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**Alejandro G´omez Espinosa
**

∗

April 15, 2013

1) Consider a unitary transformation between two orthonormal bases, one containing states q and r and

another containing states u and v, such that

b

†

u

=

1

2

a

†

q

+

√

3

2

a

†

r

b

†

v

=

√

3

2

a

†

q

−

1

2

a

†

r

where the a

†

are creation operators in the qr basis and b

†

are creation operators in the uv basis.

Suppose the system is in state |11

uv

. (This is the uv number representation”; it means one particle

is in state u and one is in v.)

a) First for the Bose case, write the corresponding state in the qr number representation (i.e., as

one, or as a linear combination of, states of the form |nm

qr

).

|11

uv

= b

†

u

b

†

v

|00

uv

=

_

1

2

a

†

q

+

√

3

2

a

†

r

__

√

3

2

a

†

q

−

1

2

a

†

r

_

|00

qr

=

_

√

3

4

a

†

q

a

†

q

+

3

4

a

†

r

a

†

q

−

1

4

a

†

q

a

†

r

−

√

3

4

a

†

r

a

†

r

_

|00

qr

=

_

√

3

4

a

†

q

a

†

q

+

3

4

a

†

r

a

†

q

−

1

4

a

†

r

a

†

q

−

√

3

4

a

†

r

a

†

r

_

|00

qr

=

√

3

4

a

†

q

a

†

q

|00

qr

+

1

2

a

†

r

a

†

q

|00

qr

−

√

3

4

a

†

r

a

†

r

|00

qr

=

√

3

4

|20

qr

+

1

2

|11

qr

−

√

3

4

|02

qr

where we have use the commutation relation [a

†

q

, a

†

r

] = δ

qr

.

∗

gomez@physics.rutgers.edu

1

b) Repeat for the Fermi case.

|11

uv

= b

†

u

b

†

v

|00

uv

=

_

1

2

a

†

q

+

√

3

2

a

†

r

__

√

3

2

a

†

q

−

1

2

a

†

r

_

|00

qr

=

_

√

3

4

a

†

q

a

†

q

+

3

4

a

†

r

a

†

q

−

1

4

a

†

q

a

†

r

−

√

3

4

a

†

r

a

†

r

_

|00

qr

=

_

√

3

4

a

†

q

a

†

q

+

3

4

a

†

r

a

†

q

+

1

4

a

†

r

a

†

q

−

√

3

4

a

†

r

a

†

r

_

|00

qr

=

√

3

4

a

†

q

a

†

q

|00

qr

+ a

†

r

a

†

q

|00

qr

−

√

3

4

a

†

r

a

†

r

|00

qr

= |11

qr

where we have use the anticommutation relation {a

†

q

, a

†

r

} = δ

qr

and a

†

q

a

†

q

|00

qr

= 0 in the case

of fermions.

2) Show that for the simple harmonic oscillator in 1D, the Hamiltonian can be written in the occupation-

number representation as

H = ¯ hω

n

_

n +

1

2

_

b

†

n

b

n

(1)

and the position operator as

X =

n

_

¯h(n + 1)

2mω

b

†

n+1

b

n

+ h.c. (2)

and ﬁnd a similar expression for the momentum operator. Here the sums run over n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...

and b

†

n

is the operator that creates a particle in state n of the SHO.

We know that the Hamiltonian for the SHO in 1D is H =

n

_

n +

1

2

_

¯hω for one particle. Also, we

know that b

†

n

b

n

= N in the case of upper and lower operators. Therefore, it is straightforward to

show that, in the case of multiple particles:

H = ¯ hω

n

_

n +

1

2

_

N

n

= ¯ hω

n

_

n +

1

2

_

b

†

n

b

n

Then, in analogy of the X operator in the SHO for 1 particle:

X =

_

¯h

2mω

(a + a

†

)

for n particles, if a

†

increase the level of energy in the SHO, we can replace it by b

†

n+1

b

n

, therefore:

X =

n

_

¯h(n + 1)

2mω

(a

n

+ a

†

n

) =

n

_

¯h(n + 1)

2mω

(b

†

n+1

b

n

+ b

n+1

b

†

n

)

and analogy for the momentum operator:

P =

n

i

_

¯h(n + 1)

2mω

(a

†

n

− a

n

) =

n

i

_

¯h(n + 1)

2mω

(b

n+1

b

†

n

− b

†

n+1

b

n

)

2

3) .

a) We let a

†

k

and a

k

be the particle creation and annihilation operators in a basis of momentum

eigenstates k in a box of volume Ω. We deﬁne the ”ﬁeld operators”

´

ψ

†

(r) and

´

ψ

†

(r) via the

Fourier transformation

a

†

k

=

1

√

Ω

_

d

3

r e

ik·r

´

ψ

†

(r) (3)

or conversely,

´

ψ

†

(r) =

1

√

Ω

k

e

−ik·r

a

†

k

(4)

Show, by substituting one way, that the above equations are consistent, and then show, by

substituting the other way, that

δ(r) =

1

Ω

k

e

ik·r

(5)

is a representation of the three-dimensional Dirac delta function.

Let us start replacing (4) into (3):

a

†

k

=

1

√

Ω

_

d

3

r e

ik·r

´

ψ

†

(r)

=

1

√

Ω

_

d

3

r e

ik·r

_

1

√

Ω

k

e

−ik·r

a

†

k

_

=

1

Ω

_

d

3

r

k

e

ik·r−ik·r

a

†

k

=

1

Ω

_

d

3

r a

†

k

=

1

Ω

Ωa

†

k

= a

†

k

Then, plugging (3) into (4):

´

ψ

†

(r) =

1

√

Ω

k

e

−ik·r

a

†

k

=

1

√

Ω

k

e

−ik·r

_

1

√

Ω

_

d

3

r e

ik·r

´

ψ

†

(r)

_

=

_

d

3

r

1

Ω

k

e

−ik·r

e

ik·r

´

ψ

†

(r)

if δ(r) =

1

Ω

k

e

ik·r

=

_

d

3

r δ(r)e

ik·r

´

ψ

†

(r)

=

´

ψ

†

(r)

therefore, δ(r) is the representation of Dirac delta function in three dimensions.

3

b) Show that

_

d

3

r

´

ψ

†

(r)

´

ψ

†

(r)

´

φ(r) = Ω

−1/2

k,k

a

†

k

a

†

k

b

k+k

(6)

where a

†

k

and b

†

k

create particles of species ”a” and ”b” in plane-wave states normalized in

volume Ω, and

´

ψ

†

(r) and

´

φ

†

(r) are the corresponding ﬁeld creation operators for species ”a”

and ”b”, respectively.

_

d

3

r

´

ψ

†

(r)

´

ψ

†

(r)

´

φ(r) =

_

d

3

r

_

1

√

Ω

k

e

−ik·r

a

†

k

__

1

√

Ω

k

e

−ik·r

a

†

k

__

1

√

Ω

k

e

ik

·r

b

†

k

_

=

_

d

3

r

1

√

Ω

k,k

e

−ik·r

a

†

k

e

i(k

−k)·r

a

†

k

δ(r)b

†

k

=

_

d

3

r

1

√

Ω

k,k

e

−ik·r

a

†

k

a

†

k

δ(r)δ

k

,k

b

†

k

=

1

√

Ω

k,k

a

†

k

a

†

k

b

k+k

4

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