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Quantum Mechanics II - Homework Assignment 8

Alejandro G´omez Espinosa

April 15, 2013
1) Consider a unitary transformation between two orthonormal bases, one containing states q and r and
another containing states u and v, such that
b

u
=
1
2
a

q
+

3
2
a

r
b

v
=

3
2
a

q

1
2
a

r
where the a

are creation operators in the qr basis and b

are creation operators in the uv basis.
Suppose the system is in state |11
uv
. (This is the uv number representation”; it means one particle
is in state u and one is in v.)
a) First for the Bose case, write the corresponding state in the qr number representation (i.e., as
one, or as a linear combination of, states of the form |nm
qr
).
|11
uv
= b

u
b

v
|00
uv
=
_
1
2
a

q
+

3
2
a

r
__

3
2
a

q

1
2
a

r
_
|00
qr
=
_

3
4
a

q
a

q
+
3
4
a

r
a

q

1
4
a

q
a

r


3
4
a

r
a

r
_
|00
qr
=
_

3
4
a

q
a

q
+
3
4
a

r
a

q

1
4
a

r
a

q


3
4
a

r
a

r
_
|00
qr
=

3
4
a

q
a

q
|00
qr
+
1
2
a

r
a

q
|00
qr


3
4
a

r
a

r
|00
qr
=

3
4
|20
qr
+
1
2
|11
qr


3
4
|02
qr
where we have use the commutation relation [a

q
, a

r
] = δ
qr
.

gomez@physics.rutgers.edu
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b) Repeat for the Fermi case.
|11
uv
= b

u
b

v
|00
uv
=
_
1
2
a

q
+

3
2
a

r
__

3
2
a

q

1
2
a

r
_
|00
qr
=
_

3
4
a

q
a

q
+
3
4
a

r
a

q

1
4
a

q
a

r


3
4
a

r
a

r
_
|00
qr
=
_

3
4
a

q
a

q
+
3
4
a

r
a

q
+
1
4
a

r
a

q


3
4
a

r
a

r
_
|00
qr
=

3
4
a

q
a

q
|00
qr
+ a

r
a

q
|00
qr


3
4
a

r
a

r
|00
qr
= |11
qr
where we have use the anticommutation relation {a

q
, a

r
} = δ
qr
and a

q
a

q
|00
qr
= 0 in the case
of fermions.
2) Show that for the simple harmonic oscillator in 1D, the Hamiltonian can be written in the occupation-
number representation as
H = ¯ hω

n
_
n +
1
2
_
b

n
b
n
(1)
and the position operator as
X =

n
_
¯h(n + 1)
2mω
b

n+1
b
n
+ h.c. (2)
and find a similar expression for the momentum operator. Here the sums run over n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...
and b

n
is the operator that creates a particle in state n of the SHO.
We know that the Hamiltonian for the SHO in 1D is H =

n
_
n +
1
2
_
¯hω for one particle. Also, we
know that b

n
b
n
= N in the case of upper and lower operators. Therefore, it is straightforward to
show that, in the case of multiple particles:
H = ¯ hω

n
_
n +
1
2
_
N
n
= ¯ hω

n
_
n +
1
2
_
b

n
b
n
Then, in analogy of the X operator in the SHO for 1 particle:
X =
_
¯h
2mω
(a + a

)
for n particles, if a

increase the level of energy in the SHO, we can replace it by b

n+1
b
n
, therefore:
X =

n
_
¯h(n + 1)
2mω
(a
n
+ a

n
) =

n
_
¯h(n + 1)
2mω
(b

n+1
b
n
+ b
n+1
b

n
)
and analogy for the momentum operator:
P =

n
i
_
¯h(n + 1)
2mω
(a

n
− a
n
) =

n
i
_
¯h(n + 1)
2mω
(b
n+1
b

n
− b

n+1
b
n
)
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3) .
a) We let a

k
and a
k
be the particle creation and annihilation operators in a basis of momentum
eigenstates k in a box of volume Ω. We define the ”field operators”
´
ψ

(r) and
´
ψ

(r) via the
Fourier transformation
a

k
=
1


_
d
3
r e
ik·r
´
ψ

(r) (3)
or conversely,
´
ψ

(r) =
1

k
e
−ik·r
a

k
(4)
Show, by substituting one way, that the above equations are consistent, and then show, by
substituting the other way, that
δ(r) =
1

k
e
ik·r
(5)
is a representation of the three-dimensional Dirac delta function.
Let us start replacing (4) into (3):
a

k
=
1


_
d
3
r e
ik·r
´
ψ

(r)
=
1


_
d
3
r e
ik·r
_
1

k
e
−ik·r
a

k
_
=
1

_
d
3
r

k
e
ik·r−ik·r
a

k
=
1

_
d
3
r a

k
=
1

Ωa

k
= a

k
Then, plugging (3) into (4):
´
ψ

(r) =
1

k
e
−ik·r
a

k
=
1

k
e
−ik·r
_
1


_
d
3
r e
ik·r
´
ψ

(r)
_
=
_
d
3
r
1

k
e
−ik·r
e
ik·r
´
ψ

(r)
if δ(r) =
1

k
e
ik·r
=
_
d
3
r δ(r)e
ik·r
´
ψ

(r)
=
´
ψ

(r)
therefore, δ(r) is the representation of Dirac delta function in three dimensions.
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b) Show that
_
d
3
r
´
ψ

(r)
´
ψ

(r)
´
φ(r) = Ω
−1/2

k,k

a

k
a

k

b
k+k
(6)
where a

k
and b

k
create particles of species ”a” and ”b” in plane-wave states normalized in
volume Ω, and
´
ψ

(r) and
´
φ

(r) are the corresponding field creation operators for species ”a”
and ”b”, respectively.
_
d
3
r
´
ψ

(r)
´
ψ

(r)
´
φ(r) =
_
d
3
r
_
1

k
e
−ik·r
a

k
__
1

k
e
−ik·r
a

k
__
1

k

e
ik

·r
b

k

_
=
_
d
3
r
1

k,k

e
−ik·r
a

k
e
i(k

−k)·r
a

k
δ(r)b

k

=
_
d
3
r
1

k,k

e
−ik·r
a

k
a

k
δ(r)δ
k

,k
b

k

=
1

k,k

a

k
a

k

b
k+k

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