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Climatology of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea
Aniello Russo1,2, Sandro Carniel2,*, Mauro Sclavo2 and Maja Krzelj3
Polytechnic University-DISVA, Ancona National Research Council, Institute of Marine Sciences, Venice 3University of Split, Center of Marine Studies, Split 1,2Italy 3Croatia
It is well know that the ocean processes exert a great influence on global climate as well as affect the local climate of coastal areas (Russo et al., 2002). Within the Mediterranean region (see Fig. 1a), the presence of the Adriatic Sea influences the atmospheric properties of the surrounding regions over long and short time-scales, and has obviously a relevant influence on human activities and ecosystems (Boldrin et al., 2009).
Fig. 1a. Orography and bathymetry of the Mediterranean region. The inset shows the Adriatic basin. This Chapter will describe the main climatological characteristics of the northern-central Adriatic Sea (see Figure 1b) assessed on a human time-scale, i.e. the last few decades.
Generally speaking, the Adriatic sea and the above atmosphere are tightly linked and together form a dynamic component of the local climate system, where the relationships are intrinsically two-way (Pullen et al., 2006). For example, short-term fluctuations in wind or temperature (i.e. weather), as well as the atmospheric action of blocking rays, can influence the currents through wind-driven processes (see for instance Carniel et al., 2009) and prevent the warming of the underlying ocean (Boldrin et al., 2009; Dorman et al., 2006). At the same time, the atmospheric temperature and precipitation rates are relevantly affected by the variation of the sea surface temperature (SST) through processes like evaporation and cyclone development. Besides, the atmosphere can strongly affect the density differences that are triggering baroclinic Adriatic currents (Vilibic and Supic, 2005), by intense cooling driven by turbulent heat fluxes exchange through the air-sea interface, or by changing surface salinity according to evaporation/precipitation balance. Namely, currents generated during processes typical of the "deep-water formation" are particularly important for climate. For instance, in the relatively shallow northern Adriatic Sea, during winter time, surface cooling due to strong sensible and evaporative heat losses can cause water to become more dense (Bergamasco et al., 1999; Vilibic and Supic, 2005), leading to mixing and convective overturning processes. The resulting dense waters tend to spread out over the whole basin, moving to the southern region (Carniel et al., 2012) and triggering a return circulation from the Ionian and Aegean region that is called into the basin by continuity. Such waters are transported by the Adriatic Sea eastern currents and influence the local climate by transporting relevant amount of heat (Boldrin et al., 2009). A thorough description of the northern-central Adriatic Sea main climatological characteristics would then help to understand the influence that this sea may have, also through its direct link with the atmosphere (e.g. temperature and precipitation) and marine ecosystems, on relevant aspects and activities of the society, such as tourism, fisheries, navigation, etc. However, the hydrodynamic behavior of this portion of the Adriatic Sea (see again Figure 1b) is rather complex; from many different points of view, indeed, it can be considered as a reduced-scale oceanic one (Signell et al., 2005). During its annual hydrologic cycle, the basin is actually changing its main hydrodynamic features, from those typical of a homogenous, well-mixed basin, to those of a stratified system. Generally speaking, the northern and shallower portion of the Adriatic Sea is characterized by the sinking of heavier and denser waters (and therefore by a complete mixing) during the winter season, by a rather large surface warming during summer, and by abundant precipitation rates and discharges from rivers (mainly, the Po river) during spring and fall, and by different wind regimes with a prevalence in the cold season of strong dry northeasterly winds (called Bora, see Dorman et al., 2006; Boldrin et al., 2009) while in the warm season moderate southeasterly winds (Scirocco) are more frequent (e.g., Signell et al., 2005). All such processes in turn affect the Adriatic biogeochemical characteristics and its marine ecosystems. In the previous century several interesting studies have been carried out by international scientists dealing with the circulation of the Adriatic sea. Some of them are well condensed in Artegiani et al. (1997a; 1997b) as far as the thermohaline climatological characteristics and circulation are concerned, Poulain (2001) for the surface circulation using lagrangian devices, and particularly Cushman-Roisin et al. (eds. 2001), where a large review of physical oceanography studies updated until the end of the previous century was presented. Concerning bio-chemical properties, Zavatarelli et al. (1998) defined for the first time a climatology of the main characteristics in the Adriatic Sea.
Climatology of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea
In the following text seasonal climatology of physical and chemical properties of the water masses in the northern and central Adriatic sea are described.
Fig. 1b. Adriatic Sea orography and bathymetry. The dots represent the stations extracted from MEDATLS 2002 archive and used to compute the seasonal climatology of the northerncentral portion of the Sea.
2. Materials and methods
First climatological studies of the Adriatic Sea date back to the end of the previous century, namely Russo and Artegiani (1996), Artegiani et al. (1997a and 1997b), Zavatarelli et al. (1998) gathered and analyzed more than 4000 stations distributed in the whole Adriatic Sea. In the same period some relevant European projects started, with the aim of establishing larger data base focused in the Mediterranean region. The final result was reached in the data base MEDAR/MEDATLAS 2002 (MEDAR Group, 2002). This dataset encompasses more than 8800 quality checked stations in the northern and central basin. Using the stations located in the northern central Adriatic region, a seasonal climatology has been derived (a monthly one is not achievable, standing the low data frequency during some specific months) for temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrients (nitrates, nitrites, ortho-silicates, ortho-phosphate) that will be discussed in the next sections. Seasons are
44 °C). The total domain consists of 8181 points. Mean temperatures in the region are comprised between 14-23 °C (mean value 17. median 18. while fall includes October-November-December (OND). The adopted correlation function is isotropic and has the following expression: C(r) = (1 . nitrites. The observational noise is approximated by an error variance of 10%. summer brackets July-August-September (JAS). and maxima in the south-west region. median 24. b the spatial decay scale. based on the Gauss-Markov theorem. 1987).. are transported to the south-east along the Italian coast (Dorman et al. with winter values well below 10 °C along the Italian coastal region till the Gargano and minima in the northern region. In the summer time the thermal variability is much lower. with maxima found in the western region and minima in the Dalmatian islands area. Colder waters are also found in the sea region in the proximity of the Dalmatian islands and eastern coast.47 °C. This is also due to the cyclonic circulation of the basin. that brings in warmer waters from the southern basin. r2 = x2 + y2 (1) where a is the zero-crossing distance.14 °C. During spring time the situation is more variable. 20 m.. The number of influential points is chosen to be 10 and the mapping resolution is 0. 50 m and at the bottom layer. median 17.56 °C (12. These parameters should meet the condition a > 21/2 b to generate a positive-definite correlation matrix.3 °C. at the depth of 10 m. Data have been selected accordingly to seasons and spatially interpolated by means of an Objective Analysis (OA) technique adopted for ocean data (see Bretherton et al. are reached in the south-western area. and areas with error variance greater than 30% have been blanked. with mean values bracketed between 21 and 27 °C (mean 24. 3. During winter the mean temperature in the basin is of 11. with values between 13 and 22 °C (averaged values in the area being 18. nitrates. Seasonal climatology of water masses Main thermohaline and chemical properties (namely temperature. with mean temperature below 7 °C in the north and above 13 °C in the south-eastern area. The interpolation has been performed according to the optimal linear estimation theory. subjected to large heat losses due to Bora winds (strong katabatic winds coming from NE). (2002).com . 1976 and Carter and Robinson. All the observations closer to each other than 10 km have been preliminarily averaged in order to avoid very high correlations.37 °C). above 25 °C. Since the Chapter is focused on the analysis of climatological fields. an area that is directly exposed to the cold Bora wind action.07 °C). and this happens faster in the north-east and south-west part of the basin. ortho-phosphate and ortho-silicates) are described seasonally at the surface. Maxima values.180 Modern Climatology defined as follows: winter season is represented by January-February-March months (JFM). minima in the eastern one (also because of upwelling phenomena).05° both in latitude and longitude. as applied in Artegiani et al.23 °C is the median). 2006). 3. During the fall season the surface waters get cooled down. while the northernmost waters.r2/a2) exp (-r2/2b2) . spring by April-May-June (AMJ).intechopen. large values (a= 100 km and b= 60 km) compared to mesoscale features have been chosen. www. A thermal gradient is present both along the longitudinal and transversal axis.1 Temperature Sea surface temperature (see Figure 2) shows a strong seasonal cycle. dissolved oxygen. salinity. (1997b) and Russo et al.
2. Seasons showing more similar fields at surface and 10 m are autumn and winter. summer bottom left. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. During summer time the temperatures at 10 m depth are between 20 and 27 °C (mean 23. characterized also by an intense heat loss. and this indicates that the solar radiation heat is stored in the very upper meters by the turbid waters brought in by the northern Adriatic rivers. autumn bottom right) of surface temperature (°C) in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. and www.1 °C). Spring time is the most variable season.07 °C (median 15. median 23. with mean at 16. even though to a less extent to what depicted for the surface conditions.intechopen.35 °C.59 °C). even though they are clearly attenuated.com .Climatology of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea 181 Fig. spring top right. At the depth of 10 m the temperature fields (see Figure 3) exhibit similar trends with respect to the surface ones. Temperatures of the northern area are lower than corresponding surface ones. Temperatures are now bracketed between 12 and 22 °C. mostly because of vertical mixing processes typical of these seasons.
since the thermocline is now deeper than 10 m.71 °C (median www. autumn bottom right) of 10 m depth temperature (°C) in the northern-central Adriatic Sea.com . 3. summer bottom left. the thermal fields are again resembling those at upper levels during autumn and winter. In any case. while increasing differences are evident during spring and summer time. Moving down to 20 m depth level (see Figure 4). Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left.intechopen. Fig. until which a rather well mixed region is present. During spring time the mean temperatures are between 10 °C (northern region) and 19 °C (southern area). the northern part of the basin still exhibits a substantial difference. spring top right.182 Modern Climatology in the southern part of the basin they are again similar to the surface ones. with a mean value 14. always due to the fact that in this region the thermocline is closer to the surface due to the above mentioned effect of solar radiation absorption.
summer bottom left. At 50 m depth the thermal variability is very much reduced (see Figure 5). Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. with values between 10 and 18 °C.79 °C). Mean summer temperatures are between 15 and 25 °C.com . Minima are observed in front of the Po delta region.Climatology of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea 183 14. where the river waters tend to create a strong thermo-haline stratification that is preventing the vertical mixing of cold water produced during winters.85 °C).intechopen. 4. spring top right. During winter time typical values are between 10 °C (in the north-west www. Fig.29 °C (median 18. A relevant thermal gradient is present in the region between the Po delta-Istria peninsula and the area at its south. autumn bottom right) of 20 m depth temperature (°C) in the northern-central Adriatic Sea (note that a small area close to the Italian coasts is actually shallower than 20 m). with a mean value of 19.
reaching respectively 14.29 °C and 14. 5. During summer time the slow warming of the water column keeps continuing because of diffusion and mixing from the upper levels.5 °C. with mean values to 12.35 °C (median 13. with a mean value of 13. In spring temperatures are slightly higher. and the mean and median temperature increase of about 1 °C.38 °C. and the surface waters are mixed with those below.69 °C (median 13. summer bottom left.184 Modern Climatology region) and 14 °C (central-east sector). autumn bottom right) of 50 m depth temperature (°C) in the northern-central Adriatic Sea (note that areas close to the Italian coasts are actually shallower than 50 m). since in this season the thermocline is more easily broken by storms and surface cooling processes.intechopen. Lowest values are observed in the western area (about 12 °C) while the highest ones (about 14 °C) are present in the eastern sector.com . Lowest values (around 13 °C) are present in the northern and western area. spring top right. Highest temperatures are observed during autumn.47 °C). www.00 °C). about 0. Fig. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. Maxima are around 15 °C in the eastern and central area of the basin.
while maxima (more than 14 °C) are found in the southeastern region.Climatology of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea 185 Mean temperature and median one are 15. the thermal variability during the seasons is once again rather large (from 7 to 25 °C). Fig.25 °C (median 12. with temperatures lower than 9 °C. Relative minima are www.57 and 15.intechopen. with highest values that are aligned almost parallel to the eastern (until 18 °C) and western coasts. summer bottom left. 6. closer to the western coast. In the layer closer to the sea bottom (see Figure 6). reflecting the flow of warmer and southern waters. mostly because of the bathymetric variations. while the lowest values (up to 14 °C) are found in the middle of the basin. where the bottom is shallower.com . Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. spring top right.92 °C). During winter the mean temperature is about 12. autumn bottom right) of bottom temperature (°C) in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. cold waters are encountered.24 °C respectively.
where the dense and cold northern Adriatic waters can get accumulated without being vertically mixed during the year because of relatively high depths. especially if compared to the Mediterranean Sea. while values larger than 34. while higher values (up to 38. Mean temperature of the entire domain is 15. Moreover. with very high temperatures all along the Italian coast and minima (below 12 °C) in correspondence of the meso-Adriatic pits. while lower temperatures are found in correspondence of meso-Adriatic depressions. The resulting salinity field in the Adriatic basin not only reflects the fresh water discharges distribution. However. in proximity of the meso-Adriatic depressions (see Figure 1b).00 in the Po delta region.186 Modern Climatology depicted in the central-southern region. because of local fresh river discharges and karstic springs. Besides. including the quite shallow Po-Istria area.40 (median 38. reflecting a very troubled topography and probably also a data paucity. that is not perfectly matching Po river discharge. salinity is expressed with a non-dimensional number substantially corresponding to grams of salt dissolved in a kg of water).52 °C (median 14. being the mean and median respectively of 12.71). During summer time the thermal picture is a lot different. The whole northern area between the Po river delta and Istria peninsula has salinity values lower than 38. while the central and southern areas of the basin are colder.00. 3. dominant Bora winds from north-east are pushing the fresher waters closer to the western coast. while fresher waters are flowing to south-east with the Western Adriatic Current (WAC). along the Croatian coasts there are regions with low salinity water masses as well. because of the bottom currents that flush along south-east the colder and denser northern Adriatic waters formed during winter time. During spring time a generalized decrease of the mean salinity values is depicted. is showing now relatively low values (around 13 °C). transported by the so-called Eastern-Adriatic Current (EAC). in the depths around 40 m. since there are relevant river discharges (the Po river has a mean discharge of 1500 m3/s) and the basin is characterized by a shallow coastal region. a significant offshore propagation of the area at low salinity is evident. During winter. The area between Dalmatian islands and Croatian coasts is very much variable. More saline water masses are brought in from south. However. the shallow water regions along the western coasts exhibit now larger temperatures.00 are found in small areas of the southern part. along the coastal region there exists a band of low salinity waters. which largest extension is found in front of the Po delta area. though.26 °C). that is confining the riverine waters in the upper layers of the water column. but the marine dynamics as well.intechopen.18).50. with average of 36. the mean salinity is 37. Along the Croatian coasts as well the region with www.2 Salinity Surface salinity (see Figure 7) shows a strong variability (from less than 30.93 (median 37. Minima are now well below 30.40) are observed in the central-eastern region of the basin. During fall time higher values are all long the coastal regions. whose maxima are reached in spring-autumn and minima in summer. having warmer regions being interrupted by colder ones.00 to 38. The central regions. reach in this season the highest temperature of the whole year. similar to those of the eastern ones. as a consequence of the high discharge rate of the Po river and of the onset of the thermal stratification.78 °C. Even the central region between Po delta and Istria.com . maxima salinities are reached during winter and minima ones in summer. During spring time the temperature variations are limited.73 and 12.
autumn bottom right) of surface salinity in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. summer bottom left.intechopen. Together with this. 7.78). Fig. www. This is most likely due to the strong stratification typical of this season. During summertime a slight decrease in the surface salinity values is observed (mean 36. median 37. that is in short confining the relatively low amount of fresh waters brought in to the very upper layers of the sea.60) together with a further propagation offshore of low salinity waters that reach now the whole northern part. mean value is now up to 37.05 (median 37. Water with relatively high salinity are now evident just in the central-south region.com . since the stratification is now destroyed and the waters are vertically mixing. During autumn. when the atmospheric circulation gets again intense and starts cooling the sea surface. there is a flow of saline waters along the eastern coasts from the southern Adriatic Sea. low salinity waters are again confined to the Italian coasts. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left.Climatology of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea 187 low salinity values is now located more offshore. north of Gargano. spring top right.79.
00 everywhere. with a strong gradient coast-offshore). very low salinity waters are present (below 32. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. salinity fields exhibit a seasonal variation (from 34 to 38. summer bottom left.intechopen. while in the southern region values are beyond 35. The Conero Promontory favors an offshore spreading of coastal freshwaters and their dilution with saltier waters. autumn bottom right) of salinity at 10 m depth in the northern-central Adriatic Sea.00. spring top right.188 Modern Climatology Along the Italian coast a a particular case is provided by the coastal areas around the Conero Promontory (see Figure 1b): in the northern part of them.5) that is significantly lower with respect to the surface. 8. Nevertheless. salinity is now higher than 38. except in the region between the Croatian and Dalmatian coasts. In the corresponding Croatian regions in the eastern part of the basin. an increasing offshore propagation of low salinity www. the trend seems to be similar: maxima during winter. Fig.com . where the balance is modified by fresh water discharges from the mainland. Analyzing the situation at 10 m depth (see Figure 8).00.
The domain mean salinity value is 37. while they change significantly in the north-western www. and a salinity lowering compared to the previous season is evident in almost the whole basin.71 (median 37. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. autumn bottom right) of salinity at 20 m depth in the northern-central Adriatic Sea.94). summer bottom left. since in this season the water column is very well mixed.intechopen. The same is evident in summer for most of the basin. Fig. The northern region is the only one where values that are lower with respect to the previous situation can be seen (most likely due to the Po river flooding events that reach offshore areas before getting mixed). During winter the trend is substantially similar to the surface one. with a relevant freshening above all in the northern area. while during autumn salinities begin to increase.Climatology of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea 189 areas from the Italian coast while transitioning from winter to summer.com . 9. Salinity fields at 20 m depth (see Figure 9) are resembling those at 10 m depth as far as the central-eastern sectors are concerned. During spring period the mean salinity value reaches 37. median being 38.94.25. spring top right.
Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. above 38.18 and 38. in spring the mean decreases to 38. autumn bottom right) of salinity at 50 m depth in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. where the salinity are higher compared to the 10 m depth situation. Fig. in summer similar values are present (38.intechopen.00 (median 38.14). 10.15).22 (median 38.20 or more in the central-eastern region. but in the Kvarner gulf and the northern part of the area between Dalmatian islands in the summer and autumn seasons.10). Moving down to 50 m (see Figure 10) the salinity fields reach rather high values.190 Modern Climatology area. spring top right.07 (median 38. 38. During winter time the mean salinity is about 38. while in the autumn time the mean value is 38.com .34).00 or less along the Italian coasts. Conero Promontory and Croatia a salinity gradient is still detectable. During winter the mean salinity is www.00 almost everywhere. 38. summer bottom left. Looking at the transect region between Mt.
39 (38. with very low values along the shallow western coast.42 (median 38.com . autumn bottom right) of salinity at the bottom in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. while in autumn it reaches 38. Fig.39). while maxima (above 38.50) are common in the eastern sector.39). In proximity of the bottom (see Figure 11) the salinity fields have a rather similar behavior during all seasons.Climatology of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea 191 38.37 and 38. in the area between Conero Promontory area and Croatia patches with low salinity waters (albeit larger than 38.intechopen. Even at this water depth.42 (median 38.45).00) are found in the western part. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. in summer mean salinity is again up to 38. 11. and rather high values in the central- www. summer bottom left.45). from Trieste up to south of the Conero Promontory (see again Figure 1b). spring top right. in spring values are slightly less (38. especially in autumn and winter.
summer bottom left.29). 3. autumn bottom right) of surface dissolved oxygen (ml/l) in the northern-central Adriatic Sea.intechopen. spring top right. during summer values are 37. Indeed.32) and in autumn 37. the maximum amount of available oxygen in the water diminishes. 12. where also temperature Fig. dissolved oxygen maxima are in winter (up to 8 ml/l in the north-western area. when the temperature increases.3 Dissolved oxygen The dissolved oxygen at the surface (see Figure 12) exhibits a seasonal cycle clearly influenced by the water temperature behavior.84 (38.29).89 respectively. in spring these values are preserved to 37. www.192 Modern Climatology eastern regions.com .87 (38.98 and 38.90 (38. The reduced variability throughout the season is also evident in the mean (and median) values: during winter values are up to 37. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left.
At this depth. summer bottom left. and minima are present in the Gulf of Trieste and southern of the Po delta region.Climatology of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea 193 minima are found). the western regions are characterized by lower values.5 ml/l) are measured in summer. www. autumn bottom right) of dissolved oxygen (ml/l) at 20 m depth in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. During all seasons. Fig. indicating hypoxic conditions in such shallow regions.com . mostly during summer time. spring top right. in the southerneastern part of the basin. 13. showing a reduced spatial variability. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. while minima (4. At 20 m depth. the amount of oxygen dissolved in the western areas is generally larger than in the corresponding eastern areas.intechopen. the dissolved oxygen fields (see Figure 13) are different. Dissolved oxygen fields at 10 m depth (not showed) are very similar to the surface ones during all seasons.
Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. while in summer and autumn lower values are present in the western region. In the bottom layers (see Figure 15) the variations to the content of dissolved oxygen are more evident. summer bottom left. the dissolved oxygen fields (see Figure 14) are again rather homogenous both in winter and spring. 14. again indicative of hypoxic events. spring top right. Fig. autumn bottom right) of dissolved oxygen (ml/l) at 50 m depth in the northern-central Adriatic Sea.194 Modern Climatology At 50 m depth.com . www.intechopen. namely the low values are present in a large area close to the Po delta region in the summer and autumn seasons.
orthophosphate (PO4) and orthosilicate (SiO4) are far less than those collected for temperature and salinity.intechopen. TIN. www. The description will therefore be more general and less detailed. available data for nitrates (NO3) and nitrites (NO2). autumn bottom right) of dissolved oxygen (ml/l) at the bottom in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. The first consequence is that the obtained climatological fields are less reliable. 15. can however be estimated with a good degree of approximation by the NO3+NO2 pools).Climatology of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea 195 Fig. and often do not cover the whole examined area. summer bottom left. and it is not therefore possible to represent it (the total inorganic nitrogen content.com . On the other hand NH4 is even less present in the acquired data. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. spring top right.4 Nutrients Unfortunately. 3.
in strict order. spring top right. However.4.intechopen. Fig.com . The season with lowest nitrites and nitrates concentration is summer.1 Nitrates and nitrites Modern Climatology NO3 is the most abundant nitrogen form almost anywhere in each season. while nitrites maxima are present also to the south of the Po river delta. even because autotrophic organisms tend to prefer NH4. nitrates maxima are close to the Po river delta and north of it. 16. autumn bottom right) of N-NO3 (mM/m3) in the surface waters of the northern-central Adriatic Sea. a clear signature of the river discharge. mainly because of the minimum river discharge brought into the basin.196 3. At the surface (see Figures 16 and 17) both these latter nitrogen forms reach maxima along the western coast. summer bottom left. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. NO2 and NO3. www.
summer bottom left.Climatology of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea 197 Fig. 17. At 10 m depth and 20 m depth (not showed) the general trend is close to that shown at the surface. autumn bottom right) of N-NO2 (mM/m3) in the surface waters of the northern-central Adriatic Sea. www.com . Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. probably because in this area the analyzed depth level is close to the bottom and is affected by demineralization processes of the organic matter due to bacteria. At 50 m depth (see Figures 18 and 19) the concentration increases in the north-western region. spring top right.intechopen. but the absolute values are considerably smaller.
intechopen. 18.com .198 Modern Climatology Fig. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. The same line of reasoning can be applied for the rather large values that are observed in the proximity of the bottom (shown in Figures 20 and 21). www. summer bottom left. spring top right. autumn bottom right) of N-NO3 (mM/m3) at 50 m depth in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. The high values observed offshore in the central area of the domain during spring time are most likely due to data not quality checked that should be rejected. particularly in the north-western and meso-Adriatic depressions areas.
www. spring top right. autumn bottom right) of N-NO2 (mM/m3) at 50 m depth in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. summer bottom left.intechopen.Climatology of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea 199 Fig.com . Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. 19.
com . 20. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left.200 Modern Climatology Fig. www. autumn bottom right) of N-NO3 (mM/m3) at the bottom in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. summer bottom left.intechopen. spring top right.
due to the amount of river discharge. summer bottom left.com . especially in the proximity of the river Po.4.2 Orthophosphathes Values of orthophosphates at the surface (see Figure 22) are typically very low everywhere but in the northern area. www.intechopen. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. autumn bottom right) of N-NO2 (mM/m3) at the bottom in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. 21. spring top right. 3.Climatology of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea 201 Fig.
spring top right. www. autumn bottom right) of P-PO4 (mM/m3) in the surface waters of the northern-central Adriatic Sea.202 Modern Climatology Fig.intechopen. The same situation is present at 10 m depth and 20 m as well (not presented).com . summer bottom left. the P-PO4 concentrations (Figure 23) are extremely low anywhere. 22. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. even though with values generally lower with respect to the surface ones. At 50 m depth.
summer bottom left.intechopen. 23.com .Climatology of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea 203 Fig. as a consequence of mineralization processes of the organic matter. autumn bottom right) of P-PO4 (mM/m3) at 50 m depth in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. spring top right. www. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. At the sea bottom (Figure 24) the values tend to increase in the northern part and in the area of the meso-Adriatic depressions.
24.intechopen. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. autumn bottom right) of P-PO4 (mM/m3) at the bottom in the northern-central Adriatic Sea.com . summer bottom left. spring top right.204 Modern Climatology Fig. www.
www. summer bottom left.com . spring top right. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left.Climatology of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea 205 Fig.intechopen. autumn bottom right) of surface Si-SiO4 (mM/m3) in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. 25.
spring top right. autumn bottom right) of Si-SiO4 (mM/m3) at 10 m depth in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. 26.com . summer bottom left.206 Modern Climatology Fig.intechopen. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. www.
autumn bottom right) of Si-SiO4 (mM/m3) at 20 m depth in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. 27. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left. spring top right. summer bottom left.intechopen.Climatology of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea 207 Fig.com . www.
spring top right. www.208 Modern Climatology Fig.intechopen. summer bottom left. autumn bottom right) of Si-SiO4 (mM/m3) at 50 m depth in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. 28.com . Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left.
summer bottom left. www.Climatology of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea 209 Fig. autumn bottom right) of Si-SiO4 (mM/m3) at the bottom in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. spring top right. Seasonal climatological maps (winter top left.com . 29.intechopen.
indicate that dense waters formed during winter may persist in the area and remineralization processes contribute to the bottom water nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion. Similar processes can be evidenced also in the deeper meso-Adriatic depressions. while during summer and autumn orthosilicates reach higher values in the north-western area of the basin. 4. which is more affected by river discharge. but during summer time in the northwestern region and close by the Dalmatian island and Croatian coast.210 3. The same can be said for nitrates and orthosilicates. A large variability of temperature and salinity is evident at horizontal. The climatology presented in this Chapter will serve as “benchmark” for carrying out further analysis of the changes in the oceanographic properties that may have occurred during the last years in the northern and central Adriatic Sea. again because of mineralization processes of the organic matter. and quite high values are mainly observed in autumn south of the Po delta.intechopen. Conclusions A climatology of main thermohaline and chemical properties of the northern and central Adriatic Sea based on the MEDAR/MEDATLAS dataset has been drawn and described.e. as shown in Figure 26. the dissolved oxygen minima found in summer and autumn at bottom in the central area offshore the Po delta. www. nitrites and orthophosphates.15/2007 and by the project SECURSEA funded by Regione Marche within the EU project SECURSEA (PIC INTERREG IIIA). orthosilicates and nitrites) and low temperatures.com . funded by Regione Veneto within the initiatives of the regional law n. At 20 m depth (see Figure 27) winter and also spring maps resemble the 10 m ones. vertical and seasonal scales.3 Orthosilicates Modern Climatology Orthosilicates concentrations are far more larger than other nutrient salts. At 10 m depth the concentrations significantly decrease. Interesting phenomena can be individuated by analyzing the climatological maps. code RBFR08D825 (project “DECALOGO”) and from the PRIN 2008YNPNT9_005 grant. combined with nutrient salts maxima (particularly nitrates. Partial support was received also from the Italian Ministry of University and Research FIRB Project. and also in the meso-Adriatic depressions. It can be seen that maxima concentrations are reached at the Po delta in autumn and spring. Acknowledgements This contribution was supported by the project “MARINA”. i. 5. At 50 m very low concentrations are again depicted. At the bottom Si-SiO4 values are again considerably high (see Figure 29) in the northern area. while smaller variations can be observed for dissolved oxygen. reaching rather high values at the surface (see Figure 25) in the western northern Adriatic region. the seasons with the highest Po river runoff.4. For example.
N. Poulain P. 2001. and Fandry C.Climatology of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea 211 6. R.ifremer. Rabitti S. Journal of Marine System. and Russo A.. 2012.. February 2003 marine atmospheric conditions and the Bora over the Northern Adriatic.2009..R. Atmos.006 www. Book J. Russo. Cushman-Roisin. Bergamasco. Continental Shelf Research] DOI:10. 29.... 1997a..sea interactions and water mass structure. Marini M. [in press. Scientia Marina.E. Journal of Marine Systems. Journal of Geophysical Research–Ocean. Physical Oceanography of the Adriatic Sea: Past. and Robinson A.csr. Investigating the impact of surface wave breaking on modelling the trajectories of drifters in the Northern Adriatic Sea during a wind-storm event.001 Carniel. A. The Adriatic Sea General Circulation.-M. B. Assessment of wind quality for oceanographic modeling in semi-enclosed basins. 2002. 279-300.intechopen.. A. Carniel S.-M. Campanelli A. 30 January 2010.: Marine Ecology. 2002. S. Davis R.03...C. C03S03. 27(8). 1987. Oceanic Technol.Z. M. P. C.. and others. and Malanotte-Rizzoli P.1016/j.F. DOI:10.73. Pinardi N. Russo. Paschini E. Bregant D.0034 Carter. 3-32. Boldrin.. DOI: 10. Cavaleri L. and Russo A... Analysis models for the estimation of Oceanic Fields. 2006. Carniel S. Available from: http://www. Tracking bottom waters in the Southern Adriatic applying Seismic Oceanography techniques... In: Mediterranean and Black Sea database of temperature salinity and bio-chemical parameters. 340-351.... 2001. 1999. Giani M. Part I: air . 985-1002. 53(1-4).. Pullen J.. Raicich F. A. and Artegiani A.P. F. Journal of Geophysical Research – Ocean. Cavaleri.2) : 33-43. Bregant D. Hobbs R.. 4. P. 225-239. A... and M. C08S92. Dordrecht/Boston/London. References Artegiani.. 217-233.P. The effect of Bora wind on physical and bio-chemical properties of stratified waters in the Northern Adriatic. Oguz T. 30. 114. and Artegiani (eds... Sclavo M. Journal of Physical Oceanography. Raicich F. Artegiani.marsys. 23. 1997b.. Supplement 1.1029/2005JC003134 MEDAR Group. 2009....Sea Research.1016/ j. Journal of Marine Systems.W.S. 2005. Modeling dense water mass formation and winter circulation in the northern and central Adriatic Sea.2004.. Grilli F.07.B. Gacic M. Journal of Physical Oceanography.ocemod. 49-74. 1976. Bernardi Aubry F.. Carniel S..W.com . Dorman.. and Sclavo M.. and Bastianini M. A.. DOI: 10..T.fr/medar/ Poulain. 27(8).2011.1016/j. 20.1029/2008JC004837 Bretherton. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 30. Decadal climatic anomalies in the Northern Adriatic Sea inferred from a new oceanographic data set. Chiggiato J. Part II: Baroclinic circulation structure.. 1996.. Pinardi N. Sclavo. 60 (Supl. DOI:10..E. and Wood W. Sclavo. Doyle J.. Signell.. Paschini E.. Adriatic Sea hydrography.. Bergamasco A. L. S. Ocean Modeling. 111. Carniel.. 1492-1514. Chiggiato J. The Adriatic Sea General Circulation. Deep . A technique for objective analysis and design of oceanographic experiments applied to MODE . J. 2009.. Adriatic Sea surface circulation as derived from drifter data between 1990 and 1999.. Present and Future. and Russo A. Warner J.) A. MEDATLAS/2002 database. E. A... 1515-1532. Chiggiato J.09.
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Hotel Equatorial Shanghai No. Office Block. it is with these in mind that the final chapters consider acumens as to the application of what has been learned to date. How to reference In order to correctly reference this scholarly work. cannot be understood in isolation but rather. Sandro Carniel. is no longer regarded as a single discipline that treats climate as something that fluctuates only within the unchanging boundaries described by historical statistics. as it is this that affects what people need from climatology. Mauro Sclavo and Maja Krzelj (2012). InTech. March. Dr Shih-Yu Wang (Ed. It is all too evident these days that what recent work in climatology has revealed carries profound implications for economic and social policy.is also addressed. 398 pages Publisher InTech Published online 09. China Phone: +86-21-62489820 Fax: +86-21-62489821 . 2012 Published in print edition March. Croatia Phone: +385 (51) 770 447 Fax: +385 (51) 686 166 www. The modern era of climatology is echoed in this book. Modern Climatology. 2012 Climatology. Climatology of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea. Shanghai.). 200040. Aspects on the topic of climate change . the study of climate. ISBN: 978-953-51-0095-9. On the one hand it offers a broad synoptic perspective but also considers the regional standpoint. Yan An Road (West).intechopen. The field has recognized that climate is something that changes continually under the influence of physical and biological forces and so.intechopen. Available from: http://www.65. feel free to copy and paste the following: Aniello Russo. is one that includes diverse scientific disciplines that play their role in understanding a highly complex coupled "whole system" that is the earth's climate.what is often considered a contradiction in terms .com InTech China Unit 405.Modern Climatology Edited by Dr Shih-Yu Wang ISBN 978-953-51-0095-9 Hard cover.com/books/modern-climatology/climatology-of-the-northern-central-adriatic-sea InTech Europe University Campus STeP Ri Slavka Krautzeka 83/A 51000 Rijeka.
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