Alejandro G´omez Espinosa
∗
March 5, 2013
Jackson, 9.6 (a) Starting from the general expression (9.2) for A and the corresponding expression for
Φ, expand both R = x−x
 and t
= t −R/c to ﬁrst order in x
/r to obtain the electric dipole
potentials for arbitrary time variation
Φ(x, t) =
1
4πε
0
_
1
r
2
n · p
ret
+
1
cr
n ·
∂p
ret
∂t
_
(1)
A(x, t) =
µ
0
4πr
∂p
ret
∂t
(2)
where p
ret
= p(t
= t −r/c) is the dipole moment evaluated at the retarded time measured from
the origin.
Equation (9.2) is the vector potential A(x, t) in the Lorenz gauge:
A(x, t) =
µ
0
4π
_
d
3
x
_
dt
J(x
, t
)
x −x

δ
_
t
+
x −x

c
−t
_
(3)
Let us use the approximation x−x
 ≈ r −n· x
, as suggested in (9.7) to calculate the time t
:
t
= t −
x −x

c
≈ t −
r
c
+
n · x
c
(4)
Also, let us approximate the factor:
1
x −x

=
1
r −n · x
≈
1
r
+
n · x
r
2
(5)
Plugging (4) and (5) into (3), we obtain:
A(x, t) =
µ
0
4π
_
d
3
x
_
dt
J(x
, t
)
x −x

δ
_
t
+
x −x

c
−t
_
=
µ
0
4π
_
d
3
x
J
_
x
, t −
x−x

c
_
x −x

≈
µ
0
4π
_
d
3
x
_
1
r
+
n · x
r
2
_
J
_
x
, t −
r
c
_
≈
µ
0
4π
_
d
3
x
_
1
r
_
J
ret
= −
µ
0
4πr
_
d
3
x
x
(∇
· J
ret
)
=
µ
0
4πr
_
d
3
x
x
∂ρ
ret
∂t
=
µ
0
4πr
∂
∂t
_
d
3
x
x
ρ
ret
=
µ
0
4πr
∂p
ret
∂t
∗
gomez@physics.rutgers.edu
1
In the case of the scalar potential, the corresponding expression is given by:
Φ(x, t) =
1
4πε
0
_
d
3
x
_
dt
ρ(x
, t
)
x −x

δ
_
t
+
x −x

c
−t
_
(6)
Here, the charge density can be expand using (4):
ρ(x
, t
) = ρ
_
x
, t −
r
c
_
+
n · x
c
∂
∂t
ρ
_
x
, t −
r
c
_
= ρ
ret
+
n · x
c
∂ρ
ret
∂t
(7)
Following the same procedure as before, and plugging (7) into (6), we found:
Φ(x, t) =
1
4πε
0
_
d
3
x
_
dt
ρ(x
, t
)
x −x

δ
_
t
+
x −x

c
−t
_
≈
1
4πε
0
_
d
3
x
_
1
r
+
n · x
r
2
_
ρ
_
x
, t −
r
c
_
=
1
4πε
0
_
d
3
x
_
1
r
+
n · x
r
2
__
ρ
ret
+
n · x
c
∂ρ
ret
∂t
_
=
1
4πε
0
_
d
3
x
_
ρ
ret
r
+
n · x
r
2
ρ
ret
+
n · x
cr
∂ρ
ret
∂t
+
(n · x
)
2
cr
2
∂ρ
ret
∂t
_
≈
1
4πε
0
_
d
3
x
_
ρ
ret
r
+
n · x
r
2
ρ
ret
+
n · x
cr
∂ρ
ret
∂t
_
=
1
4πε
0
_
Q +
n · p
ret
r
2
+
n·
cr
∂p
ret
∂t
_
that is the same as (1) plus the total charge distribution.
(b) Calculate the dipole electric and magnetic ﬁelds directly from these potentials and show that
B(x, t) =
µ
0
4π
_
−
1
cr
2
n ×
∂p
ret
∂t
−
1
c
2
r
n ×
∂
2
p
ret
∂t
2
_
(8)
E(x, t) =
1
4πε
0
__
1 +
r
c
∂
∂t
__
3n(n · p
ret
) −p
ret
r
3
_
+
1
c
2
r
n ×
_
n ×
∂
2
p
ret
∂t
2
__
(9)
Let us compute the magnetic ﬁeld:
B = ∇×A
= ∇×
_
µ
0
4πr
∂p
ret
∂t
_
=
µ
0
4π
n ×
_
∇
_
1
r
_
∂p
ret
∂t
+
1
r
∇
_
∂p
ret
∂t
__
=
µ
0
4π
n ×
_
−
1
r
2
∂p
ret
∂t
+
1
r
∂
2
p
ret
∂t∂r
_
=
µ
0
4π
n ×
_
−
1
r
2
∂p
ret
∂t
−
1
rc
∂
2
p
ret
∂t
2
_
where the last step comes from the dependency of the dipole moment:
p
ret
= p
_
t −
r
c
_
⇒
∂p
∂r
= −
1
c
∂p
∂t
2
In the case of the electric ﬁeld:
E = −∇Φ −
∂A
∂t
= −∇
_
1
4πε
0
_
n · p
ret
r
2
+
n·
cr
∂p
ret
∂t
__
−
∂
∂t
_
µ
0
4πr
∂p
ret
∂t
_
= −
1
4πε
0
_
∇
_
n · p
ret
r
2
_
+∇
_
n·
cr
∂p
ret
∂t
__
−
µ
0
4πr
∂
2
p
ret
∂t
2
= −
1
4πε
0
_
∇
_
r · p
ret
r
3
_
+∇
_
r·
cr
2
∂p
ret
∂t
__
−
µ
0
4πr
∂
2
p
ret
∂t
2
= −
1
4πε
0
_
p
ret
r
3
−
3r(r · pret)
r
5
−
r
cr
4
_
r ·
∂p
ret
∂t
_
+
1
cr
2
∂p
ret
∂t
−
2r
cr
4
_
r ·
∂p
ret
∂t
_
−
r
c
2
r
3
_
r ·
∂
2
p
ret
∂t
2
__
−
1
4πε
0
c
2
r
∂
2
p
ret
∂t
2
= −
1
4πε
0
_
1
r
3
(p
ret
−3n(n · p
ret
)) +
1
cr
2
∂
∂t
(p
ret
−3n(n · p
ret
))
+
1
c
2
r
∂
2
∂t
2
(p
ret
−n(n · p
ret
))
_
=
1
4πε
0
__
1 +
r
c
∂
∂t
__
3n(n · p
ret
) −p
ret
r
3
_
+
1
c
2
r
n ×
_
n ×
∂
2
p
ret
∂t
2
__
(c) Show explicitly how you can go back and forth between these results and the harmonic ﬁelds of
(9.18) by the substitutions −iω ↔∂/∂t and pe
ikr−iωt
↔p
ret
(t
).
Making this substitutions into (8) and (9), we found:
B =
µ
0
4π
_
−
1
cr
2
n ×
∂p
ret
∂t
−
1
c
2
r
n
∂
2
p
ret
∂t
2
_
=
µ
0
4π
n ×
_
−
1
cr
2
(−iω)pe
ikr−iωt
−
1
c
2
r
_
−ω
2
_
pe
ikr−iωt
_
=
µ
0
4π
(n ×p)
_
iω
cr
2
+
ω
2
c
2
r
_
e
ikr−iωt
=
µ
0
ω
4πcr
(n ×p)
_
i
r
+
ω
c
_
e
ikr−iωt
E(x, t) =
1
4πε
0
__
1 +
r
c
∂
∂t
__
3n(n · p
ret
) −p
ret
r
3
_
+
1
c
2
r
n ×
_
n ×
∂
2
p
ret
∂t
2
__
=
1
4πε
0
_
_
1 +
r
c
(−iω)
_
_
3n(n · pe
ikr−iωt
) −pe
ikr−iωt
r
3
_
+
1
c
2
r
n ×
_
n ×(−ω
2
)pe
ikr−iωt
_
_
=
1
4πε
0
__
1 −
irω
c
__
3n(n · p) −p
r
3
_
−
ω
2
c
2
r
n ×(n ×p)
_
e
ikr−iωt
3