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Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson

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**Alejandro G´ omez Espinosa April 2, 2013
**

∗

Jackson, 10.1 (a) Show that for arbitrary initial polarization, the scattering cross section of a perfectly conducting sphere of radius a, summed over outgoing polarizations, is given in the longwavelength limit by 5 1 dσ (e0 , n0 , n) = k 4 a6 − |e0 · n|2 − |n · (n0 × e0 |2 − n0 · n dΩ 4 4 (1)

where n0 and n are the directions of the incident and scattered radiations, respectively, while e0 is the (perhaps complex) unit polarization vector of the incident radiation (e0 ∗ ·e0 = 1; n0 · e0 = 0). To calculate this, we can follow the results from section 10.1.C of Jackson’s Book. Then, equation (10.4) for the diﬀerential cross section is: dσ 1 (n, e; n0 , e0 ) = k 4 a6 |e ∗ ·e0 − (n × e∗) · (n0 × e0 )|2 (2) dΩ 2 To avoid complex values of the polarization, we can choose a linear polarized wave for the scattering part. In particular, we can use one basis vector in the scattering plane (e2 ) and another one perpendicular to the plane (e1 ). Therefore e1 = n × e2 . Also, we can use the incoming direction n0 and the angle between the incoming and scattering directions θ, to deﬁne these orthogonal polarizations: n × n0 n × (n × n0 ) (n · n0 )n − n0 , e2 = n × e1 = = sin θ sin θ sin θ where the term sin θ = |n × n0 | is introduced to normalize the basis. Also, notice that because cos θ = |n · n0 |, therefore: e1 = 1 = cos2 θ + sin2 θ = |n · n0 |2 + |n × n0 |2 Now, let us work each outgoing polarization separatedly: dσ dΩ 1 = k 4 a6 |e1 · e0 − (n × e1 ) · (n0 × e0 )|2 2 = = =

∗

⊥

k 4 a6 1 (n × n0 ) · e0 − (n × (n × n0 )) · (n0 × e0 ) 2 2 sin θ

2

k 4 a6 1 (n × n0 ) · e0 − (n(n · n0 ) − n0 ) · (n0 × e0 ) 2 2 sin θ k 4 a6 1 n · (n0 × e0 ) − (n(n · n0 ) − n0 ) · (n0 × e0 ) 2 2 sin θ

2

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gomez@physics.rutgers.edu

1

= = = = = =

k 4 a6 1 1 n · (n0 × e0 ) − (n(n · n0 )) · (n0 × e0 ) + e0 · (n0 × n0 ) 2 2 2 sin θ 1 k 4 a6 n · (n0 × e0 ) − (n · n0 )n · (n0 × e0 ) 2 2 sin θ

2

2

2 1 k 4 a6 2 | n · ( n × e ) | 1 − ( n · n ) 0 0 0 2 sin2 θ 4 6 1 k a |n · (n0 × e0 )|2 1 − n · n0 + (n · n0 )2 4 sin2 θ 4 6 k a 1 2 1 − cos θ + (1 − sin2 θ) 2 |n · (n0 × e0 )| 4 sin θ 4 6 1 k a 2 5 − cos θ − sin2 θ 2 |n · (n0 × e0 )| 4 4 sin θ

dσ dΩ

1 = k 4 a6 |e2 · e0 − (n × e2 ) · (n0 × e0 )|2 2 = = = = = = = = 1 k 4 a6 ((n · n0 )n − n0 ) · e0 − (n × ((n · n0 )n − n0 )) · (n0 × e0 ) 2 2 sin θ

2

**1 k 4 a6 (n · n0 )(n · e0 ) − (n0 · e0 ) − (n × (n · n0 )n − n × n0 )) · (n0 × e0 ) 2 2 sin θ 1 k 4 a6 (n · n0 )(n · e0 ) − (n0 × n) · (n0 × e0 ) 2 2 sin θ 1 k 4 a6 (n · n0 )(n · e0 ) − (n · e0 ) 2 2 sin θ k 4 a6 1 (n · e0 )2 (n · n0 ) − 2 sin2 θ
**

2 2 2

2

1 2 k 4 a6 2 ( n · e ) cos θ − 0 2 sin2 θ 4 6 1 k a 2 cos2 θ − cos θ + 2 (n · e0 ) 4 sin θ 4 6 k a 2 5 − sin2 θ − cos θ 2 (n · e0 ) 4 sin θ

2

Finally, dσ dΩ = k 4 a6 sin2 θ 5 1 5 − cos θ − sin2 θ + (n · e0 )2 − sin2 θ − cos θ 4 4 4 5 5 cos θ 1 cos θ 2 |n · (n0 × e0 )|2 2 − 2 − 4 + (n · e0 ) 2 −1− 4 sin θ sin θ 4 sin θ sin2 θ 5 |...|2 + (..)2 cos θ 1 − (|...|2 + (...)2 ) − |n · (n0 × e0 )|2 − (n · e0 )2 2 2 4 sin θ 4 sin θ 2 2 5 1 |n · (n0 × e0 )| + (n · e0 ) − |n · (n0 × e0 )|2 − (n · e0 )2 − cos θ 2 4 4 sin θ 5 1 − cos θ − |n · (n0 × e0 )|2 − (n · e0 )2 4 4 5 1 − n · n0 − |n · (n0 × e0 )|2 − (n · e0 )2 4 4 |n · (n0 × e0 )|2

= k 4 a6 = k 4 a6 = k 4 a6 = k 4 a6 = k 4 a6

(b) If the incident radiation is linearly polarized, show that the cross section is dσ 5 3 (e0 , n0 , n) = k 4 a6 (1 + cos2 θ) − cos θ − sin2 θ cos 2φ dΩ 4 8 (3)

where n · n0 = cos θ and the azimuthal angle φ is measured from the direction of the linear polarization. If we take n = cos φ sin θx + sin φ sin θy + cos θz and if n0 = z , then n · n0 = cos θ. Therefore we can choose e0 = x, thus: dσ dΩ = k 4 a6 = k 4 a6 = k 4 a6 = k 4 a6 = k 4 a6 = k 4 a6 = k 4 a6 5 1 − |e0 · n|2 − |n · (n0 × e0 )|2 − n0 · n 4 4 5 1 − |x · n|2 − |n · (z × x)|2 − z · n 4 4 5 1 − sin2 θ cos2 φ − |n · y |2 − cos θ 4 4 5 1 − sin2 θ cos2 φ − sin2 θ sin2 φ − cos θ 4 4 5 1 − sin2 θ(1 + cos2 2φ) − sin2 θ(1 − cos2 2φ) − cos θ 4 4 5 5 3 − sin2 θ − sin2 θ cos2 2φ − cos θ 4 8 8 5 3 (1 + cos2 θ) − sin2 θ cos2 2φ − cos θ 8 8

(c) What is the ratio of scattered intensities at θ = π/2, φ = 0 and θ = π/2, φ = π/2?. Explain physically in terms of the induced multipoles and their radiation patterns. If θ = π/2, φ = 0: dσ = k 4 a6 dΩ 5 3 − 8 8 = k 4 a6 4

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Since φ = 0 the incident wave is polarized in the scattering plane and, θ = π/2 give us the axis of the induced electric dipole. Also, since the radiation of the dipole is not in the direction of the axis, the result radiation must be cause by the magnetic component. In the case of θ = π/2, φ = π/2: dσ = k 4 a6 dΩ 5 3 + 8 8 = k 4 a6

Here the polarization is perpendicular to the scattering plane due to φ = π/2 and radiation is along the induced magnetic dipole moment axis. Therefore, an oscillating electric dipole will give us a complete radiation.

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