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ESTIMATION ESTIMATION OF TURBOMACHINERY FLOW LOSSES THROUGH CASCADE TESTING

A lecture by KMM SWAMY & R SENTHIL KUMARAN


Scientists S i ti t P Propulsion l i Division, Di i i National Aerospace Laboratories for two day y seminar on

Loss Mechanisms in Steam and Gas Turbines


held at M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Date: 18 18-07-2009 07 2009

Types of losses in turbomachinery


Losses associated with boundary layers / viscous phenomena - Friction, wakes, separation, secondary flows, mixing Losses associated with compressibility effects - Shock losses Miscellaneous losses - Tip clearance flows, disk-friction, partial admission, incidence

18/07/2009

LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

Representation of loss and efficiency

Turbine Pressure loss coefficient = (P01 - P02) / (P02 - p2) Energy loss E l coefficient ffi i t = (h2 - h2s) / C22 Efficiency t =(h01 h02)/(h01 h02s)
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Compressor Pressure loss coefficient = (P01 - P02) / (P01 - p1) Energy loss coefficient = (h2 - h2s) / C12 Efficiency c =(h02s h01)/(h02 h01)
KMM SWAMY

LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

Stages of tests to understand turbo machinery flows


Linear Cascade Quick and easy technique excellent for parametric study Simulation of 3D flow not possible Low speed large scale test rig Cl Closer to t the th engine i condition diti Enables detailed measurements Simulates engine Reynolds number Annular cascade tunnel A closer approximation to actual condition Model design and experimentation complex Does not include the rotation effect High speed rig M More complex l Detailed measurements difficult Closer to engine condition

Ease e of measurement

Engine High g speed p rigs g Low speed large scale Rigs Annular Cascade Linear Cascade Flow field complexity

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

Linear cascade model & cascade testing

s
S - Pitch - Stagger
T bi blade Turbine bl d row Li Linear Cascade C d model d l

A linear cascade model is an array of aerofoils stacked at uniform pitch and stagger representing a section of a turbo machinery blade row. Linear cascade testing is a simplified experimental method for evaluating aerodynamic performance of turbo machinery aerofoils where Coriolis effects and curvilinear effects are ignored. The three-dimensional flows can be simplified to two-dimensional flows by using linear cascades.
18/07/2009 LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES KMM SWAMY

Cascade tests for Axial machines and radial machines


Axial machines
The blade row is unrolled from a cylinder by a simple transformation x = z, y=r

Radial machines
Data obtained from conventional axial i l cascades d shall h ll b be applied li d b by conformal transformation from radial (z = rei) to axial plane ( = +i)
Where,

=lnz,

=lnr

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

SIGNIFICANCE OF CASCADE TESTS


Flow parameters such as inlet flow angle angle, true relative Mach number number, true Reynolds number etc., can be simulated with ease Can provide aerodynamic performance data like blade loading / lift coefficient, profile loss / drag coefficient and flow deflection Easy to map pressure and velocity distributions over the aerofoils and in the p passage g Detailed studies on laminar, transition & turbulent boundary layers over turbo machinery aerofoils can be carried out Separation and vortex formation studies Local boundary layer profile and shear stress measurements over the aerofoils can also be made It is simple to generate data at off design conditions Ideal method for comparison of different profiles for the same design or in other words p of aerofoils optimization Can provide data bank for validating CFD codes
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Limitations of Cascade testing


Curvilinear and Coriolis effects are ignored Predominantly a cold flow test method Offers no information on three dimensional flow structure Lack of information on unsteady flow fields A very difficult process while applied to radial flow machines Can be an expensive exercise Cascade test data require appropriate treatment if used for through flow analysis like stream line curvature method

Streamlines across a multistage turbomachine

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

Cascade wind d tunnel tu e - C Classification ass cat o


1. Subsonic, transonic & supersonic 2 Blowdown 2. Bl d & suck kd down 3. Open circuit & closed circuit (Variable density) 4. Medium of operation: Air, steam, combusted gas products etc.,

NAL Cascade Wind Tunnels


a) Subsonic cascade Tunnel (SCT) b) Transonic Cascade Tunnel (TCT)

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

NAL TRANSONIC CASCADE TUNNEL (TCT)


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NAL - TRANSONIC CASCADE TUNNEL SPECIFICATIONS

Test T t Section S ti Blade chord Probe traverse Span wise traverse Air storage volume Storage pressure Total temperature Mass flow (Typical) * Maximum

153 x 500 mm* * 40 to 80 mm 220 mm in 150 seconds 75 mm 2800 cubic meters 11 atm 300 K 5 to 15 Kg/s

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

FOR TURBINE CASCADES: Inlet Mach number Outlet Mach number Reynolds number Up to choking Up to 1.5 0.3 to 2.5 millions (outlet)

FOR COMPRESSOR CASCADES: Inlet Mach number Reynolds number Reynolds number Up to 0.85 0.7 to 1.3 millions (inlet) 0.6 to 1.1 millions(outlet)

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

Instrumentation for cascade tunnels


Pressure essu e probes p obes

Pitot probe

Keil probe

Three hole probe

Boundary layer probe

Total pressure / temperature rake


Courtesy: M/S United sensor corporation

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

Five hole probes


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ESP pressure scanner

16 channel intelligent pressure scanner

Kulite pressure transducer

Three sensor hot wire probe

Courtesy: M/S Scanivalve corporation, Kulite & Dantec


18/07/2009 LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES KMM SWAMY

Flow visualization techniques for cascade tunnels


Smoke flow visualization Tuft flow visualization Oil flow visualization Schlieren technique Background Oriented Schlieren technique Interferograms Particle image velocimetry LASER Doppler Velocimetry
SMOKE FLOW VISUALIZATION OVER A TURBINE CASCADE

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

INTERFEROGRAM OF A TURBINE CASCADE

SCHLIEREN PHOTOGRAPH OF A TURBINE ROTOR CASCADE

Vortices

OIL FLOW VISUALIZATION ON A TURBINE CASCADE


18/07/2009 LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES KMM SWAMY

CALIBRATION OF PRESSURE PROBES


Combined pressure probes are used for loss (fom total pressure) and flow deflection measurements during cascade tests These probes have to be calibrated as they are employed in non-nulling mode
FACILITIES AT NAL FOR CALIBRATING PRESSURE PROBES

Induction tunnel A straight 5 5-hole hole 3D probe calibrated in the new facility

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

SAMPLE CALIBRATION CURVES OF A FIVE HOLE 3D PROBE

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

SCHEMATIC OF A TURBINE NOZZLE CASCADE IN NAL TRANSONIC CASCADE TUNNEL


18/07/2009 LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES KMM SWAMY

Typical yp Wake Traverse of a Transonic Gas Turbine Stator Cascade


1.00

P0 02Y/P01, Tot tal Pressure Ratio

0.97

0.94

0.91

0.88

BLADE 1

BLADE 2

BLADE 3

0.85 0 P01: 1440 1440.5 5 mm Hg P02: 1389.8 mm Hg 0.5 M1: 0 0.533 533 M2: 1.052 1 Beta1: 63 63.1 1 Deg Beta2: 67.4 Deg 1.5 2 2.5 3

Pitch

VARIATION OF TOTAL PRESSURE RATIO WITH PROBE TRAVERSE

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

Typical Wake Traverse of a Transonic Gas Turbine Stator Cascade


-60

Beta2y, Outlet Flow Angle (Deg)

-63 63

-66

-69

-72 72

BLADE 1

BLADE 2

BLADE 3

-75 0
P01: 1440 P01 1440.5 mm H Hg P02: 1389.8 mm Hg

0.5
M1 M1: 0 0.533 33 M2: 1.052

1
B Beta1: 1 63 63.1 1D Deg Beta2: 67.4 Deg

1.5

2.5

Pit h Pitch

VARIATION OF OUTLET FLOW ANGLE WITH PROBE TRAVERSE

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

Typical yp Wake Traverse of a Transonic Gas Turbine Stator Cascade


1.20 1.15

M2y, Outle et Mach Num mber

1 10 1.10

1.05

1.00

0.95

0.90

BLADE 1
0.85

BLADE 2

BLADE 3

0.80 0 P01: 1440.5 mm Hg P02: 1389.8 mm Hg 0.5 M1: 0.533 M2: 1.052 1 Beta1: 63.1 Deg Beta2: 67.4 Deg 1.5 2 2.5 3

Pitch

VARIATION OF OUTLET MACH NUMBER WITH PROBE TRAVERSE

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

EFFECT OF OUTLET MACH NUMBER ON PRESSURE LOSS COEFFICIENT OF A TURBINE ROTOR CASCADE

MOMEN NTUM AVER RAGED LOS SS COEFFIC CIENT [DP P0 / (P02-p2) )]

0.10

0.08

0 06 0.06

BETA1 set at
66.0 Deg 63.1 Deg 60.0 Deg

0.04

0.02

0.00 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2

OUTLET MACH NUMBER 'M2'

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

EFFECT OF OUTLET MACH NUMBER ON OUTLET FLOW ANGLE OF A TURBINE ROTOR CASCADE
70

MOMEN NTUM AVER RAGED OU UTLET FLOW W ANGLE ' BETA2' (De eg)

68

66

BETA1 set at
66.0 Deg 63.1 Deg 60.0 Deg

64

62

60 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2

OUTLET MACH NUMBER 'M2'

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

EFFECT OF OUTLET MACH NUMBER ON INLET MACH NUMBER OF A TURBINE ROTOR CASCADE
0.7

MOM MENTUM AV VERAGED INLET MACH NUMBER 'M1'

0.6

0.5

BETA1 set at
0.4

66.0 Deg 63.1 Deg

0.3

60.0 Deg

0.2

0.1

0.0 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2

OUTLET MACH NUMBER 'M2'

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

EFFECT OF OUTLET MACH NUMBER ON SURFACE MACH NUMBER DISTRIBUTION OF A GAS TURBINE PROFILE
Beta1 set at 60 Deg.
1.4

Run No, M1 & M2


058, 0.276 & 0.383 057, 0.333 & 0.476 056, 0.387 & 0.570 055 0 055, 0.429 429 & 0 0.669 669 054, 0.462 & 0.765 053, 0.479 & 0.858 052, 0.487 & 0.967 051, 0.494 & 1.055

12 1.2

1.0

Mach Number r

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

X / Cax
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EFFECT OF INCIDENCE ON PRESSURE LOSS COEFFICIENT OF A GAS TURBINE NOZZLE VANE PROFILE M2: 0.94
6.0

PRESSUR RE LOSS CO OEFFICIENT (%)

50 5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0
Pr. loss coeff

0.0 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20

INCIDENCE ANGLE ( (Deg.) g)

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

EFFECT OF INCIDENCE ON OUTLET FLOW ANGLE OF A NOZZLE VANE PROFILE


70

M2: 0.94

Beta2

OUTLET FLOW ANGLE (Deg)

69

68

67

66

65 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20

INCIDENCE ANGLE (Deg)

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

Effect of Incidence on Surface Mach Number Distribution of a Gas Turbine Nozzle Vane Profile
M2ref: 0.94
1.4

INCIDENCE
-15 Deg -10 Deg 0 Deg 10 Deg 15 Deg

1.2

1.0

Ma ach Number

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

X/Cax
18/07/2009 LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES KMM SWAMY

Effect of free stream turbulence


An experimental study was conducted in a two-dimensional linear cascade, focusing on the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. Flow Reynolds numbers, based on exit velocity and suction length, have been varied from 50,000 to 300 000 The freestream turbulence intensity was varied from 1.1 300,000. 1 1 to 8.1 8 1 percent. percent Separation was observed at all test Reynolds numbers. Increasing the flow Reynolds number, without changing freestream turbulence, resulted in a rearward movement of the onset of separation and shrinkage of the separation zone. Increasing the freestream turbulence intensity, intensity without changing Reynolds number, number resulted in shrinkage of the separation region on the suction surface. The influences on the blade's wake from altering freestream turbulence and Reynolds number are also documented. It is shown that width of the wake and velocity defect rise with a decrease in either turbulence level or chord Reynolds number. number
An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Freestream Turbulence on the Wake of a Separated Low-Pressure Turbine Blade at Low Reynolds Numbers Murawski CG, Vafai K J. Fluids Eng. -- June 2000 -- Volume 122, Issue 2, 431

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

Effect of free stream turbulence


Tip clearance losses represent a major efficiency penalty of turbine blades. This paper describes the effect of tip clearance on the aerodynamic characteristics of an unshrouded axial-flow turbine cascade under very y low Reynolds y number conditions. The Reynolds number based on the true chord length and exit velocity of the turbine cascade was varied from 4.4104 to 26.6104 by changing the velocity of fluid flow. The freestream turbulence intensity was varied between 0.5% and 4.1% by y modifying y g turbulence g generation sheet settings. g Three-dimensional flow fields at the exit of the turbine cascade were measured both with and without tip clearance using a five-hole pressure probe. Tip leakage flow generated a large high total pressure loss region. Variations in the Reynolds number and freestream turbulence intensity y changed g the distributions of three-dimensional flow, , but had no effect on the mass-averaged tip clearance loss of the turbine cascade.
Effects of Reynolds Number and Freestream Turbulence on Turbine Tip Clearance Flow T k Takayuki ki M Matsunuma t J T J. Turbomach. b h -- January J 2006 -- Volume V l 128, 128 Issue I 1, 1 166

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

Effect of free stream turbulence


An experimental and analytical study has been performed on the effect of Reynolds number and free-stream turbulence on boundary layer transition location on the suction surface of a controlled diffusion airfoil (CDA). The experiments were conducted in a rectilinear cascade facility at Reynolds numbers between 0.7 and 3.0106 and turbulence intensities from about 0.7 to 4 percent. An oil streak technique and liquid crystal coatings were used to visualize the boundary layer state. For small turbulence levels and all Reynolds numbers tested, the accelerated front portion of the blade is laminar and transition occurs within a laminar separation bubble shortly after the maximum velocity near 3540 percent of chord. For high turbulence levels (Tu>3 percent) and high Reynolds numbers, the transition region moves upstream into the accelerated front portion of the CDA blade. For those conditions, the sensitivity to surface roughness increases considerably; at Tu=4 percent, bypass transition is observed near 710 percent of chord. Experimental results are compared to theoretical predictions using the transition model, which is implemented in the MISES code of Youngren and Drela. Overall, the results indicate that early bypass transition at high turbulence levels must alter the profile velocity distribution for compressor blades that are designed and optimized for high Reynolds numbers.
Effects of Reynolds Number and Free-Stream Turbulence on Boundary Layer Transition in a Compressor Cascade Schreiber HA etal etal. J. J Turbomach Turbomach. -- January 2002 -- Volume 124, 124 Issue 1 1, 1

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

Effect of surface roughness


Measurements of pressure distributions, distributions profile losses, losses and flow deviation were carried out on a planar turbine cascade in incompressible flow to assess the effects of partial roughness coverage of the blade surfaces. Spanwise-oriented bands of roughness were placed at various locations on the suction and pressure surfaces of the blades. blades Roughness height, height spacing between roughness elements, elements and band width were varied. A computational method based on the inviscid/viscous interaction approach was also developed; its predictions were in good agreement with the experimental results. This indicates that good predictions can be expected for a variety of cascade and roughness configurations from any two two-dimensional dimensional analysis that couples an inviscid method with a suitable rough surface boundary-layer analysis. The work also suggests that incorporation of the rough wall skin-friction law into a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code would enable good predictions of roughness effects in three three-dimensional dimensional situations. Roughness was found to have little effect on static pressure distribution around the blades and on deviation angle, provided that it does not precipitate substantial flow separation. Roughness on the suction surface can cause large increases in profile losses; roughness height and location of the leading edge of the roughness band are particularly important. Loss increments due to pressure-surface roughness are much smaller than those due to similar roughness on the suction surface.
1. Measurements and prediction of the effects of surface roughness on profile fil losses l and d deviation d i ti in i a turbine t bi cascade d KIind RJ etal. J. Turbomach 1998, vol. 120, pp. 20-27
18/07/2009 LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES KMM SWAMY

Effect of surface roughness


The aerodynamic performance of a turbine blade was evaluated via total pressure loss measurements on a linear cascade. The Reynolds number was varied from 600 000 to 1 200 000 to capture the operating regime for heavy-duty gas turbines. Four different types of surface roughness on the same profile were tested in the High Speed Cascade Wind Tunnel of the University of the German Armed Forces Munich and evaluated against a hydraulically smooth reference blade. The ratios of surface roughness to chord length for the test blade surfaces are in the range of Ra/c=7.610067.91005. The total pressure losses were evaluated from wake traverse measurements. The loss increase due to surface roughness was found to increase with increasing Reynolds number. For the maximum tested Reynolds number of Re=1 200 000 the increase in total pressure loss for the highest analysed surface roughness value of Ra=11.8 m was found to be 40% compared to a hydraulically smooth surface. The results of the measurements were compared to a correlation from literature as well as to well-documented measurements in literature. Good agreement was found for high Reynolds numbers between the correlation and the test results presented in this paper and the data available from literature.
Surface Roughness Effects on Turbine Blade Aerodynamics Frank Hummel etal. J. Turbomach JULY 2005, Vol. Copyright 2005 by ASME 127 / 453

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

Surface isentropic p Mach number distribution for 1=133.3 deg, Ma2,th=0.85 in dependence on Reynolds number

Courtesy: Frank Hummel etal. J. Turbomach JULY 2005, Vol. Copyright 2005 by ASME 127 / 453
18/07/2009 LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES KMM SWAMY

Re2 th=600 000 Re2,th=600 000.

Re2 th=900 000 Re2,th=900 000.

Re2,th=1200 Re2,th 1200 000.

Total pressure loss from wake traverse measurements of a double Pitot probe for test blade, blade rough part compared to smooth part. part Ma2,th Ma2 th=0 0.75, 75 1 1=133 133.3 3

Courtesy: Frank Hummel etal. J. Turbomach JULY 2005, Vol. Copyright 2005 by ASME 127 / 453

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

EFFECT C O OF INLET BOUNDARY OU LAYERS S


Motivation: To study the performance of compressor aerofoil sections near the
walls with the influence of boundary layers and secondary flows. Use of flat plates (extension plate) and trip wires to generate boundary layers with displacement thickness of 1% & 3% of span

FLOW
Tunnel wall Trip wire Extension plate

Boundary layer probe Partition plate

Boundary layer With trip wire

Boundary layer without trip wire

Cascade side plate

Cascade blade

Schematic of a compressor cascade with a controlled inlet boundary layer


18/07/2009 LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES KMM SWAMY

EFFECT OF INLET BOUNDARY LAYERS


NALCD[2004] CONFIGURATION:3 BOUNDARYLAYER
[With Partition Plates AR=1.5,& Inlet Extension Plates Of 140 mm]
14-12-2004 32 BETA1 Set At 40 Deg.

M=0.6
28 24

SPAN(inmm)

20 16 12 8 4 0 0.4

NoTrip 2mmTrip 3mmtrip 5mmTrip 6mmtrip

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

V/Vmax 4.0 DISPLACEMENTTHICKNESS(%OFSP PAN) 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 DIAMETEROFTRIPWIRE(inmm) 6 7 M=0.6

A CDA compressor cascade with flat extension plate and trip wire
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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

EFFECT OF TRAILING EDGE GEOMETRY


COMPARISON OF RESULTS (RM2 (RM2-PROFILE) PROFILE) Round Trailing Edge & Cut Trailing edge BETA 1 : 45.5 deg At Design Incidence

62

BETAT2, O OUTLET ANG GLE, deg

60 SCTE RTE 58

56

54

M1 (Design) M2 (Design) Beta 1 (M) Beta 2 (M)

= = = =

0. 406 1.284 43.00 deg 62.00 deg

52 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6

M2 OUTLET MACH NUMBER M2,

FIG.
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VARIATION OF OUTLET FLOW ANGLE WITH OUTLET MACH NUMBER


LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES KMM SWAMY

EFFECT OF TRAILING EDGE GEOMETRY


COMPARISON OF RESULTS (RM2-PROFILE) (RM2 PROFILE) Round Trailing Edge & Cut Trailing edge At Design Incidence BETA 1 : 45.5 deg
0.3

OMEGA, P PRESSURE L OSS COEFF.

SCTE RTE 0.25 Pr. Loss = (P01-P02)/(P02-p2) 0.2

0.15

M1 (Design) M2 (Design) Beta 1 (M) Beta 2 (M)

= = = =

0. 406 1.284 43.00 deg 62.00 deg

0.1

0.05

0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6

M2, OUTLET MACH NUMBER

FIG. VARIATION OF PRESSURE LOSS COEFF. WITH OUTLET MACH NUMBER

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

EFFECT OF COOLANT FLOWS ON TURBINE CASCADE Unlike the conventional method of heating the main flow or using Carbon-di- oxide as the coolant to simulate the density ratios, an ingenious method of having the main flow at room temperature and cooling the coolant to a lower temperature has been adopted to simulate the density ratios. Coolant to mainstream temperature ratios of 0.5 and 0.9 were simulated. i l t d The actual aspect ratio of trailing edge slots of the NGV was maintained using two partition plates in the cascade assembly. Configurations: I - Base profile, without coolant flow II - LE & TE coolant flows at Tc/Tg = 0.9, Pc/Pg = 1.02 III - LE & TE coolant flows at Tc/Tg = 0.5, Pc/Pg = 1.04 IV - TE coolant flow at Tc/Tg = 0.9, Pc/Pg = 1.02 V - TE coolant flow at Tc/Tg = 0.5, Pc/Pg = 1.04
18/07/2009 LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES KMM SWAMY

Simulation of actual coolant to gas density ratios in cascade tests


Motivation: To study the effect of coolant flows on the loss characteristics of gas turbine profiles
An ingenious method of having the main flow at room temperature and cooling the coolant to a lower temperature was used to simulate the temperature ratios. The coolant air was passed through a h t exchanger heat h i immersed d in i a bath b th of f liquid li id nitrogen it t attain to tt i low l t temperatures. t The actual aspect ratio of trailing edge slots of the NGV was maintained using two partition plates in the cascade assembly.

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

Insulated coolant feed lines

Thermocouple connections

Heat exchanger

Coolant flow control valves


18/07/2009 LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES KMM SWAMY

EFFECT OF COOLANT FLOWS ON TOTAL PRESSURE RATIO OF A TURBINE NOZZLE CASCADE


Beta1: -1.5 Deg., M2:1.1
1

P02Y/P01 1, Total Press sure Ratio

0.95 Config. I Config II Config. Config. III 0.9 Config. IV Config. V

0.85

0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

Pitch

P02/P01 V/S PROBE TRAVERSE

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

-60

EFFECT OF COOLANT FLOWS ON OUTLET FLOW ANGLE Beta1: -1.5 -1 5 Deg, Deg M2:1 M2:1.1 1 OF A TURBINE NOZZLE CASCADE

-62

Be eta2Y, Outlet t Flow Angle e

-64

-66
Config. I Config II Config.

-68

-70

Config. III Config. IV

-72

Config. V

-74

-76

-78

-80 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

Pitch

OUTLET FLOW ANGLE V/S PROBE TRAVERSE

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

EFFECT OF COOLANT FLOWS INTEGRATED LOSS COEFFICIENT


0.20

BETA1 set at -1.5 Deg.

OMEGA = [dP P0/(P02-p2)]

0 16 0.16

0.12

0.08

Config. I Config. II Config. III Config. IV Config. V

0 04 0.04

0.00 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2

OUTLET MACH NUMBER 'M2'

VARIATION OF PRESSURE LOSS COEFFICIENT WITH OUTLET MACH NUMBER

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

EFFECT OF COOLANT FLOWS INTEGRATED OUTLET FLOW ANGLE


75

BETA1 set at -1.5 Deg.

OUTLET FLOW ANG GLE, Beta2

74

73

Config. I Config. II Config. III Config. IV

72

Config. V

71

70 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2

OUTLET MACH NUMBER 'M2'

VARIATION OF OUTLET FLOW ANGLE WITH OUTLET MACH NUMBER

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

EFFECT OF AVDR

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LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

EFFECT OF AVDR

USE OF PARTITION PLATES


18/07/2009 LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES KMM SWAMY

18/07/2009

LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

CDNAL CASCADE PROFILE AT DESIGN INCIDENCE DIFFERENT AVDR


1.3
BETA 1 = 43.7 DEG

AVDR, AXIA AL VELOCITY DENSITY Y RATIO

1.2

AVDR

1.1

1.177 1.248 1.285

0.9

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

M1, INLET MACH NO.

FIG. 60
18/07/2009

VARIATION OF AXIAL VELOCITY DENSITY RATIO WITH INLET MAC


LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES KMM SWAMY

CDNAL CASCADE PROFILE AT DESIGN INCIDENCE EFFECT OF AVDR


0.3
BETA 1 = 43.7 DEG AVDR
1.177 1.248

OMEGA, P PRESSURE LOSS COEFF

0 25 0.25
OMEGA = (P01-P02)/(P01-P1)

1.285

0.2

0.15

0.1 0

0.05

0 0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

M1, INLET MACH NO.

FIG. G 61

VARIATION O OF O PRESSURE SS LOSS OSS COEFF. CO WITH INLET MACH C NO. O

18/07/2009

LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY

CDNAL CASCADE PROFILE EFFECT OF AVDR


1.6

1.4

1.2
M1 0.783 AVDR 1.248 1.285

0.781

M Surface

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 0 02 0.2 04 0.4 06 0.6 08 0.8 1

X/C ax

18/07/2009

LOSS MECHANISMS IN STEAM AND GAS TURBINES

KMM SWAMY