159 views

Uploaded by Ale Gomez

Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson

save

You are on page 1of 4

**Alejandro G´omez Espinosa
**

∗

February 20, 2013

Jackson, 7.13 A stylized model of the ionosphere is a medium described by the dielectric constant (7.59).

Consider the earth with such a medium beginning suddenly at a height h and extending to inﬁnity.

For waves with polarization both perpendicular to the plane of incidence (from a horizontal antenna)

and in the plane of incidence (from a vertical antenna),

(a) show from Fresnel’s equations for reﬂection and refraction that for ω > ω

p

there is a range of

angles of incidence for which reﬂection is not total, but for larger angles there is total reﬂection

back toward the earth.

The Fresnel’s equations for reﬂection and refraction in the case of E perpendicular to the plane

of incidence according to (7.39):

E

0

E

0

=

2ncos i

ncos i −

µ

µ

_

n

2

−n

2

sin

2

i

(1)

E

0

”

E

0

=

ncos i −

µ

µ

_

n

2

−n

2

sin

2

i

ncos i −

µ

µ

_

n

2

−n

2

sin

2

i

(2)

and for E parallel to plane of incidence, according to (7.41):

E

0

E

0

=

2nn

cos i

µ

µ

n

2

cos i + n

_

n

2

−n

2

sin

2

i

(3)

E

0

”

E

0

=

µ

µ

n

2

cos i −n

_

n

2

−n

2

sin

2

i

µ

µ

n

2

cos i + n

_

n

2

−n

2

sin

2

i

(4)

In (2) and (4), it is clear that the reﬂected wave must be 1, only if the real part of the square

root vanishes, therefore:

n

2

−n

2

sin

2

i ≥ 0

sin

2

i ≥

n

2

n

2

Finally, using the relation between frequencies (7.59), we ﬁnd:

sin

2

i ≥

n

2

n

2

≈ 1 −

ω

2

p

ω

2

ω

2

p

≥ ω

2

_

1 −sin

2

i

_

∗

gomez@physics.rutgers.edu

1

Then, we have partial reﬂection if the incoming wave incide with an angle less than i and, in

consequence, a total reﬂection if the angle is greater or equal than i.

(b) A radio amateur operating at a wavelength of 21 meters in the early evening ﬁnds that she

can receive distant stations located more than 1000 km away, but none closer. Assuming that

the signals are being reﬂected from the F layer of the ionosphere at an eﬀective height of 300

km, calculate the electron density. Compare with the known maximum and minimum F layer

densities of 2 ×10

12

m

−3

in the daytime and (2 −4) ×10

11

m

−3

at night.

From part a), we found that the critical angle is given by:

θ

c

= sin

−1

_

_

_

ω

2

−ω

2

p

ω

_

_

(5)

Then, considering the ionosphere and the earth as ﬂat surfaces, we can approximate that the

radio amateur can only receive distant stations when the wave is totally reﬂected. For this, we

can construct a triangle of base d and height h, thus:

sin θ

c

=

d/2

_

h

2

+ (d/2)

2

=

d

√

4h

2

+ d

2

_

ω

2

−ω

2

p

ω

=

d

√

4h

2

+ d

2

ω

2

p

= ω

2

_

1 −

d

2

4h

2

+ d

2

_

=

_

2πc

λ

_

2

4h

2

4h

2

+ d

2

Finally, the electron density is given by:

n

e

=

mε

0

ω

2

p

c

2

=

4π

2

mε

2

0

e

2

λ

2

_

4h

2

4h

2

+ d

2

_

= 6.6 ×10

11

m

−3

If we compare this value with the known maximum and minimum F layer densities in the

daytime and at night, we see that the calculated value is in the middle of this two. Presumably,

this value corresponds to a density in the evening.

Jackson, 7.15 The partially ionized interstellar medium (mostly hydrogen) responds to optical frequen-

cies as an electronic plasma in a weak magnetic ﬁeld. The broad-spectrum pulses from a pulsar allow

determination of some average properties of the interstellar medium (e.g., mean electron density and

mean magnetic ﬁeld). The treatment of an electronic plasma in a magnetic ﬁeld of Section 7.6 is

pertinent.

(a) Ignoring the weak magnetic ﬁeld and assuming that max(ω

p

) ω, show that c times the transit

time of a pulse of mean frequency ω from a pulsar a distance R away is

ct(ω) ≈ R +

e

2

2ε

0

m

e

ω

2

_

n

e

(z) dz (6)

2

where n

e

(z) is the electron density along the path of the light.

Let us calculate the group velocity of the pulse, using (7.89):

v

g

=

c

n(ω) + ω

dn

dω

(7)

Then, the index of refraction, assuming that in the interstellar medium µ = µ

0

, is:

n(ω) =

_

µε

µ

0

ε

0

=

_

ε

ε

0

(8)

Then, using the relation (7.67) for the dielectric constant and, ignoring the weak magnetic

ﬁeld, we found:

n(ω) =

_

ε

ε

0

=

¸

1 −

ω

2

0

ω(ω ∓ω

B

)

≈

¸

1 −

ω

2

p

ω

2

= 1 −

ω

2

p

2ω

2

(9)

Using this result, let us compute:

dn

dω

=

ω

2

p

ω

3

Plugging this relation and (9) in (7):

v

g

=

c

n(ω) + ω

dn

dω

≈

c

1 −

ω

2

p

2ω

2

+ ω

ω

2

p

ω

3

=

c

1 +

ω

2

p

2ω

2

Finally, using the deﬁnition of ω

p

and the relation for group velocity:

v

g

=

dz

dt

≈

c

1 +

ω

2

p

2ω

2

_

t

0

c dt ≈

_

R

0

1 +

ω

2

p

2ω

2

dz

ct(ω) ≈

_

R

0

1 +

n

e

(z)e

2

2ω

2

ε

0

m

dz

ct(ω) ≈ R +

_

0

R

n

e

(z)e

2

2ω

2

ε

0

m

dz

ct(ω) ≈ R +

e

2

2ω

2

ε

0

m

_

R

0

n

e

(z) dz

(b) The presence of the magnetic ﬁeld causes a rotation of the plane of linear polarization (Faraday

eﬀect). Show that to lowest order in the magnetic ﬁeld, the polarized light from the pulsar has

its polarization rotated through an angle δθ(ω):

δθ(ω) ≈ −

e

3

2ε

0

cm

2

e

ω

2

_

n

e

(z)B

(z) dz (10)

where B

**(z) is the component of B parallel to the path of the light.
**

Let us consider a circular polarized waves:

E = E(

1

±i

2

)e

ik·z−iωt

(11)

3

where

1

,

2

are the polarization vectors and the signs ± indicates the helicity of the wave.

Let us calculate now the index of refraction for the diﬀerent polarization, using (7.67):

n

±

=

_

ε

±

ε

0

=

¸

1 −

ω

2

p

ω(ω ±ω

B

)

=

¸

1 −

ω

2

p

ω

2

(1 ±

ω

B

ω

)

≈ 1 −

ω

2

p

2ω

2

(1 ±

ω

B

ω

)

≈ 1 −

ω

2

p

2ω

2

_

1 ∓

ω

B

ω

_

= 1 −

ω

2

p

2ω

2

∓

ω

2

p

ω

B

2ω

3

where we are just consider the ﬁrst order approximation. Plugging this result into (11), and

neglecting the time dependence, we found:

E = E [

1

exp (ik

+

(z) dz) ±

2

exp(ik

−

(z) dz)]

= E

_

1

exp

_

i

ωn

+

c

dz

_

±

2

exp

_

i

ωn

−

c

dz

__

= E

_

1

exp

_

i

ω

c

_

1 −

ω

2

p

2ω

2

−

ω

2

p

ω

B

2ω

3

_

dz

_

±

2

exp

_

i

ω

c

_

1 −

ω

2

p

2ω

2

+

ω

2

p

ω

B

2ω

3

_

dz

__

from where is easy to see that we will have a diﬀerent in phase of

ω

2

p

ω

B

2ω

2

c

dz. Therefore,

δθ(ω) ≈ −

_

ω

2

p

ω

B

2ω

2

c

dz

= −

_

ω

2

p

eB

(z)

2ω

2

cm

dz

= −

_

n(z)e

3

B

(z)

2ε

0

ω

2

cm

2

dz

= −

e

3

2ε

0

ω

2

cm

2

_

n(z)B

(z) dz

(c) Assuming you had an independent measure of the pulsar distance R, what observations would

you make in order to infer n

e

and B

**? What assumptions, if any, about the polarization
**

are necessary?

To calculate the electron density we could maybe measure the spatial width of one pulse coming

from the pulsar. In addition, we can probably also measure the size of the wave packet of the

light that reaches us from the pulsar.

On the other hand, to measure the magnetic ﬁeld we could measure the changes in the polar-

ization of the incoming light emitted by the pulsar. For this measurement, if we assume that

the light emitted is linear polarized, we can contrast our results with the measure values to

make sure that this assumption is right.

4

- Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson Homework 11Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson Homework 6Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 2Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 3Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson Homework 7Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson Homework 10Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 2Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Quantum Mechanics II - Homework 2Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson Homework 8Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 5Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 6Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson Homework 5Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson Homework 9Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson Homework 4Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 6Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson Homework 1Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 7Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 7Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 8Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Quantum Mechanics II - Homework 5Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Quantum Mechanics II - Homework 7Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 1Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 3Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 9Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 4Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 10Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 4Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 5Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 1Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Quantum Mechanics II - Homework 3Uploaded byAle Gomez

- Statistical Mechanics - Pathria Homework 3Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Statistical Mechanics - Pathria Homework 1Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Statistical Mechanics - Pathria Homework 6Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Quantum Mechanics II - Homework 10Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Statistical Mechanics - Pathria Homework 4Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Quantum Mechanics II - Homework 5Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Quantum Mechanics II - Homework 2Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Quantum Mechanics II - Homework 7Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Quantum Mechanics II - Homework 9Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Statistical Mechanics - Pathria Homework 5Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Quantum Mechanics II - Homework 8Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Quantum Mechanics II - Homework 6Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Quantum Mechanics II - Homework 4Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Statistical Mechanics - Pathria Homework 2Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Quantum Mechanics II - Homework 3Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 10Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson Homework 1Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Quantum Mechanics II - Homework 1Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 8Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson Homework 10Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson Homework 8Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson Homework 2Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson Homework 5Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson Homework 9Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson Homework 4Uploaded byAle Gomez
- Homework 9Uploaded byAle Gomez