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Alejandro G´ omez Espinosa∗ February 14, 2013

1) Discuss the ﬁrst-order Stark shift of the n = 3 levels of the hydrogen atom. Take the electric ﬁeld to be along z. Do not evaluate any integrals, but do discuss the pattern of perturbed energy levels: a) Show that the perturbation can be pre-blocked by m values. Using the n = 3 level of the hydrogen atom we know that we will have l = 0, 1, 2 and m = −2, −1, 0, 1, 2 in total. Then, the problem consist of nine states: |300 , |31 − 1 , |310 , |311 , |32 − 2 , |32 − 1 , |320 , |321 , |322 Using the selection rule α2 m2 |H 1 |α1 m1 = 0 unless m1 = m2 , the nonzero matrix elements must be: |300 = |310 = b, |310 = |320 = c |31 − 1 = |32 − 1 = a |311 = |321 = d where a, b, c, d represents the value of the matrix elements. Hence, our matrix is given by: 300 0 b 0 310 b 0 c 320 0 c 0 31-1 32-1 311 321 32-2 322

300 310 320 31-1 32-1 311 321 32-2 322

0 a

a 0 0 d d 0 0 0

where the blanks are zero values. Therefore, as shown in the matrix, the perturbation can be pre-blocked by 3 values. b) Show that the m = ±2 levels are unperturbed (thus forming a degenerate unshifted pair, to ﬁrst order in E . This follows from the matrix above. We can see that the matrix elements for the states |32 − 2 and |322 do not couple with any other state, in consequence, this leves are unperturbed.

∗

gomez@physics.rutgers.edu

1

c) Show that the matrix representation of V in the states of m = −1 or m = +1 takes the form 0 a where a is a real constant. Finding the eigenvalues of this matrix, show that a degena 0 erate pair of states shifts upwards by +a and another pair shifts downward by −a. The form of the matrix, in the case of m = −1 or m = 1, is directly shown in the matrix above. 0 a Then, the eigenvalues of the matrix are λ = ±a, showing that a degenerate pair of a 0 states shifts upgrads by +a and another pair shifts downwards by −a. 0 b 0 d) And ﬁnally, show that the m = 0 sector has matrix representation of V of the form b 0 c . 0 c 0 Obtain the eigenvalues of this matrix and thus discuss how these levels shift. 0 b 0 The matrix element follows from the matrix above. Then, using the matrix b 0 c the 0 c 0 √ √ 2 2 b + c . Therefore the sifts in energy must be + b2 + c2 and eigenvalues λ = 0 and λ = ± √ 2 2 − b +c . 2) Anomalous Zeeman eﬀect. Here, we take our unperturbed Hamiltonian H (0) to be that of the H atom with the spin-orbit interaction included. (Without the spin-orbit, this would be the ”normal Zeeman eﬀect”.) We showed in lecture that H (0) has unperturbed eigenvectors |nljmj with energy E (nljmj ) = −

2 e2 Ry + 2 n 4m2 c2

1 r3

nl

l −l − 1

(1)

for j = l ± 1 2 respectively. (This is known as the ”Lande interval rule”.) For given nlj, this still has a (2j + 1)-fold degeneracy with respect to mj values. We now take our perturbation V to be small magnetic ﬁeld along z, V = (eB/2mc)(Lz + 2Sz ) where we have taken the spin g-factor to be exactly 2. a) Applying degenerate state perturbation theory, show that the states labeled by mj diagonalize the perturbation, and show that the ﬁrst-order shifts are E (1) (mj ) = eB 2mc 1± 1 2l + 1 mj , j =l± 1 2 (2)

[If you can’t ﬁnd a more elegant way to calculate the needed matrix element of Sz , you can do it by converting the |nljmj back to |nlsml ms using Clebsch-Gordon coeﬃcients, Shankar (15.2.20).] Let us calculate the energy change using perturbation theory: E (1) = nljmj | eB (Lz + 2Sz )|nljmj 2mc (3)

But we know that Lz + 2Sz = Jz + Sz . Splitting this problem, let us compute ﬁrst the term for Jz since we are in the eigenstates of that operator: nljmj |Jz |nljmj = mj (4)

2

Now, since we are not in the eigenstates of Sz , we must write |njmj ls in terms of |nlml sms . Using eq. 15.2.20, we found: nljmj |Sz |nljmj nlsml ms |Sz |nlsml ms l + mj + 1 − l + mj = ± 2 2l + 1 mj = ± 2l + 1 =

(5)

Finally, plug in (4) and (5) into (3): E (1) = eB 2mc mj ± mj 2l + 1 = e Bmj 2mc 1± 1 2l + 1 (6)

NOTE: The splittings are thus diﬀerent by a factor of gef f = 1 ± (2l + 1)−1 than would be the case in the normal Zeeman eﬀect (compare g = 1 for pure orbital angular momentum and g = 2 for pure spin angular momentum). That is, the atom in this state can be regarded as having a magnetic moment µ = gef f (−e/2mc)J , with gef f given as above. b) Consider the case l = 0 (here the bottom sign makes no sense - why?) and discuss why the resulting value gef f makes sense. In case that l = 0, the bottom sign makes no sense because it result in a zero energy state, that makes no sense in this scenario. But also in this situation, l = 0 makes the value of geﬀ = 2 which reﬂects a pure spin angular momentum. Shankar Ex. 18.2.4 In the β decay H 3 (two neutrons + one proton in the nucleus) → (He3 )+ (two protons + one neutron in the nucleus), the emitted electron has a kinetic energy of 16 keV. Argue that the sudden approximation may be used to describe the response of an electron that is initially in the 1s state of H 3 . Show that the amplitude for it to be in the ground state of (He3 )+ is 16(2)1/2 /27. What is the probability for it to be in the state |n = 16, l = 3, m = 0 of (He)+ ? Since the emitted electron has a kinetic energy of 16 keV and the mass in rest is 500 keV, its motions is non-relativistic. Then, the time the emitted electron takes to get out of the n = 1 shell is a0 τ≈ Zve which compare with the characteristic time T for the 1s electron given in Eq. 18.2.17: τ Zαc = = Zαc T v m = Zα 2T mc2 = 0.031 2T

Therefore the sudden approximation may be used to describe this decay. Then, the ground state in the case of the H atom is: |H, 100 = Z3 πa3 0

1/2

e−rZ/a0

(7)

Since we can use the sudden approximation, after the emission of the 1s electron in the He3 , the state must be the same (7) as the H atom with Z = 2: |He, 100 = 3 8 πa3 0

1/2

e−2r/a0

(8)

**Thus, the amplitude is given by:
**

∞ π 0 0 ∞ 0 2π

He, 100|H, 100

=

0

= =

4π 8 πa3 0 √ 16 2 27

√

8 −r/a0 −2r/a0 2 e e r sin θ dr dθ dφ πa3 0

√

e−3r/a0 r2 dr

Finally, for the probability for |He, 100 to be in the state |H, 16 − 3 − 0 , due to the orthogonality of both states (l = 3 and l = 0) this probability must be zero. 4) a) Shankar Ex. 18.2.1 Show that if H 1 (t) = −eE X/[1 + (t/τ )2 ], then, to ﬁrst order, P0→1 = e2 E 2 π 2 τ 2 −2ωτ e 2mω (9)

Since H 1 of this problem is similar with the one given in the book (18.2.10), we can follow the same procedure, hence: dn (∞) = − = d1 (∞) = = = = i

∞ −∞

(−eE ) 1+

t 2 τ einωt

n|X |0 einωt dt

1/2

ieE

∞ −∞

1+

∞ −∞

√

ieE 2mω

t 2 τ eiωt

2mω dt

n|(a + a† )|0 dt

1+

t 2 τ

∞ ieE τ 2 eiωt √ dt 2mω −∞ τ 2 + t2 ieE τ 2 πe−ωτ √ τ 2mω − ωτ ieE τ πe √ 2mω

where the integral was solve using Mathematica. Finally, the probability of this transition is: P0→1 = |d1 |2 = as expected in eq. (9) b) Discuss the limit τ → ∞; does the result agree with what you expect based on the adiabatic approximation? Since our H 1 is similar with the perturbation described in the book (18.2.26), we can follow the same explanation. Therefore, we expect that it τ tends to inﬁnity, the change in the system will be adiabatic. Thus, using our perturbation form (9), the system starting in the ground state of H (−∞) = H 0 at t = −∞, it will end up in the ground state of H (∞) = H (∞) = H 0 . Then, the probability found in (10), vanishes exponentially as ωτ → ∞. e2 E 2 τ 2 π 2 e−2ωτ 2mω (10)

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5) a) Shankar Ex. 18.2.6 Consider a system subject to a perturbation H 1 (t) = H 1 δ (t). Show that if at t = 0− the system is in the state |i0 , the amplitude to be in a state |f 0 at t = 0+ is, to ﬁrst order, i df = − f 0 |H 1 |i0 (f = i), (11) Notice that (1) the state of the system does change instantaneously; (2) Even though the perturbation is ”inﬁnite” at t = 0, we can still use ﬁrst-order perturbation theory if the ”area under it” is small enough. Since this H 1 represents a system that changes abruptly over a small time interval ( ), we can use the procedure follow in the Sudden Perturbation (eq. 18.2.14), where by integrating Schr¨ odinger’s equation between t = − /2 and /2: |ψ ( /2) − |ψ (− /2) = |ψafter − |ψbefore = − = − i i i

/2

H 1 (t)|ψ (t) dt

− /2 /2

H 1 δ (t)|ψ (t) dt

− /2

= − H 1 |i0 Finally, the amplitude to be in the state |f 0 is given by: Ai→ f = − i f 0 |H 1 |i0 = df (12)

b) Show that your result of Problem 4(a) above is consistent with 5(a) if E is increased as τ is reduced in such a way that the product E τ → const. In the limit τ → 0. If you take the limit of (10), we found: e2 E 2 τ 2 π 2 e−2ωτ e2 E 2 τ 2 π 2 − − − → τ →0 2mω 2mω but since the product E τ is constant, when τ goes to zero, E must go to inﬁnity as a delta function. Considering this, our result is compatible with what we found in part a) and what we compute in the book. P0→1 = 6) This is essentially Shankar Ex. 18.2.2. Note that k is a unit vector. You may use that 210|z |100 = 27.5 a without proof. 35 0 a) Do the problem ﬁrst for k = z. By considering selection rules, clarify exactly which |2lm ﬁnal state(s) are possible. Show that the result is as shown on p. 476. Since n = 2 in this problem (l = 0, 1 and m = −1, 0, 1), if we start in the state |100 , by selection rules the ﬁnal state possible must be |210 . Then, we can apply eq. 18.2.11 to our states: i ∞ 2 2 df i = − (−eE ) 210|z |100 e−t /τ eiωt dt = = ieE e−t /τ eiωt dt 35 −∞ ieE 27.5 √ 2 −ω2 τ 2 /4 a0 πτ e 35 a0 5

−∞ 7 2 .5 ∞

2 2

where the last integral was taken from eq. 18.2.12 of Shankar. Finally, let us compute the probability: eE 2 215 a2 2 2 2 0 P (n = 2) = |df i | = πτ 2 e−ω τ /2 (13) 310 that is the same result as pg. 476. b) Now repeat for the case that k = x. Does the total probability of arriving in one of the |2lm states change from Part (a)? Does the division between ﬁnal states change? Use the WignerEckhart theorem explicitly to arrive at your answer. Let us use the Wigner-Eckart theorem:

q α2 j2 m2 |Tk |α1 j1 m1 = α2 j2 ||Tk ||α1 j1 j2 m2 |kqj1 m1 0 and the ﬁnal state is |210 . Using (14): In the case of Z, the tensor is T1 0 210|T1 |100 27.5 a0 35

(14)

= =

21||T1 ||10 10|1000 21||T1 ||10

where for this case, the Clebsch-Gordan coeﬃcient is one. Then, in the √ case of x the ﬁnal state must be |211 . In this case, the tensor representation is −1 1 T1 − T1 / 2 and using the Wigner-Eckart theorem: 211|

1 − T −1 T1 √ 1 |100 2

= = = = =

1 1 1 √ 211|T1 |100 − 211|T1 |100 2 1 √ ( 21||T1 ||10 11|1100 − 21||T1 ||10 11|1 − 100 ) 2 1 √ 21||T1 ||10 11|1100 2 1 √ 21||T1 ||10 2 1 27.5 a0 √ 2 35

**That we can see that our result is the same as in part a) divided by 2: P (n = 2) = |df i |2 = eE
**

2

215 a2 0 2 ∗ 310

πτ 2 e−ω

2 τ 2 /2

(15)

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