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Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson

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**Alejandro G´ omez Espinosa March 13, 2013
**

∗

Jackson, 9.12 An almost spherical surface deﬁned by R(θ) = R0 [1 + βP2 (cos θ)] (1)

has inside of it a uniform volume distribution of charge totaling Q. The small parameter β varies harmonically in time at frequency ω . This corresponds to surface waves on a sphere. Keeping only lowest order terms in β and making the long-wavelength approximation, calculate the nonvanishing multipole moments, the angular distribution of radiation, and the total power radiated. Let us calculate the charge density ρ for this surface. Since Q = ρV , where V is the volume, then: ρ= using the approximation described in (1): ρ= Then, the multipole moments: Qlm = Ql0 = = = ≈ = =

∗

3Q Q = V 4πR3

3Q 3 [1 + βP (cos θ )]3 4πR0 2

(2)

∗ ρ d3 x rl Ylm

3Q 3 4πR0

**2l + 1 Pl (cos θ) rl r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ 4π (1 + βP2 (cos θ))3 2l + 1 4π
**

π

3Q 2πRl+3 3 (l + 3) 4πR0 3QRl 2(l + 3) 3QRl 2(l + 3) 3QRl 2(l + 3) 3QRl 2(l + 3)

Pl (cos θ) sin θ dθ (1 + βP2 (cos θ))3

2l + 1 4π 2l + 1 4π 2l + 1 4π

**Pl (cos θ)(1 + βP2 (θ))l d(cos θ)
**

0 1

Pl (x)(1 + βlP2 (x)) d(x)

−1 1 1

Pl (x) dx +

−1 −1

βlP2 (x)) d(x)

2l + 1 2 (δl,0 + βlδl,2 ) 4π 2l + 1

gomez@physics.rutgers.edu

1

where from the second term we found that the non-vanishing multipole moments are those with l = 2, therefore: 3QR2 β Q2,0 = √ (3) 5 5π For the power radiated, let us compute it using equation (9.151): Z0 dP (l, m) = 2 |a(l, m)|2 |Xlm |2 dΩ 2k In the case of the long wavelenght limit, equation (9.169): aE (l, m) = thus, aE (2, 0) = = |a(2, 0)|2 = = From Table 9.1 in Jackson: |X20 |2 = Plugging (7) and (6) into (4): dP (l, m) Z0 27c2 k 8 2 4 2 15 9Z0 c2 k 6 2 4 2 2 = 2 Q R β sin2 θ cos θ = Q R β sin θ cos θ dΩ 2k 6250π 8π 3200π 2 Finally for the total power, let us integrate (8) over all possible solid angles: P = = = 9Z0 c2 k 6 2 4 2 Q R β sin2 θ cos θdΩ 3200π 2 π 9Z0 c2 k 6 2 4 2 Q R β 2 π sin2 θ cos θdθ 3200π 2 0 3Z0 c2 k 6 2 4 2 Q R β 2000π (8) ck 4 15 3 3QR2 β √ 2 5 5π ck l+2 i(2l + 1)!! l+1 l

1/2

(4)

Qlm

(5)

3ck 4 3 QR2 β 25 10π 9c2 k 8 3 2 4 2 Q R β 625 10π 27c2 k 8 2 4 2 Q R β 6250π 15 sin2 θ cos θ 8π

(6)

(7)

2

Jackson, 9.14 An antenna consists of a circular loop of wire of radius a located in the x-y plane with its center at the origin. The current in the wire is I = I0 cos ωt = Re I0 e−iωt (9)

(a) Find the expressions for E, H in the radiation zome without approximations as to the magntude of ka. Determine the power radiated per unit solid angle. The ﬁelds in the radiation zone are given by the superposition, as described in equation (9.149): H= eikr−iωt kr (−i)l+1 [aE (l, m)Xlm + aM (l, m)n × Xlm ]

l,m

(10) (11)

E = Z0 H × n where aE = aM = i k2 l(l + 1) k2 i l(l + 1)

∗ cρ Ylm

∂ [rjl (kr)] + ik (r · J)jl (kr) ∂r

d3 x

(12) (13)

∗ ∇ · (r × J)jl (kr) + ∇ · M Ylm

∂ [rjl (kr)]) ∂r

But in this case, for (12) the charge density and the intrinsic magnetization are zero. Then, the current density is given by: 1 J = I0 e−iωt δ (r − a)δ (cos θ)φ r (14)

Since the current density is in the direction of φ, r · J = 0. Therefore, the electric multipole vanishes and the aM will keep only the ﬁrst term. Using (14) and m = 0 due to azimuthal symmetry, aM = = = = = k2 i i i i i l(l + 1) k2 l(l + 1) k2 l(l + 1) k2 l(l + 1) k 2 I0 l(l + 1)

3 Yl∗ 0 ∇ · (r × J)jl (kr ) d x 3 Yl∗ 0 ∇ · (−I0 δ (r − a)δ (cos θ )θ )jl (kr ) d x

Yl∗ 0 Yl∗ 0

1 ∂ (−i0 δ (r − a)δ (cos θ))jl (kr) d3 x r sin θ ∂θ I0 ∂ δ (r − a) δ (cos θ)jl (kr) d3 x r ∂θ

1 3 Yl∗ 0 δ (r − a) sin θδ (cos θ )jl (kr ) d x r

3

= =

k 2 I0 i i l(l + 1) k 2 I0 l(l + 1)

2πajl (ka) 2πajl (ka)

2 Yl∗ 0 sin θδ (cos θ ) dθ

(2l + 1) 4π

Pl (cos θ) sin2 θδ (cos θ) dθ

= ik 2 I0 ajl (ka) = ik 2 I0 ajl (ka) = ik 2 I0 ajl (ka)

π (2l + 1) l(l + 1) π (2l + 1) l(l + 1)

Pl (x) 1 − x2 δ (x) dx d ( 1 − x2 Pl (x)) dx

x=0

π (2l + 1) Pl−1 (0) l(l + 1)

Plugging this expression into (10) and (11) to have the radiated ﬁelds. (b) What is the lowest nonvanishing multipole moment (Ql,m or Ml,m )? Evaluate this moment in the limit ka 1. From the equation for aM , we can see that the lowest multipole coeﬃcient is when l = 1, then M10 = = = Finally, in the limit when ka M10 1: 1 ka 1 ka − − + ka 6 ka 2 √ = 3πI0 a2 2 (15) 3 aM (1, 0) 2ik 3 √ 3 3 √ j1 (ka)P0 (0) iI0 k 2 πa 3 2 2ik √ 3 3πI0 a sin(ka) cos(ka) − 2k k 2 a2 ka √

√ 3 3πI0 a = 2k

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