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Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson

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- Electricity and Magnetism II - Jackson Homework 6
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**Alejandro G´ omez Espinosa April 29, 2013
**

∗

Jackson, 11.13 An inﬁnitely long straight wire of negligible cross-sectional area is at rest and has a uniform linear charge density q0 in the inertial frame K . The frame K (and the wire) move with a velocity v parallel to the direction of the wire with respect to the laboratory frame K. (a) Write down the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in cylindrical coordinates in the rest frame of the wire. Using the Lorentz transformation propierties of the ﬁelds, ﬁnd the components of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in the laboratory. In the frame K’, we have stationary charge density since the frame is at rest. Then, since the charge is not moving we can immediately said that B = 0, and the electric ﬁeld is the simple case of a density charge of a wire:

r

E dS

0

= =

E

q0 ε0 q0 r 2πr

Then, we can use relations (11.148) of Jackson’s book and place the wirte along the z direction. Since the electric ﬁeld in K’ is along r, the electric and magnetic ﬁeld for K and K’ are zero in the z direction. Therefore we only need to calculate the perpendicular ones: Ez = Ez = 0 Bz = Bz = 0 E⊥ = γ E⊥ + v × B = γE⊥ = γ B⊥ = γ B⊥ − v × E = − q0 r 2πε0 r

γ vq0 γ (v z × Er ) = − 2 φ 2 c c 2πε0 r

(b) What are the charge and current densities associated with the wire in its rest frame? In the laboratory? In the rest frame K’, the charge density is q0 and the current density is 0. In the case of the frame K, because J µ = (cρ, J i ), the correspond charge and current density are: ρ = γρ = γq0 Jx = Jy = 0 J z = γJz = γ (vρ ) = γvq0

∗

gomez@physics.rutgers.edu

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(c) From the laboratory charge and current densities, calculate directly the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in the laboratory. Compare with the results of part a. For the electric ﬁeld: r γq0 ρ ⇒ E= EdA = r ε0 2πε0 r 0 For the magnetic case: B · dl = B = µ0 J · S µ0 γvq0 2πr ·dS

φ

Jackson, 11.15 In a certain reference frame a static, uniform, electric ﬁeld E0 is parallel to the x axis, and a static, uniform, magnetic induction B0 = 2E0 lies in the x-y plane, making an angle θ with the axis. Determine the relative velocity of a reference frame in which the electric and magnetic ﬁelds are parallel. What are the ﬁelds in that frame for θ 1 and θ → (π/2)? Let us use the frame K as the frame described by the problem, where E = E0 x and B = 2E0 cos θx + 2E0 sin θy . Then, let us call the frame K’, moving at speed v , the one where the electric and magnetic ﬁeld are parallel with each other. Therefore: Ex = γ (Ex − βBy ) = γ (E0 − 2βE0 sin θ) Ey = γ (Ey + βBx ) = 2γβE0 cos θ Ez = Ez = 0 Bx = γ (Bx + βEy ) = 2γE0 cos θ By = γ (By + βEx ) = γ (2E0 sin θ − βE0 ) Bz = Bz = 0 Now, in order to ﬁnd the angle θ we can use the fact that E and B are parallel: E ×B = (Ex By − Ey Bx )z = 0

**0 = (γ (E0 − 2βE0 sin θ)γ (2E0 sin θ − βE0 ) − 2γβE0 cos θ2γE0 cos θ)
**

2 0 = γ 2 E0 (1 − 2β sin θ)(2 sin θ − β ) − 4β cos2 θ 2 0 = γ 2 E0 2 sin θ − 4β sin2 θ + 2β 2 sin θ − β − 4β cos2 θ 2 0 = γ 2 E0 2β 2 sin θ − 5β + 2 sin θ

β=

v c

=

5±

25 − 16 sin2 θ 4 sin θ

Once we calculated the relative velocity of the frame K’ we can use it to calculate the two cases in the problem. For θ 1: 5 ± 25 − 16 sin2 θ 2 v = lim c→ c θ→0 4 sin θ 5 and the ﬁelds are: 4 Ex = γE0 Ey = γE0 Ez = 0 5 4 2 Bx = γE0 By = − γE0 Bz = 0 5 5 where γ = (1 −

4 −1/2 25 )

=

√5 . 21

2

In the case of θ → π/2: v = lim and the ﬁelds: Ex = γ (E0 − E0 ) = 0 Bx = 0 where γ = (1 − 1/4)−1/2 = Jackson, 11.27 . (a) A charge density ρ of zero total charge, but with a dipole moment p, exists in reference frame K . There is no current density in K . The frame K moves with a velocity v = βc in the frame K. Find the charge and current densities ρ and J in the frame K and show that there is a magnetic dipole moment, m = (p × β )/2, correct to ﬁrst order in β . What is the electric dipole moment in K to the same order in β ? According to the problem, in the frame K’ the four-current is J µ = (cρ , 0). Then in the frame K, we can use the regular transformations: cρ = γ (cρ − β J ) = γcρ J = γ (J + βcρ ) = γβcρ = βcρ Then, the dipole moment is described by the relation: p= xρd3 x (1)

2 √ . 3

5±

θ→θ/2

25 − 16 sin2 θ c c= 4 sin θ 2 Ey = 0 E0 3 ) = γ E0 2 2 Ez = 0 Bz = 0

By = γ (2E0 −

and the dipole moment in the case of the K frame: m = = = = 1 x × J d3 x 2 1 x × (βcρ) d3 x 2 1 xρ d 3 x × β 2 1 p×β 2

Now, in the case of the dipole electric moment, we can use relations 11.19 of Jackson’s book for the coordinates: x 0 = γ ( x 0 + β · x) = x 0 + β · x γ−1 x = x + (β · x )β + γβx0 ≈ x + βx0 β2 where using the ﬁrst order in β : γ = (1 − β 2 )−1/2 ≈ 1. Therefore: p = ≈ = xρ d 3 x (x + βx0 )ρ d3 x x ρ d3 x = p

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(b) Instead of the charge density, but no current density, in K , consider no charge density, but a current density J that has a magnetic dipole moment m. Find the charge and current densities in K and show that to ﬁrst order in β there is an electric dipole moment p = β × m in addition to the magnetic dipole moment. In this case, the four-current in the frame K’ is given by J µ = (0, J ) and from the continuity equation: ∂ρ ∇·J + =∇·J =0 (2) ∂t Using the correspondent transformations, the four-current in the frame K are described by: cρ = γ (cρ + β · J ) = γβ · J γ−1 γ−1 (β · J )β + γβcρ = J + (β · J )β J = J + 2 β β2 Solving the last relation by J : J =J− γ−1 γ−1 (β · J )β = J − β β cρ γ β≈J

using the ﬁrst order in β for the approximation γ ≈ 1. Then, for the electric dipole moment in the frame K: p = = = = = = = = = xρ d 3 x 1 x( β · J ) d3 x c 1 x(β · J) d3 x c 1 (β × (x × J) + J(β · x)) d3 x c 1 1 β × (x × J) d3 x + J(β · x) d3 x c c 1 1 β×m+ (β × (x × J) − x(β · J)) d3 x c c 1 2 β×m− x(β · J) d3 x c c 2 β×m−p c 1 β×m c 1 2 1 2 1 2

Finally, for the magnetic dipole moment: m = = = x × Jd3 x x × J d3 x (x + βx0 ) × J d3 x x0 2 β × J d3 x

= m + ≈ m

4

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