dear parents never forgot . These are the writer's recollections of his early Christmases. The brown wallpaper could not hide large patches of damp and there was an enormous wash-bowl on a chest of drawers in one corner. which I adored. It was a most unattractive room and yet that night was the most magical. grandfather. Grandmother would never change them. I suspect that nobody really enjoyed these games very much. in the so-called back room. but it never did. nouns and adverbs that come into your head when you think of how that festiva] was celebrated in the past. with a certain amount of controlled reluctance. We were supposed extremely uncomfortable beds on one side . 70 The turkey lunch. of course. mystical night in the whole year. We thanked everybody profusely for the presents and declined another helping of Christmas pudding with great decorum. And yet the games were always keenly contested.or even forgave that fit of bad temper. The only year I ever blotted my copybook was when I sulked for a good hour because my favourite carol was only played once during the all-round-the-piano singing of Christmas songs. though probably not with much enjoyment. except one year when something had gone disastrously wrong and that first mouthful was accompanied by a chorus of splutters. Perhaps each generation thought it was doing the other two a favour. Then compare and discuss your list of words with one or two partners. At about four o'clock we would always gather around the card table and play for two hours. where we played with the latest in plastic toys and tried on for the fourth time our new socks.UNlT What did r 17 you use to do? §7hat's the most important annual festival for most people in your country? Is it New Year? Christmas? Midsummer's Day? lVrite down three adjectives. It was a shapeless. Everyone expressed due approval after their first mouthful. E Read this extract from an autobiography. I was afraid every December that the magic was going to fade. verbs. After lunch the women would retire to the kitchen or rather. We children used to be hurried off at this stage into the front room. Does he have fond memories of them or not? cheating would occasionally be heard.and . even then. We almost invariably behaved well. It was. We all put on our party hats at this stage. I seem to recall. We used to sleep upstairs. an annual fat cigar. dominated the day. which I hated. characterless room with two small. At half past six there used to be more food: cold pork sandwiches. a throwback to a bygone age of segregated partners following a meal. An accusation of to be asleep before nine. sausage rolls and warm mince pies. but we never were. the scullery as it was in those days while the male members of the family sat and smoked. The sme]l of very slightly burnt vegetable and meat hovered in the kitchen both before and for some hours after the meal.

One of his books was spoilt. D It was not considered that important. in the writer's grandparents' home. downstairs in a Victorian hotel. couldn't wait to wear one. D They were only played by some of the family. E 1 Now try to work out the meaning of these words and expressions. The children weren't there. C They were spoilt by people cheating. It was Christmas. C They always found it perfect. B They were a highlight of the day. They loved cigars. He couldn't have any more Christmas pudding. 5 What do we learn about the card games they played? A They were taken seriously. 2 3 4 a bygone hovered Splutters scullery 5 6 7 age 8 sulked profusely with great decorum blotted my copybook 9 a gnawmg susplcron 10 mystical . His parents wouldn't forgive him. 2 §fhat was grandfather's attitude towards wearing A B C D He He He He wore one willingly. refused to wear one.uNlT 17 E questions. 6 The day that the writer describes was probably spent A B C D in the writer's home. protested a little. B It was usually well received. §7hy? 4 The writer A B C D He wanted a song to be played again. upstairs in a hotel. many of which are probably new to you. Now read the passage again and answer these multiple-choice 1 ıwhat did they think of the turkey lunch? A It was generally disliked. was upset one year. a party hat? 3 §7hy did the men smoke cigars that particular afternoon? A B C D The women were busy with other things.

\Write sentences about them like this: had a student teacher there who would always put her arm round you if you fell down. I thought they were going to have a break. §flhenever I saw my aunt. My mother (have) a red face for the rest of the day. the whole embarrassing episode (not take) place. 'my' song was played and sung (and no doubt murdered!) by the rest of them. was going to do. r Here is some of the language you might need to reminisce in English: Single events eventİ I clearly remernber going into that room for the first time I shall neuer forget seeing my best friend on television. And there was a little girl who was always giving everybody her sweets. past tenses (did. the whole embarrassing episode wouldn't have taken place. If she ( ). had done. -':. And there was one horrible boy who was in the habit of pulling the girls' hair until they cried. RegulCr Ve used to sleep in the garden on hot nights.j"']$rar. \üfhen I discovered what had happened. It (be) the first year that grandmother (allow) her to cook it. Do you remember your flrst school? Think of one or two people there you ıü7e liked and one or two that you didn't. I shall never forget seeing her cry one day because she didn't have one left for herself! But there was one teacher who used to smack us quite hard if we didn't listen to what she was saying.UN|T 17 E r" the First Certificate Composition Paper you may be asked to describe a period in the past as well as narrate an experience that you had. there (be) a chorus of splutters. etc. 1 My mother (hope and pray) that the turkey (taste) all right. Grandmother was in the habit of falling asleep over meals. I sulked for an hour. I clearly remember running home in tears one day when he did it to me.f-gthe'i'w'qş|riüler'§. see how one small part of the first passage (end of paragraph 4.. At about 7 o'clock.telling us about his younğer days.ıd. Here are two more examples of expanding a simple situation by using a range of past tenses. and add a verb where there are empty brackets. but I didn't. perhaps she (should taste) it before she (serve) it. Note particularly the forms of the verbs. put the verbs in brackets into a suitable form. E I was hoping and praying that they would ask me to sing my favourite carol to them. .]j:'. §fhen we (take) our first mouthful. but she (not). If I had. 72 . she would always giae me a penny.) are extremely important. wasl were doing. With compositions such as 'Describe an accident you have witnessed or experienced' or 'The best/worst day in my life'. she (not know) that one of the children (come) into the kitchen while she (not look) and (pour) a packet of salt onto it. While I was out. so I went outside for a walk in the snow. perhaps I should have asked what they were planning to do. page 70) could be developed into a 'story'.

.' First you're going to set the scene and then describe a particular event (or events) from 'that day'. but I did.. Use or adapt the 'starters' and prompts. Fortunately the d.UN|T 17 2 I (hope and pray) that he see me. but I r Let's try to combine a lot of the language you have practised in this Unit in one typical First Certificate composition: 'Describe a day you will never forget. . [\X/hat was it like? How big was it?/How many pupils were there in it?] [\X/hat? . Paragraph I used to go to a school called . but his/her . was coming along the road and the driver had to . One day while I was .panicked? started screaming?] [Where?] [\X/hat?] [\XZhy?] [\XZhat?] Hei She crashed into a/an . . . . [Did what? . he started running after me. 4 §fhen he saw what had happened. Paragraph . and answer the questİons to produce the composİtİon. .ran away? disappeared?] [\XZhat?] [How was heishe?] [§7hat condition was it in?] 17 on page 87. \When I (arrive). I (think) he (be) so pleased to Perhaps I (should phone) him to let him know I (come). Paragrapln 2 fDoing what?] [Doing what?] [\Wanted? was going to do?] soI. . . I (burst) into tears and (tell) him that I (never speak) to him again! (be) at home. I remember looking at it and thinking that the driver . [\X/here?] [\X/hat?] Paragraph and I was left to . ..hurry my breakfast? rush about?] [Did she/he walk you to school? take you in the car/ van? walk you to the bus stop?] [\Where? .withabout. . and then my mother/father would She/He (or the bus?) used to leave me and I had to walk . 1 Itwasa. addİng anythİng else you feel you want to. Just at that moment a/an . . was . E Now plan and write composition 73 . I didn't know what he . . .. If I ( ). . (not). I (find) him dancing with another girl. . who was m the habit of .İrr. by myself.. As soon as I (see) what (happen). [name] . . . [§[hat? 3 I know I shouldn't have rushed . the whole embarrassing episode (not take) place. Swerve . Every morning I would . .100 metres from the school? at the school gate? on the corner?] [The rest of the way? the last 50 metres?] [\)fhat was the name of the school?] There was one boy in the school. [name]. . .. . . and his/her car/van (?) finished up . .

the majority of children suffer from constantly having to enter a new learning environment. then answer the multiplechoice questions: A certain amount of controversy has been caused by the publication of a new report by a team of educa- tionalists from Coventry University. The report claims to have statistical evidence that children who at- tend a number of different schools through their parents having to move around the country are more than normally prone to low aca- searched. into a boarding school? ıVhat do you think? are E Read this fictitious newspaper article. absolutely no harm is done to the education of children who change schools regularly .ren were backward in their never heard such rubbish. both go to ordinary State schools. discuss their education regularly with their father. 'Our findings indicate that while the extremely bright child can cope with regular upheaval without harming his or her genera| aca.J. briefly discuss these questions in small groups: 1 what difficulties do you think you would have had if you had had to 2 Even if parents have to move around the country. B It is in a way confirmed by his research. change school quite often during your early education? there good arguments for children to go. headed by Prof. as in our Army schools. my personal feeling is that children should stay in one school. As far as I'm concerned. D It is based on his own experience as a child.' When this was put to Professor Martin. 2 lx/hat do we learn about the professor's own personal opinion? A It is the opposite of what his report has shown. Thomas James. 'We]re not dealing here with opinions. demic progress. Professor Martin's report suggests that A B C D 3 A B C D \X/hat can we conclude about They They They They Captain James' children? have been disturbed by changing schools. who has long suspected that the effect on children whose parents travel to different parts of the country in search of work has not been sufficiently re- Capt.Army children are as experience there was a clear tendency.and I've known quite a few of them . There are also indications.'he says.' well-adjusted as any others. an Army lectuİer for the past 20 years and himself a father of two. B. but simply that child. said: 'I've or disturbed in some way. u.. whatthe professor doesn't appear to appreciate is the fact that in-such situations children will adapt much better than adults. Martin.UN|T 18 What's your own opinion? Before you start reading. 'It'S true.' it may not be good for children to change schools too often.ry personal attitudes that I or my colleagues may have on the subject. C It played a big part in his research. In my experience . for example. have benefited from an Army school education. says Professor Martin. he said that at no time had his team suggested that oll such demic achievement. statistics about education can be misleading. if not more so. 74 . parents should not move around the country. ofan unusually high rate ofpsychological disturbances among such children. 1 According to the first paragraph. However. or even the world. psychological disturbances in children are becoming more common. The professor. our findings are based on research and not o. stresses that this is not simply an expression of long as they keep to the same system.

As I see it. I feel (that) .wonderful places / degrading for animals Now think of more examples yourself and write them down. *rrl.just supply drugs / as important as ever 3 boxing . . According to Professor Martin. which children suffer most from changing schools regularly? A B C D Exceptionally intelligent children.UN|T 18 In comparing children rvith adults. Personally. . . Study this example. Many people would argüe that military service is good for young men. Some (people) would argue that . . writing a composition. To my mind. But a composition may become monotonous if you simply express a string of opinionİ. My feeling is (that) .. .. r common type of First Certificate 'argument' composition is one you are asked to express your own opinion... Many people seem to feel that . At what age do you think people should 1 start school? 5 start a family? 2 start work? 6 retire? 3 leave home? 7 be able to vote? 4 get married? Express your own opİnion using any of the 'starters' above. 75 . but it is still afact that. 1 boarding schools . P O". but to my knowledge . these may be useful: In my view. In my opinion. then write similar sentences with the prompts below and using a variety of the phrases above. .exciting sport / should be banned 4 television _ should educate and inform / should entertain 5 zoos . . . Normal children. B C D more adaptable. but in *y o*n experience it is a complete waste of time. . able to cope just as easİly. but in my experience .good for children / bad effect 2 doctors . but as far as I am concerned No one would deny that. Those from an Army background. Most people believe that . .n -i" \When There are many expressions you can use to preface an opinion. . Those of below-average intelligence. Consider using a combination of these opening phrases as well: . Captain James says that children are A normally better adjusted. . less experienced.

. However.. . On the face of it. .or. . points: use some of the phrases above with the prompts below to make balanced On tlıe face of ir. at this headline and these extracts from three letters. On the other hand.t-İn. but overall I feel that . .. . . I was vember now c hensive school has to pupİls. lıoweaer. . .UN|T 18 E of these phrases: A similarly balanced argument can be expressed using .lı. . i. . . Öİ course children must be given bİaks from work and obviorrlİ. We seem to have fo.brings countries closer together / . breaktasts serving İji.. .room? . In fact.. .. ..(o.. In some ways I agree with people who say that .tr. 5 Most pop music .true / .İ. .could be written and played by chimpanzees . -l The saying 'Life begins at forty' . day with a break!Wİıere williraİİenJİ Whatever next? Television Dro- İ . 3 America . however.. but in reality .uision. . However. it is a language of great complexity. In fact. then ffiffisş1 Sir. .:J:+ffii[i}ii* grammes in place of lessons. 2 Communİsm . . .a waste of money / . .. To . f Cİl lool. ..uo. but in practice. . Buİ to . . 6 International sport . . in practice. 1 Space travel . a combination In theory. Up to a point it may be true that . . a certain extent it's true that . .gott. . .the perfect system / . . . . At first sight. . English appears to be quite a simple language.n that schoo]s are places of learrİİg. . of lunch is necessary.the land of opportunity l . .) . ..Prolect work' with the scantiest ol . . And now breaklast in th.

. and give your own opinion. and Some would argue that .tt.9aves rnothe. schoo] feel like.breaEf.Fing a *iıal a*lvl+a. farnijg .. is f. {or legsons BAD iDEA . tç. .neıqH .a pla.ea. and As far as I am 3 Paragraph 4 A balanced conclusion.ıit*ıoı-ıt .c.ıers) ..' Paragraph Paragtaph Introduction: Is this a new idea? Is it popular in your country? 2 1 State the arguments on the 'side' you don't really believe in yourself. br'ıngs. . Concentrate on the other side of the argument.hİldrerı sharl.ensure.d ofl-e.n not good . . Remember phrases like Up to a point it may be true that . -}lnos<..e. the one you believe to be stronger. . in sympathy with. . -sc. Remember phrases ||ke In my experience.bad e€fect on hoıte. E Now why not try composition 20 on page 87? 77 I . . .rıo c.*han j. .rs ıııorR (cspa. but but on the whole I feel .1 ııci*h some e.ı>orl<İng rno. üı\ld. all e. ıl's not a restqtı.] UNıT 18 §7ould you be in favour of serving children breakfast at the start of the school day? Cover C2 and make notes on the advantages and disadvantages as you see them. .ran -ioqetıPıer .İall5 . .hoice.rarrt@ Now write this composition: 'Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of schoolchildren having breakfast at school..crthe.ins*i+ırtionol İc. Paragraph concerned. E Compare your notes with these: GooD IDEA. for examp|e: To a certain extent it rnay say which side of the argument you feel overall be true that . lİFe.asf. State the pros and cons. .hool İs fiır learning.=rl.the-taxpager chi ldre.tnale.n) has -hc pa14 (er-. .

C or D against the nuımber of each iteın 1 to 8 for the word or Phrase you choose. 6 The last time I A clean B well C smooth D saw him he was 7 After the storm. 1 The man was so unpopular that one day A pulled out B let down C blew someone out D let off the tyres on his car. Follow carefully the instructions about how 1 UN|T 19 will not to record your answers. SECTION A In this section you must choose the word or phrase which best coınpletes each sentence. but he's got a beard now. then answer the questions below: Answer all questions. but I can't agree with you AIn 78 . from their window. 2 \Where do you mark your answers? 3 §7ill you receive the answer sheet before or after the question paper? 4 ıvhat else will be on the answer sheet? (check that they are correct!) 5 §rill they take away marks for wrong answers? 6 How will the examiner calculate your total score on this paper? The Reading Comprehension Paper consists of two Sections and hour is allowed for the Paper. Marks be deductedfor wrong answers: your total score on this test will be the nuınber of correct answers you giııe. Section A contains 25 multiple-choice items which you should try to complete in about 15 minutes. which should show your na?ne and exaımination index nuımber. of B Yet C Although D But 3 I didn't really want a watch. -A do B have C let D make BAt COn DTo - their roof repaired. B. Giı_ıe one answer only to each question. Read them. me to buv one. wouldn't have gone D r. 5 He would never have met her if A hadn't gone B didn't go C he into the little sweet shop. a certain extent I think you're right.scenery B oversight C look D A view In spite 2 A she was older than the rest.vouldn't go good shaven. but the salesman _ A persuaded B talked C suggested D demanded 4 They had a beautiful of the distant mountains . complete this short sample test (only 8 items) in about 5 minutes before reading and 1 How many questions must you answer? r 1 discussing the page opposite. Oıı Your answer sheet indicate the letter A. she still won the race.How to tackle paper 1 Reading comprehension General instructions for the whole Paper Here are the instructions which are usually printed on the cover of Paper Reading comprehension. they had to 8 completely. Indicate your choice of answer in exery case onthe separate answef sheet already giaen out.

6 7 8 9 Read the whole sentence before answering. You can haıe a aiew of the rnountains. D simply do not fit 6A There is a clue at the end of the sentence ('he's got a beard now').In spite of the fact that she was older . . We describe a man who shaves regularly as clean shaaen: we cannot say'well shaüen'r'smooth shaaen' or'good shaven'. but this is not what is wanted here!) 4D This is really 5A This is a pure grammatical item.t if the sentence read.o. although we can say that a man has'a smooth chin'. And C or D? sorneone to demand or suggest You can't grammatically.yetfbut she still 18 This is a test 2C This ü)on . prepositions are 'in ncy opinion f in theory f in some ways'r'at first Unit 18. soınething done' or'get soımething done'. Don't leave anyquestions unanswered! Read ihe ınstructionsvery carefully. although you can let out air if the pressure is too high.. a question of collocation. B. B would only be correct if the sentence tead'talked rne \Well. You have read them often in practice. of course. Don't get stuck on one question:you haven't got time! lf you can't do one. 3 4 Make sure you mark the rlght letter (A. . Think carefully about the meanlng of the whole SentenCe.'an oxersight' or 'a look' . both into buying one' (:persuaded me to buy one).'. 1O Well before the exam. You could pull off a tyre (if you were strong enough!). page 76). but the answer relies mainly on collocation. Section A l 2 Watch your timlng. but you shou|d always read them in the exam to make sure you have to do exactly the same. C and the sense or structure of the sentence. and an optİon. but you carı't'han)e a scenery'.. . ln English as you can.E Answers and Explanations of phrasal verbs.İ.. B and D would only be .'). Phrases wİth the oİh.. You can let down a tyre (: let the air out of). You can't let off a tyre. 3A The clue is in the first part of the sentence ('I didn't really want a watch . The structure is 'haxe since'get'is not given as 8D This is a test of prepositional phrases used particularly in expressing sight' and'on the face of it' (see opinions. is a grammatical item. Don't spend more than 15 minutes on the 25 questions in this Section. (You could haue a look at the scenery. 5 Make sure you write your answer against the right questlon nUmber on the answer sheet. but not pull one out. A3 Exam Advice: Golden Rules for Reading Comprehension Paper. 'B have' must be correct. C or D) on your answer sheet. Choices B. For A to be correct.'She was older than the rest. it would have to read .. read as much and as wldely 79 . would be wrong do sonıething. leave it and come back to at the end. 7B This is another pure grammatical item. although you can blow one up (:put air into one). it Look for grammatlcal and collocatıonal clues Io the answer. bul you can't blow out a tyre. A tyre can blow out. The correct phrase is 'to a certaİn extent'.

B that is always prepared for snow. ıVithin hours of the first snowfalls. md so on. for example? A Farmers cannot produce any more. §(e have to remember. requires snowploughs and vehicles to spread grit or salt. Food supplies in shops. for example. But why does snow have this effect? After all. train services are disrupted and bus services to suburbs and country districts are withdrawn. C or D against tlıe number of each item 9-12 for the answer you choose. vegetables and other essentials . Normal communications quickly begin to suffer as well: telephone calls become difficult and the post immediately takes twice as long as usual. In this section you zuill find after the passage It's interesting. however light. D which has extremes of weather. Britain is country A which expects snow every year. Giae one answer only to eİch question. But there are Countries between these two 'extremes' that normally expect snow some time over the winter months. ComPlete this short sample test section in about 14 minutes before reading r and discussing the answers and explanations opposite. although deliveries are disrupted. 12 There are a number of reasons whv the British are reluctant to invest in snowploughs. Suburban life.not because all these things can no longer be produced or evİn delivered. but mainly because people panic and go out and stock up with food and so on -'just in case'. People eat more vegetables in winter. the Swiss. C The hospital system is more important. The argument against investing in snowploughs in a countly like Britain is İhat they are only used for a few days in any one year. There are those countries for whom the arrival of snorı. You musİ choose the one which You thinkfits best. Old people need the money more. the effect that the arrival of snow has on people in different countries. you should try to complete this section in about 45 minutes. On your answef sheet indicate the letter A.bread. each rıithfour suggested ansuers or ways of finishing. social services. roads (including motorways) are blocked. There are those countries for whom the arrival of the first snow showers is an expected annual event. c for which snow is a miracle. but never receive it regularly or in the samİ quantities every Year. a 11 §7hy are there often shortages of food. And almost within hours there are also certain shortages . A B C D \X/hat does the arrival of snow in Brİtaİn affect most? Travel and communications. l0 c D Bakeries have to close down. B Snowploughs are not used enough. 9 According to the writer.section B of the Reading comprehension paper contains 15 multiple-choice items which test your understanding of (usually) three passages. SECTION B a nuınber of questions or unfinished statements about'it. however. The answer is quite simply a lack of planning and PreParation . Read the passage right through before choosing your answers. and that money could more usefully be put into other things such as the hospital system. at any time of the Year would be almost unheard of. or even a miracle. and would be regarded as a major climatİc catastrophe. the Austrians and the Canadians don't have such problems. B People buy as much as they can. that equipment needed for dealing with snow and ice costs money. To keep the roads clear. B. helping the elderly.and we can't blame the weather forecasters for that. D 80 . For them (and Britain is a prime example of such a country) the arrival of snow quite simply creates havoc. Social services and hospitals. ıWhat is the first one given in the text? A Grit on roads is more effective.

12B You have to read the last paragraph for this question. she. nor does it say anything about people eating more vegetables. The other choices (A 'Surburban life'. but not always. Read the text and the choice carefully to see how that word is used or qualified. . and C 'Social services and hospitals') are all referred to at some point. Exam Advice: Golden Rules for Reading Gomprehension Paper. lt usually will. so B is wrong. so. C is wrong because snow is not 'a miracle' in Brİtaİn. those. or you may have to look at different parts of a text.'. then have to rush the others. 81 . then the passage. Read all four possible answers for each question in detalland don't choose the first you read which just in the Iexi and in an answer (as in 9D above. Remember. Section B l Watch your timıng again. just as in Section A. lt may be. Try to give yourself about 14 minutes for each passage. And D is wrong because the text does not say that the country has 'extremes of weather': the 'extremes' mentioned are countries that do and do not have snow. The text mentions a shortage of bread. 6 7 2 ]-6 as for Read the multiple-choice questions. and notice little words like lt. since it 'creates havoc'. and the last half in particular. and the question refers to the middle of paragraph 2 from the words 'rVithin hours . B is correct: the text says that 'people panic and go out and stock up with food' (:buy as much as they can).UN|T 19 E Answers and Explanations paragraph 2. but are wrong as answers because they are not affected most. 'bus services'. These words are often very important to the sense of a sentence. he. Section A. Find the right part or parts of the text when doing each question. Remember the same pıeces of advice the text. and work out what they refer to. etc. Britain is obvious|y not prepared for snow. but nothing about bakeries closing. Don't think that because a particular word appears 8 Watch out for the meaning of punctuation and conjunctions.15 multiple-choice questions on three texts in about 45 minutes. The first reason given is that 'they are only used for a few days in any one year'. that. Do not spend most of your time on the first passage. 'train Services'. Britain is quoted as an example of a country 'that normally expects snow some time over the winter months'. too. 118 This question refers to the last few lines of paragraph 2. B 'Food supplies in shops' 'telephone calls' and 'the post' all point to D as the correct answer. The references to 'roads'. A is wrong: the text does not say farmers can't produce any more. As the question says. . for example) that that answer is therefore correct. so C and D are also wrong. and then the questıons again before answering them. sounds right or looks right. 9A This is a question about the first paragraph and the first three lines of 10D The important word in the question is the word most. but it may not be! Check against the other possible answers and Don't automatically expect the next answer to come in the lines of the text following the last answer. The answer may be in a few lines. you have to answer . so A is correct. there are a number of reasons why the British are re]uctant to invest in snowploughs. Divide your time and be strict with yourself.

Give yourself as much time as you can to check your . 3 4 82 Read Ihe lnstructlons very caref ully and keep to Make sure your composıtions are 100o/o relevant to the titles. 2 ıX/rite an account of a journey that you will always remember. You must share your time equally between the two that you write. Don't spend all your time on the first composltlon.' ıWhat do you think about boxing and similar sports? be a choİce of questions on the prescribed texts. 5 6 7 8 Make sure you write compositions of the right length. Write what you would say. 1 You have just received a letter from an English-speaking friend inviting you to join him or her on a fortnight's holiday in Malta next summer. They all know what they're doing. then answer the questions below: the PAPER Time: 2: 1 COMPOSITION hour 30 minutes Write two only of the following conxposition exercises. Read the whole paper very carefully before choosing 2 When choosing titles. 3 Imagine you were given the chance to stand up 4 at the United Nations and tell the world's leaders and politicians (in English) about the things that you really feel need to be done in the world today. For each composıtıon. And anyway. work.UN|T 20 How to tackle Paper 2 Composition Exarn guidance for the whole Paper This is an example of the sort of composition paper you can expect in First Certificate exam. think what you want to write and make a plan. or expressing regret and giving reasons why you won't be able to go. Read it carefully. '\ü7hy should boxing be banned? It's an exciting sport. 4 Would you have time to ıvrite a rough and a fair copy of each? 5 Which composition titles would you choose? Those that a b c d e How many compositions must you write? How long is the exam? How much time would you spend on each of the following: reading the whole Paper and choosing? a b c interest you most? seem easiest to write? or a combination of a and b? Why? Exam Advice: Golden Rules for the Gomposition Paper l titles. and must be of betzueen 120 and 180 words each. think carefully about the language you will need. them. Your answers ınust follow exactly the instructions girıen. boxers aren't forced into taking part.) 5 (This will 1 2 3 writing the plan for your first composition? writing your first composition? checking your first composition? writing the plan for the second composition? etc. \ü7rite back accepting and asking for further information.

think of a good reason. make .a personal letter or a 'business' letter? So what kind of language will you use . read and check it for: grammar. for checking. 6. did you feel? what happened? why was it so memorable? etc. it is very easy to make mistakes . (Remember that the friend might well have suggested dates for the holiday.) . If yoı can't think of a journey.e 3ıourself time to check what you haae written! Ve suggest you allow 10_1_5 mins. As you answer or discuss these questions. for planning. 1 \what kind of letter do you have to write . 11 and 16 of this book. for planning and writing) and 5 mins. . . exercİses and letters in Units 1. .vriting (a total of 40 mins. a sea voyage. B3 a journey that you will always remember? If so. 7.UN|T 20 A brief revision of cornposition writing Do all the following exercises to plan and write each of the compositions from the sample Paper opposite.25-3O mins. the correct vocabulary. so you will have to refer w. . an aeroplane flight? who was rvith you? hoıı.ill probably be a simple letter of three paragraphs. Write back accepting and asking for further information) or expressing regret and giving reasons why you won't be able to go. exercises and examples in Units 2.mistakes of all different kinds which you would not usually make. And what else should you check? \ü7hen 1 The Letter you harre just received a letter from an English-speaking friend inviting you to join him or her on a fortnight's holiday in Malta next summer.. 4 Decision tirne: Are you going to accept or refuse the invitation? If you to them. look agaİn at the notes. |2 and |7 of this book. An important reminder writing a composition. look again at the notes.reasonably formal or informal? 2 §/hich of the following will you put 3 at the top of the letter: your own name? your own address? your friend's name? your friend's address? the date? §7ill you start the letter with 'Dear Sir or Madam. \What will you write in each? 5 This 2 'ih. .? are going to refuse. so refer to earlİer Unİts as much as you need to.'? And how will you end it? \X/hat form will you use: something like 'Yours faithfully. . a journey by road. When you have written each composition. . 1 Can you think of brief notes: when was it? how old were you at the time? was it a train journey. You can work on your own or with a partner.e Narrative Cornposition Write an account of a journey that you will always remember. imagine one and make up answers to the questions above. for r. §(/e can't cover all the points agaİn here. As you answer or discuss these questions. So always giı.

As you answer or discuss these questions. The paper on page 82. 9 and |4 of this book. . however.? Make a list. Although . 1 Think of your first family home and think how you will describe it. 8 and 13 of this book. and Paragraph 3 (or 4) . §frite what you would say. etc. went ar.d was eating. look again at the notes. what is it like now? etc. to the paragraph notes. small cold bathroom. etc.UNIT 20 2 Try to tell the story in three tenses? stages: Paragraph 1 . 1 \what kind of 'speech' are you being asked to write . as if in your autobiography. \what other 4 And you will be using joining words such as when.number of rooms. generally you will have to write one or the other. 3 §7hat words or phrases can you think of to join ideas. Make a list of other joining words and phrases you may want to use.for example. wall-to-wall carpeting. 2 picture the apartment or the house in your mind's eye and add.large fiower garden.a formal.. the most important point first or last? we 84 . Paragraph 1: Introduction: §fhere (town/village/street) was the house/ apartment? How far was it from school/your father's work/the centre? Can you describe it in general terms? Can you describe the outside? Paragraph(s) 2 (and 3): the inside of the apartment/house .g. exercises and descriptions in Units 3. ueranda.\What? 3 you will be using past tenses e. . then Paragraph(s) 2 (and 3?) .Before the journey. the first family home (apartment or house) that you remember as a child.§7hat?. stone fioors.g. words and phrases you want or need to use e. unemployment. exercises and 'speeches' in Units 4. such as and. look again at the notes.Paragraph 3 (or 4): Conclusion: §fhat was it like when you left? Or. 3 The Description A composition paper will rarely contain a narrative and a descriptive composition. As You answer or discuss these questions. . As rıell as . down some rough ideas under paragraph headings. . might have contained this composition: Describe. human rights. and Apart from . . as soon as and after. and so on? Make a list of points you want to make. Then order them in the way you think they will have most effect . Jot - 4 The Speech Imagine you were given the chance to stand up at the united Nations and tell the world's leaders and politicians (in English) about the things that you really feel need to be done in the world today. . or an informal one? so how might you start? How would you address the 2 §7hat things do you think need to be done in the world today? Do audience? need to spend more on education in developing countries? should-we ban all nuclear arms? And what about the problems of crime.. if you still live there. some details of each.

. . what will Paragraph(s) 2 (and 3) contain? 85 . what other sports are 'similar' to boxing for the sake of this argument?) 3 This will probably be a three-paragraph composition.. and write two or three alternative closing sentences. . They all know what they're doing. this. howeıer. (And by the wav. or in discussion.g. look again at the notes. . and Paragraph 3 (or 4) is a balanced conclusion with your own opinion.'? What other sentence patterns can you write down that you might be able to use? 5 Make notes for the composition under paragraph headings.' V/hat do you think about boxing and similar sports? As you answer or discuss these questions.And what about phrases to order your points e. exercises and examples in Units 5.. etc. FirstlylFirst of all. .. How will you finish your 'speech'? Think carefully. And anyway. on your own. 10.o sides of an argument: 'Atfirst sight . 15 and 18 of this book. make two lists of brief notes .g. If paragraph 1 is an introduction of the theme. .) 4 Do you remember the kinds of sentences that you can use when putting forward tıı.uNlT 20 3 \x/hat about some of the language you will need? ıWhat 'condİtional' sentences might you want to use e.? . Nextf And thenlSecondly. you will need to mention some of the pros and cons of the argument. . the other against. Make a list of other phrases like - 4 And what about expressing opinions? Starting with In my opinion.. §[hat should go in each? (In other words. . . If I had the power) I would . . 1 \x/hich of the following are you being asked to do: a) write in favour of boxing as a sport? b) write against boxing as a sport? c) write the arguments for and against boxing? or d) express your own opinion about boxing and other sports like it? 2 In order to express your own opinion. In list in favour of boxing. . draft a brief plan of what you want to write. make a list of nhrases you might want to use. . boxers aren't forced into taking part. . 5 The Argurnent Cornposition 'Why should boxing be banned? It's an exciting sport.

Describe your ideal home.) \X/hat advantages and disadvantages can . Two English-speaking friends have come to spend some time with you and you have taken them to school/college with you for a day.SPEECH. UNIT 9 . and would like a good friend to come and see it and spend a weekend with you. Write the letter. adding directions on how to get there. (A videophone is a telephone which will allow speakers to see each §fould you have one? you foresee? B6 other.Twenty more composition topics l Compositİon Type Coınposition Exercise UN|T 1 LETTER You have just moved İnto a new flatlet.' ıWrite the story that led up to it. After the events have taken place. the two teams sİt down to a meal together. and telling him or her what you think. UN|T 2 NARRATlVE Describe one day in your life that you will never forget. UN|T 8 DESCRlPTloN You have recently started at a new job. UN|T 7 NARRATlVE This is the last sentence of a story: 'That was the last tİme she ever spoke to him. and you have been asked to give a vote of thanks to your host team.SPEECH. UN|T 10 ARGUMENT In the future. college or place of work. apartment or house.. \ü/rite what you would say. your new school. a new school or college or started Describe. \Write what you say as you show them around. we shall probably have 'videophones'. §frite apologising for not replying immediately. An English-speaking friend wrote to you a few weeks ago to ask your advice about whether he or she should leave school and get a job. UN|T 3 UN|T 4 DESCRlPTloN . UN/T 5 UN|T 6 ARGUMENT LETTER Outline the advantages of not having a television in your home. as if in a letter to an English-speaking friend. or stay at school for another two years and go to college. either because it was so marvellous or because it was so awful. A sports club of which you are a member has been invited to another club to a one-day meeting.

and what can be done to keep them to a minimum? UN|T 16 LETTER §(hile on holiday in a town in an English-speaking country.Coınposition Type Composition Exercise UN/T 11 LETTER You are considering going to an American university to continue your studies. you were shown reconstruction of a bank robbery on television. Because of the lack of brochures and the negative attitude of the assistant. Describe any exciting sporting event you have taken part in or attended aS a Spectator. \What do you think? 87 . how to use various pieces of equipment) as you show them round the kitchen and living-room. you went to the local Informatİon Centre to find out what to see. where to go. a a UN/T 14 . specialist CourSeS. UN|T 17 UN|T 18 UN|T 1 NARRAT|VE DESCR|PTION . §7rite a strong but polite letter to the Tourist Services Manager stating your complaints and suggesting ways they might improve their service to holidaymakers and other visitors. you came awaY with nothing. ıWhat are some possible problems. Write what you would say (pointing out.SpEEcH. 9 You are renting your apartment for a week to an Englishspeaking family you know. etc. \)frite what you would say to such a person while you are helping him or her to make the sounds correctly. methods of payment. \Write an account of a day or a weekend that changed your UN|T 12 UNIT 13 NARRAT|VE DESCR|PT|ON life. UN|T 20 ARGUMENT It has been said in some countries in recent years that parents expect too much of schools and that they (the parents) should contrıbute more to theır chıldren's educatıon. UN|T 15 ARGUMENT Sometimes three generations with very different attitudes and lifestyles live together in one family home. etc. however. §frite a description of the three 'bank robbers' (two men and woman) as if for the police. Your own native language most probably has sounds in it which are difficult for a foreign learner to produce. §flrite an article for a magazine in which you describe your memories of being seven years old.SPEECH. for example. As part of a'witness observation test'. \üfrite a letter to your nearest American Embassy requesting information regarding entrance requirements.


etc. True/False statements. sentence transformation. . mu ltiple-choice questions. grammar practice.Key to Exercises This Key contains lJnit-by-IJnit answers to all exercises such as open comprehension questions. lt does not contain Phase C model compositions.

Westwood Avenue. 'vaiuable antique furniture' and 'd45./They began their discussion when/after they had watched the film. to have it repaired. . . 8 Neighbouls were worried anci there were eyewitnesses. for inviting me. . you like to come as well? 5 ./The man went to prison because he was found guilty of stealing.4D. . Ringwood. 4 Eight years.. . 5 a novel or autobiography. 2 The journalist heard the judge's verdict before he rang his newspaper. Surrey Larkshill Road. 4 a newspaper report. 9 rusty. .. . her family name before she got married. I won't/shan't be able to come/go with you. lAe 1 It was a woman. ./She asked her friend for some advice because she was very worried./I went and bought the computer when/ after I had read all about it.o rooms have been converted into one and the small bedroom has been turned into a shower room.5c UN|T wristwatch. 178. 6 False. so I didn't hurry.6 True 2 worn. 2 The centre light has been replaced by wall lights and an old-fashioned firepiace has been put in. 57. 7 It was a house. . 1987 llTla 4. 1 They had had all the rubbish cleared away and had done: And with harıe something lEE] l I checked the contents before I locked my suitcase. 4 .b 3. . 4 She went to see the doctor before she phone. . . 4 I was lost. owners. 3 . Long Drive. if you'd like to come to the theatre with us? 2 . attempts were being made today'.il Contents. 3 163. Bristol Road. 3 torn. very much for the invitation/ . c 2. 2 She was very worried. 54. 3 Al1 the furniture had been moved around and a new photocopierJ computel and coffee-machine (had been) installed.' 6'1Sth-century house'./I calied a taxi because f İlıougnt I was going to be late for my appointment. England 23rd May. 10 dust. 5 'The fire was thought to have been starled by a gas explosion. 4 d lA4l 1 True.3 False. . Eolı 'The Firs'.000 worth of damage'. 8 False gZ l Possible completions: 1 . UN|T 3 What's it like? lTTlrney are taken from: 1 stage directions for a play. Hampshire I2T B34 4 c/o Mr & Mrs James./Not a penny.for inviting me. 6 . . ale believed to be on a touring holiday./I asked a passer-by the way to the Town Hall because I was lost.3 b. East Moors. so he went to prison. 2 a leaflet about a castle or historic house: 3 a personal letter or postcard./She phoned her office when/after she had been to see the doctor. Kent. 5 faded. Little Village. had plenty of time. 5 I thought I was going to be late for my appointment. 4 Tıı. . 2 '. 3 Fourteen years old. had nice evergreen bushes planted. 4 stained.I Ilg l l Derby Avenue (no town/city mentioned).5. 3 The man was found guilty of stealing. 2 a. love to come/ . for the invitationl . l 7 True. lga l All F'alse. |987 Northington. 5 False. She mentions her maiden name. so I called a taxi. 3 They watched the film before they began their discussion. . 3 True. 5 Nothing. 2 True. 3 'The llg I l A 2 What happened? lıTl zc. 1986 Southtown. 8 cracked./The journalist rang his newspaper when/after he had heard the judge's verdict. July 3. 2 We have had the centle light replaced by wall lights and (have) had an old-fashioned fireplace put in.4 True. he was the son of the previous owner and his father had put the ticket on the watch. 1987 Exbourne. 2 He had probably inherited it from his father.2 [PTl l twisted. locked my suitcase when/after I had checked the laCll False.4 True.KEY: UN|TS 1-3 UN|T 1 What about coming to see us? llİ-l l c. 2 Twenty-six years ago.rue. . computer and coffeemachine installed.3B. 6 damp. so she asked her friend for some advice. 3 They had had all the furniture moved around and (had had) a ne\. 4 They have had two rooms converted into one and (have had) the small bedroom turned into a shower room. be delighted to come. . 3 Forty years old.v photocopier.J her office. 11 grease lETl l I the rubbish had been cleared away and nice evergreen bushes had been planted. d. 21st March./I didn't hurry because I had plenty of time. . 5 I read all about the computer before I went and bought one..' 4 'splendid 1Sth-century house'. . Yorkshire YY3 5AB 19 October.J. and 'first-floor rooms' are mentioned. 7 peeled. 2 Flat 6. . so I asked a passer-by the way to the Town Hall.

a 31. often paid less at in ri.. It almost certainly suggested that students should not have a part-time job. They need 3 llNlT 6 What's your excuse? llTl rr. b More than 20 minutes. 3 I ran to my car. less for that? And last but not least we shoııld reıııeıııber r/ıar most religions say that all people should be treated as equals. 3 (How had the kidnapper contacted Ray Wallace?) B. eVerything. They need nailing down. and . 7 I think you should talk to a solicitor.things that Mrs \X/illiams hopes her daughter won't 4 She talks more about herself and her own family here than the objective pros and cons of the argument. one of which sinks in water with a girl inside. 2 That was the time Ray was told to go to the churchyard. 3 Points: . Because he was still thinking about the meeting. Paragraph . deafening. Upper Dicker. 2 False.families rı. so why should \\.aste her time on. llgl l Il+'] False. 6 Some floorboards are loose.things that A.2 False. Anotlıer strong qrgLrnteltt. clicking lısl z A. plunged into the long grass. 7 True./or pal. 6 True. e a Ford Escort. d 40 minutes.ork. InTl Çrne writer is sitting) in a spaceship/on the flight deck The name James Read.KEY: UN|TS 4-7 lES-l l The windows are very dirty. They need shampooing. f Coldharbour Road.1: With a part-time job students can help societ1. _you so UN|T 7 How did it end? [A2l It's probably going to be about an accident involving two vehicles.4A. 3 \Wallace for his absence. They need cleaning. Paragraph 3: The money students earn can help their t-amilies financially. . took out his revolver.3 A.3B. d Bishopstone.4 A.6B lATl l Paragraphs 2. is not as much fun or not as interesting as skilled work. 7 Because he suspected one of the committee members. closed the door. looked fired. c 15 yards.. e the A26 2 a Kevin. They need washing. 4 True.5 B That was the year the story took place. 4 You would be (well) advised to forget the rvhole thing. The curtains are filthy.3 False. as ır-el1 as themselves.hich students learn to get on with a lot of different people. 3 True. 5 The best thing you can do is to think the matter over MzB. 2 Because they had not received an apology from Ray llNlT 4 What's happening? lıT] z B.5B. polishing. 7 The carpets are filthy. IEZ l l My advice to you is not to tell anyone about it. . 3 I really must apologise for not returning your book before.4 B. 3 That was how much Ray was told to take. and 4. rı. 8 False.hich students can do which is useful to the 6 Sorry I left/Sorry for leaving you to arrange again. torch right at me) shouted. 4 He went into the lounge and sat at his desk.e pa}. 2 Please accept my apologies for not telephoning you to discuss the problem. . caught sight of a movement below. 6 He had received another letter or note from the kidnapper. ringing. 2 Tlne wooden floors look very dull.3 2 Possible summaries: Paragraph 2: Working can give students useful experience of the real world. got in. They need oiling. 4 The door hinges are rusty. c Tarring everyone the same is that all jobs are important. b Susan. put it into first gear. 9 False. and drove off as fast as I could. 4 That was the telephone number James dialled. communit5. and flew out carrying a mouse in its beak.hich need extra income. Sussex out. 5 Not attending the meeting. 5 The woodwork is nearly bare. 8 I'm sorry I ('ve) caused/I'm sorry for causing much trouble. .l lEİl Possible answer: The first point I would like to ınake in favour of paying ever_vbod_v the same wages or salary İs that most people work about the same number of hours.e llTl l extract is probably from a thriller or detective Story. llC-. a §Vhy did Ray \i/allace write his letter on 'Vicarage' notepaper?) C ft4|Z llNlT 5 Are you for or against? llİl rlıe recent editorial was about the pros and cons of students doing part-time work. It needs painting. (When did James open and read the letter?) C. 10 True llC] l lh".rvork ş. 8 Because he said he had better warn the others that Ray suspected something.5 B of a spaceship. shone his l lle Il True.lrs Villiams' father thought teenagers should be interested in. are the words connected with sound or noise: high-pitched. started the engine. 2 The bird hovered for a few moments.3 A. 5 True.4 True le]l l The guard opened the door. whirring. Arıd arıother reason for eqıa| salaries is that unskiiled rr.

there was wide consultation and a public enquiry. she wanted to be a sİnger. 2 Iü7hat I am really interested in is how manv students there are in a class. 3 On the one hand (it is true that) there are many oldfashioned zoos which were built in the 19th century and which are worse than many human prisons. 3 §fhat I did not (quite) understand was whether the recreational activities are included in the price. 48. Text C is-from a newspaper artic]e. he became assistant manager five years ago.5D llZ l lert A is from a factual brochure about Jersey. 5 -. lı l 2 In March 1986. 15 the -. 2 B. unfortunatel. 5 A courses cost. UN|T 9 What can l say? llgl l lA4| accolade. producing oil at \X/ytch Farm. Mr Holland kept talking to her. 7 New Zealand. parks' which try to recreate the animals' natural environment.4c. 5 \X/hat I would really like to know is how vou choose your families. 14 -. perm_ission was finally given by the Secreİary of State for Energy. 4 What I would (really) tike you to explain is why you only run six-week courses. 4 the. 3 Canada.3 D letter is much more informal than the second. After leaving Drama School. a. 4 humble. 5 I'd like to express my deep . she was discovered bv a Hollywood producer.2 True. 4 Having been given the wrong location. 2 While all wild animals are obviously happier living ftee. answers: give them some freedom. 4 She must be one of the most superb actresses alive. listed buildings and ancıent monuments. 2 Canada.8 the. they spent a long time looking for the scene of the accidenİ. residential areas. she -has made lETj rrıe first lgİ] l Informal-Formal 5 Informal-Formal 2 Informal-Formal 6 Formal-Informal 3 Formal-Informal 7 Informal-Formal 4 Formal-Informal 8 Informal-Formal l 83 l Possible sentences: 1 §7hat I would really like to know is how much the UN|T 10 What are the pros and cons? lnı--]z C. 6 the. 2 Before coming to this company) Mr Smith worked as a teacher in a language school. §Zhile playing 'Juliet' on the London stage. he learned a lot about people.g. 4 Canada. After working here for 40 years. 8 trace 1 C.6 Canada. or b by pipeline to one of three possible terminaİs. she worked in the theatre for some years. 7 reluctance. 5 platitudes. lEg ] Possible answers: ten films and won dozens of awards. UN|T 8 Can you describe the place? lıT|zB. 6 joint. In fact. 3 Thinking that perhaps the driver of the second car could help. Text B is taken from a personal letter. 5 So as to avoid. 5 Not wanting any publicity. 8 False 13 llO l l a is a short newspaper article. he couldn't do much to help. 5 New A. for as long as I can remember. or 7 years after they had started 3 (The major problem was) how to transport the oil away from the oilfield. they drove off without giving their names.3A. 7 False. 7 False.. 3 C. as far as possible.3 False. 6 I'm nowhere near as clever or as talented as our next guest on the show. 2 trance. . but it may be the only way to help some species to survive. he has had a number of positions in ğe -ork company. 2 In a the Council thought the pipeline was best: the writer of the letter b thought rail transport was best. -. ı In |979. I did enjoy it. 2 Realising that he had to keep her conscious. 5 D.5 True. 2 This must be the most wonderful day in my life. Many people agree that no animals should be kept in captivity. he called to him. but on the other (hand) there are many new '-İldlif. b is a letter to a newspaper. 1 Before becomİng an actress. 3 C. neaertheless certain forms of captivity can stil'İ UN|T 11 Could you tett me about it? E lıolı Zealand. Iü7hile working there. The options were: a by rail. 3 He has been a truly wonderful friend to *.y İt İs becomİng very difficult for some of them because Man has chaİged " or is changing their environment in so many diffİrent ways.İt (for what has happened).-8 Canada tNew Zealand. 3 glimpse. 4 Although animals breed best 'in the wild' or in their own natural habİtat. |2 -. ecologically sensitive areas. 4 No. Since coming to here. 6 B lE2lPossible 1 I'd like to thank you for an absolutely marvellous evening. 10 -.2 c.4 False.4 D. 6 §7hat I am really interested in is what examinations can be taken.KEY: UN|TS 8-11 lETl l Being old and weak. Since meeting that producer.6 lETl l -.3 -.2 11-. 9 -. |ETl Possible combinations: 1 lagll False. the.

3 The painter said (that) he would soon get rid of the stain. I promised myself I would sell my car as soon as possible. carefully in cold water. to cap it all. I'd get two strong people to help. About six months ago I was invited to visit some friends in the country.2c. he is pretty weak physically. For a start. ]. llNlT 13 What do they look like? lAİl Valentin and Father Brown are not described.4 False. Just as I was telling her a short story. Take care not to try to start the engine until the car is moving easily. But from some llNlT 14 How can l help you? then on. Sto.0 He said (that) he was looking forward very much to seeing the final result. 2 To plant flowers: Don't plant the flowers until you've dug out all the weeds.y 1: Road accident situation g+] Possible combinations: 1 As well as being extremely handsome. the baby woke up and started cryİng. She spilt shampoo all over the floor. 2 O'Brien.7 Lady Margaret Graham. as I got/was getting out of the car. a motorcyclist ran into my car door. [ET-l 5 A. he also has a rather mean mouth. Just as I was reversing. everything went wrong. 3 Despite being stilt in his twenties. If I were you. They were putting the children to bed when I arrived.5A lıo|ıB. 3 Advice and warning: someone is talking about plastering a wall. acid lgi-] l To prepare vegetables: First wash the 6 The officer asked the artist if he knew how much the carpet had cost. 1 2 lıı-lzA. The artist said (that) he thought the picture was or some other substance. 4 E going very well. The officer told the painter (that) there was some detergent in the kitchen. I had just turned into the main road when . she was an extremely graceful dancer. otherwise they'll taste horrible. so I set out early. 2 B. don't overcook them. as soon as I picked her up. and then put the car into second gear. vegetables A warning: someone is talking about using paste. They did not go back to sleep until the film on TV had finished.4D [ETl l Instructions and advice: someone is giving a cookery demonstration. so I was quite happy. 9 The artist asked the Field Marshal if he could/ should hand him his baton.6 False. or else the plants will die.t. While I was lying in hospital. she is surprisingly dark-skinned. Never plant when the temperature is below zero. 5 He is quite good-looking and reasonably charming. I had just turned on the TV when the five-year-old woke up. he is still . From then on. everything went wrong. I had no sooner cleaned the bathroom than the baby wanted to be changed. he (a/so) had great charm. 4 To write a composition: You should make a plan and some notes first. 8 Despite being fairly well built. And finally. If I were you.I crashed into another car. otherwise it won't start. 8 He said (that) he was sure things would go better the next day.l very athletic. 3 To push-start a car: Make sure you take the handbrake off first. the six-year-old got up and went to the bathroom. 7 The painter told the Field Marshal (that) he was sorry about what had happened.2 l True. 6 O'Brien. I was looking forward to it. 2 Although she was somewhat plump. For a start. lldl l The Duchess of Mont St Michel and both her daughters. 8 Lord Galloway. 8 §7hat I would (really) like you to explain is how many specialist options one can choose.KEY: UNITS 12-14 7 lVhat I did not (quite) understand was how you arrange sponsorship. It might be an idea to water the ground before you plant them. 5 Instructions and advice: someone is coaching a tennisplayer. Story 2: Eventful babysitting situation A couple of years ago I was asked to babysit for friends of my parents. I promised myself I would never go out babysitting again.4B. 7 Although he must be at least fifty years old. I'd cut them up into quite small pieces.3B. \X/hile I was sitting on the bus on the way home. 3D. \Whatever you do. As if that wasn't enough.3B. a cyclist came along and rode into the side of the car. 4 The artist asked if/whether he could wash his hands. 2 Instructions and advice: someone is talking about planting seeds. 4 In addition to having slightly cruel eyes. 3 False. 5 O'Brien. I had no sooner started to cross the road to help the cyclist than a taxi knocked me down. I did not move again much until they had taken my leg out of plaster. he was nearly bald. As if that wasn't enough. 5 He asked the Field Marshal where the cloakroom was. 6 c ll+] l True. 8 False UN|T 12 What did you do next? laEl ı D. 4 Dr Simon. 6 Advice and warning: someone is talking about using a sharp knife) saw or other tool. And then to cap it all. False. 6 In spite of the fact that she is Scandinavian. 4. 3 O'Brien and Lady Galloway. 5 7 False. Then it might be an idea to decide .

3 To a certain extent it's true that America is the land of opportunity. D 4 I agree./Only do the second part when/after you have done the first part./Only turn off the record player when/after the record has finished. if you don't. the whole embarrassing episode zoould not have taken place.2 B.4A.4 B./Only sİgn the letter when/after you have read it. To my amazement. 4 B.uvas when I had to change room for the third time. 2 Don't sign the letter until you have read it. If she had. 5 Don't paint a second coat until the first coat is dry/ has dried. communism appears to be the perfect system.3 c. the writer has fond memories of Christmas past.. 3 Many people believe that boxing is an exciting sport. Perhaps I should haııe phoned him to let him know I was comirıg. It was the first year that grandmother had allowed her to cook it.3 False. I burst into tears and told him that I would never speak to him again! [le|l True. IVhatever you do. using sleeping policemen. but my own feeling is that it should be banned. make sure you check what you have written. İn practİce. the whole embarrassing episode zuould not haDe taken place. but as I see it they are degrading for animals.3c.4 las. 6 Don't start the composition until you have made a plan. 5 A. In actual fact. 4 No one would deny that television should entertain. lEZ l Possibie beginnings: 1 At first sight. 4 D possible sentences: I was extremely annoyed to discover that the hotel was still being built. lırzD. 5 c UN|T 18 What's your own opinion? laE] ı A. I would appreciate it if you would deal with this matter as soon as possibie. Ilg l More and more children are being killed and injured on the roads and the standard of driving is still poor.l z c. lETl Possible sentences: 1 5 lae l Yes. D. Suggested solutions include making roads narrower. . .2 A. If I had. I fourıd him dancing with another girl. The most sensible solution (to the problem) would be for someone from each department to fetch their post from the Post Room. I thought he would öe so pleased to see me. face on article is going to be about the dangers children British roads. My mother had a red face for the rest of the day./Only start the composition when/after you have made a plan. . space travel seems to be a waste of money. but she didn't. lıC] ı B. but it is a fact that it should also educate and inform. but in my experience they are good for them.2 False. 2 In theory.KEY: UNITS 15-18 what is going to go in each paragraph. UN|T 17 What did you use to do? lA2lYes./Only paint a second coat when/after the first coat is dry/has dried. bııt I didn't. 3 Yes. What we need to do is (to) impose a speed limit outside the factory. lVhen I arriııed. lgS l l Don't do the second part until you have done the first part. As soon as I saw what zuas happening. 4 Up to a point the saying'Life begins at forty'may be . However. the hotel refused to accept my Imagine how annoyed I . 5 The first priority is to find out what is making people feel ill. The problem was this: the camp site manager had let our reserved caravan to another family. UN|T 16 What can you do about it? Many people seem to feel that boarding schools have a bad effect on children. you could make a lot of simple mistakes. what we need are a number of different lunchtime 'sittings'./Only turn off the gas when/after the water has boiled. 3 Don't turn off the gas until the water has boiled. credit card. False 3 praying that the turkey would taste all right. 6 c lET] l My mother was hoping and UN|T 15 What's the solution? laTl rn.. On the other hand . 2I rıas hoping and praying that he zııould öe at home. 5 Many would argue that zoos are wonderful places. but as far as I am concerned they are as important as ever in society.3 |-gl So-e B. Perhaps she should haüe tqsted it before she seraed it. 8 Don't buy the ring until she has agreed to marry you./Only write an answer when/after you have read the question carefully. . 7 Don't write an answer until you have read the question carefully. howevel.5c lAa 1 c. having better training for drivers and a stricter driving test. one answer may be for each office to have its own thermostat so that they can regulate the heatİng. \)7hen we took our first mouthful./ Only buy the ring when/after she has agreed to marry you. 2 I agree.2 B. 2 Some people would argue that doctors just supply drugs. 4 A. 4 Don't turn off the record player until the record has finished.. . . She did not know that one of the children had come into the kitchen while she was not looking and (had) poured a packet of salt onto it. there was a chorus of splutters.3 D.

5 In some ways I agree with people who say that most pop music could be written and played by chimpanzees.a combination of those that interest you and which you can write best in English./9O minutes. but overall I personally feel that . UN|T 19 How to tackle Paper 1 Reading Comprehension General instructions 1 A1l of them. UN|T 20 How to tackle Paper 2 Composition Exam guidance for the whole Paper 2 One hour and 30 minutes. However. .then the same for the second composition. 4 your name and examination index number. . 6 On the face of it. . 5 No. 4 No. . d 5 minutes. 2 On the separate answer sheet. c 25-3O minutes.KEY: UN|TS 19-20 true. but . 3 This is just a rough guide to make sure you use the time allowed sensibly: a 5-1O minutes (careful reading. it may be true that international sport brings countries closer together. 1 Two. thinking and choosing). 6 The total score will be the number of correct answers you give./1} hours. . 5c . ... . b 5-10 minutes.. 3 Before. .

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