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Alejandro G´ omez Espinosa∗ March 23, 2013

1) In class we developed the semiclassical theory for the interaction of an atom with electromagnetic radiation. Specializing to a one-electron atom, and dropping the diamagnetic V (2) term (see Problem 2), we have e p · A(r, t) − γ B(r, t) · S (1) V (t) = mc where S is the electron spin and the gyromagnetic ratio is γ = −e/mc (we have set ge = 2). As usual, we take the EM wave to be A(r, t) = A0 yeikx e−iω0 t (2)

a) Show that the 0th -order expansion of the eikx term from B gives rise to the ”magnetic dipole” contribution to Vns of ike A0 n|Sz |s (3) mc Let us calculate B from (2): B = ∇ × A = ∇ × A0 yeikx e−iω0 t = ∂ A0 yeikx e−iω0 t ∂x = ikA0 zeikx e−iω0 t ≈ ikA0 z Then, n|−γ B · S|s = = e ikA0 z · Sz z |s mc ike A0 n|Sz |s mc n|

b) Show that the 1st -order expansion of the eikx term from A augments the magnetic dipole contribution so that the total magnetic dipole contribution to Vns is ike A0 n|Lz + 2Sz |s 2mc and introduces an additional ”electric quadrupole” term keω0 A0 n|xy |s 2c

∗

(4)

(5)

gomez@physics.rutgers.edu

1

1 HINT: Show that xpy = (m/2i¯ h)[xy, HO ] + 2 Lz and use that ω0 = ωns . Let us probe the hint:

m 1 [xy, HO ] + Lz = 2i¯ h 2 = = = = =

m 1 (x[y, H0 ] + [x, H0 ]y ) + Lz 2i¯ h 2 m 1 1 1 x[y, P 2 ] + [x, P 2 ]y + Lz 2i¯ h 2m 2m 2 1 1 (x(2i¯ hpy ) + (2i¯ hpx )y ) + Lz 4i¯ h 2 1 1 (xpy + px y ) + Lz 2 2 1 1 (2xpy − xpy + px y ) + Lz 2 2 1 1 xpy − Lz + Lz = xpy 2 2

Then, for the ﬁrst order approximation in the ﬁrst term: e e e p·A= py A0 eikx−iω0 t ≈ py A0 i(kx − ω0 t) mc mc mc Therefore: n|V |s = = = = = e p · A − γ B · S|s mc ike e py A0 ikx|s + A0 n|Sz |s n| mc mc ike ike A0 n|xpy |s + A0 n|Sz |s mc mc ike m 1 ike A0 n | [xy, H0 ] + Lz |s + A0 n|Sz |s mc 2i¯ h 2 mc ike keω0 A0 n|Lz + 2Sz |s + A0 n|xy |s 2mc 2c n|

c) Show that magnetic dipole absorption is forbidden in the absence of spin-orbit coupling (i.e., if L and S each separately commute with H0 ). Since L and H0 commute, then we can build simultaneously eigenfunctions for both operators, then: n|Lz |s = m n|s Because the states n and s are not the same, this relation vanishes and the magnetic dipole absorption is forbidden. The same relations and procedure holds for S. d) Show that parity-nonconserving electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole transitions are forbidden. Since the electric quadrupole (5) depends upon the term n|xy |s and, x and y operators are odd, the product xy is even. Then, a change in the state xy |s will results in states which are not n| (where the relation does not vanish). Therefore, such transitions are forbidden.

2

**2) a) The ”diamagnetic interaction” is the name for the ”A2 term” V (2) (t) = e2 2mc2 [A(rj , t)]2
**

j

(6)

in the coupling between an atom and an incident EM wave which, as in Problem 1, we take to be A(r, t) = A0 yeikx e−iω0 t . Expanding the eikx factor and keeping the ﬁrst non-vanishing term, show that this interaction causes transitions from state |s to state |n of the atom occur at a rate 2πe2 ω 2 A4 0 |dns |2 δ (ωns − 2ω0 ) (7) Γs→n = h2 m2 c6 ¯ where dns is the dipole matrix element between the states. (Note that the selection rules are the same as for electric dipole absorption, but the absorption occurs at frequency 2ω0 instead of ω0 .) Let us expand the exponential factor of the A: A = A0 yeikx e−iω0 t ≈ A0 yikx Then, the rate of interactions is given by: Γs→n = = = = = = 2π | n|Hint |s |2 δ (En − Es ) h2 ¯ 2π e2 [A(rj , t)]2 |s |2 δ (En − Es ) | n | 2mc2 h2 ¯ j 2π e4 | n|A2 |s |2 δ (En − Es ) h2 4m2 c4 ¯ 2π e4 2 2 2 2 2 4m2 c4 | n|A0 k x |s | δ (Es − En ) h ¯ 2 2π e4 A4 0k | n|x2 |s |2 δ (Es − En ) h2 4m2 c4 ¯ 2 2πe2 A4 0 ω0 |dns |2 δ (ωns − 2ω0 ) h2 m2 c6 ¯

b) The results cannot be expressed in terms of a cross section. Why not? (HINT: The incident intensity of the radiation is proportional to A2 0 .) Since the incident intensity is proportional to A2 0 and the cross section does not depend upon e2 /mc2 , we cannot express this rate as a product of the cross section.

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3) This is Einstein’s ”detailed balance” derivation of the spontaneous emission rate base on thermodynamic principles. Consider a cavity in which atoms are continually making transitions between ground state |s and an excited state |n . The atoms interact with a black-doby radiation ﬁeld with energy density hω 3 ¯ 1 ρrad (ω ) = 2 3 ¯ (8) h ω/kT π c e −1 In the steady state there are on average Ns atoms in the state |s , and Nn in state |n , in equilibrium at temperature T, Ns = eEns /kT (9) Nn Thus, everything (atoms and radiation ﬁeld) is in equilibrium at temperature T. a) By requiring that the rate Ns Γabs at which atoms go from |s → |n is equal to the rate Nn (Γspont + Γstim ) at which atoms go from |n → |s , show Γspont = Let us equate the rates described above: Nn (Γspont + Γstim ) = Ns Γabs Ns Γspont = Γabs − Γstim Nn = eEns /kT Γabs − Γstim = Γstim eEns /kT − 1 = Γstim = b) Assuming that the semiclassical result σstim (ω ) = 4π 2 ω hc ¯ |dns |2 δ (ω − ωns )

n 3 Γstim ¯ hωns ρrad (ωns ) π 2 c3

(10)

¯ ω3 h ρrad (ωns )π 2 c3 3 hωns Γstim ¯ ρrad (ωns ) π 2 c3

(11)

derived in class is correct even for the fully quantum case, use this to determine Γstim /ρrad and thus to show that (in the electric dipole approximation) Γspont =

3 4ωns |dns |2 3¯ hc3

(12)

(In class we will later compare this with the result of a fully quantum-mechanical treatment of the radiation ﬁeld.) Let us start with the stimmulate rate of interaction, Γstim = nvσstim . To calculate the number of particles, let us use (8): ρrad ω2 1 n= = 2 3 ¯ (13) h ω/kT ¯ hω π c e −1

4

**Also, since v = c for photons, the stimmulate rate is given by: Γstim = ncσstim ω2 1 4π 2 ω = c hω/kT − 1 π 2 c3 e¯ hc ¯ =
**

3 |dn s|2 4ωns hω/kT − 1 hc4 e¯ ¯

|dns |2 δ (ω − ωns )

n

**Plugging this result into (10): Γspont = = = =
**

3 hωns Γstim ¯ ρrad (ωns ) π 2 c3

3 4ωns |d n s | 2 3 ¯ ω/kT −1 ¯ hωns hc4 eh ¯ hω 3 ¯ 1 π 2 c3 ¯ ω/kT −1 π 2 c3 eh 3 4π 2 |dns |2 ¯ hωns 2 π 2 c3

h ¯ 4ω 3 |dns |2 hc4 ¯

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