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The Messenger

No. 123 – March 2006


Photo: G. Hüdepohl, ESO

First Light of the VLT


Laser Guide Star
Facility. See article on
page 16.
Spain to Join ESO

On 13 February, at a ceremony in Madrid,


an agreement was signed by the Span­ish
Minister of Education and Science, Mrs.
María Jesús San Segundo, and the ESO
Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky,
affirming their commitment to securing
Spanish membership of ESO.

Following approval by the Spanish Coun-


cil of Ministers and the ratification by
the Spanish Parliament of the ESO Con-
vention and the associated protocols,
Spain will become ESO’s twelfth member
state on 1 July 2006.

“Since long Spain was aware that en-


tering ESO was a logical decision and it
was even necessary for a country like
Spain because Spain is ranked eighth in
astrophysical research”, said Mrs. María
Jesús San Segundo. “The large scienti-
fic installations are not only necessary for
research in different fields but are also The Span­ish Minister of Education and Science,
Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo, (left) and the
partners and customers for high-tech
ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (right)
companies, helping to increase the fund- ­s igning the agreement.
ing of R&D.”

“Spanish Astronomy has made tremen- Indeed, Spain is an important member With the high quality of Spanish astronom­
dous strides forward and we are delight­- of the European astronomical com- ical research as well as the technologi-
ed to welcome Spain as a new member munity and has developed impressively cal competence of Spanish industry, it is
of ESO. We very much look forward to over the last three decades, reaching only fitting that Spain should join ESO.
working together with our excellent Span- maturity with major contributions in virtu- Through ESO Spain will enjoy full access
ish colleagues”, said Dr. Cesarsky. “For ally all areas of astronomy. In addition, to all of ESO’s current facilities and un­
ESO, the Spanish accession means that Spain hosts, operates or owns a number restricted participation in the projects that
we can draw on the scientific and tech- of competitive facilities dedicated to ESO is planning for the future. Spain is
nological competences, some of them fos­ter astronomical research, among already an active partner of the Atacama
unique in Europe, that have been devel- which is the Observatorio del Roque de Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), whose
oped in Spain and, of course, for Europe los Muchachos at La Palma, certainly construction and operations are led by
the Spanish membership of ESO is an the premier optical/infrared astronomical ESO on behalf of Europe.
im­portant milestone in the construction observing site in Europe and site of the
of the European Research Area.” Spanish 10-m GranTeCan telescope now ESO’s Council approved the admission
nearing completion. of Spain at its 107th meeting held in
Garching on 7 and 8 December 2005.

(Based on ESO Press Release 05/06)

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 


Telescopes and Instrumentation

Status of the European ELT

Guy Monnet, Roberto Gilmozzi (ESO) an ESO-coordinated intense community lyse feasibility issues, evaluate cost and
effort. schedule estimates, and identify the
main risks of the project and areas to be
In December 2004 the ESO Council Construction of any ELT – especially if up further explored. The second was to
defined as ESO’s highest priority strate- to 100-m diameter – requires securing recommend whether and how to proceed
gic goal the retention of European new enabling technologies through an ex- to a next phase of the project.
astronomical leadership and excellence tensive R&D programme. Early collabo-
into the era of ELTs, asking that the ration with industry has led to much pro- The panel praised the OWL team for an
construction of an ELT on a ­competitive gress in a number of crucial telescope extensive and largely successful feasi­bil-
time scale be addressed by radical design areas such as serial production of ity study for a 100-m ELT. A strong tech­
strategic planning. Therefore the ESO (spherical) mirror segments either in  nical point stressed by the panel was the
activities towards the future European glass or SiC, cheap yet high performance integrated approach chosen for the OWL
ELT underwent a major ‘phase tran- position actuators, large deformable active/adaptive optics ­system, with in
sition’ during 2005, with the completion mirrors, etc. These developments give a particular at least one large adaptive mir-
of the exploration of the OWL concept strong basis to break the classical (and ror as an integral part of the tele­scope.
and its comprehensive review by an potential­ly lethal) D 2.6 cost law. A much
in­ternational panel, followed by the more shallow law (~ D 1.4) has been estab- Substantial technical risks were ­however
start, with an extensive ESO Community lished instead, owing in particular to serial identified, associated with OWL’s double
involvement, of the iterative process production of identical mirror segments, segmentation (M1 and M2), the highly
that should lead quickly to the definition standardised mechanical parts and actu- aspherical M4 mirror and the telescope
of the ELT it needs and wants. ators. The launch four years ago of sec- size that makes it Laser Guide Star ‘un-
ond-generation VLT instruments has led friendly’. In view of these risks, but also of
to the development, largely by the ESO a consolidated cost (~ 1.2 G€) larger than
The OWL conceptual study community, of a number of ELT ‘pathfind- the likely available ESO resources in the
ers’, in particular KMOS, Planet Finder, 2008–2020 time frame, the panel recom-
Since 1998 ESO has been pursuing a MUSE and the VLT Adaptive Optics (AO) mended to consider a smaller ­diame-
conceptual study for a giant optical- Facility (for more information, see http:// ter, less complex and less risky ELT. It
infra­red telescope with a primary mirror www.eso.org/instruments/ and http:// emphasised that most of the OWL design
­diameter D up to 100 metre, dubbed www.eso.org/projects/aot/). A significant effort and virtually all technological devel-
OWL for the eponymous bird keen night part of the R&D associated with this effort opments started so far were directly
vision and for being OverWhelmingly is being conducted through OPTICON. useful for this new phase. In addition the
Large. What started at first as a low‑key panel recommended to strongly involve
evaluation of the main promises and the ESO community in all aspects of
­challenges associated with such a ­daring The OWL review the project and to speed up the currently
endeavour picked up considerable mo­ running ELT site selection programme,
mentum over the last four years. Follow- The OWL Conceptual Study was com- with additional attention given to start-
ing the December 2004 Council reso­ pleted and its results collated in early Oc­- ing government level negotiations for site
lution, it was decided to complete rapidly tober 2005 in the ‘Blue Book’ report access as soon as possible. The panel
the study and proceed to a thorough (http://www.eso.org/projects/owl/Phase_ concluded recommending “that the pro-
review by an international panel by the A_Review.html). A comprehensive review ject proceed to Phase B, and begin with
end of 2005. was conducted by an international panel a new examination of the balance be-
on 2–5 November 2005. Members were: tween science return, competitiveness,
The OWL Study has largely been an ESO Roger Davies, Oxford University (Chair); AO performance, instrumentation, risk
internal effort, but with essential feed- Jean-Gabriel Cuby, LAM-Marseille;  and final performance within an afford-
back from industry and with community Brent Ellerbroek, Thirty-Metre Telescope able cost.” It noted that the time to carry
involvement in two critical areas. The first Project Office; Daniel Enard, formerly out such a re-evaluation was already
of these was the building over the last VIRGO; Reinhard Genzel, MPE-Garching; in the plans proposed in the Blue Book.
five years of a thorough science case for Jim Oschmann, Ball Aerospace; Roberto
a 50–100-m ELT by a large segment Ragazzoni, INAF-Arcetri; Larry Ramsay,
of the community under the aegis of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope; Stephen Shect- The ELT design study
European Commission (EC) FP5 and FP6 man, Carnegie Observatories; and Larry
OPTICON programme (see its executive Stepp, Thirty-Metre Telescope Project Of- ELT-related R&D efforts are now acceler-
summary at: http://www.astro-opticon. fice. ating, with a five-year programme started
org/). The second was the preliminary de- by European astronomical institutes
finition and analysis of a potential OWL The first objective of the review was to as- and industries through the ESO-coordi-
instrument suite that could cover its sci- sess whether, or to what extent, the nated FP6 ELT design study. With a con-
ence case, and which has been accom- ­proposed technical solutions were rea- solidated 30.5 M€ budget (including
plished over the last 12 months through sonable, i.e. judge the strengths and 8.4 M€ from the EC), it is aimed at estab-
weaknesses of the OWL approach, ana- lishing generic technologies critically

 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


required for any ELT through the devel- tive chairpersons are: Marijn Franx, Leiden ing Group (ESE) suggested by the OWL
opment of new concepts, advanced (Science); Colin Cunningham, UKATC review panel, or rather a ‘core’ version
components, realistic simulations, bread- (Instrumentation); Gérard ­Rousset, Obser- of it, has been created to consolidate the
boards and prototypes. vatoire de Paris (Adaptive Optics); Daniel reports of the five working groups into
Enard, formerly VIRGO (Telescope De- a recommendation to ESO (by May 2006).
sign); and Roland Gredel, Calar Alto (Site). This ‘core’ ESE is composed of the ELT-
Towards the European ELT Amazingly – a clear mark of the deep WG chairs and co-chairs while the other
interest and commitment of the commu- members of the ELT-WGs will act as ad-
Following the review, the already planned nity – of the more than 90 WG members hoc experts for ESE until at least the end
two-year consolidation phase towards (60 % external, 40 % ESO) contacted on of 2006. The ESE proper will be set up
the final project has started as advocated 22 December, only two were not able to by STC in the spring to help and advise
by the review panel. As it noted, most join at such short notice, due to press- the ESO ELT project office in the complex
of the building blocks developed for OWL ing ESO-related tasks. The brief of the five iteration loops ahead, hopefully weaving
remain valid for a smaller-size telescope ELT-WGs called for a two-month burst of successfully Science, AO, Instruments,
and we expect to develop a basic refer- activity in January–February 2006 to pro- Telescope Design and Site requirements
ence design for what is now the Europe- duce an initial input to the ESO Team in to define the basic choices and produce
an ELT project by the end of 2006. Our the form of ‘toolboxes’, synthesising and a coherent and powerful ELT project 
basic goal is to define the best afford- collating ELT-related present and pro- for Europe by the end of the year. To en­-
able ELT that can be built on a competi- jected capabilities in their respective topic sure an even wider interaction with the
tive time scale and with acceptable risks. areas, as well as a first cut at a prioriti- community, the project draft basic refer-
While the project is open to internation- sation of the requirements. This effort has ence design will be presented and dis-
al collaboration, we definitely need to get just ended with all contributions received cussed at a topical workshop in mid-No­-
a baseline design that could be handled in time and with the proper content. vember 2006 in Marseille (France), in time
within Europe alone, should no other ma- for a final ‘loop’ before presenting a defi-
jor partner be found. Present efforts by the former OWL team nite plan to the ESO Council in December
– soon to be expanded and restructured 2006.
The process of definition of the E-ELT has as the ELT project office – are primarily
been kick-started by mixed communi- focussed at producing the ELT reference
ty-ESO ELT Working Groups (a.k.a. ELT‑ design, with as few remaining open op- Acknowledgements
WGs) set up by ESO’s Director General tions as possible by the end of the year. The OWL study has been the combined effort of
at the end of December, one for each of This involves a multiple iteration process many people, both inside and outside ESO, over
main ELT areas, namely (a) its Science between the main ELT ingredients listed many years and we want to thank them all. We are
case, (b) an Instrument suite, (c) the asso­- above. Continuing with a strong com- also very grateful to the Review Panel members for
their timely and highly constructive criticisms. Fi-
ciated Adaptive Optics systems, (d) the munity involvement during this critical nally, we thank both the external and internal mem-
Tele­scope and Observatory Design and step is essential. To that effect, the ELT bers of the ELT working groups for agreeing to help
(e) potential Sites evaluation. Their respec­ Science and Engineering external Work- at remarkably short notice.

Visualisation: H. Zodet, ESO

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 


Telescopes and Instrumentation

The VLT Adaptive Optics Facility Project:


Telescope Systems

Robin Arsenault 1 The Adaptive Optics Facility is a project positive conclusion in August 2005 and
Norbert Hubin 1 to convert UT4 into a specialised Adap- a corresponding data package was
Stefan Stroebele 1 tive Telescope. The present second­- delivered covering all main aspects of the
Enrico Fedrigo 1 ary mirror (M2) will be replaced by a design.
Sylvain Oberti 1 new M2-Unit hosting a 1170-actua-
Markus Kissler-Patig 1 tor deformable mirror. The three focal In the course of the feasibility study, it
Roland Bacon 6 ­stations will be equipped with instru- became obvious that the scope of the
Richard McDermid 7 ments adapted to the new capability project needed to be broadened in order
Domenico Bonaccini-Calia 1 of this UT. Two instruments have been to answer some basic questions: What
Roberto Biasi 3 identified for the two Nasmyth foci: are the scientific advantages of such an
Daniele Gallieni 4 Hawk-I with its AO module GRAAL al- improvement to the UT? What are the
Armando Riccardi 5 lowing a Ground Layer Adaptive Optics implications on the various systems for
Rob Donaldson 1 correction and MUSE with GALACSI the UT and its operation?
Miska Lelouarn 1 for GLAO correction and Laser Tomog­
Wolfgang Hackenberg 1 raphy Adaptive Optics correction. A A conceptual design review took place
Ralf Conzelman 1 ­future instrument still needs to be de- in September 2005 to address these
Bernard Delabre 1 fined for the Cassegrain focus. Several questions; it involved several ESO staffs
Remko Stuik 7 guide stars are required for the type and a few external review board mem-
Jerome Paufique 1 of adaptive corrections needed and a bers. The conclusion was positive and it
Markus Kasper 1 Four Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF) was later endorsed by ESO management
Elise Vernet 1 is being developed in the scope of the as a high priority project and by the STC
Mark Downing 1 AO Facility. Convex mirrors like the VLT in October. In December, ESO Council
Simone Esposito 5 M2 represent a major challenge for also approved the AOF which is the final
Michel Duchateau 1 testing and a substantial effort is dedi- approval and gave the green light for the
Marijn Franx 7 cated to this. ASSIST, is a test bench project.
Richard Myers 2 that will allow testing of the Deform­-
Steven Goodsell 2 a­ble Secondary Mirror and both instru­
ments with simulated turbulence. Strategy rationale
This article focusses on the telescope
1
ESO systems (Adaptive Secondary, Four There are fundamental advantages to
2
University of Durham, United Kingdom Laser Guide Star Facility, RTC platform have one mirror of the telescope train
3
MicroGate and ASSIST Test Bench). The follow- being adaptive. The whole telescope
4
ADS International ing article describes the AO Modules then becomes an adaptive optical system
5 
INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di GALACSI and GRAAL. ­offering fast wavefront correction with‑
Arcetri, Italy out the addition of supplementary optics
6
CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, France or mechanics. Moreover, with the two
7
Leiden University, the Netherlands History of the project Nasmyth and Cassegrain foci this gain
is threefold. The system gives better
Pioneering efforts were made at the throughput to science instruments, lower
MMT to equip the 6-m telescope with a emissivity for thermal IR instruments,
Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM). large field of view accessible to all instru-
The system was designed and fabricated ments and less complexity/crowding at
by an Italian consortium composed of the focal planes.
MicroGate, ADS Intl and the Osservatorio
Astrofisico di Arcetri. The same consor- The alternative to a DSM is a ‘post-focal’
tium is now involved in the development AO system (à la NAOS) which involves
of the two DSM’s for the Large Binocu- an optical train of five to six supplemen‑
lar Telescope (Mount Graham). The tech- tary warm mirrors at the image focal
nology has matured substantially and plane. Table 1 provides a trade-off analy-
it seemed appropriate to investigate sis that justifies the choice of a DSM,
whether this technology was promising although there are other drivers for this
for the VLT. choice.

A feasibility study was launched in June During the elaboration of the AO Facil-
2004 with MicroGate as the main con‑ ity design it became clear that such a
tractor (including also ADS and OAA). combination of several complex systems
The goal was to demonstrate the feasibil- raises important questions particularly
ity of such a design for one of the VLT in term of AIT, commissioning and control
8-m telescopes. The study came to a strategy. Such questions, typical of

 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Criterion DSM Post-Focal Comment Table 1: Technical
Throughput Optimal ~ 75 % optimal trade-offs for the
AO Facility.
Field of View Full UT FOV Smaller due to relay optics Post-Focal optical design and the me-
(10; for Hawk-I LGS) (1; for NAOS) chanical implementation for relay optics
is difficult and provides smaller FOV
Emissivity Optimal Larger; exact factor not well
known but likely around three
Cost € 1.4 M saving per AO system
versus cost of DSM
FTE Gain not well defined Gain not well defined Possibly a slight advantage to DSM
Spare M2-Unit Yes No The decommissioned Dornier M2-Unit
becomes spare for the three other UT’s
GRAAL-Hawk-I OK Not feasible because large FOV
GALACSI-MUSE OK Very cumbersome mechanical
implementation (has been studied)
Cass. AO + INS Undefined Undefined Great advantage of DSM if instrument
exploits Thermal IR
VLTI Piston: 1170 capacitive sensors No impact
with 3 nm RMS accuracy
Chopping ~ 6? on sky ~ 20? on sky Reduced chopping of DSM w/r actual
M2-Units

any telescope design including several Facility description ter and 672 actuators concave second-
deformable mirrors (ELTs), and their cor- ary mirrors of the LBT (Mount Graham,
responding answers would benefit tre- The following systems/projects are being Arizona) are being integrated. A similar
mendously from a hands-on experience conducted in the context of the AO Facil- design is envisioned for one of the VLT
gained on a VLT “prototype”. In this per- ity: Unit Telescopes; the deformable second-
spective the AO Facility becomes a highly – A new-generation M2-Unit hosting a ary design is 1120 mm in diameter and
relevant pathfinder for any ELT design. 1170-actuator deformable mirror the thin shell is 2 mm ‘thin’ while offering
This argument became an important mo- – A four-Laser Guide Star Facility using 1170 actuators for adaptive correction
tivation for ESO management to pursue fiber lasers and four Launch Telescopes (see Figure 1).
the AOF concept with a DSM. The list on the UT centrepiece
below illustrates common issues between – SPARTA: a flexible Real Time Computer These mirrors are composed of three
AO Facility and an ELT: Platform to perform the AO correction basic elements: a back-plate, hold, a ref-
– Develop a high-order adaptive tele- of the AO modules (and others) erence body and the thin shell. The back
scope at the diffraction limit – GRAAL: the AO module allowing plate has two functions: holding the voice
– Secure and improve current large DM wavefront sensing and Ground Layer coil actuators and evacuating heat dis-
with 30 mm spacing (~ M6 for OWL) AO correction for Hawk-I sipated by the coils with the help of an
– Secure manufacturing and handling of – G ALACSI: the AO module allowing integrated cooling fluid circuit. Each voice
large thin shells wavefront sensing and GLAO and Laser coil applies a force to a corresponding
– Develop and monitor robust Laser and Tomography correction for MUSE magnet glued onto the back face of the
CCD technologies – ASSIST: a complete test facility allow- thin shell. A ring of conductive ­material 
– Provide large computing power for AOF ­ing complete testing and characterisa- is deposited around each magnet and is
~ 1 kHz (factor 200 w/r NAOS) tion of the AO Facility in Europe mirrored on the reference body. These
– Develop, operate and master Laser – A dedicated effort to address AO cal- two opposite coatings constitute a capac­
Tomography AO and Ground Layer AO ibration issues for the various AO mod- itance used as gap sensor. The refer-
systems ules ence body being a calibrated optical sur-
– Elaborate and control a detailed error face, an equal spacing for all capacitive
budget to reach the Strehl ratios re- sensors insures a relatively good optical
quired Second-generation M2-Unit quality on the shell.
– Master interaction matrix measurement
strategies (in-lab and on-sky) The concept of thin shell and force actua- An internal control loop at 80 kHz insures
– Manage multiple interlaced control tors is one of the most promising in the that the force applied maintains the ca­
loops and offloading processes field of large deformable mirrors; the larg- pacitive sensor to a constant gap. Note
– Develop extensive DSM testing proce- est deformable mirrors have been built / also that the derivatives of the capacitive
dures in the laboratory designed with this technology. A 642 mm sensor positions provide a measure of
– Manage efficient commissioning of diameter convex secondary mirror with the velocity of the shell displacement
such a complex facility 336 actuators has been developed and is which in turn is used by the system to de-
being used by the MMT (Mount Hopkins, fine an electronic damping; this feature in-
Arizona), while the two 911 mm diame- sures high bandwidth for all mirror modes.

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 


Telescopes and Instrumentation Arsenault R. et al., The VLT Adaptive Optics Facility Project: Telescope Systems

The reference body is a conventional, Figure 1: Conceptual design for the


1120 mm diameter, 1170 actuator VLT
thick, Zerodur optical component, with
deformable secondary mirror. The
the exception of the numerous cylin- M2-Unit contains the electronics (top),
drical openings allowing passage for the Hexapod for centring and focusing
actuators. The VLT design explored a (middle) and the deformable thin shell
(bottom).
light-weighting scheme (50–60 % light-
weighted Zerodur or SiC) to reduce the
weight of the complete assembly (rea-
listic without being a huge cost driver).
SiC offers the added advantage of being
extremely rigid compared to Zerodur.
This is important since the rigidity of the
reference body insures a reliable shell
figure.
Hexapod for centring and fine ­
focusing
The thin shell provides, at rest, the same
optical properties as the actual Beryllium
mirrors of the VLT M2. The optical sur- Cold Plate; heat eva­cuation and
face is thus convex and the optimal shell ­actuator attachment
thickness has been defined as 2 mm thin.
Reference body
To remain within a known field of exper-
tise, the shell is manufactured from a thick Thin shell
Zerodur blank, and is therefore a costly
and delicate component. Note that other
avenues are explored for thin shell manu-
facturing in the context of large DM for Parameter Value Table 2: Summary of the simulation
results in the median seeing case.
ELTs (i.e. slumping). Median seeing at 30 deg: r 0 (0.5 µm) 12.1 cm (0.85? at 500 nm)
Results of fitting 10 000 uncorrelated
Specified fitting error 78 nm rms
wavefronts (this represents the ca­
Detailed simulations show that the resid­ Fitting error (all modes) 1170 62.5 nm rms pability of the DSM to fit a turbulent
ual error with all modes corrected is Zernike modes fitting error 70.0 nm rms wavefront. It does not take into ac-
count the time delay of the AO control
62.5 nm rms, fulfilling the specifications 1170 KL modes fitting error 60.2 nm rms
loop).
(see Table 2). max PtV actuator displacement 13.6 µm
max rms actuator displacement 1.66 µm rms
max peak force 0.82 N
Calibration requirements max rms actuator force 0.17 N rms
rms force 0.157 N rms
A fundamental limitation of AO systems
based on an adaptive secondary mir- to be demonstrated that the accuracy Zernike or Karhuenen-Loeve), several
ror like the VLT M2 is that there is no of the models (DM and WFS) can be high techniques are foreseen and being com-
intermediate focus before the deformable enough to ensure the expected perfor- pared: (1) Open loop fast DM actuation,
mirror. Therefore, it is not possible to mance. Regarding the experimental es­- which allows freezing the disturbances
install an artificial calibration source, seen timation of the IM, novel techniques are be­tween modal push and pull and thus
by the DM and the Interaction Matrix (IM) investigated in order to deal with the new minimise turbulent noise as well as any
measurement in a conventional way is issues that we have to face: There is low-frequency effect. (2) Open-loop
not possible. An extensive program has ­turbulent noise either because the cali- DM modulation and demodulation by FFT
been initiated at ESO to study this limita- bration is performed on sky or because detection. The stimulus power is concen­
tion and explore alternatives. of the telescope internal turbulence. trated on a single frequency beyond
The calibration time might dramatically the modal atmospheric bandwidth. Low-
Several solutions are being envisioned increase because of the larger num­ber frequency effects are cancelled out and
for the IM measurement. First, Synthetic of degrees of freedom. Several methods it allows for multiplexing. This way, sev­-
(simulated) IM using measured influence are being investigated through simula- eral modes can be measured simultane-
functions of the DSM in the laboratory tions and laboratory tests as well as on ously, reducing the total calibration time.
and calibration of the WFS optical path, sky tests when possible. The different (3) Closed-loop calibration. Dynamic
and second, several different methods schemes aim at minimising the noise and bias is applied as offset on the WFS sig-
of performing on-sky IM measurements. bias on the measurement in order to opti- nal. The DM command is measured as
mise the quality of the re­constructor. a response to this bias and therefore the
Even if the synthetic IM is the most se­ reconstruction matrix (or control matrix)
ductive solution (noiseless, simplicity, Using various modal bases (zonal, is measured directly.
no calibration time required), it still has ­Hadamard, system modes/mirror modes,

 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Furthermore, there is a key issue related are required to the Laser Clean Room for optical train and calls for the maximum
to calibration. A pupil offset may have the upgrade to 4LGSF. Other systems simplification possible. Care has to be
a strong impact on the system perform- from the existing LGSF are being re-used, applied for optics working at high power
ance and must be addressed properly. such as the Aircraft Avoidance System. densities. This requirement coupled with
Indeed, for high-order AO systems such the flexibility to point the LGS at 0, 60 or
as VLT with DSM, the tolerance is very The baseline lasers are 1178 nm fibre 330 arcsec off-axis, as required by MUSE
tight. Dynamical pupil alignment is envi- Raman lasers, which are frequency and Hawk-I, has driven the choice of
sioned to minimise this effect. The sever- ­doubled to 589 nm. The fibre delivers the Launch Telescope optics toward a
al investigated techniques appear prom- 20 + W CW at 1178 nm, 1 GHz line- refractive, single-lens f/5 design, with the
ising and have convinced the AO Facility width. The ­frequency doubling is done fibre laser output at its focal plane. The
review board of our sound approach. via a single pass on PPSLT, a non-linear first Eigenfrequency of the LTS has to be
crystal. The fibre laser is an on-going > 60 Hz, in order to avoid LGS wander-
Therefore, in terms of simplicity and time development at ESO, together with the ing and unwanted jitters. This imposes
consumption the most attractive choice com­panies IPF Technology Ltd (UK), ­ strict choices on the mechanical support
is to simulate the IM. A few more aspects Toptica (D) and the Russian branch of structure of the LTS, which is in CFRP to
of this method need to be secured, and the company Volius. ESO has so far ensure stiffness and reduce weight.
in particular the AO Department will as- reached 2.9 W CW at 589 nm in its
sess the impact of the model errors on lab, aiming to reach full power in the Above the Launch telescope, there is
the system performance and robustness. second half of 2006. a movable shutter curtain to protect the
lens when it is not in use, and a long
The polarisation maintaining single- baffle to avoid as much as possible scat­
Four Laser Guide Star Facility mode fibre will directly reach the Launch tering light in the telescope environ­ment.
telescopes using a fireproof fibre cable In operation the diagnostic system can
Four Laser Guide Stars are required for and going through the altitude cable be in or not. A motorised flipper mirror
the type of corrections needed; it is envi- wrap up to the UT4 centrepiece. At each can optionally send the output beam to a
sioned to perform Ground Layer Adap- launch telescope, a small box contains Coherent LM-45 calibrated power-metre,
tive Optics for Hawk-I and MUSE involv- the frequency doubling PPSLT crystal, its to measure the output beam power.
ing averaging turbulence measurements temperature controller and the frequen-
in four different directions around the cy feedback control sensor. The frequen-
field of view. cy doubling unit is located at the Launch ASSIST
Telescope.
The choice of four launch telescopes on A complete testing of the ‘AO system’
the centrepiece is preferred in order to The four Launch Telescopes located on as done for conventional ones (NAOS
avoid the so-called ‘fratricide’ effect. This the centrepiece (Figure 2) have demand- and such) is not possible without the tele­
degrades the wavefront sensor measure- ing requirements. The projected laser scope, or a sophisticated facility repro-
ments when, for instance, four beams beam quality has to be diffraction limited ducing the opto-mechanical interfaces.
are launched from behind M2; inevitably, to guarantee the minimum LGS angu- In the present case there is the additional
the beams cross the path of the neigh- lar size, which imposes constraints on the complexity of testing a large convex op­
bour sensors and ‘pollute’ some subap- tical component.
ertures increasing the background light
level and therefore noise. This effect is re-
Extension ducts
duced if lasers are launched from outside
the telescope pupil (centrepiece).

The upgrade of the LGSF to four LGSF


takes full advantage of the existing Laser
Clean Room. As much as possible, Connection devices
the electronics cabinets are in the LCR,
the interlock panel and the fibre laser
sources are in the LCR, and most of the
­heating/cooling is confined to this space. Figure 2: The four Launch telescopes
The easy access to LCR helps in serv­ of the 4LGSF baseline design are
icing and maintenance, and the numer- mounted on the UT4 centrepiece.
ous safety issues become more man- The singlet large BK7 lenses are sup-
ported by a carbon fibre cone-shaped
ageable. The existing LCR was already shell, which gives high rigidity and
dimensioned to host multiple lasers, stability. The fibre laser output goes
in the LGSF project. Moreover, with fibre directly at the focal plane of the f/5,
lasers the power consumption is much 500 mm diameter lens. Note the
long baffles necessary to avoid light
reduced. Hence very little modifications scattering in the UT4 dome volume.

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 


Telescopes and Instrumentation Arsenault R. et al., The VLT Adaptive Optics Facility Project: Telescope Systems

The Test Facility described below is in Conclusions – ASSIST: a sophisticated test bench al-
itself a complex and relatively costly sys- lowing complete characterisation of the
tem; think only of the 1.65 m concave ESO is fully dedicated to this major en­ AOF performance in Europe (this effort
mirror required. However, one must not deavor, requiring some 110 FTE’s over is led by the University of Leiden part of
neglect the usefulness of investing in the 6-year lifespan. Table 3 shows the MUSE consortium)
a versatile and complete test facility in the major milestones ahead of us. The
order to characterise and understand AO Department of ESO heads the de­ The project passed a Conceptual Design
these systems. It will allow the designer velopment of the AO Facility, the trans- Review last September and Preliminary
team to gain sufficient confidence and formation of one 8-m UT into an adaptive and Final Design Reviews will be held
invaluable experience with the adaptive Telescope. This multi-division effort, in- over in the course of 2007– 08. Commis-
optics systems before re-assembly cluding also European partners, aims at sioning activities will be in full swing in the
and in­tegration on the telescope. In the delivering to the ESO community: course of 2010 –11 and the AOF should be
end this will save valuable telescope – A n 8-m UT4 with a new M2-Unit host- available to the community by 2012.
time by minimising commissioning time. ing a 1170 actuators for AO correction
– A 4LGS Facility launching four Na lasers
This facility will not only allow testing from the telescope centrepiece Acknowledgements
of the DSM itself, but it will also provide – GRAAL: the AO module allowing The work described in this paper is partially funded
a turbulence generator to simulate Ground Layer correction for Hawk-I by the European Commission Sixth Framework
AO correction in realistic conditions and – G ALACSI: the AO module allowing ­Programme under contract No. RII3-CT-001566.
VLT standard opto-mechanical inter- Ground Layer correction for MUSE
The authors wants to thank in particular Prof. Gerry
faces to the AO pre-stages GRAAL and Wide Field and Tomographic correction Gilmore and Dr. John Davies, respectively OPTICON
GALACSI for the instruments Hawk-I for the MUSE Narrow Field Scientific Coordinator and Project Scientist, for
and MUSE respectively. the support provided by OPTICON to this project.

The opto-mechanical design shown in


Figure 3 is composed of two mirrors
plus the VLT DSM. The latter is mounted
on a vertical structure holding the M2 unit
thus providing a support identical to the
one of the VLT. The gravity vector is along Figure 3: Opto-mechanical layout of
the VLT DSM test set-up. The image
the M2 optical axis. Two other optical
plane is located at the centre of
components are required: a main 1.65 m curvature of the three-mirrors system:
diameter aspheric mirror and a smaller 1.65-m concave aspheric (bottom
140 mm diameter aspheric mirror. The red), 1.1-m convex DSM (top red cyl-
inder), and strongly aspheric 140 mm
asphericity of the former can be handled
third mirror (just below DSM). A 45°
by conventional polishing techniques flat mirror and beamsplitters are used
while the fabrication of the second would to deport the source and image planes
require diamond turning. This setup at convenient locations on each
side of the vertical set-up. The NACO
would offer a 2-arcmin field of view and
test bench is re-cycled to provide a
no pupil distortion. ­N asmyth opto-mechanical interface
(left). The ‘table’ on the right-hand side
will support the turbulence generator
and source modules.

Milestones GRAAL GALACSI DSM 4LGSF ASSIST Table 3: Milestones for


AOF green light December 2005 December 2005 December 2005 December 2005 December 2005 the various systems of
the AO Facility.
PDR January 2007 June 2007 October 2006 June 2007 January 2007
FDR January 2008 June 2008 August 2007 June 2008 October 2007
End of MAI October 2009 April 2010 May 2009 October 2008
PAE February 2011 July 2011 February 2010 July 2010 October 2009
End of Commissioning December 2011 February 2012 November 2011 February 2011 —

10 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Telescopes and Instrumentation

The VLT Adaptive Optics Facility Project:


Adaptive Optics Modules

Robin Arsenault 1 Requirements for the instruments The present article details mainly the
Norbert Hubin 1 AO modules for Hawk-I and MUSE and
Stefan Stroebele 1 The three UT focal stations will benefit the Real-Time-Computer platform
Enrico Fedrigo 1 from the image correction provided by SPARTA. Note that Hawk-I is an ESO-led
Sylvain Oberti 1 the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM). effort. This instrument completed its
Markus Kissler-Patig 1 At the time of this writing two instruments Final Design Phase at the end of 2004
Roland Bacon 6 are identified: Hawk-I and MUSE on the and is in the manufacturing stage.
Richard McDermid 7 opposite Nasmyth foci. The correspond-
Domenico Bonaccini-Calia 1 ing AO modules are GRAAL (GRound MUSE is an external consortium effort
Roberto Biasi 3 layer Adaptive optics Assisted by Lasers) led by the Observatoire de Lyon (CRAL)
Daniele Gallieni 4 and GALACSI (Ground Atmospheric Lay- including the University of Leiden, the
Armando Riccardi 5 er Adaptive Corrector for Spectroscop­- Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule
Rob Donaldson 1 ic Imaging). The STC has requested ESO Zürich, Astrophysikalisches Institut Pots-
Miska Lelouarn 1 to propose options for the future use dam, the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées
Wolfgang Hackenberg 1 of the Cassegrain focus; in the meantime (LAOMP), and the Institut für Astrophysik
Ralf Conzelman 1 ­SINFONI will remain at this focal station Göttingen.
Bernard Delabre 1 and will be available on the AO Facility.
Remko Stuik 7
Jerome Paufique 1 The AO corrections to be provided are Description of the AO Modules
Markus Kasper 1 new: Ground Layer Correction (GLAO)
Elise Vernet 1 and Laser Tomography (LTAO). The form- GRAAL for HAWK-I
Mark Downing 1 er consists in measuring the turbulence
Simone Esposito 5 in four different directions outside the Concept
Michel Duchateau 1 instrument FOV and to average it in or-
Marijn Franx 7 der to provide a homogeneous image The GRound layer Adaptive optics system
Richard Myers 2 improvement across the instrument FOV. Assisted by Lasers (GRAAL) is a mod-
Steven Goodsell 2 The latter compensates for the laser ule designed to provide GLAO ­correction
cone effect (not sampling all the turbu- for the HAWK-I NIR wide-field imager
lence seen on the astronomical target) (7.5; × 7.5; FoV with ~ 0.1? pixels). GRAAL
1
ESO and optimises high strehl correction is designed as a module hosting four
2
University of Durham, United Kingdom on-axis; therefore, the need for four Laser WFSs for LGS and a tip-tilt sensor for a
3
MicroGate Guide Stars. Figure 1 illustrates these NGS. The atmospheric turbulence is
4
ADS International correction modes. sampled in four slightly different direc-
5 
INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di tions over the instrument field of view to
Arcetri, Italy
6
CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, France Figure 1: Illustration
7
Leiden University, the Netherlands of the Ground Layer
adaptive correction (left)
and Laser Tomography
(right).
The Adaptive Optics Facility is a project
to convert UT4 into a specialised Adap- Ground Layer AO Laser Tomography AO
tive Telescope with the help of a De-
formable Secondary Mirror (see previ- Reference Laser Guide
ous article). The two instruments that Stars Stars
have been identified for the two Nas-
myth foci are: Hawk-I with its AO mod-
ule GRAAL allowing a Ground Layer High Altitude
Adaptive Optics correction (GLAO) and Layer
MUSE with GALACSI for GLAO correc-
tion and Laser Tomography Adaptive Ground Layer
Optics correction. This article describes
the AO modules GRAAL and GALACSI Telescope
and their Real-Time Computers based
on SPARTA. Ground
Conj. DM

WFC
WFS WFC
Camera
© E. Marchetti, ESO, 2005

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 11


Telescopes and Instrumentation Arsenault R. et al., The VLT Adaptive Optics Facility Project: Adaptive Optics Modules

send an average correction, homoge­ be used to sense tip-tilt aberrations. reach the same magnitude limit as VISTA
neous over the scientific field of view, to The IR NGS will be selected inside the 16 times faster, i.e., even with the signif­
the DSM. The improvement provided by HAWK-I FoV. The sensing would then be icantly smaller FoV, HAWK-I with GRAAL
GRAAL can be summarised in saying performed using the guide mode of the would reach 1/2 the survey speed of
that it will allow HAWK-I to work most of HAWK-I Hawaii2RG infrared detectors: a VISTA but with at least a factor of two im­
the time under better than median see­- small window (16 × 16 pixels) around the provement in spatial resolution.
ing conditions (e.g. the FWHM of the IR NGS will be read out at high frequency
PSF will be reduced from 0.94? to 0.73?). to sense tip-tilt. HAWK-I prime science cases include
Even under most conditions (1? seeing deep multi-colour surveys at high z, stel-
in the visible), the 50 % encircled energy Note also that the correction modes of lar population studies in nearby ­galaxies,
diameter will be reduced by 15 % in the the DSM and SPARTA are not restricted and investigations of star-forming re-
Y and 30 % in the Ks over the entire field only to GLAO and LTAO. GRAAL con- gions in our Galaxy. These programmes
of view. tains an on-axis high-order WFS 402 critically rely on the deepest possible ex-
subaperture used for the DSM commis- posures with the highest possible spatial
The system will use the Deformable sioning and maintenance activities. Fig- resolution – both of which will be im-
Sec­ondary Mirror (DSM) having enough ure 2 shows the opto-mechanical con- proved by GRAAL. HAWK-I with GRAAL
stroke and degrees of freedom to cor­- cept for GRAAL and the performance will typically reach 0.5 mag deeper in
rect for the atmospheric seeing (up expected. The relative improvement with J, H and K for a fixed exposure time. For
to 2? seeing) including the atmospheric respect to no correction can be seen by high‑z observations, this is equivalent
tip-tilt and for VLT field stabilisation. Four comparing crosses (GLAO) and dia- to a gain of 1.26 in distance (adopting a
Sodium Laser Guide Stars emitted from monds (no correction). The homogeneity standard cosmology). This translates in
four 50-cm laser projectors located on of the improvement across the field of turn into ~ 25 % more volume probed by
the VLT centrepiece will be sensed by view can also be assessed from the plot the survey in the same time (surveys will
four 30 × 30 Wave-Front Sensors (WFS). on the right. reach z ~ 1.2 instead of z = 1 or z ~ 3.6
These wavefront sensors must rotate to instead of z ~ 3).
compensate for the pupil rotation at the
Nasmyth focus and they must acquire Performance improvement for SCIENCE For surveys aiming at studying galaxies
and track the focus of the correspond­ing at fixed redshift, or stellar populations
laser spots. HAWK-I with GRAAL would constant­- in a given nearby galaxy, this translates
ly reach 1.5 mag fainter on point sources into vastly increased number statistics,
As baseline a visible tip-tilt sensor has than without correction, for the same as the galaxy luminosity function in-
been considered. To avoid obscuration of integration time. GRAAL will thus em- creases exponentially and the stellar
the HAWK-I FoV the visible NGS will be phasise HAWK-I’s strengths: very deep initial mass rises with a power > 2 in the
acquired outside the HAWK-I FoV. As an imaging at high spatial resolution. But regime of interest. Proposals address-
alternative an IR Natural Guide star could note also that HAWK-I with GRAAL will ing forefront science often require the

0.10
AO structure
NGS-WFS/DSM lens unit

0.08
EE in a pixel of 0.1�

New FIERA system 0.06


(space allocation)

New FIERA system


(space allocation)
0.04

Cable wrap
0.02

0.00
0 100 200 300 400
Distance from FOV Centre (arcsec)
Calibration fiber
Cross: AO, Diamond: Seeing (0.94�)
assembly

LGS-WFS assembly Figure 2: GRAAL opto-mechanical layout. One sees


the four LGS wavefront sensors, the visible wave-
NGS-WFS assembly
front sensor and the central natural guide star sen-
NGS-WFS/DSM assembly
sor for the commissioning and maintenance of
Counterweight
the DSM. The plot shows the fraction of energy in
a 0.1? rectangular pixel K-band; crosses repre-
sent GLAO correction and diamonds represent see-
ing-limited observations.

12 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Figure 3: GALACSI opto-mechanical
layout. GALACSI is mounted on the
Nasmyth A/R which is used to correct
for pupil rotation. This insures that the
WFS pattern remains fixed with re-
spect to the DSM actuator geometry.

LGS LGS
WFS WFS
500 mm BFD
NGC
(FIERA) NGC
(FIERA)
IR
WFS
4� Field
Selector
Nasmyth Adaptor Flange IRACE
Controller

IR WFS

Reimaging Lens
F/4.0 NGC
NGC
(FIERA)
(FIERA)

Visible
TT
LGS LGS LGS Focus Sensor
Compensation
WFS WFS

best seeing conditions. Currently, the nat­ It will serve MUSE, a visible spectrograph shows the optical design and opto-me-
ural seeing in the K-band is better than (0.46–0.93μm) sitting on the Nasmyth chanical layout of GALACSI. Figure 4
0.4? only 20 % of the time. With GRAAL, platform and composed of 24 identical shows the simulated performance of the
an image quality in the K-band below Integral Field Units. MUSE will obtain WFM and the NFM.
0.4? will be achieved ~ 80 % of the time. 90 000 spectra (370 × 106 pixels) with a
GRAAL will provide a fourfold increase in resolution of 3 000 in a single exposure.
time for the most challenging proposals. Science
Since the DSM is attached to the tele­
scope structure, its actuator geome­- MUSE and GALACSI will tackle a wide
GALACSI try will rotate like the pupil at the Nasmyth range of astrophysical problems. MUSE
focal plane of the VLT. To maintain has been designed from the start to
Concept the matching between the WFS and DSM take great advantage of the combination
pattern the WFSs must rotate like the of IFU spectroscopy and the high spatial
GALACSI is a module very similar to ­telescope pupil. This corresponds to a resolution provided by AO.
GRAAL. It will include four LGS WFS and co-rotation of the WFSs with the Tele-
one tip-tilt natural star sensor. It will of- scope altitude axis. The same applies for
fer a correction mode identical to GRAAL the field position of the LGSs. The rota- 1. Narrow-Field Mode (NFM)
GLAO (laser stars closer since FoV tion is done by co-rotating GALACSI with
smaller), that is seeing improver, except the Nasmyth rotator. The field de-rotation The very high spatial resolution of this
for a smaller field of view called Wide for MUSE is done inside MUSE. mode (0.025 arcsec2 spatial elements) al-
Field Mode (1 arcmin). Although the field lows only relatively high surface bright-
of view is smaller, the gain in ensquared The visible tip-tilt natural guide star sen- ness science targets. The science drivers
energy gain is similar to GRAAL since the sor for the Wide Field Mode is expected are therefore quite specific, although still
wavelength is shorter (750 nm). The Nar- to have a limiting magnitude around scientifically relevant and totally unique to
row Field Mode is the real challenge since Mv ~ 17.5. Natural tip-tilt star will be ac- MUSE. During the operational period of
it aims at a strehl ratio of some 10 % a quired within a 4; technical FOV but MUSE, the science community may not
650 nm in a 7.5? field of view. Laser To- out­-side the 1; square scientific FOV to have access to a space-based (diffraction
mography means that the WFS data are ­prevent occultation of the scientific FOV. limited) optical spectrograph, such as the
used to assess the altitude distribution An IR on-axis tip-tilt natural guide star successful STIS long-slit spectrograph
of turbulence, compensated for the laser sensor will be used for the 7.5? Narrow onboard HST. Such spatial resolution at
cone effect, in order to provide a correc- Field Mode. Light separation will be optical wavelengths, combined with an
tion vector to the DSM optimised to allow done with a VIS/IR dichroic located after 8.2-m aperture, will be at a premium. We
high strehl ratio on-axis. the Adaptive Optics focal plane. Figure 3 give in the following a few examples

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 13


Telescopes and Instrumentation Arsenault R. et al., The VLT Adaptive Optics Facility Project: Adaptive Optics Modules

Figure 4: Left: Gain in Ensquared Energy (EE) in 0.2?


versus wavelength. These curves were obtained
by simulations using recent Cn2 profiles measured
at Paranal and show a gain in EE of about 1.8 at
750 nm. Right: The Narrow Field Mode FWHM per-
formance as a function of wavelength. The instru-
mental error budget as well as LGS spot elongation
and Na height variations have been neglected here.

2.5 28

26
Gain in EE in a Pixel of 0.2�

2.0

24

FWHM (mas)
1.5
22
1.0
20

0.5
18

0.0 16
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Wavelength Wavelength (µm)
All data seeing, Top: off–axis

of scientific questions which could be ad- 2. Wide-Field Mode (WFM) exploration of star formation and metal
dressed by MUSE NFM. enrichment histories of bulges and discs,
The main target of the MUSE surveys of the size, intensity and topology of
In recent years it has become clear that is to find and study the building blocks ­coherent large-scale starbursts and of
supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are of the local, normal galaxies such as the development of galactic structure.
intimately linked with the mass evolution our Milky Way, at an epoch when the
of their host galaxies and are therefore Universe was typically 1 Gyr old. The ob- Nearby galaxies will also be promi­nent
key ingredients of the formation and evo- servation of such objects will be of great targets, especially their central regions
lution of galaxies. The SMBHs forma- value to clarify the way galaxies form. containing important information on the
tion processes should leave signatures in The benefit of AO correction is obvious fossil record of mass assembly, black-
their immediate environment either in since these sources are typically 0.1– 0.3? hole formation, star formation requiring
terms of stellar orbital structure or chemi- in size. resolution of ~ 100 pc spatial scales.
cal enrichment history. These key issues
can only be fully addressed with opti- Presumably, mass assembly is a long- Last but not least, the instrument also
cal IFU observations at near-diffraction- timescale process that starts early and has an enormous potential for enabling
limited resolution. goes on to the present time. Making massive point-source spectroscopy
the census of large and small objects in in crowded fields, by using the large
The MUSE NFM will also provide spectral the early Universe, when the cosmic ­contiguous 3D data cubes to deblend
insight (density, temperature and ionisa- age was 1 Gyr, and studying their prop­ and deconvolve sources in the com-
tion) and high spatial resolution over a erties, will set strong constraints on bined spectral and spatial domains. This
relatively large field of view of Young Stel- detailed models of hierarchical galaxy allows superior performance in dense
lar Objects. This will allow the physical formation. In this prospect, the spe- regions such as the Galactic Bulge and
processes involved in the formation and cific questions which one wants to ad- Magellanic Clouds, but also allows ex-
structure of the jets to be investigated dress by studying this population of tremely dense fields to be observed.
in details. The MUSE NFM is also ideally objects are the following: how did galax- At larger distance the investigation of
suited to the spatially resolved spectros- ies like our Milky Way assemble from nearby galaxies through detailed spec-
copy of solar-system bodies. While much small fragments? What are the stellar and tral analysis of their stellar populations,
more detail can obviously be obtained by gaseous masses of these fragments? resolved into individual stars, can provide
space probes, one visit is not the whole What are the masses of the dark matter quantitative templates for the calibra-
story given the significant time evolution haloes they are hosted in? What are tion of integrated light studies of higher
of atmospheres and surfaces of most their typical star-formation histories? redshift systems.
solar-system objects. Monitoring volcanic
activity on the Galilean satellites will yield Intermediate-redshift galaxies at z ~ 1
new insights on planetary resurfacing. are well suited to be studied by MUSE- SPARTA
Other examples include monitoring Titan, GALACSI WFM since the 0.3? PSF
Uranus and Neptune atmospheres. ­corresponds to a ~ 2 kpc scale allowing The AO Department has identified the
the study of internal variations of stel- need for a flexible real-time application
lar population ages, metallicities and gas platform for the new-generation AO sys-
enrichment. Gas kinematics (2D) allows tems being developed in the context of

14 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


the AO Facility. SPARTA (Standard Plat- To solve this problem one has to change and routes them to four independent
form for Adaptive optics Real Time Ap- the technology. This is where FPGAs front-end FPGAs, hosted in two boards.
plications) is the answer to this need. The come into play. An FPGA is a chip that Each FPGA will run the Durham module
RTC’s of GRAAL and ­GALACSI will be provides millions of logical elements that that will produce the gradients. Each
based on SPARTA. can be connected by means of a pro- FPGA sends the gradient vector to a
gramme to create any function that will different DSP board equipped with eight
SPARTA is a project that starts from the then execute at the speed of the FPGA DSPs. Each DSP board will process
OPTICON/JRA-1 framework to provide core clock. Moreover, many functions the related portion of the control matrix
a solution to the challenge of building a can be programmed, until all elements and then results are gathered on the
real-time computer for high-order/high- are used. All of these functions run in back-end FPGA that will complete the
bandwidth systems but at the same time parallel and this is the great advantage processing with the time-domain filter,
using mainly Components Off-The-Shelf of FPGAs. However FPGA programming and finally results are sent to the correc­
(COTS). SPARTA goals are to serve all the is a difficult exercise; it uses the same tive optics device. This architecture
second-generation VLT instrumentation language as for designing integrated cir- can run at 1 KHz with a latency of about
(AO Facility and the Planet Finder) and to cuits and microprocessors. 120 μs.
create a basis for growth towards ELT-
size AO systems. Consequently the development cycle
of an FPGA application is much slower Conclusions
The requirements for the new genera- and the debugging much more diffi-
tion of AO systems are beyond the cur- cult. Where the FPGA is unbeatable is The AO Department of ESO is heading
rent computational power of single the communication infrastructure: be- the development of the AO Facility,
board computers used today. For in- ing implemented in hardware, there is no the transformation of one 8-m UT (pre­
stance, the requirements for the Planet additional latency. The perfect appli- sumably UT4) into an adaptive Tele­-
Finder is 200 times higher than the ca­tion for the FPGA is to manage all the scope. GRAAL and GALACSI, the AO
capacity of the NAOS RTC (plus keep- crit­ical communications of SPARTA so modules for Hawk-I and MUSE respec-
ing the latency very low). The latency that data are routed within the system at tively, are two major building blocks
is the major challenge of SPARTA: the the fastest possible speed and the lowest for this project. The corresponding sci-
RTC must not only compute the control possible latency. Hence the collabora- ence cases have convinced the CDR
commands fast enough to cope with tion between ESO and Durham, under the ­review boards of the ­scientific competi-
the increased loop frequency, but it also OPTICON /JRA-1 project. Durham is de­- tiveness of the AO Facility. A third in-
has to complete the computation earlier veloping an FPGA-based acquisition strument and AO module is in the work
to reduce time-related errors. This is processor that receives the pixel stream for the Cassegrain station but has not
equivalent to a system much faster than and processes them up to the compu­ been yet identified.
the nominal loop frequency. On the other tation of the gradients. The gradients
hand, it is clear that the time required will then be further processed by a DSP The project passed a Conceptual Design
to develop an AO system is rather long array. Review last September and Preliminary
and the final result consists primarily of and Final Design Reviews will be com-
infrastructure, data management and A DSP is fundamentally a CPU, so it pleted in the course of 2008. The com-
interface: the core real time application shares the same problems if used as a missioning activities will be in full swing
is a tiny portion of the whole AO RTC CPU. However a DSP is also equipped in the course of 2010 –11 and the AOF
system. These are the main reasons to with fast communication ports and a should be available to the community by
create a common platform to serve all big (3 MB) on-chip memory. Using fast 2012.
these projects. I/O and the internal memory a DSP can
deliver a high throughput while signifi-
The complexity of the control software cantly simplifying the development cycle Acknowledgements
and the required flexibility would sug- being a CPU. A DSP can be programmed The work described in this paper is partially funded
gest the use of high-end CPUs, pro- in C/C++. The market recently made by the European Commission Sixth Framework
grammable with standard programming available a board with several DSPs ­Programme under contract No. RII3-CT-001566.
languages (C/C++) with a relatively fast whose link ports are interfaced directly to
The authors want to thank in particular Prof. Gerry
developing cycle. That was the natural FPGAs, a good match for our architec- Gilmore and Dr. John Davies, respectively OPTICON
choice for the first SPARTA prototype, ture. The I/O is managed by the FPGAs Scientific Coordinator and Project Scientist, for
based on multi-CPU board connected to- and the DSPs act as an array of co-proc- the support provided by OPTICON to this project.
gether to achieve the required through- essors.
put. Unfortunately with such architecture
the low latency requirements cannot The GALACSI SPARTA has four Shack-
be achieved due to structural problems of Hartmann sensors providing four pixel
the CPU architecture. streams coming from the NGCs. They
are connected to a switch that converts
the optical signals to electrical ones

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 15


Telescopes and Instrumentation

First Light for the VLT Laser Guide Star Facility

On 28 January 2006 a laser beam of a nearby reference star that has to be

Photos: H. Zodet (top) and S. Oberti (bottom), ESO


­several watts was launched from Yepun, relatively bright, thereby limiting the area
the fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescope of the of the sky that can be surveyed. To over­
Very Large Tele­scope, producing an artifi­- come this limitation, astronomers use
cial star, 90 km up in the atmosphere. It a powerful laser that creates an artificial
will enable the VLT’s adaptive optics sys- star, where and when they need it.
tem to measure and correct the atmos-
phere’s blurring effect. The laser beam, shining at a well-defined
wavelength, makes the layer of sodium
This was the culmination of five years atoms that is present in Earth’s atmos-
of collaborative work by a team of scien- phere at an altitude of 90 kilometres glow.
tists and engineers from ESO and the The laser is hosted in a dedicated labo­-
Max-Planck Institutes for Extraterrestrial ratory under the platform of Yepun. A cus­
Physics in Garching and for Astronomy tom-made fibre carries the high-power
in Heidelberg, Germany. After more than laser to the launch telescope situated on
a month of integration on-site with the top of the large Unit Telescope. The Laser Guide Star
Laboratory.
in­valuable support of the Paranal Observ­
atory staff, the VLT Laser Guide Star Twelve days of tests followed the First
Fa­cility saw First Light and propagated Light of the Laser Guide Star (LGS), dur­- A second phase of commissioning takes
into the sky a 50-cm-wide, viv­id, beauti- ing which the LGS was used to improve place this spring to optimise the opera-
fully yellow beam. the resolution of astronomical images tions and refine the performance. The
obtained with the two adaptive optics in­- experience gained with this Laser Guide
“This event tonight marks the beginning struments in use on Yepun: the NAOS- Star is also a key milestone in the de-
of the Laser Guide Star adaptive optics CONICA imager and the SINFONI spec- sign of a next-generation Extremely Large
era for ESO’s present and future tele- trograph. ­Telescope in the 30- to 60-metre range
scopes”, said Domenico Bonaccini Calia, now under study by ESO together with
Head of the Laser Guide Star group at In the early hours of 9 February, the LGS the European astronomical community.
ESO and LGSF Project Manager. was used together with the SINFONI
instrument, and in the early morning of The Laser Guide Star Facility is a collabo-
Normally, the achievable image sharp- 10 February, it was used with the NAOS- rative project between ESO, the Max-
ness of a ground-based telescope CONICA system. Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Phys-
is limited by the effect of atmospheric ics in Garching, Germany (MPE) and the
turbulence. This drawback can be “To have succeeded in such a short time Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy in
­surmounted with adaptive optics, allow- is an outstanding feat and is a tribute Heidelberg, Germany (MPIA). The team
ing the tele­scope to produce images to all those who have together worked members are Domenico Bonaccini Calia,
that are as sharp as if taken from space. so hard over the last few years”, said Wolfgang Hackenberg, Martin Cullum,
This means that finer details in astro­ ­Richard Davies, Project Manager for the Martin Dimmler, Ivan Guidolin, ­Constanza
nomical objects can be studied, and also laser source development at the Max- Araujo Hauck, Erik Allaert, Dan ­Popovic,
that fainter ob­jects can be observed. Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Phys- Mauro Comin, Marco Quattri, Enzo
In order to work, adaptive optics needs ics. ­Brunetto, Franz Koch, Armin Silber,
Jose Luis Alvarez, Mario Tapia, Eduardo
An artificial star above Bendek, Jutta Quentin, Gerhard Fischer,
Paranal.
Massimo Tarenghi, Guy Monnet, and
Roberto Gilmozzi (ESO), Richard Davies,
Sebastian Rabien, Thomas Ott, Reinhard
Genzel, Stefan Kellner, Stefan Huber,
Wieland Zaglauer, Armin Gold­brunner,
and Jianlang Li (MPE), and Stefan Hippler,
Udo Neumann, David Butler, Ralf-Rainer
Rohloff, and Bernhard Grimm (MPIA).
Members of ESO’s Adaptive Optics team
also participated in First Light: Markus
Kasper, Stefan Ströbele, Enrico Fedrigo,
Rob Donaldson, Sylvain Oberti, and
Christian Sönke.

(Based on ESO Press Release 07/06)

16 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Telescopes and Instrumentation

VLT-UVES Long-Slit Spectroscopy

Swetlana Hubrig, Gerardo Avila, or image slicer is 110 000 in the red and bipolar lobes, jets and rings, and the
­A ndreas Kaufer, Sandro D’Odorico, 80 000 in the blue with two-pixel sam- detailed analysis of the structure of these
Hans Dekker, Ricardo Schmutzer, pling. components provides an important in­
­Massimiliano Marchesi, Burkhard Wolff, sight into the processes governing PNe
Linda Schmidtobreick (ESO) The scientific aim of the installation of in­ formation and evolution. The most impor-
terference filters in UVES is to study tant parameter to describe the dynam-
faint extended objects, for example plan- ics and various morphological compo-
In August 2005 we installed eight inter- etary nebulae (PNe) or H ii regions which nents is the velocity field derived from
ference filters in UVES to be used with are beyond the limit of a 4-m-class tele- spatially resolved PNe. Numerous recent
the red arm in visitor mode. The pur- scope. NTT-EMMI long-slit spectroscopy studies of PNe are aimed especially
pose of these filters is to isolate certain has been succesfully carried out since at disentangling the full velocity fields by
echelle orders to allow the use of a max­ the beginning of 1996 (e.g. Corradi et al. high-resolution spectroscopy. As an
imum slit length of 30) in UVES. 1996), with the main goal to study the example, a study of the structures of faint
morphology of PNe. Since PNe are the extended ionised haloes of PNe which
result of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) are believed to reflect the previous history
The UV Visual Echelle Spectrograph mass loss and their birth rate is very like- of heavy mass loss on the AGB, requires
UVES (D’Odorico 1997), which has ly a function of metallicity, they are im- the precise knowledge of internal veloci-
been offered to the astronomical com­ portant tracers of intermediate-age stellar ty fields. The availability of the high-resolu­
munity at the VLT since 2000, is a two- populations in galaxies. A spectroscopic tion UVES long-slit mode will give the
arm cross-dispersed echelle spec- study of the physical conditions and opportunity to carry out an accurate kin-
trograph covering the wavelength range chemistry of PNe and H ii regions is cru- ematical analysis of faint halo structures
300–500 nm in the blue spectral region cial to understand the metal enrichment and their puzzling mysterious systems
and 420–1100 nm in the red spectral during the galaxy lifetime. of rings discovered in HST images (e.g.,
­region with the possibility to use dichro­ Terzian and Hajian 2000, Corradi et al.
ics. The nominal resolution is 40 000 for PNe are known to display a variety of 2004). We note that at present, only very
a 1? slit, and the maximum resolution morphological components, such as few other high-resolution spectrographs
that can be attained with a narrow slit multiple shells, extended halos, knots, at 8–10-m class telescopes in the world

Figure 1: The UVES


slit viewer image of
the planetary nebula
NGC 6369.

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 17


Telescopes and Instrumentation Hubrig S. et al., VLT-UVES Long-Slit Spectroscopy

have a long-slit capability. Thus, intro­ lengths at 654.8 nm and 658.3 nm, Our sky tests of the interference filters
ducing the high-resolution long-slit mode respectively, whereas the S ii filter allows show that the UVES long-slit mode con­
in UVES by adding interference filters one to observe simultaneously the [S ii] figuration can be successfully used
to remove the other orders, taking advan­ 671.7/673.1 nm doublet. The transmis- for observations of extended objects with
tage of the full slit length should be of sion curves for all eight filters are avaible narrow spectral features.
great interest to astronomers working on in the UVES components database, ac-
the kinematics of ionised nebulae and cessible through the ETC (http://www.
galaxies. eso.org/observing/etc/bin/gen/form?INS. References
NAME=UVES++INS.MODE=spectro). D’Odorico, S., in “The Early Universe with the
The central wavelengths of the filters VLT”, ed. by J. Bergeron, Springer 1997, 54
were chosen to permit observations of A first sky test with the new filters was Corradi, R. L. M., Mampaso, A., Perinotto, M. 1996,
the most important emission lines in carried out in the second half of August The Messenger 85, 37
Corradi, R. L. M. et al. 2004, A&A 417, 637
extended objects. The order for the filter 2005. The planetary nebula NGC 6369, Terzian, Y., Hajian, A. R., 2000, ASP Conference
manufacture was placed to the Andover which has a diameter of 33.?0 × 32.?7 Series 199, 34
Corporation in March 2005 and the filters (Tylenda et al., 2003), was observed with Tylenda, R. et al. 2003, A&A 405, 627
arrived in Garching in June 2005. All the UVES red arm using CD#3 and a slit
eight filters were installed in the UVES red width of 0.?6 (R ~ 70 000). The slit view
arm filter wheel in August 2005. image of this nebula is shown in Figure 1. Table 1: New Interference Filters.
The exposure time for the observations
The filters and their central wavelengths in each filter was 600 s. As at present Name Spectral range (nm) Transmission
are: Ha (656.6 nm), Hb (486.1 nm), O iii there is no pipeline support for the reduc- Ha 652.8−659.8 92 %
(500.7 nm), O iii (436.3 nm), N ii (575.5 nm), tion of the UVES long-slit mode, the Hb 484.2−488.0 72 %
O i (630.0 nm), S ii (672.4 nm), and He ii spectra were reduced using both MIDAS- O iii 500.7 498.6−502.7 71 %
(468.6 nm). Spectral ranges and peak LONG package and the IRAF LONG- O iii 436.3 434.8−437.9 69 %
transmissions are given in Table 1. The SLIT tasks. As an example, we present in N ii 575.5 573.0−578.5 86 %
FHWM of the Ha filter was chosen  ­Figures 2 and 3 two- and one-dimen- O i 630.0 626.9−633.4 90 %
to allow simultaneous observations of sional Ha and Hb spectra of NGC 6369. S ii 672.4 668.7−676.0 86 %
Ha with close-by [N ii] lines with wave- He ii 468.6 466.8−470.3 79 %

0.15
2.0

1.5
0.10
Pixel Value
Pixel Value

1.0

0.05

0.5

0
0

6540 6560 6580 4850 4855 4860 4865 4870


Position Position

Figure 2: Ha and [N ii] spectra of NGC 6369. Figure 3: Hb spectra of NGC 6369.

18 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Telescopes and Instrumentation

ALMA News

Tom Wilson (ESO)

In the last issue of The Messenger, there


was an article about the signing at ESO
of the European part of the ALMA an-
tenna contract. Shortly after this, the con-
tract for the antenna transporters was
signed. A short description of the trans-
porters and the contract is given below.

Antenna transporters

One of the unique features of ALMA is An ALMA transporter in


action (artist’s view).
the possibility to move the radio tele­
scopes to well-defined positions around
the high-altitude plateau of ­Chajnantor
and to transport antennas from the Op-
erations Support Facility to the observ- News from the ALMA site

Photos: J. Riquelme, AUI/NRAO (2)


ing site. In order to do this, specially
designed transporters, meeting all en- Work progresses on the Operations Sup-
vironmental conditions at an altitude of port Facility (OSF), at an elevation of
5 000 metres, need to be designed 3 km. The road connecting the OSF with
and manufactured, and delivered to the the Array Operations Site (AOS) is nearly
Atacama desert. ESO has signed a con- completed. The antennas will be deliv­
tract with Scheuerle Fahrzeugfabrik ered to the OSF. After testing and accep­
GmbH, a world-leader in the design and tance, these will be transported on the
production of custom-built heavy-duty road to the AOS, where the antennas will
vehicles, for two antenna transporters. be incorporated into the array.

Given their important functions, the ve-


hicles must satisfy very demanding op-
erational requirements. Each transporter
has a mass of 150 tonnes and is able to
lift and transport antennas of 110 tonnes.
They must be able to place the anten-
nas on the docking pads with millimetre
precision. At the same time, they must
be powerful enough to climb 2 000 m
reliably and safely with their heavy and
valuable load, putting extraordinary de­
mands on the 500 kW diesel engines.
This means negotiating a 28-km-long
high-altitude road with an average slope
of 7 %. Finally, as they will be operated
at an altitude with significantly reduced
oxygen levels, a range of redundant safe-­
ty devices protect both personnel and
equipment from possible mishaps or ac-
cidents.

The first transporter is scheduled to be


delivered in the summer of 2007 to The state of progress (end of March
2006) on the AOS Technical Building
match the delivery of the first antennas
at an altitude of 5 km.
to Chajnantor.

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 19


Telescopes and Instrumentation

The ALMA Design Reference Science Plan (DRSP)

Michiel Hogerheijde the DRSP is only the current reflection How to use the DRSP
(Leiden University, the Netherlands) of what the community wants to do with
ALMA. The DRSP can be accessed at the web
site given below. The individual projects
What is the Design Reference Science can be downloaded together with their
Plan? The current DRSP review reports. Spreadsheets are also
available with overviews of all programme
The ALMA Design Reference Science In total, by December 2003 128 DRSP statistics. These have been used, e. g.,
Plan (DRSP) grew out of the need to have projects were submitted for a total to get estimates of the calibration require-
a detailed view of what the first 3–4 years of ~ 25 000 hours, distributed over four ments, or to assess the impact of vari­-
of full ALMA operations will look like. main science areas: Galaxies and Cos- ous re-baselining decisions. The DRSP
Based on the projects that astronomers mology (41 % of time), Star and Planet is a valuable resource for anyone wishing
will want to carry out with high priority, ­Formation (35 %), Stars and their Evo- to get a realistic and detailed view of
ALMA’s development can be optimised. lution (10 %), and Solar System (14 %). ­ALMA’s capabilities and foreseen use.
For example, ALMA’s specifications These projects were written by more than
can be tested for realistic scenarios, 75 astronomers, and ‘peer reviewed’.
or plans can be made regarding which The results are collated at a web site (see The DRSP is a living document
configurations or frequency bands to address below).
commission with high priority. The DRSP The DRSP can only be an accurate re-
can also be used to determine observing From the DRSP, one can, for example, flection of future ALMA use if it is con­
strategies, data rates, and use-cases. learn that the foreseen use of receiver tinuously updated. New projects can be
Finally, and most crucially, the impact on bands (3/6 /7/9 = 20 % /30 % /37 % /13 %) added at all times, and existing pro­
the science (and ALMA’s primary Science is roughly consistent with expected jects can be augmented as the science
Drivers) from any changes in specifica- weather statistics. While band 6 is heavily ­questions evolve or instrument specifica-
tions can be quantitatively assessed. used for spectral-line work, bands 7 tions change. This evolving aspect of
and 9 are the most requested for conti- the DRSP is crucial, because planning
nuum observations, especially for extra­ decisions are based on the DRSP.
What the DRSP is not galactic targets. Roughly 10 % of the
­proposals employ the total-power capa- The DRSP is being maintained for the
The DRSP is not a set of observing pro- bility of the array. ALMA Science IPT by Michiel Hoger­
posals. Although they look like proposals, heijde, and suggestions for additional
they will not form the basis of any kind DRSP projects can be e-mailed to him
of ALMA programme, and do not imply at any time (michiel@strw.leidenuniv.nl ).
any claims on particular observations.
The DRSP is also not set in stone. Sci- For more information, go to http://www.
ence priorities will change over time, and strw.leidenuniv.nl /~alma /drsp.html
Photo: H. H. Heyer, ESO

A view of Chajnantor
and APEX.

20 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Reports from Observers

In Search of Terrestrial Planets in the


Habitable Zone of M Dwarfs

Martin Kürster 1 Figure 1: Comparison of the observed


rms scatter and the mean error of
Michael Endl 2 15 rms [m/s] the RV measurements for our 37 pro-
Florian Rodler 1 mean error [m/s] gramme stars. In most cases we reach
errors in the 2–4 ms –1 bin; larger er-
rors either correspond to fainter
1  stars with lower signal-to-noise level
Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie,
10 or indicate (previously unknown)
Heidelberg, Germany double‑lined spectroscopic binaries
2 
McDonald Observatory, University of such as those in the right-most
N

Texas at Austin, USA bin that contains all values exceeding


22 ms –1. The rms peaks around
5
5 ms –1 indicating the presence of vari-
ability either by the star itself or due
After the availability of UVES at the VLT to possi­ble planets; rms values in the
in 2000, we began a survey of M dwarf > 22 ms –1 bin belong to binaries.
stars in order to find low-mass plan-
etary companions. This ongoing survey, 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 >22
which currently enjoys ESO Large Pro-
gramme status, provides a time base- Star-Planet Separation a [AU] Figure 2: Minimum planet masses
0.01 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.1 0.2 m sin i for RV signals with different
line of up to six years. It is thus capa-
20 semi-amplitudes K as a function
ble of finding planets of just a few Earth of orbital period or star-planet sepa-
M = 0.12 M � 10 m/s
masses in close-in orbits that corre- 10
* ra­tion a (scale at top). This example
spond to the habitable zones around 5 m/s is for a star with 0.12 MA, e.g. Proxima
5.0 Centauri. Circular orbits were as-
these stars.
sumed. The habitable zone is located
m sin i [M ⊕ ]

3.0
2 m/s between the red vertical lines.
2.0
1 m/s
Measurements of stellar radial velocities 1.0
at very high precision (a few ms –1) have K
so far produced the majority of the dis- 0.5

coveries of the more than 170 extraso­lar 0.3


Hab. Zone
planets found during the last ten years. 0.2
0.5 1 2 3 5 10 20 30 50 100
Most of these planets are gas giants Period [day]
com­parable to Jupiter, but with increas-
ing measurement precision lower-mass of the radial-velocity signal of 6.5 ms –1, only about 1/500 of a CCD pixel in UVES,
planets have become accessible over detectable with state-of-the-art measure- or about 30 nm, reliably recorded over
time. The current record holder among ment precision. several years. UVES therefore provides
the low-mass planets discovered by us with sufficient precision to find planets
RVs (radial velocities) is the third planet in Studying low-mass planets near the limit of a few Earth masses in close-in orbits
the Gl 876 system found by Rivera et al. of current detection thresholds is the around M dwarfs or, in the absence of a
(2005). The discoverers estimate its most goal of our RV search programme for detectable RV signal, to exclude the pres-
likely mass to be 7.5 M ⊕ (Earth masses) planets around M dwarf stars using the ence of such planets. This can be seen
with a minimum mass of 6 M ⊕. This rec­ UVES spectrograph at the VLT-UT2 from Figure 2 which, for the example of
ord has been rivalled by a very recent an­- Kueyen. This survey was begun in 2000, our nearest neighbour, Proxima Centauri,
nouncement of a planet discovered with when UVES became available, and has relates the strength of the observable
the microlensing technique (Beaulieu et recently received ESO Large Programme RV signal (its RV semi-amplitude) to the
al. 2006). The most likely mass of this ob- status for two years, of which the last minimum mass of the planet as a function
ject is 5.5 M ⊕, but this value has a large semester of observations is currently un­- of orbital period or star-planet separation.
uncertainty since the mass of the host derway. Still the amount of allocated
star is not known. observing time permitted only a moder- Apart from the better chance of finding
ate sample size, which we have recent­ly low-mass planets with RVs, M dwarfs
Reaching this regime of low-mass planets increased from originally 20 stars to 37 are interesting for two more reasons.
with RV measurements is possible for stars. We selected our stars for moderate First, they are the most numerous type
close-in planets around low-mass stars levels of stellar activity which could other- of star – probably more than 70 % of
due to the stronger associated radial- wise complicate the measurements. all stars fall into this category. Therefore,
­velocity signal. The low-mass planet in any attempt to determine the frequency
the Gl876 system fulfills both require- Using UVES in the self-calibration mode of planets in the galaxy must include
ments: it is in a short-period orbit with a provided by its iodine gas absorption M dwarfs in extrasolar planet searches.
period of just 1.9 day and it orbits a cell we achieve a routine RV measure- A few years ago this was difficult to do
low-mass star with an estimated mass ment precision of about 2.5 ms –1 for the with RVs because of the absence of
of 0.32 MA. This leads to a semi-ampli- brighter stars (see Figure 1). This cor- spectrograph/telescope combinations of
tude (half of the peak-to-valley variation) responds to spectral displacements of sufficient efficiency. So early RV surveys

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 21


Reports from Observers Kürster M. et al., In Search of Terrestrial Planets in the Habitable Zone of M Dwarfs

concentrated on spectral types F7V from the star, while for a stellar mass of Jupiter-type planets around M dwarfs
through K7V, i.e. stars with masses 0.1 MA it ranges from only 0.02–0.05 AU. are relatively rare, at least for semi-major
greater than 0.5 M A. Still today, the bulge For circular orbits these separation axes < 1 AU (Endl et al. 2006). Due to
of the M dwarfs is still basically out of ranges correspond to periods of 50–180 small-number statistics this conclusion
reach as with decreasing mass this type days for the 0.5 M A star and 3–13 days is not yet 100 % secure, however,
of star becomes very faint. All stars in for the 0.1 MA star. and needs to be investigated further.
our survey are brighter than V = 11.7, and
are on the relatively massive side of the The true ‘habitability’ (i.e. suitability for
M dwarfs with masses ranging between life) of these zones around M dwarfs has Towards Earth-mass planets
0.2 and 0.5 M A. Exceptions are the two been questioned. One reason is that
M dwarfs nearest to us, Proxima Centauri extreme temperature gradients must exist Figures 3 and 4 show the time series
and Barnard’s star, with masses of just on most planets in this region where of our UVES RV data for two of our stars,
0.12 MA and 0.16 MA, respectively. the proximity of the star forces their rota- Barnard’s star and GJ1, respectively.
tion to synchronise with the orbit via Barnard’s star is the star with the largest
The second interesting characteristic tidal interaction. This means that they al- proper motion in the sky (10?/yr), and
of M dwarfs is the fact that, due to their ways have the same side facing the star, the motion of GJ1 is also large (6?/yr).
small luminosity, the so-called habita- like the Moon to the Earth; see Joshi This motion changes the direction of the
ble zone is located quite near the star et al. 1997 for arguments who argue that line of sight to the star. Since the radi-
where orbital periods are short and these planets can still be habitable. An­ al velocity is the component of the stellar
RV signals of terrestrial planets are suf- other concern is the high level of X-ray space velocity along the line of sight,
ficiently high to be detected (see Figure radiation that a close-in planet will receive its observed value must also change with
2). At this point the terms ‘terrestrial from its active host star. These issues are time. This effect is called the secular ac-
planet’ and ‘habitable zone’ should be still under discussion. celeration of the RV, and its amount can
defined. be predicted using the astrometric
data base of the Hipparcos satellite. For ­
Known planets around M dwarfs – are Barnard’s star and GJ1 the expected RV
Terrestrial planets and the habitable zone Jupiters rare? change is 4.5 ms –1yr –1 and 3.7 ms –1yr –1,
respectively, in full agreement with our
Terrestrial planets are rocky objects that The known planets around M dwarf RV measurements and demonstrating the
are not dominated by the vast gasous stars are summarised in Table 1. At the excellent performance of UVES.
­envelopes that giant planets such as Ju- time of writing five planets orbiting
piter, Saturn, Uranus or Neptune pos- three different M dwarfs have been found In the following we use our particularly
sess. Masses of terrestrial planets must with RV searches. Not included is the rich data set for Barnard’s star (data from
be below 8–10 M ⊕, because more ­mas­- recent microlensing announcement with 70 nights) as an example to illustrate
sive planets experience a phase of run­ its uncertain mass. how the data are analysed for the pres-
away gas accretion in their formation ence of periodic signals that could reveal
proc­ess. The minimum mass of a terres- When compared with the total number an orbiting planet. Figure 5 shows our
trial planet has not yet been well defined. of more than 165 extrasolar planets dis­ data of Barnard’s star, after subtraction of
covered by RV searches the number the secular RV change, and displayed
The habitable zone is that region around of planets around M dwarfs is quite small. together with the best-fit planetary orbit.
a star where surface water (a prerequi- Partially, this can be explained as a se­ If interpreted as an orbiting companion,
site for life as we know it) can exist in liq­- lection effect as surveys of faint M dwarfs this variation would indicate a terrestrial
uid form on a rocky planet. For this to had to await the advent of efficient in­- plan­et with an orbital period of 44.9 d and
be really possible, the planetary atmos- stru­­­mentation and therefore do not go as an RV semi-amplitude of 3.0 ms –1, cor-
phere must possess quite a number of far back in time as surveys of solar-type responding to an orbital radius of 0.13 AU
suitable properties (Kasting et al. 1991). stars. So the collected data sets are and a minimum mass of 4.9 M ⊕. This
The location of the thus defined habit- not as rich and have shorter time base- would be the lowest-mass planet found
able zone depends on the luminosity of lines. so far; it would orbit somewhat outside
the star and therefore on its mass. In a of the habitable zone. The orbital ec­-
star with 0.5 MA the habitable zone is the However, some evidence is emerging centricity would be small and most likely
­region separated by about 0.2–0.5 AU that this is not the whole story, and that zero.

Star Spectral type Mass [M A ] V [mag] m sin i [MJup ] a [AU] P [d] e Discovered by Table 1: The five RV-discovered plan-
GJ 876 M4V 0.32 10.17 1.94 0.21 60.94 0.02 Marcy et al. 1998 ets around M dwarfs. The columns
list name of the star, spectral type, stel­
0.56 0.13 30.1 0.27 Marcy et al. 2001
lar mass, visual magnitude V, mini-
0.02 0.02 1.94 0 Rivera et al. 2005 mum mass m sin i, orbital semi-major
GJ 436 M2.5 0.41 10.68 0.07 0.03 2.64 0.12 Butler et al. 2004 axis a, period P, eccentricity e, and
GJ 581 M3 0.31 10.33 0.056 0.041 5.366 0 Bonfils et al. 2005 the discovery paper.

22 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Figure 3: RV time series of UVES data for Barnard’s
star. ‘BJD’ is the bary­centrically corrected Julian
date; both the RV and time values are referenced
to the barycentre of the solar system in order to
take out the movement of the Earth. The red line
depicts the expected secular change of the RV of Figure 4: RV time series of UVES data for GJ1.
4.5 ­ms –1­yr –1 which agrees well with our measure- The red line represents the expected secular
ments. ­acceleration of 3.7 ms –1yr –1.

Year Year
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
20 20

15 15

10 10

5 5
dRV [m/s]

dRV [m/s]
0 0

–5 –5

–10 –10

–15 –15

–20 –20
1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
BJD – 2,450,000 BJD – 2,450,000

15 Period [day]
10 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 20000
dVR [m/s]

5
1000
0
–5 HZ
Jupiter
–10
–15
1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 AL
15 Saturn
100
10
dVR [m/s]

5
m [M ⊕ ]

0
–5 Neptune
–10
–15 Uranus
10 m
2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000
15
10
dVR [m/s]

5
m sin i
0
–5 1
0.01 0.1 1 10
–10
a [AU]
–15
3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700
BJD – 2,450,000

Figure 5: RV data for Barnard’s star together with Figure 6: Upper limits to companion masses for
the best-fit sinusoidal or­bit (red line). For display pur- ­Barnard’s star. The line la­belled ‘m sin i’ corre-
poses the time series has been broken into three sponds to the minimum mass, the line labelled ‘m’
panels. This variability appears to be largely related is for masses greater by a factor of 2.3, higher true
to stellar activity rather than a planet. masses are excluded with 90 % confidence. The
blue line shows astrometric limits from Benedict et
al. (1999). Red vertical lines delimit the hab­itable
zone. For comparison, the masses of the Solar Sys-
tem giant plan­ets are indicated.

However, even though this model is for- sorption line (Kürster et al. 2003). This also show periodic behaviour be­cause
mally significant, passes the usual statis- line is an indicator for active regions in of the regular visibility changes caused by
tical tests, and thus confirms that genuine the upper stellar atmosphere, the stellar rotation.
variability is present, the data appear so‑called chromosphere. Active region
to show a few systematic deviations from spectra show Ha in emission which No clear planetary signal having been
the model, e.g. near BJD 2,452,430 and combines to reduce the strength of the found, we can exclude the presence
2,453,510. It turns out that a two-planet photospheric Ha absorption line when of planets with quite low masses within
model does not improve the quality of the active regions come into view. Phot- 1.8 AU around Barnard’s star. This is
fit by much. And in fact there is reason ospheric star spots associated with these shown as the lower edge of the yellow
to believe that the discovered signal is by active regions ­af­­fect the shapes of those region in Figure 6 which represents
itself variable and therefore not due to an absorption lines that are used for RV the statistical upper limits for the mini-
orbiting planet. measure­ments which become erroneous. mum companion mass as a function
Since active regions come and go and re­ of star-planet separation and period
Further analysis shows the signal to be configure themselves their influence can (scale on top). Planets with minimum
correlated with the strength of the Ha ab­- be quite irregular, but will to some degree masses larger than this limit would have

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 23


Reports from Observers

produced such a strong RV signal that is more sensitive for larger orbital radii, cially grateful for the assistance of Andreas Kaufer,
Stéphane Brillant, and all the ESO staff who sup-
we would have discovered it, planets these limits are complementary to our
ported this project by carrying out service-mode ob­-
below this limit could have gone unde- RV-derived limits. Combining both types servations and by securing the high quality of the
tected. The employed statistical method of limits we can exclude the presence instrument and data. Artie Hatzes created the title
is called bootstrap simulation (details in of any Saturn-mass planet with high confi­ of the programme. Sebastian Els, Frédéric Rouesnel,
and William Cochran helped in the early phase of
Kürster et al. 2003). Note that all ­results dence.
the project.
relate to the minimum mass of the plan-
et, m sin i rather than the true mass, In short-period (few days) orbits planets of
since the inclination i of the orbit with re- just a few Earth masses would have been References
spect to the plane of the sky is not known. discovered. In the habitable zone planets
Beaulieu, J.-P. et al. 2006, Nature 439, 473
However, one can show that there is with minimum masses greater than about Benedict, G. F. et al. 1999, AJ 118, 1086
a 90 % chance that the true mass is no 5 M ⊕ are excluded and the true mass of Bonfils, X. et al. 2005, A&A 443, L15
more than a factor of 2.3 larger (corre- any undiscovered planet should be be- Butler, R. P. et al. 2004, ApJ 617, 580
Endl, M. et al. 2006, ApJ, submitted
sponding to the upper edge of the yellow low the mass of Uranus. Continued moni­
Joshi, M. M., Haberle, R. M., Reynolds, R. T. 1997,
region), and that the minimum mass is tor­ing of Barnard’s star will lower these Icarus 129, 450
the most probable value. limits over time enabling us to search for Kasting, J. F., Whitmire, D. P., Reynolds, R. T. 1991,
planets of increasingly lower mass. Icarus 101, 108
Kürster M. et al. 2003, A&A 403, 1077
Also shown in Figure 6 are astrometric
Marcy, G. W. et al. 1998, ApJ 505, L147
mass limits (blue line) for Barnard’s star Marcy, G. W. et al. 2001, ApJ 556, 296
from Benedict et al. (1999) based on data Acknowledgements Rivera, E. J. et al. 2005, ApJ 634, 625
from the Fine Guidance Sensor of the Thanks are due to quite a number of people who
Hubble Space Telescope. As astrometry helped to make this survey happen. We are spe­

Low-Mass Exoplanet Found Using Microlensing

Using a network of telescopes scattered The new planet orbits a red star five times A full report has been published by Jean Phi­
across the globe, including the Danish 1.54-m less massive than the Sun, located at a dis- lippe Beaulieu et al. in Nature 439, 437 (2006).
telescope at ESO La Silla, astronomers have tance of about 20 000 light years, not far This result is a joint effort of three independ-
discovered a new extrasolar planet which is from the centre of our Milky Way Galaxy. Its ent microlensing campaigns: PLANET/Robo­
only about five times as massive as the Earth, relatively cool parent star and large orbit im- Net, OGLE, and MOA, involving a total of
and circles its parent star in about 10 years. plies that the likely surface temperature of 73 collaborators affiliated with 32 institutions
It is the least massive exoplanet around an or- the planet is –220° C, too cold for liquid water. in 12 countries (France, United Kingdom, Po-
dinary star detected so far and also the cool- It is likely to have a thin atmosphere, like the land, Denmark, Germany, Austria, Chile, Aus-
est. The planet most likely has a rocky/icy sur­- Earth, but its rocky surface is probably deep- tralia, New Zealand, United States of America,
face. Its discovery marks a ­ground-breaking ly buried beneath frozen oceans. It may South Africa, and Japan).
result in the search for planets that may sup- ­therefore more closely resemble a more mas-
port life. sive version of Pluto, rather than the rocky in­- (Based on ESO Press Release 03/06)
ner planets like Earth and Venus.
The microlensing technique is based on the
temporary apparent brightening of a back-
ground star by the gravity of an intervening
massive object (star or planet) passing in front. 3 3 1.6 10 August 2005 11 August 2005

An intervening star causes a characteristic OGLE


1.5
brightening that lasts about a month. Any plan­ 2
ets orbiting this star can produce an addition- 2.5 1.4
al signal, lasting days for giant planets down to Planetary
1 1.3
Magnification

hours for Earth-mass planets. deviation

2 April 2001 January 2004


In order to be able to catch and characterise
these planets, nearly-continuous round-the- OGLE Danish
clock high-precision monitoring of ongoing mi- RoboNet Perth
1.5
crolensing events is required, once the be- Canopus MOA
ginning of an event has been reported. The
present case was discovered on 11 July 2005,
and observed until well into August, when the 1
Light Curve of
planetary deviation was noticed. 8 July 28 July 17 August 2005 OGLE-2005-BLG-390.

24 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Reports from Observers

Direct Imaging of Sub-Stellar Companions around


Young Stars – Special Case: GQ Lup A + b

Ralph Neuhäuser 1 bited by a planet gives the lower limit for they should partly be tens of pc closer
Markus Mugrauer 1 the planet formation timescale. Migra- than the clouds, but no parallaxes were
Eike Guenther 2 tion of planets in a circumstellar disc can available. Towards the end of the 1990s,
also be studied by comparing young plan­ newly available Hipparcos data gave
etary systems with old ones. the distances of many of those and pre-
1
 strophysical Institute and University
A viously known young stars, showing
Observatory (AIU), Jena, Germany However, imaging detection of sub-stellar that some of them were indeed located
2
Thüringer Landessternwarte (TLS), companions is difficult due to the prob- within 100 pc (Neuhäuser and Brandner
Tautenburg, Germany lem of dynamic range: Sub-stellar ob­- 1998), e.g. TW Hya and the stars of the
jects are too faint and too close to much group now called TW Hya Association
brighter stars. After a brief phase of deu- (TWA) and many more. Hence, we could
In several years of direct imaging terium burning, a few million years only, now start our direct imaging survey,
searches of sub-stellar companions brown dwarfs cool down and fade away. namely deep, high angular resolution im-
around young nearby stars, first Planets also get fainter as they age. ages of pre-main-sequence stars within
with plain and speckle imaging, now 100 pc. For the southern sky, we used
with Adaptive Optics (AO), we have In 1993, it became clear that young sub- the MPE speckle camera SHARP at the
found several brown dwarf companions stellar objects are hotter and brighter ESO 3.5-m NTT.
– and most recently also an object than old sub-stellar objects by several or­-
with a mass estimate well below 13 Ju­- ders of magnitude: young sub-stellar Sub-stellar companions show up as
piter masses, so that it is probably a objects, still contracting and possibly faint objects close to the primary target
giant planet imaged directly, GQ Lup b. even accreting, gain gravitational energy star. Faint dots next to bright stars are
We were able to confirm all these com- and become self-luminous in the infra- not always companions, they are mostly
panion candidates by common prop- red (Burrows et al. 1993). The magnitude background. However, they can all be
er ­motion and spectroscopy ­showing a difference between a sub-stellar com- regared as companion candidates. To
cool spectral type of late-M or early‑L. panion of a given mass and its stellar pri­- confirm such a candidate as a real com-
They are only a few million years old mary gets worse as they age, because panion, one has to check for common
and allow us to study the formation the stellar primary will reach stable hy­ proper motion and take a spectrum of the
of planets and brown dwarfs observa­ dro­gen burning, i.e. constant luminosity, companion, which should be as cool as
tionally. while the sub-stellar companion gets expected from the magnitude difference
fainter. Hence, direct imaging of sub-stel- between primary and companion candi-
lar companions should be less difficult dates, given the age and distance of the
Objects below the hydrogen-­burning around young stars. target. Given the known proper motion
mass limit of ~ 0.078 MA are called of the primary stars, the pixel scale of the
sub-stellar objects, which include brown For a direct imaging detection of a faint detector used, and the actual astromet­-
dwarfs and planets. The definitions companion next to a bright star, one al- ric precision achieved (primary some-
of brown dwarfs and planets and their so needs high angular resolution, i.e. times saturated or in the non-linear re-
distinction are still under dispute. Can nearby young stars. Without AO, we set gime, companion very faint with low S/N),
the mass ranges of those two types our distance limit to roughly 70 to 100 pc. one has to wait one to a few years before
of sub-stellar objects overlap? May only However, around the mid-1990s, basi- second-epoch images can be taken.
objects orbiting normal stars be called cally no pre-main-sequence stars were
planets? The working definition of the known within 100 pc. All the well-known Once common proper motion is shown
IAU for planets accepts objects below star-forming regions like Taurus, Lupus, and the spectral type and, hence, tem-
the deuterium-burning mass limit of ~ 13 Corona Australis, Chamaeleon are perature of the companion is determined,
Jupiter masses orbiting around normal at roughly 140 pc. Hence, the first step one can place primary and companion
stars. should be a search for stars which are to­gether in the H-R diagram to check
both young and nearby. That is what we whether they appear to be coeval, and
The formation mechanism of sub-stellar did in the 1990s with optical follow-up to measure the mass of the companion
objects is also not yet clear. Do brown observations of unidentified ROSAT X-ray from theoretical evolutionary tracks. Here,
dwarfs form just like stars, or always as sources, using mostly the B&C spec- it becomes clear whether we are deal-
companions to normal stars, so that all trograph at the ESO 1.5-m telescope, and ing with a low-mass stellar companion or,
free-floating, isolated brown dwarfs are Caspec at the 3.6-m for high-resolution e.g., a brown dwarf.
ejected stellar embryos? Do planets form spectra of good candidates (Neuhäuser
fast by direct gravitational collapse in a 1997). Since brown dwarfs are both brighter
massive circumstellar disc or by a slow than planets and may also be at larger
build-up of a solid core? Such questions In the course of this survey, many new separations, we first found a few brown
can be studied observationally, just by pre-main sequence stars were found, dwarfs: Within our project, we found
observing young sub-stellar objects, in both within and around the star forming and/or confirmed three brown dwarfs as
particular as companions to young stars. clouds. If some of them are tens of de- companions to young nearby stars with­-
E.g., the youngest star found to be or- grees, i.e. tens of pc, off the clouds, then in 100 pc by both common proper motion

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 25


Reports from Observers Neuhäuser R. et al., Direct Imaging of Sub-Stellar Companions around Young Stars

Figure 1: These three images show 2004 to August 2005. The dynamic range Figure 2: Deep, high S/N, high angu­
the three brown dwarf companions lar resolution VLT/NACO image of
obtained is then shown in Figure 3. We
found so far by us around young near­- GQ Lup A (bright star in the centre)
by stars: HR 7329 B (left, VLT/ISAAC), can exclude all other companions outside and b (0.7 arc sec west of it) after
TWA‑5 B (middle, VLT/FORS1), and of 0.2 arcsec (28 AU at 140 pc) with at shift-and-add of three deep observa-
GSC 8047 B (right, NTT/Sharp). They least the mass of GQ Lup b. tions of ~ 20 to 30 min each (June
show common proper ­motion with 2004, May and August 2005). The
their primary star and a cool spectral FWHM is 68 mas, the field size shown
type of M7-9, so that they have 15 to Our NACO K-band spectrum of GQ Lup b is 2.2 arcsec × 2.2 arcsec, east is left,
40 Jupiter masses. shows a spectral type of M 9 to L4, north is up.
consistently obtained from comparison to
and spectroscopy (Figure 1). These were stand­ards and from spectral indices. Comparing the images obtained over
the first three brown dwarfs found and Note in particular the water-steam absorp­ the last few years, including the new
confirmed as companions to young stars. tion band in the blue part (Figure 4) of obser­vations from 2005, shows that the
both GQ Lup b and the L2 dwarf, which separation remains constant, no orbital
With the advent of NACO, i.e. AO at the is not present in the M8 brown dwarf, motion is detected so far. Orbital motion
VLT, we (and other groups) were able which is hotter. The spectral slope was would be detectable as a slight devia-
to extend the sample of young stars to ­corrected with both the GQ Lup prima- tion from a constant separation (or posi-
those in the nearby star forming re- ry (in the same slit) and a telluric standard tion angle), but within about ± 5 mas/yr,
gions at 140 pc including Lupus, and al­- (Neuhäuser et al. 2005). the expect­ed maximal orbital motion. We
so reobserve those within 100 pc in- would have to wait at least until the de-
cluding TWA and other associations. From the K-band magnitude (~ 13.1 mag), tection of curvature in the orbit before we
We could now hope for both closer and the flux observed at ~ 140 pc (distance could determine the mass dynamically.
fainter companions, i.e. giant planets. towards the Lupus clouds), and the best- This may take tens to hundreds of years.
fit temperature of ~ 2 000 K, we obtain
About one year ago, we announced the a radius of one to two Jupiter radii. With GQ Lup b has a projected separation
detection of a sub-stellar companion the gravity log g = 2 to 3, this results in of ~ 100 AU (732 milliarcsec at 140 pc),
to GQ Lup (Neuhäuser et al. 2005), which ~ 0.5 to 6 Jupiter masses (Neuhäuser et which is three times further out than
could well be a planet imaged directly. al. 2005), so that GQ Lup b may very well the outermost gaseous planet in the solar
The direct evidence presented included be an object with mass below the deute- system. It could have formed further
the common proper motion (high sig­ rium-burning limit (13 Jupiter masses), i.e. in­wards, but got onto an highly eccentric
nificance after five year epoch difference), a planet. Our mass deter­minations are orbit by a close encounter with anoth­-
a cool spectral type (M9–L4), and ap- model-dependent, not yet from orbital er protoplanet (Debes and Sigurdsson
parently low gravity (log g = 2 to 3), how- dynamics. 2006) or another star. For the time being,
ever from a low-resolution NACO spec- its formation remains unclear.
trum only. Given the location in the H-R The companion to GQ Lup is younger in
diagram, the companion to GQ Lup could age and later in spectral type than the By now, we and other groups have ob-
have a mass of 3 to 42 Jupiter masses previously found brown dwarf compan- served roughly 100 young nearby stars,
according to calculations from the ­Tucson ions to young stars, so that GQ Lup b and two planet candidates were found,
and Lyon groups (Neuhäuser et al. 2005), is lower in mass. GQ Lup b is also cooler GQ Lupi b and 2M1207 b in the TWA
which do not take into account the for- than the two components of the eclips- group (Chauvin et al. 2005). For the latter
mation of the objects, so that they are not ing double-lined spectroscopic brown case, it is not yet shown that the re­-
valid in the first few million years, but only dwarf – brown dwarf binary found in maining motion between the two compo-
a few Jupiter masses according to more Orion (Stassun et al. 2005), and at about nents is significantly smaller than the ­ex­-
recent formation models (Wuchterl 2005). the same age, so that GQ Lup is lower pected escape velocity for the com­
in mass than those two brown dwarfs panion, given the smaller epoch differ-
Figure 2 shows our deepest image of (Guenther 2006), which are 30-Jupiter- ence and/or the small total mass. In
GQ Lup so far, after shift-and-add mass objects determined dynamically the case of GQ Lup A + b, this has been
of three NACO observations from June (Stassun et al. 2005). shown: The remaining motion seen be-

26 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


tween the two objects is 1.4 ± 2.2 ­mas/yr, 100 AU 300 AU Figure 3: Dynamic range obtained
from Figure 2 as flux ratio between
the maximum orbital motion could be 0
GQ Lup A ∆K
background noise and primary
3.7 ± 1.5 mas/yr, and the estimated es- 2 mag GQ Lup A (at 0,0) versus separation.
cape velocity would be 5.2 ± 2.1 ­mas/yr. –1
GQ Lup b is shown at 6.1 mag dif-
4 mag ference at 0.7325 arcsec separation.

Log Flux Ratio (rel /to A)


Projected separation at 140 pc is
Being located close to a star, common –2
GQ Lup b 6 mag indicated at the top, magnitude dif­-
proper motion and a cool spectrum fer­ence in K at the right. Achieved
are not sufficient for an object to be con- –3
8 mag ­d ynamic range is ΔK = 13.3 mag out-
sidered a bound companion, however. side of 2 arcsec, 12 mag at 1 arcsec,
10 mag at 0.5 arcsec, and 7 mag at
The binding energy (total mass for the –4 10 mag

0.2 arcsec. No other companions are


given separation) also needs to be large 12 mag detected so far. We can exclude oth­er
–5
enough for the pair to remain bound com­panions with at least the mass of
13.3 mag
and stable long-term. Figure 5 shows GQ Lup b outside 0.2 arcsec (28 AU).
0 1 2 3
the total mass of stellar and brown dwarf Separation (arcsec)

binaries versus their separations: Binaries


to the upper left of the line(s) should
be long-term stable against encounters
with other stars and clouds in the Galaxy.
There are no old wide brown dwarf –
brown dwarf pairs known, because they
are probably not long-term stable. There
is not even a young wide brown dwarf 1.00 Figure 4: Our low-resolution K-band
spectrum of GQ Lup b taken with
– brown dwarf pair with com­mon proper M8V
NACO (bottom) compared to M8 (top),
motion known or observed. 0.80 L2 (second from top), and a GAIA-
L2 Dusty template spectrum (Hauschildt
While GQ Lup b (100 AU away from a et al., in preparation) for 2000 K
and log g = 2, which compares well
0.7 solar-mass star) seems to be 0.60
with the companion (Neuhäuser et
long‑term stable, 2M1207 (55 to 70 AU
Flux

2000 K log(g) = 2.0 al. 2005). One can see water-steam


from a brown dwarf primary) might not 0.40
bands and CO absorption, possibly
be long-term stable (Mugrauer and Companion also Na.
­Neuhäuser 2005). The 2M1207 system
may be an interesting case, where we 0.20
Na I

see two brown dwarfs formed togeth­-


H 2O
er as a pair, but possibly separating from CO
12

0.00
each other right now. Whether systems 2.0 2.1 2.2
Wavelength (microns)
2.3 2.4 2.5

like GQ Lup and 2M1207 are rare or fre­-


quent, is still to be investigated. Many
more young nearby stars can and should
be observed with NACO.

References
10 Figure 5: The total mass of binaries
Burrows A. et al. 1993, ApJ 406, 158 (binding energy) versus separation
Chauvin G. et al. 2005, A&A 438, L25 with very low-mass binaries as open
Debes J. H. and Sigurdsson S. 2006, A&A, submit- stars and normal stellar binaries as
ted, astro-ph/0512450 filled symbols. There are no low-mass
Guenther E. W. 2006, in: Reviews in Modern ­ common proper-motion systems 
M tot (M1+M 2) Solar Masses

Astronomy 19 (ed. S. Röser), in press with separations larger than 16 AU.


1.0 GQ Lup B
Mugrauer M. and Neuhäuser R. 2005, AN 326, 701, Jup Sat
Nep
The solid line gives the stability limit:
astro-ph/0509162 Bound in the upper left, unbound
U

Neuhäuser R. 1997, Science 276, 1363


)A

in the lower right. The companions


Neuhäuser R. and Brandner W. 1998, A&A 330, L29


/s t o t / M

of 2M1207 and GQ Lup and the


Neuhäuser R. et al. 2005, A&A 435, L13 giant planets in our Solar System are
km (M

Stassun K. G. et al. 2005, Protostars & Planets V,


1.3 0 0

0.1 shown. The GQ Lup system seems


10

abstract bound and long-term stable (100 AU),


=

Wuchterl G. 2005, AN 326, 633


ax
=

2M1207 does not (Mugrauer and


m
a
c
es

­N euhäuser 2005), distance and,


v

2M1207 hence, projected separation are not


well known for 2M1207, hence two
symbols for 53 and 70 pc).
1 10 100 1000 10000 10 5
Separation (AU)

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 27


Reports from Observers

The Formation and Early Evolution of Massive Stars

Thomas Henning 1 over­come the large extinction one has to lescence’ scenario implies that tidal fric-
Markus Feldt 1 go to longer wavelengths, mainly the tion in close binary systems and dense
Hendrik Linz 1 near- and thermal infrared. For the ear­ clusters ‘melt’ a number of lower-mass
Elena Puga Antolín 2 liest phases even this is not sufficient, stars into one high-mass star. In its origi-
Bringfried Stecklum 3 and new knowledge has to be extracted nally proposed form, this scenario im-
from far-infrared and (sub-)millimetre ob­ plied a broken mass distribution function
servations. in the cluster (due to missing lower-mass
1
Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, stars that already underwent ­merging),
­ eidelberg, Germany
H The formation of massive stars repre- which is not observed in ‘normal’ clus­ters.
2
Instituut voor Sterrenkunde Leuven, sents one of the major astrophysical The concept of coalescence may still play
Belgium problems which is still unsolved despite a role in very dense clusters es­pecially
3
Thüringer Landessternwarte Tauten- the crucial role these stars play in the in starburst regions, but observational in­-
burg, Germany evolution of galaxies (see the proceed- di­cations such as the omnipresent out-
ings of the recent IAU Symposium 227, flows and even more collimated jets can-
Cesaroni et al. 2005). The single key not be easily explained in this scenario
The enormous influence exerted by question is how these stars manage to and thus are in favour of a more conven-
massive stars on their environment can accumulate that much matter during tional accretion scenario for more typical
affect the evolution of entire galaxies. their birth process. Even during the main galactic environments.
It manifests itself most strongly during accretion phase, they already exhibit very
their formation in molecular clouds high luminosities. This is a severe prob- A related issue is the question of what the
and their deaths as supernovae. We lem since the immense radiation pressure observational characteristics of the ear­
give examples for current observational on dust grains counteracts the accretion, liest stages of massive stars are. Do they
results that shed light on the ­formation and the growing ionisation further pushes always form in clusters? What is the ini-
of these fascinating objects. We ex­ the gas to expand. It is not clear wheth- tial mass function (IMF) in these clusters?
am­ine how this knowledge has been er spherical accretion on the one hand How important is competitive accretion?
achieved and how it can be extended can compete against the strong ­radiation, When do the outflows start? What are
with the help of the latest observational and on the other hand can cope with the the spectral properties of the very young
methods. vastly growing ionis­ing flux of the form- massive stars? Answers to these ques-
ing star in order to quench an H ii re­gion tions can only be obtained by disentan-
for many dynamical times. The forma- gling the complex structure of massive
The birth and death of high-mass stars tion of massive stars by spherically sym- star-forming regions, using near-­infrared
play a major role in shaping the mor- metric mass infall therefore seems rather adaptive optics and long-baseline infra­-
phological, dynamical, and chemical unlikely. red interferometry, sensitive thermal in-
structure of many galaxies. How dramatic fra­red observations, and interferom­etry
the effects of the formation of massive However, if the material is accumulated at millimetre and radio wavelengths. In
stars can be is best seen in starburst gal- from a circumstellar disc the ­problem this article, we will give examples of such
axies, whose structure is entirely deter- may disappear. The reason is that due observations and concentrate on re­­-
mined by the almost explosive formation to the presence of a disc, a highly an­ cent results where ESO instrumentation
of OB stars. From which mass upwards isotropic radiation field is produced, with has provided important contributions.
is a star called massive? The lower mass different energy flows parallel and perpen­
limit can be set quite well to be 8 –10 M A. dicular to the disc’s axis. First evidence
Only stars at least that massive are capa­ for such accretion discs was thought to The early stages of evolution
ble of producing enough UV pho­tons be found in the bipolar morphologies
to ionise the surrounding gas and to form of the ionised regions around some well- The earliest stage of star formation is the
H ii regions, to create supersonic winds, known massive young stars or by the collapse and fragmentation of a molecu­
and finally to explode as supernovae. existence of very energetic and ­massive lar cloud to (a) protostellar object(s).
Moreover, it is known that the ­accretion molecular outflows. We now have ac- These objects are rather cold and usually
phase is longer than the contraction cumulating evidence that at least early B not detected at near- or mid-infrared
pe­riod for stars exceeding roughly 8 M A. and late O stars (up to probably 20 M A ) wave­lengths. The search for massive and
Thus, newly forming massive stars are form via disc-accretion processes similar cold (pre-)protostellar cores only recently
still deeply embedded in their par­ental to their low-mass counterparts. The char­- led to the detection of the first good can­
mo­lecular cloud. Therefore, no ­optically acterisation of massive accretion discs didates.
visible massive pre-main-se­quence is often considered as the missing link in
stars are observed. This is in strong con­ the understanding of massive star forma- The best tool to find such cold and mas­-
trast to the low- and intermediate-mass tion. sive molecular cloud cores is an un­
pre-main-sequence stars – the so-called biased, large survey at far-infrared and
TTauri and Herbig-Ae/Be stars. It is ob­ An alternative theory to explain the for- sub-millimetre wavelengths. With more
vious that especially this fact has a large mation of massive stars is based on the than 15 % sky coverage, the Isophot
impact on observational strategies; to merging of lower-mass stars. The ‘coa- 170 µm Serendipity Survey (IsoSS) is cur-

28 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


30 30

15 15
arcseconds

arcseconds
0 0

–15 –15

–30 –30

–45 –45
30 15 0 –15 –30 30 15 0 –15 –30
arcseconds arcseconds

Figure 1: The cold core UYSO1 detected at the subtraction (from Forbrich, Stanke et al. in prepara-
edge of the molecular cloud near IRAS 07029- tion). In particular, it features two crossed arms
1215. ­(Reference position R.A. 07h05m10 s.80 Dec of near-infrared H2 emission whose intersection point
–12°18;56?.8 (J2000).) Left: Spitzer 24 µm image (close to the reference position) is compellingly near
of the region with superimposed SCUBA 450 µm to the peak of the 450 µm emission. Note that the
contours tracing the actual young core. Right: near-infrared emission visible at the respective core
VLT ISAAC near-infrared image of the same field in centre is not a continuum source but an H2 knot.
the H2(1-0)S1 narrow-band filter before continuum

rently still the largest survey performed near- or thermal infrared. Yet, it is already previously revealed CO outflow. Thus,
beyond the IRAS 100 µm band at me- driving a high-velocity bipolar CO out- one can speculate that UYSO1 is as-
dium spatial resolution. It provided very flow with a total mass of Moutflow = 5.4 MA. sociated with at least one of these jet fea-
good candidates for massive cold cores Mass estimates and subsequent em- tures. This means in turn that star for-
(e.g., Birkmann et al. 2006) which we pir­ical relations as well as considerations mation has already turned on in the core.
are presently investigating with millimetre of the spectral energy distribution (SED) A next step will be high spatial resolu-
and Spitzer observations. Another re­- point to the object being an early B star tion interferometric observations at (sub-)
lat­ed class of objects are the so-called surrounded by an envelope of 30–40 MA millimetre wavelengths which can be
­infrared dark clouds which appear as (Forbrich et al. 2004). To investigate achieved with the Plateau de Bure Inter-
dark regions even at mid-infrared wave- the content of this core, we ­subsequently ferometer and with the SMA. Further-
lengths and were first detected with the utilised the Spitzer MIPS camera. As more, UYSO1 is certainly a good candi-
MSX satellite and in the ISOGAL survey. can be seen in Figure 1, no 24 µm point date for ALMA observations for the future
source associated with the core is de­ in order to pinpoint the mass distribu-
We performed another survey for mas­- tected. This is a rare finding among the tion in the interior of the core and to sort
sive protostellar cores and protoclus- presently known objects of this class out whether additional low-mass sources
ters in the outer Galaxy using SCUBA since the vast majority of cores from the are present that introduce independent
and IRAM bolometers (Klein et al. 2005). surveys mentioned above apparently jet activity.
These (sub-)millimetre observations already exhibit such localised 24 µm
yielded the detection of a particularly emission. The near-infrared data for the
interesting object (Figure 1): near to IRAS UYSO1 region, taken recently with the The hot core phase
07029-1215, which itself is an object VLT (see Figure 1 right), show an intensity
with a luminosity of 1700 L A, located at gradient towards the cold core similar The next stage in the evolution of a mas-
a distance of 1 kpc, a deeply embed- to the 24 µm data. In addition, they re- sive star towards the main sequence is
ded object (‘UYSO1’) was discovered. veal the presence of two crossed H2 jets the so-called hot-core stage. Here, mas-
This object appears to be in a particularly which both more or less intersect the sive stars are located within dense mo­-
early evolutionary stage, since it has no cold core. The orientation of the north- lecular cloud cores and – because of the
detectable continuum counterpart in the south arm is very similar to the one of the high extinction – are neither visible in the

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 29


Reports from Observers Henning T. et al., The Formation and Early Evolution of Massive Stars

Figure 2: Central region of the Hot Core G9.62+ infrared appearance of the region are obvious. While
0.19-F, as seen with VLT/ISAAC (1.65–4.7 µm), F2 seems to be a foreground star detached from
3.6-m/TIMMI2 (8.7 µm), and 5-m (Mount Palomar)/ the actual hot core, the nature of F1 and F3 is not
SpectroCam-10 (11.7 µm) (Reference position fully clarified. We presume that the feature F4 is
R.A. 18 h06 m14s.88 Dec –20°31;39?.4 (J2000)). The closely associated with the hot core itself (from Linz
contours in each panel trace the NH3(5,5) radio et al. 2005).
emission from the hot core. Drastic changes in the

2 2 2
F3 F3
1 1 1

arcseconds
arcseconds

arcseconds F4
0 0 0
F2 F2
–1 –1 –1
F1 F1 F1
–2 –2 –2
1.65 µm 2.15 µm 3.8 µm
2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3
arcseconds arcseconds arcseconds

2 2 2

1 1
F4
1 F4
arcseconds
arcseconds
arcseconds

F4
0 0 0
F1
–1 –1 –1
F1
–2 –2 –2
4.7 µm 8.7 µm 11.7 µm
2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3
arcseconds arcseconds arcseconds

optical nor in the near-infrared, but in metric models it is not expected that hot note that accurate astrometry, especially
the mid-infrared spectral region. These cores themselves could be detected between the thermal infrared images and
cores are heated by the embedded or with ISAAC (wavelength range 1–5 µm) the radio interferometry data is an im­
neighbouring massive stars to temper- due to hundreds of magnitudes of visual portant requirement to prevent misidenti-
atures between 100 and 300 Kelvin, extinction. However, we previously fications. Together with existing millimetre
forming ‘hot cores’ about 0.1 pc across, showed that the G9.62 hot core drives interferometer data, our new sub-arc-
which have a density of molecular hy- a massive molecular outflow roughly ori- second thermal infrared data facilitate an
drogen of about 107 particles per cm3. ented along the line-of-sight (Hofner order-of-magnitude assessment for the
Typically, in this stage the objects are et al. 2001) which might severely disturb luminosity of this hot core (without dis-
not yet surrounded by larger amounts of the spherical symmetry. Indeed, our turbing contributions from other sources);
ionised hydrogen. The formation of H ii ISAAC 3.8 µm and 4.7 µm observations we estimate it to be around 1.9 × 104 LA.
regions is possibly suppressed by the reveal the presence of a feature (F4) This is a clear indication that the G9.62
high rate of mass infall. This also means not seen at shorter wavelengths which hot core harbours a young massive star.
that the youngest massive stars are eventually dominates the emission at However, caution is advisable, as we see
only observable in the thermal infrared longer wavelengths (Figure 2). This leads in the case of the Orion Hot Core, where
and the (sub-)millimetre range, where- to a scenario where the outflow has a on a much smaller scale than in our case
as they are not strong centimetre radio ‘clearing effect’ so that thermal infrared several infrared sources can be dis-
continuum sources. The particularly in- radiation from the inner interior of the tinguished. (G9.62+0.19 is more than
teresting case of the G9.62+0.19-F Hot hot core can more easily escape through 12 times farther away from our Sun than
Core is shown in Figure 2, for which we the outflow cone directed towards us. the Orion Hot Core.) Thus, diffraction-
conducted a multi-wavelength study This finding clearly demonstrates the limited L- and M-band observations with
with ISAAC at the VLT and with TIMMI2 de­viation from spherical symmetry which NACO (yielding a spatial resolution of
at the ESO 3.6-m telescope (Linz et al. has to be taken into account in detailed ca. 0.1?) will be a logical step to trace
2005). From classical spherically sym- radiative transfer models. Here we should potential substructures in this hot core.

30 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Figure 3: L-band image of G5.89‑0.39 taken with
NACO. The contours represent 2-cm emission
from Wood and Churchwell (1989), the star, the
triangle, and the square show the locations of the
ionising star candidate found by Feldt et al. (2003),
the 1.3‑mm source found by Sollins et al. (2004),
and the centre of a possible newly identified outflow,
respectively (from Puga et al. 2006).

Ultracompact H ii regions
2
During the next evolutionary phase of
massive stars – now in or very close
to the zero-age main sequence – ‘ultra- 1
compact H ii regions’ (UCH iis) form
arcseconds
around the young stars. In these ionised
0
regions of about 0.1 pc diameter with
electron densities of about 105 per cm3,
electrons decelerating in the plasma –1
emit strongly at radio wavelengths (free-
free emission). Thus, these objects
can be best found by radio continuum –2
surveys. These very compact objects
have lifetimes of about one million years.
Eventually the regions of ionised hy- –3
drogen expand, forming ‘compact H ii re­- 2 0 –2 –4
gions’ of 0.5 pc diameter and electron arcseconds
densities up to 1000 electrons per cm3. Centre = 18 h00 m30.40 s–24 d 04�01.30�(J2000)
These then evolve into ‘diffuse H ii re-
gions’ which are well known to us in the
form of the Orion Nebula.

A particularly interesting source in the position in the colour-magnitude diagram, passes through the disruptions in the
context of ultra-compact H ii regions its spectral type was estimated to be shell apparent in Wood and Churchwell’s
is G5.89-0.39. Classified by Wood and O5V. (1989) 2-cm image, and coincides with
Churchwell (1989) as a shell-type UCH ii, the ­di­rection of preferred shell expansion.
it seemed to agree with models of a Follow-up spectroscopy of the ­central The data show the power of combining
clas­sical Strømgren sphere expansion source is presented in Puga et al. (2006). high spatial resolution provided by Adap-
ad­ditionally driven by the wind of a sin- In the long-slit K-band spectrum, the tive Optics and high spectral resolution.
gle massive star. The object is also the only remarkable line showing up at the
source of one of the most massive out- location of the detected star is He i; But what about the other outflows? The
flows within our Galaxy. The outflow has this indicates that the source is hotter L-band image in Figure 3 shows a bipolar
been studied at a variety of wavelengths than 40 000 K which corresponds to feature at the location where Sollins et al.
and resolutions. Interestingly, also differ- a spectral type earlier than O7V. More­ (2004) report their mm continuum source.
ent outflow orientations and outflow ve­- over, Puga et al. (2006) present Fabry- The feature is elongated at a position
loc­ities were derived by differ­ent groups: Perot spectroscopy with the Adaptive an­gle matching that of the Sollins’ outflow
the east-west direction from various CO Optics instruments ADONIS/GraF (at the and resembles the structure of reflec-
line observations, the north-south di- 3.6-m telescope) and NACO (at the VLT tion lobes above and below a circumstel-
rection from the expansion of the radio UT4) as well as long-slit spectroscopy lar disc seen edge-on (see inset in Figure
shell (8 ± 2 AU/yr) and from CS and of the H2 emission around the shell. Two 3). We concluded in Puga et al. (2006)
H2O maser observations. Yet another ori­ prominent bow-shock-like features are that the L-band structure is the small-
entation was introduced by tracing out- detected north and south of the UCH ii scale counterpart of the SiO outflow that
flow motions in SiO which led to the con- region equidistant from the star seen in is driven by the 1.3-mm continuum
clusion of an NE-SW outflow. Recently, K and L. The study of the ratio between source. We also mapped the shell in the
Sollins et al. (2004) confirmed this latter several ro-vibrational H2 lines confirms Brg line with Fabry-Perot observations
direction by means of SiO observations the shocked nature at least of the south- (see Figure 4). This resulting velocity map
with the SMA. They also found a 1.3-mm ern region. The Fabry-Perot data of this implies that another bipolar structure
continuum source which they proposed southern H2 feature show its velocity exists and that the shell is not as “puz-
to be the driver of the outflow. struc­ture to be entirely consistent with a zlingly symmetric and undisrupted by
deceleration from about 100 km s –1 massive outflows” as described earlier by
The driving source of ‘the outflow’ was to the ambient velocity. It appears pretty Ed Churchwell. The feature might be
always assumed to be the ionising source clear now that these H2 features indeed ­connected to an outflow in NW-SE direc-
of the shell. A direct detection of the represent terminating bow-shocks of tion – about the only direction not quoted
central ionising source was first claimed a jet originating from G5.89-0.39. With before for an outflow from G5.89. The
by Feldt et al. (2003), who detected a the connecting line passing the detected possible driving source would naturally
star slightly off-centre inside the shell in O5V star at less than 0.3?, it seems be assumed to be situated between the
NACO K and L-band images. From the ­reasonable to assume that this star is two parabolas in Figure 4, with no de-
indeed the driving source. Also, the axis tected counterpart at any wavelength yet.

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 31


Reports from Observers Henning T. et al., The Formation and Early Evolution of Massive Stars

What do we learn from all this? First of isms and timescales of the early evolu- far-infrared observations, and ground-
all, it again appears that massive star for­ tionary stages of massive stars within the based follow-up observations with ALMA
mation is always more complex than you next few years. will become a growing field of research.
thought. In G5.89 everything appeared
clear and matching a very simple model The currently operating Spitzer IR satellite
until a few years ago. Now we have a produces a wealth of new data cov­er- Acknowledgements
number of outflows confirmed in all pos- ing the mid- and far-infrared regime. In We thank our collaborators and former/present
sible directions, and we have two quite terms of sensitivity, it provides a major students Dániel Apai, Carlos Alvarez, Esteban
robust detections of driving sources and improvement with regard to its prede­ces­ Araya, Henrik Beuther, Stephan Birkmann, Wolfgang
evidence for a third one inside a volume sors IRAS, MSX, and ISO and is of course Brandner, Jan Forbrich, Peter Hofner, Randolf Klein,
Oliver Krause, Ilaria Pascucci, Bettina Posselt,
not larger than the shell with its diameter superior to present-day ground-based Katharina Schreyer, and Thomas Stanke in joining
of about 0.05 pc. In the general notion, observations. However, even at the small- the adventure to investigate how massive stars form.
G5.89 has turned from a single star with est operating wavelength of 3.5 microns,
an ionised shell into yet another young, Spitzer does not provide sub-­arcsecond
References
massive cluster with complex interactions spatial resolution, a prerequisite to dis-
between the stars, the outflows, and the ­en­tangle the usually crowded central re­- Birkmann, S. M., Krause, O., and Lemke, D. 2006,
radiation fields and the produced H ii re­ gions of high-mass star formation. Hence, ApJ, in press
gion. This demonstrates how important it ground-based thermal infrared observa- Cesaroni, R. et al. 2005, Proceedings of the IAUS
227, Cambridge University Press
is to carefully determine and charac­ter- tions conducted at 8-m-class telescopes Feldt, M. et al. 2003, ApJL 599, L91
­ise the complete stellar content of any (for instance, ISAAC, VISIR, NACO, and Forbrich, J. et al. 2004, ApJ 602, 843
site of massive star formation, before try- soon CRIRES at the VLT) can contribute Hofner, P., Wiesemeyer, H., and Henning, T. 2001,
ing to draw conclusions on the forma- important knowledge about the intricate ApJ 549, 425
Klein, R. et al. 2005, ApJS 161, 361
tion mech­anism from integrated data like details of massive star-forming regions. Linz, H. et al. 2005, A&A 429, 903
over­all luminosities or outflow energies. Furthermore, in a few years from now, the Puga, E. et al. 2006, ApJ, in press
It is also another example of massive star synergy between space-based explora- Sollins, P. K. et al. 2004, ApJL 616, L35
formation taking place at stellar densi- tory studies, especially Herschel-satellite Wood, D. O. S., and Churchwell, E. 1989, ApJS, 69,
831
ties of more than 104 pc –3, confirming
that mas­sive stars prefer to form in very
dense clusters.

Outlook
2
Infrared and millimetre observations of
very young massive stars in the stage 1
of cold and hot cores now complement
arcseconds

detailed observations of slightly later


stages, in particular ultra-compact H ii re­- 0
gions. Here, the identification of the ion­
ising and illuminating sources and the de­-
tailed study of the interaction between –1
them and nearby molecular cloud struc-
tures have opened the way for much
bet­ter modelling of these important and –2
abundant objects.

It is clear that the riddle of massive star 4 2 0 –2 –4


formation is not yet solved. However, our
observational methods are getting clos- –50.00 –25.00 0.00
er to the very early stages of formation
and the very immediate surroundings of
Figure 4: Peak velocities in Brg in the upper half of
young massive stars. New 3D radiative G5.89’s shell. The colour bar indicates the veloc-
transfer models will help interpreting the ity range in km/s. The blue star symbol again shows
data measured by interferometers, aided the location of the ionising star candidate (see
by input from 8-m telescope diffraction- Figure 3). The overlaid thin white contours mark the
velocity-integrated Brg intensity. In the western
limited observations between 1 µm and half, a bipolar velocity structure (also indicated by
20 µm wavelength. With these methods, the arrows) is clearly visible and recognised here for
we can hope to determine the mechan­ the first time (from Puga et al. 2006).

32 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Reports from Observers

The Dwarf galaxy Abundances and Radial-velocities


Team (DART) Large Programme – A Close Look at
Nearby Galaxies
Eline Tolstoy 1 The dwarf galaxies we have studied are nearby galaxies. The modes of operation,
Vanessa Hill 2 the lowest-luminosity (and mass) galax- the sensitivity and the field of view are
Mike Irwin 3 ies that have ever been found. It is likely an almost perfect match to requirements
Amina Helmi 1 that these low-mass dwarfs are the most for the study of Galactic dSph galaxies.
Giuseppina Battaglia 1 common type of galaxy in the Universe, For example, it is now possible to meas-
Bruno Letarte 1 but because of their extremely low ure the abundance of numerous elements
Kim Venn 4 surface brightness our ability to detect in nearby galaxies for more than 100 stars
Pascale Jablonka 5,6 them diminishes rapidly with increasing over a 25;-diameter field of view in one
Matthew Shetrone 7 distance. The only place where we can shot. A vast improvement on previous la-
Nobuo Arimoto 8 be reasonably sure to detect a large frac- borious (but valiant) efforts with single-slit
Tom Abel 9 tion of these objects is in the Local spectrographs to observe a handful of
Francesca Primas 10 Group, and even here, ‘complete sam- stars per galaxy (e.g., Tolstoy et al. 2003;
Andreas Kaufer 10 ples’ are added to each year. Within Shetrone et al. 2003; Geisler et al. 2005).
Thomas Szeifert 10 250 kpc of our Galaxy there are nine low-
Patrick Francois 2 mass galaxies (seven observable from The DART Large Programme has meas-
Kozo Sadakane 11 the southern hemisphere), including Sag- ured abundances and velocities for sev-
ittarius which is in the process of merging eral hundred individual stars in a sample
with our Galaxy. We will show that only of four nearby dSph galaxies: Sculptor,
1
 apteyn Institute, University of Gronin-
K the closest galaxies can be observed in Fornax, Sextans and Carina. We have
gen, the Netherlands detail, even with an 8-m telescope. used the VLT/FLAMES facility in the low-
2
Observatoire de Paris, France resolution mode (LR 8, R ~ 8 000) to
3
Institute of Astronomy, University of The lowest-mass galaxies are dwarf irreg­­- obtain Ca ii triplet metallicity estimates as
Cambridge, United Kingdom ular (dI) and dwarf spheroidal (dSph) type well as accurate radial-velocity measure-
4
Department of Physics and Astronomy, galaxies. The only difference between ments over large areas in Sculptor, For-
University of Victoria, Canada these low-mass dSphs and dIs seems to nax and Sextans out to the tidal radius
5
Observatoire de Genève, Laboratoire be the presence of gas and cur­rent star (Tolstoy et al. 2004; Battaglia et al. 2006,
d’Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique formation in dIs. It has al­ready been not­- in prep.), see Figure 1 for the example
Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland ed that dSphs predominantly lie close  of Sculptor. In Figure 1 we show the area
6
on leave from Observatoire de Paris, to our Galaxy (< 250 kpc away), and dIs on the sky around the Sculptor dSph
France pre­dominantly further away (> 400 kpc galaxy. The large ellipse is the tidal radius
7
University of Texas, McDonald Observ- away). This suggests that the proximity of of Sculptor as determined by Irwin and
atory, Fort Davis, Texas, USA dSph to our Galaxy played a role in the Hatzidimitriou (1995). The positions ob-
8
National Astronomical Observatory, re­moval of gas from these systems. How- served with VLT/FLAMES are marked as
Tokyo, Japan ever, the range of properties found in circles, where the solid circles repre­-
9
KIPAC, Stanford University, Menlo dSph and dI galaxies does not allow a sent the 10 individual FLAMES point-
Park, California, USA straightforward explanation, particular- ings analysed so far, and the dashed-line
10
ESO ly not the large var­iations in star-formation circles are the positions of five addition-
11
Astronomical Institute, Osaka Kyoiku histories and chemical-evolution paths al fields that were observed in November
University, Japan that have now been observed in different 2005. Also plotted for the analysed fields
systems (e.g., Dolphin et al. 2005). are the positions of the stars that are
prob­able members (small red squares)
We review the progress of ESO/WFI Im- It is perhaps not a surprise that there is and the non-members (black crosses).
aging and VLT/FLAMES spectroscopy apparently a lower limit to the mass of an Each of the four galaxies has been ob-
of large numbers of individual stars in object which is able to form more than served at high resolution (Giraffe settings
nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies by the one generation of stars, which is related HR 10, 13 and 14) in the central region to
Dwarf galaxy Abundances and Radial- to the limit below which one supernova obtain detailed abundances for a range of
veloci­ties Team (DART). These observa­ will completely destroy a galaxy. Numer­i- interesting elements such as Mg, Ca, O,
tions have allowed us to show that cal and analytic models tell us that this Ti, Na, Eu to name a few (Hill et al. 2006
nei­ther the kinematics nor the abundan­ must be around a few × 10 6 MA. ­Globular in prep.; Letarte et al. 2006a in prep.)
ces nor the spatial distributions are easy clusters typically have much lower masses for about 100 stars. During the Giraffe HR
to explain in a straightforward man­ner than this limit. ob­servations we were also able to use
for these smallest galaxies. The main the fibre feed to the UVES spectrograph
re­sult is that dwarf galaxies show com- to obtain greater wavelength coverage
plex and highly specific evolutionary Observations and higher resolution for a sample of sev­-
and metal-enrichment processes, espe- en to 14 stars per galaxy (e.g., Venn et
cially at ancient times. This conclusive­ly VLT/FLAMES with fibre-feeds to the Gi- al. 2006 in prep.; Shetrone et al. 2006 in
proves that these small galaxies are raffe and UVES spectrographs has made prep.). The comparison we can make
not the building blocks of the larger gal- a revolution possible in spectroscopic be­tween results from UVES spectroscopy
axies in the Local Group. studies of resolved stellar populations in (R ~ 40 000) and Giraffe spectroscopy

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 33


Reports from Observers Tolstoy E. et al., The DART Large Programme – A Close Look at Nearby Galaxies

(R ~ 20 000) for the same stars is very 1.5


Sculptor dSph Figure 1: The area on the sky around
the Sculptor dSph galaxy. The posi-
useful in convincing ourselves, and oth-
tions observed with VLT/FLAMES are
ers, that we are able to obtain reliable marked as circles. Also plotted are
results with lower resolution spectra than 1.0
the positions of the stars that are prob­
was previously thought possible or advis- able members (red squares) and the
non-members (black crosses).
able. This lower-resolution is less of a 0.5
problem at lower metallicity (e.g., Sculp-
tor) than at higher metallicity (e.g., Fornax).
η [degrees]

0.0

Colour-magnitude diagrams
– 0.5

The first step in a detailed analysis of the


resolved stellar population of a galaxy –1.0
is an accurate colour-magnitude diagram
(e.g., Figure 2), ideally down to the old­-
est main-sequence turnoffs (MV ~ + 3.5). –1.5
1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 – 0.5 –1.0 –1.5
In Figure 2 is plotted the colour-magni- ξ [degrees]

tude diagram of the Sculptor dSph from


ESO/WFI imaging out to the tidal radius.
The coloured symbols are the stars we –3 Figure 2: Colour-magnitude diagram
of the Sculptor dSph from ESO/WFI
ob­served with VLT/FLAMES. The prob­ WFI/FLAMES Sculptor dSph
possible members imaging. The coloured symbols are
able members of Sculptor are shown as probable non-members
the stars observed with VLT/FLAMES.
purple circles and the non-members are The probable members of Sculptor
–2
shown as green stars. A careful analysis are shown as purple circles and the
non-members are shown as green
leads to the star-formation history all the
stars. Also shown outlined in blue are
way back to the first star formation in the regions used to define the Blue
FG
the Galaxy. This approach is the most ac­- –1 Horizontal Branch (BHB), the Red Hor-
curate for intermediate-age populations, izontal Branch (RHB) and foreground
comparison (FG) stellar populations.
but for stars older than about 10 Gyr 
MV

the time resolution gets quite poor (and


the stars are getting very faint), and it 0
BHB
be­comes hard to distinguish a 12-Gyr- RHB
old star from a 10-Gyr-old star. Here it
­be­comes useful to consider the Horizon-
tal Branch stars (MV ~ 0) which are the 1

bright He-burning phase of low-mass


stars > 10 Gyr old. The ratio of red to blue
horizontal-branch stars (see Figure 2) 2
tells us about the age and ­metallicity vari­- 0 0.5
V–I
1 1.5

ation. In Figure 2 regions used to define


the Blue Horizontal Branch (BHB), the by Cole et al. 2005; their Figure 8). The pockets of interstellar medium of differ-
Red Horizontal Branch (RHB) and fore- observed magnitude and colour (e.g., ent ages (enriched by different num-
ground comparison (FG) stellar popula- MV, V−I) of a star combined with a meas­- bers of processes) conveniently covering
tions in Sculptor are outlined in blue ured [Fe/H], allows us to effectively the nuclear burning core of stars. This
boxes. The spatial distribution of red and re­move the age-metallicity degeneracy hot stellar core provides a useful bright
blue horizontal-branch stars in Sculp- and deter­mine the age of an RGB star background source to be absorbed in the
tor is shown in Figure 3. In this Figure the from an iso­chrone, and thus to trace stellar atmosphere allowing very detailed
outline of the extent of the ESO/WFI im­ the enrichment patterns of as many ele- studies of the elemental abundances in
aging is shown, as is the tidal radius of ments as we can measure with time. these ancient gas samples. Thus, a spec-
Sculptor. troscopic analysis of the variation of the
abundances of different elements seen in
We can also consider the much brighter Detailed abundance analysis absorption in atmospheres of different
Red Giant Branch (RGB, −3 < MV < 0) age stars allows us to trace the detailed
stars which have ages > 1 Gyr old, back In the majority of RGB stars it is be- chemical enrichment history of a galaxy
to the oldest stars in the Galaxy, however, lieved that the atmosphere of the star with time. Different elements are created
the interpretation of the RGB using only remains an unpolluted sample of the in different circumstances and if we are
photometry is plagued by the age-metal- interstellar me­dium out of which it was able to determine the abundance of ele-
licity degeneracy (graphically illustrated formed. This means we have small ments known to be created in a particular

34 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Figure 3: The distribution of horizontal-
branch stars from ESO/WFI imaging of
the Sculptor dSph selected as shown
in Figure 2.

BHB RHB Foreground at RHB


2 2 2

1 1 1
η [degrees]

η [degrees]
η [degrees]
0 0 0

–1 –1 –1

–2 –2 –2
2 1 0 –1 –2 2 1 0 –1 –2 2 1 0 –1 –2
ξ [degrees] ξ [degrees] ξ [degrees]

set of physical conditions, we can assess be an element produced almost exclu- time as the Giraffe spectra (Venn et al.
the importance and frequency of these sively by the r-process. The slow capture 2006, in prep.). A representative error
conditions during the history of star for- (s-process) is thought to be created by bar is also given in the bottom left hand
mation in a galaxy. more quiescent processes such as the of each panel. The Fornax VLT/FLAMES
stellar winds common in AGB type stars results are preliminary, as the problems
For example, the abundances of light of intermediate age (and mass). Typical with the appropriate stellar models for
el­ements (e.g., O, Na, Mg, Al) are ­consid- elements which are thought to be created such cool stars as are found in Fornax
ered to be tracers of ‘deep mixing’ by the s-process are Ba and La. The have not yet been fully resolved. We can
pat­terns which are found only in globular- ra­tio between r- and s-process element compare the detailed abundance pat-
cluster environments, which gives a limit abundances gives an indication of the terns that we see in dSph galaxies, with
to the number of dissolved globular rel­ative importance of these different en­ other galaxies such as the Milky Way.
clusters which can exist in a stellar popu­ richment processes during the history This is shown in Figure 4, where the Ga-
lation. These typical (Galactic) globular of star formation in a galaxy. Dwarf sphe- lactic stars shown in both panels as
clus­ter abundance patterns have also roidal galaxies are found to have a strong black dots come from various literature
been recently found in the globular clus- evolution from r-process domination to sources (see Venn et al. 2004 for refer-
ters of Fornax dSph (Letarte et al. 2006b s-process domination as a function of the ences), and the disc and halo component
in prep.), but not (so far) in the field star metallicity of the stars. This may indicate are also labelled. This can also be done
populations (e.g., Shetrone et al. 2003). that supernovae products are typically for Saggitarius and the Magellanic Clouds
lost to a shallow potential well, or that the (e.g., Venn et al. 2004). These compari­
The creation of a-elements (e.g., O, Mg, slow star formation rate means that sons show that enrichment patterns dif-
Si, Ca, Ti) occurs predominately in su- massive stars are not very ­common (e.g., fer strongly between different types of
pernovae type II explosions, i.e. the ex- Tolstoy et al. 2003; Venn et al. 2004). gal­axy, making it hard to build one type
plosion of massive stars a few 10 6 −107 yrs of galaxy out of another once they have
after their formation. The abundance of Our latest results for the a-elements are formed a significant number of stars.
the different a-elements is quite sensitive shown in Figure 4. The a-element abun­­-
to the mass of the SNII progenitor so the dance is an average of Ca, Mg and Ti
a/Fe ratio traces the mass function of the abundances from high-resolution spec- The Ca ii triplet and kinematics
stars which contributed to the creation troscopy for stars in Sculptor and For­-
of the a-elements, and ratios of different nax dSphs. The VLT/FLAMES measure­ The ideal is to be able to obtain high-re-
a-elements themselves can put limits on ments of 92 stars in the centre of Sculp- solution spectra for individual stars
the highest-mass star which has enriched tor are shown in the upper panel as in nearby dSph over a large wavelength
a galaxy and also the typical mass range purple crosses (Hill et al. 2006 in prep.) range, and make a detailed analysis of
(e.g., McWilliam 1997). and the preliminary measurements for a range of different elements along with
55 stars observed in Fornax are shown accurate velocities. However, this is quite
Heavy Elements (Z > 30) are a mix of as green crosses in the lower panel time consuming both in telescope time
r- and s-process elements. That is to say ­(Letarte et al. 2006a, in prep.). The open (even with VLT/FLAMES) and in analysis.
elements which were produced by rap­- blue squares, five in Scl and three in Fnx One of the most simple ways to get an
id or slow neutron capture which tells us are UVES measurements of individual estimate of the metallicity of RGB stars is
about the environment in which enrich- stars (Shetrone et al. 2003). The four with the Ca ii triplet. This is a basic met­­-
ment occurred. Rapid capture (r-proc- open red squares are Geisler et al. (2005) allicity indicator requiring only low or in-
ess) is assumed to occur in high-energy measurements of Scl, and the 10 open termediate spectral resolution, based on
circumstances, such as supernovae ex- green squares are FLAMES fibre fed three lines around 8 500 Å which have
plosions. For example Eu is considered to UVES spectra of Scl, taken at the same been empirically calibrated from obser-

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 35


Reports from Observers Tolstoy E. et al., The DART Large Programme – A Close Look at Nearby Galaxies

0.6 within the central, r < 0.5 degree ­region


Halo (solid black line); and the 229 stars
0.4 Disc
beyond r > 0.5 (dashed red line). Clearly
0.2
[α /Fe]

the distributions are very different. Most


0 noticeably Fornax has a substantial
–0.2 ‘me­tal-rich’ population. The lowest ­metal­-
Scl
licity star in our combined sample of
–0.4
more than 850 stars for both galaxies is
–4 –3 –2 –1 0 [Fe/H] = − 2.7. We find a similar lack of
[FeI/H] low-metallicity stars in Sextans and Ca-
ri­na. Although it is difficult to make an ac­-
0.6 curate comparison with the Galactic
Halo ­sur­­veys, where the completeness can be
0.4 Disc
hard to quantify, there appears to be a
0.2
[α /Fe]

significantly different distribution between


0 all the dSph and the (metal-poor) halo of
–0.2 the Milky Way. It can be seen that there
Fnx
is a clear difference in the distribution
–0.4
of the metal-rich and metal-poor stars in
–4 –3 –2 –1 0 both Fornax and Sculptor.
[FeI/H]

Figure 4: The a-element abundances from high- (­Shetrone et al. 2003; Geisler et al. 2005; Venn et Future work
­resolution spectroscopy for stars in the Sculp- al. 2006, in prep.). Galactic stars coming from various
tor dSph (upper panel, Hill et al. 2006 in prep) and ­literature sources (see Venn et al. 2004 for refer-
also pre­liminary results for the Fornax dSph (lower ences) are shown for comparison in both panels as There are indications that the presence
pan­el, Letarte et al. 2006a, in prep.). The open black dots and labelled as disc and halo compo- of two distinct populations is a common
squares are UVES measurements of individual stars nents. feature of dSph galaxies. Our prelim-
inary analysis of Horizontal Branch stars,
vations of stars in globular clusters with satisfying S/N > 10. Likely Sculptor mem- vhel and [Fe/H] measurements in the
high-resolution abundances. Assum- ­bers are clearly seen clustered around other galaxies in our sample (Fornax and
ing sufficient signal-to-noise spectra the systemic velocity of 110 km/s. The Sextans dSph; Battaglia et al. 2006, in
(S/N > 10) it provides [Fe/H] within typical stars which are potential members are prep.) also show similar characteristics
(internal) errors of ± 0.1 dex, and also the plotted as red stars ([Fe/H] > −1.7) and to Sculptor, especially in the most metal-
radial velocity of each star with ± 2 km/s blue circles ([Fe/H] < −1.7), while the poor component. Pure radial-­velocity
accuracy. These accuracies are well suit- green crosses are assumed to be non- studies (e.g., Wilkinson et al. 2004) have
ed for ‘quick look’ surveys of the resolved members. There appears to be a metal- also considered the possibility that kin-
stellar population of a galaxy. In the DART rich, − 0.9 > [Fe/H] > −1.7, and a metal- e­matically distinct components exist
project these Ca ii triplet measure­ments poor, −1.7 > [Fe/H] > − 2.8, ­component. in Ursa Minor, Draco and Sextans dSph
are complementary to the high-re­solution The metal-rich component is more cen­ gal­axies. Interestingly, the Carina dSph
observations made in the centre of each trally concentrated than the metal-poor, appears to go counter to this trend, and
dSph. In the low-re­solution observa- and on average appears to have a lower another VLT/FLAMES study finds no ­ob­-
tions a much larger area is surveyed and velocity dispersion, smetal−rich = 7 ± 1 km/s, ­vious evidence for more than one com-
we can assess how represen­tative the whereas smetal−poor = 11 ± 1 km/s. A sim- ponent, or even a gradient within Carina
detailed study is of the stellar population i­lar effect is seen in Fornax, where the dSph (Koch et al. 2006).
of the whole galaxy. metal-rich stars are centrally concentrat­-
ed, and the metal-poor stars appear What mechanism could create two or
Our first VLT/FLAMES results (Tolstoy et more uniformly and diffusely distributed. more distinct ancient stellar components
al. 2004), were based upon Ca ii triplet in a small dwarf spheroidal galaxy? A
measurements, which clearly showed It is clear from the histogram of [Fe/H] sim­ple possibility is that the formation of
that Sculptor dSph contains two distinct measurements that both Sculptor and these dSph galaxies began with an initial
stellar components with different spatial, Fornax lack a low metallicity tail (see Fig­- burst of star formation, resulting in a stel-
kinematic and abundance properties (see ure 6). In Figure 6 are plotted in the left- lar population with a mean [Fe/H] ≤ −2.
Figure 5). The upper panel shows the hand histogram distributions of [Fe/H] Subsequent supernova explosions from
VLT/FLAMES spectroscopic measure- for Sculptor dSph: the 91 stars within the this initial episode could have been suf-
ments of [Fe/H] for 307 probable velocity cen­tral, r < 0.2 degree region (solid black ficient to cause gas (and metal) loss such
members of Sculptor (with S/N > 10). line); and the 216 stars beyond r > 0.2 de- that star formation was inhibited until
We see a clear trend of metallicity with grees (dashed red line). In Figure 6 in the the remaining gas could sink deeper into
radius. The lower panel shows vhel as right-hand histogram is the [Fe/H] distribu­ the centre. Thus the subsequent gen­
a func­­tion of elliptical radius for all stars tion for the Fornax dSph: the 332 stars eration(s) of stars would form in a region

36 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


closer to the centre of the ­galaxy, and
have a higher average ­metallicity and dif- VLT/FLAMES Sculptor dSph
ferent kinematics. Another possible cause –1.0
are external influences, such as minor
merg­ers, accretion of additional gas or
–1.5
the kinematic stirring by our Galaxy. It
[Fe/H]
might also be that events surrounding the
epoch of reionisation influenced the evo- –2.0
lution of these small galaxies and re-
sulted in the stripping or photo-evapora-
tion of the outer layers of gas in the dSph, –2.5
meaning that subsequent more metal- extent of RHB
enhanced star formation occurred only in –3.0
the central regions. 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Elliptical Radius [degrees]

Acknowledgements
200
Eline Tolstoy gratefully acknowledges support from VLT/FLAMES Sculptor dSph
a fellowship of the Royal Netherlands Academy of
Arts and Sciences. The data presented here were
collected under ESO Large Programme 171.B-0588
100
and GTO programme 71.B-0641.
v hel

References
0
Cole A. A. et al. 2005, AJ 129, 1465
Dolphin A. E. et al. 2005, Resolved Stellar Popula-
tions, eds. D. Valls-Gabaud and M. Chavez ­
(astro-ph/0506430)
Geisler, D. et al. 2005, AJ 129, 1428 –100
Irwin M. and Hatzidimitriou D. 1995, MNRAS 277,
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
1354
Koch A. et al. 2006, AJ, in press (astro-ph/0511087) Elliptical Radius [degrees]
McWilliam A. 1997, ARA&A 35, 503
Shetrone M. D. et al. 2003, AJ 125, 684 Figure 5: The upper panel shows the VLT/FLAMES radius. The stars that are probable members are
Tolstoy E. et al. 2003, AJ 125, 707 spectroscopic measurements of [Fe/H] for 307 Red plotted as red stars ([Fe/H] > –1.7) and blue circles
Tolstoy E. et al. 2004, ApJL 617, 119 Giant branch stars in Sculptor plotted as a func­- ([Fe/H] < –1.7), showing metal-rich and metal-
Venn K. et al. 2004, AJ 128, 1177 tion of distance from the centre of the galaxy. The poor stars respectively. The 128 green crosses are
Wilkinson M. et al. 2004, ApJL 611, 21 lower panel shows v hel as a function of elliptical unlikely to be members of Sculptor.

Figure 6: In the left panel is the histogram distribu-


tion of [Fe/H] measurements for the Sculptor dSph:
inner region, solid black line outer region dashed
red line. In the right panel is the same for the Fornax
dSph.

Sculptor Fornax
50 60

r < 0.2 r < 0.5


r > 0.2 50 r > 0.5
40

40
30
No.

No.

30
20
20

10
10

0 0
–3.0 –2.5 –2.0 –1.5 –1.0 –0.5 0.0 –3.0 –2.5 –2.0 –1.5 –1.0 –0.5 0.0
[Fe/H] [Fe/H]

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 37


Reports from Observers

The Age-Metallicity Degeneracy in the Dwarf Spheroidal


Carina as Seen by FLAMES

Andreas Koch 1 the oldest populations in the Milky Way Our VLT Large Programme (171.B-0520,
Eva K. Grebel 1 (Grebel and Gallagher 2004). While their PI: Gilmore) aims at doing just that: We
Rosemary F. G. Wyse 2 detailed star-formation histories (SFHs) wish to (1) constrain the chemical evolu-
Jan T. Kleyna 3 vary from galaxy to galaxy, dSphs exhib- tion of dSphs and to (2) measure the size
Mark I. Wilkinson 4 it a trend of increasing luminosity with and extent of the dark-matter halos of
Daniel R. Harbeck 5 in­­creasing mean metallicity (e.g., Grebel, dSphs. One of our prime targets is the
Gerard F. Gilmore 4 Gallagher, and Harbeck 2003). DSphs galactic dSph companion Carina at a
N. Wyn Evans 4 usually show fairly continuous star forma- distance of about 94 kpc from the Milky
tion (SF) with some amplitude variations. Way. Here we present first results of our
Younger and/or more metal-rich popula- abundance analysis of Carina (see also
1
Astronomical Institute of the University tions are more centrally concentrated, in- Koch et al. 2006). A detailed kinematic
of Basel, Department of Physics and dicating longer-lasting SF episodes in analysis is in preparation (Wilkinson et al.
Astronomy, Binningen, Switzerland the centres of the dSphs’ shallow poten- 2006).
2
The John Hopkins University, Baltimore, tial wells (Harbeck et al. 2001).
USA
3
Institute for Astronomy, Honolulu, USA Dsphs are enigmatic objects. Their past The dwarf galaxy Carina
4
Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge extended SF histories contrast with their
­University, United Kingdom present, puzzling lack of gas. It is still un- Carina stands out among the dSphs in
5
Department of Astronomy, University of der debate whether they are dark mat- the Local Group because of its unu­-
Wisconsin, Madison, USA ter dominated and how much dark matter sual, episodic star-formation history (e.g.,
they contain. While they clearly interact Smecker-Hane et al. 1994). In no other
with more massive galaxies, their impor- dSph has clear evidence for well-sepa-
The Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy is tance as cosmological building blocks rated episodes of star formation been
the only one of this type to show clearly remains unclear. Not only do cosmologi- found. Carina may have experienced at
episodic star formation separated by cal models predict two orders of mag­ least four episodes of star formation,
long pauses. Still its Red Giant Branch nitude more ‘dark matter halos’ than the one possibly as recently as 0.6 Gyr ago
is remarkably narrow. Our medium-res- observed number of low-mass dSphs (Monelli et al. 2003). The dominant epi-
olution spectroscopy of 437 Red ­Giants (e.g., Moore et al. 1999), but also the el­- sodes occurred approximately 2, 3
in this galactic satellite with FLAMES ement abundance ratios in the galactic to 6, and 11 to 13 Gyrs ago. Their distinct
reveals a full range of metallicities from halo differ from those measured in dSphs main-sequence turn-offs all connect 
~ – 3.0 up to ~ 0.0 dex. There also ap- (e.g., Shetrone, Côté, and Sargent 2001). to the same narrow Red Giant Branch
pears to be a mild radial gradient in that with an estimated mean metallicity of
more metal-rich populations are more Our current knowledge of the detailed ev­- [Fe/H] ~ –1.99 dex and a spread of about
centrally concentrated, matching a sim­- olutionary history of nearby dwarf galax- 0.08 dex (Smecker-Hane et al. 1999).
ilar trend in ages with an ­increasing ies is mainly based on photometry, oc- Smecker-Hane et al. (1999) argue that the
fraction of intermediate-age stars in the casionally supplemented by rather sparse narrow Red Giant Branch of Carina re­
centre (Harbeck et al. 2001). Comple- spectroscopic information. But spectros- sults from an age-metallicity conspiracy
mented by the colours of the more me- copy is of paramount importance since in the sense that more metal-rich, but
tal-rich stars, this suggests that Carina it permits us to break the age-metallicity younger stars come to lie at the same lo­-
exhibits an age-metallicity relation. We degeneracy that plagues purely photo- cation in the colour-magnitude plane
address the star formation in this in­- metric colour-magnitude-diagram analy- as older, metal-poor stars. Based on a
triguing galaxy by also pursuing its age- ses. The information from independent photometric study, Rizzi et al. (2003) sug-
metallicity degeneracy, resulting in spectroscopic metallicity determinations gest that the narrow Red Giant Branch
a narrow Red Giant Branch despite the for individual stars removes this ambigu- is a consequence of the contribution of
considerable spread in metallicity and ity from subsequent photometric determi- the dominant intermediate-age star-for-
wide range of ages, and applying basic nations of the SF history. mation episode, while the contribution of
models of chemical evolution. the ancient episode is almost negligible,
In the gas-deficient dSphs, our primary which cannot be rejected as a plausible
sources of metallicity information are cause, unless reliable spectroscopic age
Dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) are Red Giants, which are now easily acces- estimates are available.
the least luminous, least massive galax- sible for ground-based 8- to 10-m-class
ies known. Most of them are found within telescopes. Thus, we may ultimately These findings underline the highly com­
300 kpc around more massive galaxies. be able to derive detailed evolutionary plex star-formation history of Carina.
DSphs are gas-deficient and are typically histories by using the VLT with its power- There is not yet a satisfactory explanation
dominated by old (> 10 Gyrs) or in­ter- ful multi-object spectroscopy facility of why Carina would have experienced
mediate-age populations (1–10 Gyrs). All FLAMES. Moreover, velocities can be episodic SF, and why its evolution was so
dSphs studied in sufficient detail have extracted from such spectra, permitting different from that of other dSphs. Was
been found to contain ancient populations membership and kinematic analyses. Carina’s SF activity triggered by inter­
that are indistinguishable in age from actions? Did this dSph manage to repeat-

38 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Figure 1: Left Panel: Metallicity distribution of Red cumulative spatial distributions of the metal-poor
Giants derived from CaT spectroscopy in Carina, (blue) and metal-rich (red) components. The metal-
where the colour-shading illustrates the separation rich stars clearly tend to concentrate towards the
used in the right panel. The green line illustrates a galaxy’s centre.
best-fit closed-box model. The right panel displays

edly accrete potentially unenriched gas? 1


Did feedback halt its SF periodically?
0.8

Normalised Number
Red Giant spectroscopy
0.6

Determinations of accurate spectroscopic


0.4
abundances require a well-calibrated and
widely applicable reference scale. The
infrared lines of the singly ionised cal­ 0.2
[Fe/H] < –1.7
cium ion at 849.8, 854.2, 866.2 nm have [Fe/H] > –1.7
become one of the spectral features of 0
–3 – 2.5 –2 –1.5 –1 – 0.5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
choice, since these Ca triplet (CaT) lines [Fe/H] Radius [arcmin]
can be relatively easily distinguished as
the strongest absorption lines in the near
infrared regime of Red Giant Branch us with a total number of 437 Red Giants tainties, to star-to-star variations in the
(RGB) spectra, where true Fe absorption around Carina’s systemic velocity of actual Ca abundance (up to 0.2 dex), and
features become increasingly weaker at 223.9 kms –1. calibration uncertainties, the spread in
intermediate resolution. Cole et al. (2004) the metallicities seems to be influenced
extended the CaT calibration to ages as by the occurrence of several subpopula-
young as 2.5 Gyrs, providing a good Carina’s wide metallicity range tions with different peak metallicities.
match to the expected dominant popula-
tions in Carina. The distribution of the metallicities de­- Any MDF, as derived here, is rather insen-
rived from our CaT spectroscopy is sitive to the details of the star-forma­-
We observed these three lines in 1257 shown in Figure 1 (left). This metallicity tion history. However, we have calibrated
Red Giant candidates in Carina in the distribution function (MDF) is peaked our CaT metallicities onto iron which
framework of our ESO Large Programme. at a mean metallicity of –1.72 ± 0.01 dex, in systems with extended star formation
Our targets are distributed across five slightly higher than the previously de- can have a significant contribution from
fields in the galaxy to cover most of rived mean spectroscopic metallicity of long-lived stars through type Ia super-
Carina’s area, but also reach beyond its –1.99 ± 0.08 dex from a CaT sample of novae. Hence, one can have enrichment
nominal tidal radius. The observations 52 RGB stars (Smecker-Hane et al. 1999). in Fe without accompanying SF. In the
were carried out in 22 nights spread over These former results are in reasonable case of a SF history that consists of sev­-
two semesters in 2003 and 2004 using agreement with our data if the quoted un- eral SF episodes with long pauses in
FLAMES/GIRAFFE in MEDUSA ‘low-res- certainties and the widths of the distribu- between, the Fe distribution can show
olution’ mode (R = 6 500) and centred at tions are taken into account. ‘gaps’. A Gaussian decomposition results
the near-infrared CaT (~ 850 nm). in four underlying populations, which
The MDF appears remarkably broad. are preferred over a one-population mod­-
In addition, more than 80 Red Giant can­- The entire distribution’s formal full width el at the 98.1 % level. However, one has
didates in four calibration globular at half maximum is 0.92 dex (1 s-width to keep in mind that such a decomposi-
­clusters were observed in order to permit of 0.39 dex). The full metallicity range, tion is a purely formal procedure, since
us to place our CaT measurements on on the other hand, covers approximately SF events do not naturally produce Gaus-
a scale of known reference ­metallicities 3.0 dex, reflected in the extreme tails sian metallicity distributions.
(Rutledge et al. 1997; Carretta and of the MDF, where we find stars with met-
­Gratton 1997). These clusters range in allicities approaching –3 dex and near- Comparing our MDFs to simple chemical
metallicity from approximately –1.1 dex solar metallicity, respectively, when ex­­- evolution models such as a closed-box
to –2 dex in [Fe/H]. tra­p­olating our calibration. Follow-up model (see the green ­overplotted curve
spec­­troscopy of these stars would be de- in the left panel of Figure 1) reveals a
We selected our targets covering three sirable to disclose the detailed chemical G dwarf problem at low metallicities: This
magnitudes in brightness from the tip properties of these stars, which appear model overpredicts the number of metal-
of the RGB downward. Since we select­ed to be in part as metal-poor as the most poor stars. Also the pronounced met­-
stars across the full width of the RGB ­(ap­- metal-poor Red Giants found in other allic­ity peak of the MDF is not reproduced.
­proximately 0.2 mag in B–V), we circum- near­by dwarf galaxies (e.g., Shetrone et Better fits may be obtained through
vented any bias with respect to met­allic­ity al. 2001). At the metal-rich end, a hand- the inclusion of infalling, pre-enriched gas
or age, and still could ensure the inclu- ful of them would be as metal-rich as the and accounting for important outflows
sion of potential extremely metal-poor metal-rich population in the Sgr dSph (Lanfranchi and Matteucci 2004). In this
and metal-rich giants. Our radial-velocity (Bonifacio et al. 2004). vein, one possible reason for the re-
measurements led to the rejection of peated cessation and onset of the SF ep-
about 60 % of the targeted stars as Gal­ While part of the spread may be attrib- i­­­sodes in Carina is the re-accretion of
actic foreground contamination, leaving uted to the usual measurement uncer- previously blown-out material. More de­-

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 39


Reports from Observers Koch A. et al., The Age-Metallicity Degeneracy in the Dwarf Spheroidal Carina

Figure 2: Left panel: Carina’s narrow Red Giant shown (black lines) are sets of Yonsei-Yale iso-
branch (from EIS photometry). Also visible at chrones with an age of 12.6 Gyrs and (left to right)
the lower left is the prominent intermediate-age red [Fe/H] = –2.3, [Fe/H] = –1.7 and [Fe/H] = –1.3,
clump. The right panel shows confirmed mem­- which illustrate the effects of Carina’s prominent
ber stars, colour coded by their metallicity. Also age-metallicity degeneracy.

tailed chemical modeling to quantify the –1.5 < [Fe/H]


dominant processes is in preparation –1.9 < [Fe/H] < –1.5
(Wyse et al., in prep.).
[Fe/H] < –1.9
18
An age-metallicity relation?

The (lack of a) relation between the ­colour


of our targets and their metallicity is de­
monstrated in Figure 2 (right panel). In a
V

population with little age spread, met­al- 19


poor stars would have blue colours and
metal-rich ones would appear redder.
This is indicated by three isochrones with
metallicities, which span a similar range
to those found in Carina and an age of 20
its oldest population. In fact, there is no
clear correlation with the data points. Ob­
viously one cannot derive the metallicity
of an individual star from its colour and 0.5 1 1.5 1 1.5
magnitude on the RGB when dealing with B–V B–V
mixed-age populations as in Carina.
Our data thus confirm earlier ­suggestions
that Carina shows an age-metallicity de­ gradient in terms of a central concen­ age-metallicity relations can ­additionally
gener­acy in the sense that higher metal- tration of intermediate-age stars in Carina be well derived from turn-off stars, pro­
licities counteract the effects of younger (Harbeck et al. 2001). This supports the vided that the photometry is at a suf-
ages. This conspiracy in turn leads to the idea that the more metal-rich stars are ficient level of accuracy. Such an analy-
observed narrow RGB. also the younger ones. A possible reason sis, complemented by high-resolution
for such a gradient can be stronger dis- spectroscopy, is currently in progress. A
Note that there are also quite a number sipation of the more metal-enriched gas. second article, giving an overview of
of metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] < –1.9) pres­ It may as well indicate that the material the whole project, will be published in the
ent redwards of the most metal-rich at disposal for SF is more easily retained June issue of The Messenger.
isochrone. Each of the physical systems, at the centre of the galaxy’s shallow po­
for which such isochrones apply, have tential well.
a Red Giant Branch of a finite width, de- References
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This becomes more pronounced towards Outlook Carretta, E. and Gratton, R. 1997, A&AS 121, 95
the lower part of the RGB, where the dif- Cole, A. et al. 2004, MNRAS, 347, 367
ferent isochrones will lie closer together, Carina is the only dSph known to have Grebel, E. K., Gallagher, J. S., and Harbeck, D.
2003, AJ 125, 1926
and lead to a progressive overlap of the undergone distinct, well-separated epi­­so- Grebel, E. K. and Gallagher, J. S. 2004, ApJ 610,
respective branches. That is, for any star ­dic star formation. The dominant ­epi­- L89
of a given metallicity and age, one will in­- sodes of star formation took place at inter­ Harbeck, D. et al. 2001, AJ 122, 3092
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uncertainties in metallicities, and can Rizzi, L. et al. 2003, ApJ 589, L85
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galaxy as compared to more metal-poor age-metallicity degeneracy and the gal­
stars – indicated in the cumulative plot axy’s age structure, since we can now
of the stars‘ galactocentric radii (Figure 1, in principle derive age estimates for our
right). Metal-poor stars are, however, de- stars of known metallicity from finding
tected throughout the entire galaxy. This the best-matched isochrone at that met-
trend matches the observed population allicity. Ultimate age distributions and

40 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Reports from Observers

The Formation of Intermediate-Mass Galaxies


over the Last 8 Gyrs

François Hammer 1 Space Telescope and several have been certainties and whether this method can
Matthew Lehnert 2 observed using the combination of apply equally to starbursts and early-type
Mathieu Puech 1 FORS2 and ISAAC in order to recover evolved galaxies. Bell et al. (2003) have
Hector Flores 1 their physical characteristics and to ingeniously circumvented these ­dif­ficul-
Yan-Chun Liang 3 ­compare them to local galaxies in the ties, by applying an empirical ­correction
same mass range. depending on the B–V colour of the gal­ax­
ies (the bluer galaxies have lower stel-
1
 aboratoire Galaxies, Etoiles, Physique
L But before reviewing our findings, we lar masses at a given K luminosity which
et Instrumentation, Observatoire de be­­lieve it necessary to be precise in the is contaminated by red supergiant stars).
Paris, France de­finition of the words ‘massive’ and Nevertheless the systematic uncertain-
2
Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterres- ‘dwarfs’ when these terms are applied to ty related to stellar-mass estimates could
trische Physik, Garching, Germany galaxies. The physical characteristics of be as high as a factor of 2–3, by, for ex-
3
National Astronomical Observatories, local galaxies seem to suggest that mas- ample, ignoring the effects or range of
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China sive galaxies have Mstar > 3 × 1011 MA (i.e., possible choices for the stellar initial mass
approximately the Milky Way and more function (IMF). Since dynamical mass
massive), and that dwarfs are defined by ­estimates are sensitive to different sys-
The physical processes driving the Mstar < 3 × 1010 MA. At this dividing point, tematic effects, only through the compar-
growth of galaxies can be robustly in­ the massive galaxies are dominated ison of dynamical and photometric mass
vestigated all the way to z = 1, i.e. when by older populations, high surface mass es­timates can we overcome problems
the Universe was only about 40 % of densities, and are dominated by the mor- re­lated to, e.g., the choice of plausible
its current age. The advantage of re- phological type, E/S0. Spiral and irreg- IMFs, the amount and distribution of the
stricting ourselves to this redshift range ular galaxies with lower surface densities extinction, and our ignorance of the star-
is that the total stellar mass, extinction, and younger populations dominate the formation history of individual galaxies.
star-formation rate, gas-phase metal in­termediate and dwarf mass regime re­
abundance, and galaxy kinematics can spectively (Kauffman et al. 2003). Estimates of star-formation rates (SFRs)
be recovered with reasonable accuracy. for individual galaxies are usually be-
Moreover, half of the stars in spirals Studies of the ‘star-formation history’ of lieved to be very uncertain. A significant
were formed less than 8 Gyrs ago. More the Universe suggest that the star-forma- uncertainty is the IMF: most (all?) tracers
practically, as we shall show, the cur- tion rate density has declined significant- used to estimate SFRs are proportional
rent generation of instruments at the ly from z ≈ 1 to the current epoch. Mas- to the number of massive (e.g., IR) or very
ESO VLT allows us to study galaxies up sive E/S0s and dwarfs are apparently not massive, ionising, stars (e.g., Ha). In a
to z = 1 at approxi­mately the same level the main contributors to this decline, be- critical examination of the literature, Ken-
of detail as what has been done for cause the early-type galaxies were mostly nicutt (1998) has provided us with some
nearby galaxies. Here we present the in place at z = 1, and dwarf galaxies useful tools to derive SFRs based on var­-
first re­sults of the properties of galax­- con­tribute marginally to the global ­stellar ious indicators and all assuming the
ies out to this redshift based on a mod­- mass or metal content. Therefore to un­ same IMF. Similarly, it is also important to
erately large sample of 0.4 < z < 1 derstand how galaxies grew, we focus, in be consistent when comparing SFR with
galaxies using VLT/FORS, ISAAC and the following, on the population of in­- stellar mass by using a common IMF. For
GIRAFFE. This study has allowed us  ter­­mediate-mass galaxies. Intermediate- observational reasons, UV continuum
to investigate the important ­physical mass galaxies populate the ‘knee’ of or [O ii]l3727 fluxes have been frequently
processes that shaped galaxies includ- the luminosity function and comprise at used to estimate the SFR, since these
ing merging, gas accretion, and feed- least 2/3 of the current stellar mass den- wavelengths are redshifted into the visi­ble
back from intense star formation. sity (Brinchman and Ellis 2000; Heavens window at moderate or high redshifts.
et al. 2004). Locally, according to the Unfortunately, these estimates are strong­
morphological classified luminosity func- ­ly affected by dust, its distribution and
Measuring stellar masses, star-­formation tion from the Sloan Survey (see Naka- amount, and thus underestimate the true
rates and oxygen abundances: the impor­ mura et al. 2004), 53 % of galaxies are SFR of individual galaxies by very large
tance of extinction early-type spirals (earlier than Sbc), 27 % factors (see Figure 1). Indeed, actively
are E/S0, 17 % are late-type spirals, and star-forming galaxies, starbursts, espec-
To investigate the physical processes only few (3 %) are classified as irregulars. ially the dust-enshrouded ones, the lu-
shap­ing galaxies at 40 % of the age of the minous infrared galaxies with bolometric
Universe, we have gathered a sample The near-IR luminosity of galaxies seems luminosities about 1011 L A, LIRGs, are so
of 200 galaxies selected from the Can­- to correlate well with their stellar masses. numerous at z > 0.4, that the only viable
ada France Redshift Survey (IAB < 22.5, This is intriguing because most of the tracers of the star-formation rate at those
0.4 < z < 1). These galaxies have near-IR light is not coming from the main- redshifts are only those which account
­stellar masses ranging from 3 × 1010 to sequence stars that make up most of the for the light reprocessed by dust (IR), or
3 × 1011 MA, i.e., dominated by inter­- galaxy mass. One may justifiably sus- those that can be properly corrected for
mediate-mass galaxies. Almost all of pect that mass estimates based on near- extinction (e.g., Ha after using Ha/Hb
them have been imaged by the Hubble infrared photometry must have large un- to estimate the extinction). For a given

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 41


Reports from Observers Hammer F. et al., The Formation of Intermediate-Mass Galaxies over the Last 8 Gyrs

Figure 1: Stellar mass versus specific star-forma- BE2000). The difference in the star-formation rates
tion rate (red full dots: LIRGs, full blue squares: illustrates the danger in making such estimates on
starbursts). The star-formation rates have been esti- the sole basis of UV line or continuum emission. The
mated from the IR luminosity or extinction-corrected LIRGs observed at z > 0.4 can easily double their
Ha luminosity. Open symbols represent the same stellar masses if their star formation was sustained
objects, but for which the SFR has been estimated at the observed rate for ~ 800 Myrs. This figure is
using the [O ii]l3727 luminosity, not corrected for re­produced from Hammer et al. (2005).
extinction by dust (see Brinchmann and Ellis 2000,

IMF, mid-IR and extinction-corrected Ha Time (in Gyr)


fluxes can be used to estimate the SFR 12.0
0.1 1 10 100 1000
with an uncertainty < 0.3 dex (Flores et
al. 2004). Doubling

The strong evolution of the number den- 11.5


sity of luminous IR galaxies means that
ex­­tinction must be properly accounted
for when estimating SFRs or metal abun­- 11.0
dances. A commonly used method to
estimate the gas-phase metal ­abundance
Log (M Star )

of a galaxy is R23 = ([O ii]l3727+ [O iii]


10.5
l4959,5007) / Hb. R23 is sensitive to the
extinction through the ratio of [O ii]l3727
to Hb. Further, one needs a sufficient
spec­tral resolution (R > 1000) and signal- 10.0
to-noise ratio (S/N > 10) to properly ­cor-
rect the underlying stellar absorption, es­-
pecially for measurements of Hg and Hb 9.5 BE00
lines. Another difficulty is due to the fact
that, at z > 0.5, the Ha line is redshifted
to the near-IR, and the Ha/Hb ratio has to
be estimated using two different instru- 9.0
–8 –9 –10 –11 –12
ments. A way to circumvent the difficulty Log (SFR/M Star )
(and the cost of near-IR spectroscopy),
is to use the ratio Hg/Hb, although the Hg Keck. Compared to the local relation, the fact that given the spatial resolution of
line is often faint. The most exhaustive distant relation does not seem to have the GIRAFFE IFU (0.52 arcsec pixel –1),
study has been made by Liang et al. evolved in slope or zero point but shows most of the velocity gradient of the rota-
(2006), by comparing the extinction from a significantly larger scatter. In fact,  tion curve in rotating discs falls into on-
Hg/Hb to that from the ratio of IR to Hb the scatter is so large, that one can even ly one IFU pixel. The measured ­dispersion
emission (Figure 2). The typical uncertain- wonder if the T-F is still a valid relation within this pixel is then dominated by
ty in this case is 0.2–0.3 dex when at all for intermediate-redshift spiral gal- large-scale motions (i.e., the rotation)
­oxygen abundance is derived from R23. axies (see Figure 3). rath­er than by random motions at smaller
scales resulting in a peak in their ve-
The uncertainties in the estimates of We made use of the unique opportuni- locity dispersion map located at their dy­-
stellar masses, SFR, and oxygen abun- ty afforded by the 15 deployable ­integral namical centre of their large scale kine­
dance for intermediate-redshift galaxies field units of the 3D spectrograph GI- matics. Using such prescriptions, we find
can ­appear very high, even if derived RAFFE, as part of the FLAMES facility on that only 34 % of galaxies in our sample
with great care. However, what we need UT2. With GIRAFFE, in its IFU mode, we are rotating discs; 22 % were classified as
is to compare the properties of inter- are able to recover the kinematics of ‘perturbed rotation’ because a rotation
mediate-mass galaxies at high and low almost all the emission-line ­galaxies with is seen in their velocity field but the peak
redshift. By adopting exactly the same IAB < 22.5 (Flores et al. 2006). We ob­- in their velocity dispersion map is off-
method at both redshifts, it is very like- tained, during the GIRAFFE GTO, the kin- centred and thus cannot be attributed to
ly that the residual relative error is much e­matics of a sample of 32 ­galaxies (se­- rotation; the remaining 44 % of galax-
smaller than a few tenths of a dex. lected in the CFRS and Hubble Deep ies have very complex dynamics with
Field South) at z ~ 0.6 using the [O ii] dou- quite chaotic velocity fields, and are simi-
blet. At first sight, the T-F relation ob- lar to what is expected for merging or
Measuring kinematics of z = 0.6 galaxies: tained from GIRAFFE IFU data is very strongly interacting galaxies. A few of
the need for 3D spectroscopy similar to the one obtained by Conselice the galaxies show a rotation-like pattern
et al. (2005). in their velocity fields with a dynamical
The Tully-Fisher (T-F) relation is an impor- axis significantly rotated from the optical
tant correlation linking stellar mass to the We then constructed a classification main axis: complex kinematics like this
maximal rotational velocity in disc gal- scheme that took advantage of both are possibly a sign of strong feedback
axies. The evolution of this relation at maps of the kinematics of each gal- from the star formation within these gal-
intermediate redshift is currently a ­matter axy (velocity field and velocity ­dispersion axies. Translated into the whole interme-
of intense debate (e.g., Conselice et al. maps) and optical morphologies from diate-mass population (including E/S0
2005). Conselice et al. (2005) has ob­ high-resolution images taken with the and spirals with low star-formation activ-
tained the first T-F relation in K-band up HST. This classification scheme aims to ity), we were led to the astonishing con-
to z ~ 1.2, using slit spectroscopy at identify rotating discs, relying on the clusion that only 60 % of these galaxies

42 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Figure 2: Evolution of the mass-metallicity relation of chemical evolution, meaning that we do not ac-
at z = 0.6 (red dots: LIRGs, blue points: starbursts; count for in-falling or out-flowing gas, this increase
small black dots: local galaxies selected from the in metallicity can be related to a decrease in the
Sloan Digital Sky Survey). At z = 0.65, the gas phase gas content of 30 % to 10 % from z = 0.6 to 0 (green
metal abundance of oxygen is about half that of dashed line). This figure is reproduced from Liang et
present-day galaxies. Assuming a ‘close-box model’ al. (2006).

are in a relaxed dynamical state such as 12.0


a rotating disc!

Given these results, a more critical exam-


ination of the GIRAFFE T-F relation (Fig- 11.5
ure 3) and its scatter is very ­in­structive: z = 0.65
most (all?) of the scatter of the T-F rela-
tion is related to galaxies whose kinemat- 11.0
ics were classified as perturbed rota-
tions or complex, i.e., precisely those that z=0
Log (M Star )

likely have not yet reached dynamical


equilib­rium. This illustrates that only 3D 10.5
spec­troscopy can be used to study the
evolution of the T-F relation, because
slit spectroscopy does not sample the 10.0
whole kinematics of the galaxies, and it is
simply unable to correctly identify gal-
axies with complex, not yet relaxed dy-
namics. Keeping only those galaxies with 9.5
securely identified rotating discs, the
­distant T-F relation becomes very similar
to the local one, even with similar scatter.
9.0
7.8 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 9.0 9.2 9.4
12 + Log(0/H)
Growth of spirals: secular or driven by
mergers? ev­o­lution of stellar mass since z = 1 inde- history of the Universe and the metal
pendently confirms this. The luminous IR abundance evolution of galaxies (Figure
Intermediate mass galaxies in the local galaxies show a large variety of mor­phol­ 2). Even if the gas density on large scales
Universe are predominantly spirals (70 %) ogies and kinematics, including those  was twice what it is today, accretion of
and E/S0 (27 %). They show small or neg- of rotating discs, mergers, compact gal­- gas in the intergalactic medium gas can­-
ligible specific star-formation rates, the axies or merger remnants. Which pres­ not account for the high frequency of
star-formation rate per unit stellar mass, ent-day galaxies have experienced such LIRGs. For example the Milky Way is
SFR/Mstars (e.g., 10 –11 yr –1 for the Milky strong star-formation events less than located in a filament, is near a super-clus-
Way) and very few are LIRGs (0.5 %). eight billion years ago? Which ­galaxies ter, and forms stars at about 1 MA yr –1.
Local intermediate-mass galaxies form a in the local Universe had peculiar mor­ This is compared to more than 20 MA yr –1
well-defined mass-metallicity sequence phologies or complex kinematics several for a LIRG. The complex kinematics and
with O/H abundance increasing with stel- bil­lion years ago? What physical mecha- peculiar morphologies of a third of distant
lar mass. Six to seven billion year ago, nism is responsible for the strong decline galaxies also belies such ‘secular evolu-
intermediate-mass galaxies showed very in the star-formation density since z = 1? tion’. Merging is broadly recognised both
different properties (Figures 1, 2 and 3). The complexity and the variety of the observationally and theoretically to be
A significantly higher fraction of galaxies phys­ical phenomena do not demand a the most efficient way to produce intense
in this mass range are LIRGs (15 %), and, unique scenario for every galaxy. Let and rapid star formation. Accretion of sat­-
at their observed instantaneous star-for- us however investigate if one scenario is ellites is widely believed to explain most
mation rates, they can easily double their able to explain most of the observations evolutionary features of galaxies and has
stellar mass within ~ 800 Myrs. On aver- (see Figure 3). One could be tempted strong support in the observations of
age their O/H abundances are half the lo­- to associate complex kinematics with an the halo of the Milky Way and other near-
cal value at a given stellar mass. One early collapse of what will become a by galaxies. It is unclear from model-
fourth of them show complex ­kinematics ­normal centrifugally supported disc. This ling if the accretion of gas from the IGM
implying that they are neither rotating is, however, very unlikely since a signifi­ and small satellites is enough to explain
discs nor ellipsoids supported by disper- cant fraction of stars in all z = 0.5 –1 gal­ the high specific star-formation rates
sion. This fraction is similar to that of axies have ages larger than several billion of LIRGs, and most models of this type
gal­axies with peculiar morphologies seen years. So mechanisms which are related indeed fail to explain the dramatic evolu-
in deep HST surveys. to galaxy environment or internal charac- tion in the number of strong infrared
teristics must be investigated. emit­ters. Moreover these models cannot
The integrated star formation related to explain the complex kinematics observed
the numerous LIRGs at z < 1 suffices  Six to seven billion years ago, galaxies with GIRAFFE (Figure 3).
by itself to account for the formation of themselves and their environments were
about 40 % of the stellar mass in present- much more gas-rich than today. This Major mergers, however, are extremely
day intermediate-mass galaxies. The is expected from both the star-­formation ef­ficient at producing stars, at maintain-

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 43


Reports from Observers Hammer F. et al., The Formation of Intermediate-Mass Galaxies over the Last 8 Gyrs

Figure 3: (right) Tully-Fisher relation for 32 intermedi- resent galaxies with complex kinematics (expected
ate-mass galaxies at z ~ 0.6, as produced using data from major mergers). This is illustrated on the left by
taken with the GIRAFFE IFUs (Flores et al. 2006). a few inserts which include HST images and velocity
The full line represents the z = 0 Tully-Fisher relation fields (increasing velocity from blue to red). These
(and the dotted lines its 3-sigma scatter). Blue dots have been organised to follow a major merger event
represent rotating discs, green squares represent which can produce either an elliptical, an S0, or a
perturbed rotating discs (as by a minor merger or by new spiral (see text).
a galaxy-galaxy interaction) and red triangles rep-

Major merger evolution


123
12

km/s

–164
176
km/s

11

–173
Log (M Star )

324
km/s

10
–303
67
km/s

–59
185

9
km/s

1.5 2 2.5
Log(Vmax ) [km/s]
–162

ing or even increasing the high values of seem to be largely in place at z ≈ 1, so it Equally important are the studies of
specific angular momentum observed in is difficult to believe that this hypothesis nearby galaxies such as M31, which may
local spiral galaxies, and at generating could be a realistic alternative. be an example of a disc rebuilt after 
the complex kinematics and morpholo- a major merger at z ~ 0.6. Beyond more
gies often observed in these galaxies. A We have presented here preliminary re- observations, comparisons with simula-
scenario whereby major mergers de- sults showing the evolution of star-forma­ tions including all of the complex physics
stroy and rebuild discs, the so-called tion rate, specific star-formation rate, associated with gas in-fall, gas out-flow,
‘spiral rebuilding scenario’, is indeed able O/H gas-phase abundance, and circular feedback and formation of supermassive
to account for all the evolutionary trends velocity, all as a function of ­stellar mass. black holes, major and minor merging,
discussed above (see Hammer et al. The fact that rotating discs defined a tight etc. will be important for understanding
2005). This is not however a proof of the sequence relating their stellar mass and and interpreting the dynamics and prop-
validity of this idea: it is generally believed rotation velocity (Tully-Fisher relation) erties of high-redshift galaxies, especially
that the end product of a major merger sup­ports the robustness of our estimates those numerous galaxies at intermedi-
is an ellipsoidal galaxy, not a disc galaxy. based on the dynamics of galaxies at ate/high redshifts without relaxed kinema­
Only complex mechanisms related to in­ter­mediate redshifts. We obviously need tics.
strong feedback such as that associated better statistics, over a broader range
with supermassive black holes would of galaxy types and masses. More ro- References
be enough to efficiently expel sufficient bust answers to the questions we have
amounts of gas, a fraction of which raised here are likely to come from the Bell, E. F. et al. 2003, ApJ S. S. 149, 289
with high angular momentum being avail­- ESO VLT Large Programme, IMAGES, the Brinchmann, J. and Ellis, R. S. 2000, ApJ 536, L77
Conselice C. et al. 2005, ApJ 628, 160
able to collapse to form a new disc. It ‘Intermediate Mass Galaxies Evolution Flores, H. et al. 2004, A&A 415, 885
could be also argued that the spiral re- Se­quence’. This study, with GIRAFFE Flores, H. et al. 2006, A&A, accepted
building scenario is not necessary. For IFU and FORS2 MXU mode, will yield the Hammer F. et al. 2005, A&A 430, 115
example, one can imagine that all galax- spatially-resolved dynamics and veloc- Kauffmann, G. et al. 2003, MNRAS 341, 33
Heavens, A. et al. 2004, Nature 428, 625
ies with com­plex kinematics (or peculiar ity dispersions of ~ 400 disc/early-type, Kennicutt R. 1998, ApJ 498, 541
morphologies) are progenitors of early- mass-selected galaxies from redshifts Liang Y., Hammer F. and Flores H. 2006,
type galaxies, E/S0. However at z ~ 0.6 of z = 0.4 –1. Only GIRAFFE with its multi- A&A 447, 113
peculiar/complex galaxies are as numer- IFU mode is able to recover properly the Nakamura, O. et al. 2004, AJ 127, 2511
ous as E/S0, and early-type galaxies Tully-Fisher relation at moderate redshifts.

44 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Reports from Observers

Masses and Mass-to-Light Ratios of Early-Type ­


Galaxies at High Redshift – The Impact of Ultradeep
FORS2 Spectroscopy
Arjen van der Wel 1, 2 ambiguously compared with model stel­lar velocity dispersion for early-type
Marijn Franx 2 pre­dictions, contrary to luminosities and galaxies (see Figure 1). From the virial
Pieter G. van Dokkum 3 ­colours. In order to measure galaxy theorem it can be seen that this scaling
Hans-Walter Rix 4 masses, high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) relation in fact represents an underly-
Garth D. Illingworth 5 spectra are required: from the spatial  ing relation between M and M/L. The
Jiasheng Huang 6 and dynamical structure of spectral fea- evolution of M/L (or L) with redshift can
Bradford P. Holden 5 ­tures, information about the galaxies’ therefore be traced by measuring the
Piero Rosati 7 ­gra­vitational potential can be inferred. offsets of distant galaxies from the local
This re­­quires the selection of relative- FP. Since the scatter in the FP is rela-
ly bright galaxies at moderate redshifts tively small, the offset can be determined
1
J ohns Hopkins University, Baltimore, (z ≈ 1) and long integration times. accurately. For massive early-types in
USA dense environments (i.e., clusters) it has
2
Leiden Observatory, the Netherlands In this article we describe an observa- been known for several years that they
3
Yale University, New Haven, USA tional programme at the VLT which was have decreased in luminosity since z = 1
4
Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie used to obtain 8−24-hour deep spec- by a little over 1 magnitude in the opti-
­Heidelberg, Germany tro­scopic observations of early-type gal­- cal. Assuming that such galaxies have
5
University of California, Santa Cruz, axies up to z = 1.3. These long integra- evolved passively between the epoch of
USA tions enabled us to obtain two new re­- observation and the present, this rate
6
Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, Cambridge, sults. We measured the rate of ­luminosi- of luminosity evolution implies that their
USA ty evolution of early-type galaxies out stars must have formed at rather high
7
ESO to z = 1.3, constraining their formation redshifts (z > 2).
epoch. We describe how this depends on
environment and galaxy mass, and An important issue is whether the epoch
With FORS2 on the VLT we obtained how this compares to model predictions. of early-type galaxy formation depends
ultradeep spectra of a sample of early- Second, we compared the evolution on large-scale environment, or whether it
type galaxies at z ~ 1, which, together of optical colours and M/L with the evolu- is driven by the intrinsic properties of
with high-resolution imaging from HST, tion in the rest-frame near-infrared, de- the galaxies themselves and their imme-
provide dynamical masses. We study rived from observations from the Spitzer diate neighbourhood. Up to several years
the evolution of the multi-wavelength Space Telescope. This provides insight ago, galaxy formation models very gen-
photometric Fundamental Plane, includ- into the applicability of IR light as a mass erally suggested that early-type galaxies
ing the rest-frame near-infrared, which indicator and a test for stellar population in low-density environments (the field)
places strong constraints on the forma- models. form their stars at later times than early-
tion and evolution of early-type galaxies types in clusters. More recent models,
as a function of mass and environment. on the other hand, indicate that the mass
Most prominently, we find that mas- The Fundamental Plane at z = 1 of a galaxy itself is a crucial parameter
sive early-type galaxies formed early (at in describing its evolution and that no
z > 2), independent of their large-scale The Fundamental Plane (FP) is a relation large differences between massive field
environment. between size, surface brightness and and cluster galaxies are to be expected.

Spectroscopy of distant galaxies is a ma­


jor focus of today’s large telescopes. 11.0
For z ≈ 1 or less, the exposure time to
obtain a redshift measurement is typically
less than an hour. Hence, with the cur-
10.5
rently available instruments, it is possible
1.20 Log σ – 0.83 Log I B

to measure redshifts of thousands of


galaxies in order to determine galaxy
num­ber densities, luminosity functions 10.0
and clustering properties, and the evo­
lution thereof with cosmic time. Although
redshift is a useful piece of information,
9.5
it is insufficient to infer the physical prop- Figure 1: The edge-on projection of
erties of an individual galaxy. Argua- the FP of low-redshift early-type galax-
bly, the single most important quantity is ies from SDSS (small black dots) and
mass, or mass-to-light ratio (M/L), which 9.0
our sample of z ~ 1 early-types (large
red dots). There is a clear offset be-
provides direct insight into the build-up tween the two samples, indicating that
of the galaxy mass-function over cosmic 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 there is significant luminosity evolution
time. Mass-related quantities can be un­- Log (R eff ) (kpc) between z = 1 and the present.

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 45


Reports from Observers van der Wel A. et al., Masses and Mass-to-Light Ratios of Early-Type ­Galaxies at High z

A crucial test is to measure the rate of 3600 3800 4000 4200 4400 Figure 2: VLT/FORS2 spectra and
HST/ACS colour images of four field
­luminosity evolution for galaxies in differ­-
z850 = 20.36 early-type galaxies at z ~ 1. The im­-
ent environments, as age differences i775 – z850 = 1.12 ages, which are 5.4? (43 kpc at z = 1)
1.0
manifest themselves in differential evolu- on a side, are a combination of
tion. Before our observing programme F606W, F775W, and F850LP ACS im­-
ages.
was undertaken, it was unclear whether
or not the luminosities of galaxies in 0.5
the field evolve differently from the lumi­- z = 1.09
σ = 231 km/s
nos­ities of galaxies in clusters. Our S/N = 27
­programme mainly aimed at ­measuring
masses of field early-type galaxies at
z = 1, because the field samples thus far z850 = 20.10
1.5 i775 – z850 = 1.04
had been of lesser quality (smaller ­num-
bers, lower data quality and lower red-
shift) than the cluster samples. 1.0

With FORS2 we targeted the Chandra z = 0.96


0.5 σ = 200 km/s
Deep Field-South (CDF-S), which has
S/N = 40
been imaged by the Advanced Camera
for Surveys (ACS) on board the Hubble
1.5
Space Telescope (HST). These imag- z850 = 19.55
ing data are essential for selecting z ~ 1 i775 – z850 = 1.11
galaxies with early-type morphologies, 1.0
and to determine their sizes and surface
brightnesses (two of the FP parameters).
Besides the CDF-S, we also targeted a 0.5 z = 0.96
field containing the high-redshift (z = 1.24) σ = 336 km/s
cluster RDCS 1252.9-2927 (hereafter, S/N = 33
CL1252). This field has been imaged by
ACS as well. 1.0 z850 = 20.85
i775 – z850 = 1.14
0.8
The spectroscopic observations were
carried out between September 2002 0.6
and October 2003, in a series of five runs.
Since the spectral features suitable for 0.4 z = 1.14
our analysis are situated in the rest‑frame σ = 232 km/s
optical, and we target galaxies up to 0.2 S/N = 17
z = 1.24, we needed to measure the
spectra as far toward the red as possible, 3600 3800 4000 4200 4400
at wavelengths of about 850 nm, where λ(Å)
FORS2 is very sensitive.

The obtained spectra are of ­outstanding there is a clearer 4 000 Å break, ­indica­tive z = 1.24, (Holden et al. 2005) and 20 are
quality. In particular, the S/N of the spec- of evolved stellar populations without field ear­ly-type galaxies at 0.95 < z < 1.15
tra of the CL1252 cluster members is ­significant star formation for at least a bil- (van der Wel et al. 2004, 2005).
unprecedented after 24 hours of integra- lion years before the epoch of observa­
tion with a typical seeing of 0.65?. The in­- tion. The smooth, concentrated morphol- Our field sample is of similar size and
tegration times for the galaxies in the ogies of the images indicate that these quality as the cluster samples, such that
CDF-S are typically 10 hours, with a typi- are genuine early-type galaxies. A de we can properly compare the evolution
cal seeing of 0.9?. In Figure 2 we show Vaucouleur model fits best to the surface- of field and cluster early-types. The offset
four examples of VLT spectra and HST brightness profiles. These deep ­spec- of z ~ 1 field early-type galaxies from
images of z ~ 1 field early-type galaxies. tra are used to compare the widths of ab- the local Fundamental Plane is shown in
The spectra clearly show that the stel- ­sorp­tion features with those in stellar Figure 1. We find that this offset of the
lar populations of these galaxies are sev- spectra in order to obtain velocity disper- z ~ 1 field early-types corresponds to a lu-
eral billion years old, although there are sions of the stars in the galaxies, mea- ­minosity evolution of almost 2 magni-
age differences among these galaxies: suring the third FP parameter. We meas- tudes in the B-band. This is significantly
the z = 1.09 galaxy is the youngest, which ured 42 ve­locity dispersions of galaxies larger than for cluster early-types, which
can be seen from the strong high-order in the redshift range 0.62 < z < 1.25. Four are about 1.4 magnitudes brighter at z = 1
Balmer lines. For the other three galaxies, of these are cluster early-type galaxies at than at z = 0. This apparently agrees with

46 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


the model prediction that field early-types Figure 3: M versus M/L for the z ~ 1
1.0 field galaxies (large circles) and local
are younger than cluster early-types.
galaxies from SDSS corrected for
However, the galaxies in the field sample ­luminosity-evolution to z = 1 (small
are on average less massive than those dots). The red line indicates the lumi­
in the cluster samples. If only massive gal­ nosity limit of our survey. The solid
black line shows the relation between
axies (with M > 2 × 1012 MA) are selected, 0.5
M and M/L B for the SDSS galaxies.
there is no difference between the field The dashed black line indicates the
Log(M/L B ) (M � /L � )
and cluster samples: the luminosity evo- same relation for the SDSS galax-
lution amounts to about 1.3 magnitudes, ies, but only including those that are
brighter than the z = 1 luminosity limit.
implying high formation redshifts (z > 2) 0.0
for massive early-type galaxies in either
environment, falsifying the prediction by
some models that there is a large age
difference between field and cluster gal­
axies. –0.5

As was suggested above, there is a differ­


ence in luminosity evolution between
high- and low-mass early-types. Indeed, 10 10.5 11 11.5 12
Log(M) (M � )
galaxies with masses M < 2 × 1012 MA
are 2.1 magnitudes brighter at z = 1 than
at z = 0, which is much more than the observed differential evolution of galax- the evolution of quantities such as the
1.3 magnitudes brightening inferred for ies with different masses. But even if total mass density of the galaxy popula-
massive galaxies. This is illustrated in this selection effect is taken into account, tion. Such measurements necessarily
Figure 3, where we show that high-mass we still find a mass-dependent evolu- rely on mass estimates based on photo-
galaxies have higher M/L than low-mass tion in M/L, although it is reduced to a metric properties. These estimates are
galaxies, and that the observed rela- very subtle effect (see also Figure 3). de­rived from stellar population models
tion between M and M/L for the z ~ 1 field that predict how colours and M/L depend
galaxies clearly differs from the equi- Di Serego Alighieri et al. (2005) use a on each other. To verify the ­robustness
valent relation at z = 0. Other workers K‑band selected sample, and also find a and accuracy of this method, the corres­
in this field have, independently, also steep relation between M and M/L. This pondence between models and obser-
found such a strong relation (Treu et al. shows that selecting galaxies by their vations of the evolution of colours and
2005; Di Serego Alighieri et al. 2005). K-band luminosity is very different from M/L needs to be tested. With our dynami-
This change in slope might indicate that selecting by stellar mass (see also the cally determined M/L we are in a position
the mass of an individual galaxy deter- next section). We note that Treu et al. to perform such a test.
mines its formation redshift. The idea that (2005) claim that selection effects cannot
massive galaxies form earlier than low- account for the steep observed slope First, it is important to note that there is
mass galaxies is referred to as down-siz- and z = 1, and that the strongly mass-de- a strong correlation between the dynami-
ing and is supported by other observa- pendent evolution of M/L is largely in- cally obtained M/L and the rest-frame
tional evidence besides the FP results trinsic. Remarkably, they find an equally optical colours of the galaxies in the z ~ 1
described here, and can be reproduced steep slope for all redshifts z > 0.3, im- sample presented above (van der Wel
by recent theoretical models. plying a sudden steepening between et al. 2005). Furthermore, in Figure 4 we
z = 0.3 and the present, and no evolution show that the evolution in the rest-frame
However, selection effects severely ham- after that. We conclude that even deeper B−I colour generally agrees well with
per data sets such as these. Our mag- surveys, probing the early-type galaxy the predictions of stellar population mod-
nitude-limited sample, at a given galaxy population to lower masses, are needed els: assuming a single stellar population
mass, is biased towards galaxies with to determine, in a model-independent with solar metallicity and a Salpeter IMF,
low M/L, i.e., young stellar populations. way, whether the FP slope has or has not the evolution in M/L B implies a certain
Obviously, this effect is strongest for low- evolved strongly over the past 7 Gyrs. amount of evolution in B−I. The expected
mass/faint galaxies. We show the lu- z = 1 colours are indicated for three dif-
minosity limit of our survey in Figure 3 by ferent models in Figure 4 by the coloured
the red line. It is clear that the galaxies The evolution of the rest-frame near-IR squares. This indicates that the meth-
with the lowest M/L are likely not repre- properties of early-type galaxies odology of converting colours into M/L is
sentative of all early-type galaxies with viable.
such masses. Considering the distribu- As is clear from the above, obtaining
tion of luminosities and M/L of the galax- masses of high-z galaxies dynamically is Next, it is especially interesting to include
ies in our sample and the magnitude observationally extremely expensive. It the near-infrared (NIR) in the analysis, 
limit of the survey, we conclude that the is therefore not feasible to obtain masses as this is much less sensitive to extinction 
described bias is the main cause of the of very large samples in order to measure by dust, and probably less affected by 

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 47


Reports from Observers van der Wel A. et al., Masses and Mass-to-Light Ratios of Early-Type ­Galaxies at High z

re­cent and ongoing star-formation. In oth­­- Figure 4: Evolution of the rest-frame


B−I colour of early-type galaxies. The
er words, NIR light is thought to be 2.2 B–I colours of high-z early-type galaxies in the CDF-S
observed evolution is about 0.45 mag.
more representative of stellar mass than LOCAL
The error-bar shows the uncertainty
­optical light. It should be noted, how- in the measured evolution. The col-
ever, that various results in the litera- 2.0
oured squares are model predictions
for B−I at z = 1. The three different
ture have already indicated that the NIR
colours indicate different stellar popu-
photometric properties of galaxies are lation models. From top to bottom:
rather poor indicators of their ages and Maraston (2005), Vazdekis (1996), and
(B–I) restframe

1.8 M05
M/L, contrary to their optical colours. Bruzual & Charlot (2003). These mod­-
els are for single stellar populations
To investigate this matter, we use Spitzer/
V96 with a Salpeter IMF and solar metal-
Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) images BC03 licity.
at 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm to determine the 1.6

optical-to-NIR colours of our z = 1 galax-


ies. We compare those with the rest-
frame col­ours of local early-types. In Fig­- 1.4
ure 5 we show that the evolution in the
rest-frame B−K colour is about 0.3 mag-
nitudes between z = 1 and z = 0 (van der 1.2
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
Wel et al. 2006). In Figure 5 we make a Redshift
similar comparison as in Figure 4. First, it
is very remarkable that the predictions
differ by much from each other. Second,
the most widely used model, that of Figure 5: Evolution in the rest-frame
B−K colour of early-type galaxies. The
Bruzual and Charlot (2003), predicts much B–K colours of high-z early-type galaxies in the CDF-S
observed evolution is about 0.3 mag.
faster evolution of B−K than observed. The error-bar shows the uncertainty in
The Vazdekis (1996) and Maraston (2005) LOCAL the measured evolution of the sample.
models provide better agreement. The coloured squares are model pre-
dictions for B−K at z = 1 (see Figure 4).
4.0
We have tested whether our result can M05
be reconciled with the Bruzual-­Charlot
(B–K ) restframe

­model by adopting different metal


­contents, stellar initial mass functions and
more complex star-formation histories, V96
but it turns out that the discrepancy per-
sists. Large quantities of dust in the 3.5

high-z sample may affect the B−K colours


such that slow evolution of B−K is mim-
icked. Spitzer/MIPS photometry at 24 μm BC03

will be a useful test to constrain the dust


content. However, the red colours are
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
most likely intrinsic to the stellar popula- Redshift
tions of the galaxies.

We conclude very generally that estimat- M/L as derived from NIR ­photometry and References
ing galaxy masses from rest-frame NIR this model are a factor of ≈ 2 too high.
Bruzual, G. and Charlot, S. 2003, MNRAS 344, 1000
photometry is not very robust. First, the This is a severe problem. For example, Di Serego Alighieri, S. et al. 2005, A&A 442, 125
M/L in the NIR evolves at a comparable the evolution in the mass density of early- Holden, B. P. et al. 2005, ApJ 620, L83
rate as the optical M/L, which means that type galaxies is about the same factor Maraston, C. 2005, MNRAS 362, 799
Treu, T. et al. 2005, ApJ 633, 174
the NIR magnitude of a galaxy is not a of two between z = 1 and the present.
van der Wel, A. et al. 2004, ApJ 601, L5
better indicator of its M/L than its optical The agreement among the models and van der Wel, A. et al. 2005, ApJ 631, 145
magnitude (this is at least true for dust- between the models and the observa- van der Wel, A. et al. 2006, ApJ 636, L21
poor galaxies). Second, the disagreement tions are much better in the optical, which Vazdekis, A. et al. 1996, ApJS 106, 307
among the models indicates that there should therefore be preferred over the
is a systematic uncertainty in the M/L as NIR to estimate M/L. Before we can take
derived from NIR photometry of at least  advantage of the full potential of rest-
a factor of two for this type of galaxy. frame NIR observations, the models
More specifically, the systematic differ- need to converge to similar predictions
ence between the observations and that can stand empirical tests such as
the Bruzual-Charlot model implies that described here.

48 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Reports from Observers

Unveiling the Structure of Galaxy Clusters


with ­Combined ESO-VLT, WFI, and XMM-Newton
­Observations
Hans Böhringer 1 by the clusters provide a representative the best instrument to study the ­density,
Filiberto Braglia 1 sample of matter of our Universe, and temperature, pressure and entropy struc-
Daniele Pierini 1 (ii) the determination of the mass-to-light ture of the ICM. This provides a very
Andrea Biviano 2 ratio, which is a measure of the efficiency good basis for mass estimates as well as
Peter Schuecker 1 of galaxy formation. It is obvious that the an understanding of the formation and
Yu-Ying Zhang 1 determination of the cluster mass and thermal history of the cluster and its ICM.
Alexis Finoguenov 1 internal mass distribution is an essen­tial The VIMOS multiplexing spectrograph
Gabriel W. Pratt 1 prerequisite in such studies. at the ESO-VLT is the most efficient in-
Hernan Quintana 3 strument (apart from IMACS at Magellan)
Paul D. Lynam 4 Cluster-mass measurements have so far to collect sufficient numbers of redshifts
preferentially been performed on presum­- for a dynamical analysis. In addition
ably relaxed, regular systems. For gener- the Wide Field Imager (WFI) allows us to
1
 ax-Planck-Institut für Extraterres-
M al cosmological applications we need map the optical emission from the cluster
trische Physik, Garching, Germany to know the mass of clusters of any type. galaxies on large scales. Further goals
2
INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di To take one crucial example: the mass of this programme involve the study of
Trieste, Trieste, Italy function of galaxy clusters provides im- the galaxy population and the star-forma-
3
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, portant information on the statistics of the tion activity as a function of environment
Santiago, Chile cosmic large-scale structure. It has been in and around the cluster, the relation
4
ESO suggested on the basis of some simu- of the heavy element abundances in the
lations that the X-ray luminosity, the X-ray ICM with the properties of the galaxy
temperature, and the galaxy velocity dis- population, and the connection between
Understanding the dynamical structure persion, all three important indicators the thermal structure of the ICM and the
and matter content of galaxy clusters of the cluster mass, may be boosted to galaxy distribution and dynamics (which
is crucial for many cosmological and high values during major mergers of gal- can provide clues on the accretion history
astrophysical applications. While opti- axy clusters. Thus, in many important of the cluster).
cal studies provide information on the surveys, where these measures of cluster
dis­tribution and dynamics of the galax- mass have been used without this pre- While we have already collected interes­t­
ies, allowing for a tentative reconstruc- caution, the high end of the mass func- ing results on the X-ray and optical pro­p­-
tion of the cluster mass distribution, tion could be seriously distorted, thereby erties of the clusters in this project, the
X-ray observations provide complemen- leading to incorrect implications. This overall data assessment and interpreta-
tary details through the study of the  and other important applications, which tion are still in progress. Here we would
hot, X‑ray luminous intracluster plasma rely on a precise knowledge of ­cluster therefore like to give an illustration of the
which is confined by the cluster’s gravi- structure and mass, have led us to em- diagnostic power of the combined use
tational potential well. To exploit the bark on a systematic study of cluster of VLT-VIMOS and XMM-Newton obser-
avantage of such a combined approach structure for representative cluster sam- vations, in particular, and to describe our
we have been conducting observa- ples using detailed observations at X-ray observational approach.
tions with VIMOS at the ESO-VLT, the and optical wavelengths.
Wide Field Imager at the 2.2-m MPG/
ESO telescope at La Silla, and ESA’s While deep X-ray images, which show  X-ray morphology
XMM-Newton X‑ray observatory. In this the distribution of the hot intracluster me-
article we illustrate the power of the dium (ICM) tracing the gravitational po- As an example of this diagnostic power
combination of these instruments for tential of the cluster, reveal much of the we choose the case of the massive clus­-
galaxy cluster studies. ­cluster structure as projected onto the ter RXCJ 0014.3-3023 (Abell 2744), re-
sky, the galaxy redshift distribution pro- produced in a composite colour WFI im-
vides a complementary view of the clus- age in Figure 1. This cluster is taken from
Galaxy clusters are important astrophys- ter dynamics projected onto the line- our complete sample of massive gal-
ical laboratories and test objects for of-sight. Thus, a major aim of the project axy clusters (with X-ray luminosity above
cosmological research. The key for this is to employ the combined X-ray/­optical 2 · 10 45 h −1
50 erg s
−1
for 0.1–2.4 keV) in
application of galaxy cluster research information for the reconstruction of the the redshift range from z = 0.27 to 0.31 in
is the knowledge of the cluster mass and dynamical state of the cluster, to search the southern sky, as identified in our
dynamical structure. For instance, the for the best strategy for the mass esti- ROSAT Sky Survey-based REFLEX Clus-
cluster abundance and the statistics of mate for each case, and to test the con- ter Survey (Böhringer et al. 1998, 2004).
the cluster spatial distribution provide sistency of the optical and X-ray mass The X-ray-determined mass of the cluster
the basis for tests of cosmological mod- estimates. For this research Europe cur- is about 7.4 · 1014 h −1 70 M A inside a radi-
els (Böhringer et al. 1998; Schuecker rently offers two superb instruments. us 1.24 h −1 70 Mpc (i.e. half of the virial ra-
et al. 2003). Among many possible appli- The XMM-Newton X-ray observatory with dius), excluding substructure (Zhang et
cations, the use of galaxy clusters as its high throughput, good spatial resolu- al. 2006). This cluster is also known as a
­laboratories involves (i) the ­determination tion (8 arcsec), and simultaneous imaging gravitational lens (Smail et al. 1991). An
of the baryon-to-dark matter ratio, where­- and spectroscopic capabilities is by far overlay of the X-ray contours (Figure 2)

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 49


Reports from Observers Böhringer H. et al., Unveiling the Structure of Galaxy Clusters

Figure 1: Colour composite image of the cluster Figure 2: X-ray contour plot of the 0.5 to 2.0 keV
RXCJ 0014.3-3023 (A2744) obtained from B- XMM-Newton image superposed on the R-band
(blue, 4800 s exposure), V- (green, 3600 s), and R- WFI image for RXCJ 0014.3-3023. We clearly see
band (red, 3600 s) imaging with the Wide Field two X‑ray maxima tracing the gravitational poten-
Imager at the 2.2-m MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla. tial minima of the main cluster (to the SE) and a ­
The angu­­lar size of the field shown is 10; on a subcluster (to the NW), both also marked by slight-
side (2.7 h−1
70 Mpc for the ‘concordance’ cosmologi- ly off­set concentrations of massive galaxies.
cal model). East is to the left and North up.

1 arcmin

r­ eveals two X-ray maxima belonging to one hour per field including all overheads. as a function of environment, we show
the main cluster to the South-East (SE) With the VIMOS Low-Resolution Blue in Figure 5 (left hand) as an example the
and a considerable subcluster to the grism and a conservative 3 arcsec-wide cumulative ratio of emission-line ­galax-
North-West (NW), which are in the proc- sky strip per slit, we obtained in total ies versus galaxies with spectra typical of
ess of merging. 871 spectra including 134 confirmed clus­ passive stellar populations. We clearly
ter members. The targets were selected see an increase in star-­formation ­activity
Two signatures indicate that the NW sub- from an I-band image with no colour at larger cluster radii which has been
cluster is still on its infalling track. Name- selection to obtain an unbiased view of seen before (e.g. Kodama et al. 2001) and
ly: (1) the galaxies are preceding the intra- the galaxy population as a function of in the Sloan Digital Sky ­Survey in near-
cluster plasma of the subcluster, which is star-formation activity. The MOS masks by clusters (Gomez et al. 2003). There is
stopped by the interaction with the main cover the entire cluster slightly beyond a very clear signature that star forma-
cluster’s ICM, and (2) a detailed Chandra the virial radius (~ 2.5 h −1
70 Mpc), where tion is quenched inside the cluster and
X-ray image shows signs of a bow shock the cluster galaxy density becomes low. this quenching sets in far outside the
in front (i.e. to the SE) of the infalling Thus, the investment for covering this virial radius. This implies that the interac-
subcluster (Kempner and David 2004). important outer region is a reduction in tion with the hot cluster ICM (e.g. by
The latter signature is consistent with an the overall efficiency. interstellar gas stripping effects) is not the
entropy enhancement in the region be- only mechanism that leads to a suppres-
tween the two maxima discovered from Figure 4 shows typical galaxy spectra. At sion of star formation in cluster galaxies.
our XMM-Newton observations (Figure 3, the dispersion given by the coupling of Quenching effects must already be op-
Finoguenov et al. 2005). the low-resolution grism (a price paid for erative in the infall region. The actual pro-
the high multiplexing power of VIMOS) jected distributions of star-forming and
with the 1-arcsec-wide slits adopted, the non-star-forming galaxies in the cluster
Galaxy population galaxy velocities have relatively large are shown in Figure 5 (right hand). There
uncertainties (of the order of 300 km s−1) is no obvious correlation between the
To study the galaxy population we cov- and the sensitivity for the detection of distribution of emission-line galaxies and
ered the region of RXCJ 0014.3-3023 emission lines is reduced with respect to the merger structure of the cluster. Al-
with three VIMOS fields, overlapping at higher-resolution spectroscopy. However, so, we note that most of the ­emission-line
the cluster centre, aligned in the EW as we show below, we still obtain much galaxies are found at large radii, ex-
di­rection. For each field (but one), we useful information. The sensitivity limit for cept for a striking compact group of three
designed one multi-object spectroscopy the detection of emission lines still cor- emission-line objects near the cluster
(MOS) mask for a few bright galaxies responds to about 10 Å in equivalent centre, which could well lay off-centre
and one MOS mask for many faint galax- width. Since one of our goals is the study along the line-of-sight.
ies. The total exposure time was about of the nature of the galaxy population

50 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Figure 4: Examples of VIMOS spectra (observed-
frame wavelength in Å) of three cluster galaxies, in­-
cluding a star-forming emission-line galaxy (top)
and two galaxies dominated by old, passively evolv-
ing stellar populations (middle and bottom). While
the upper two examples include two bright galaxies,
a galaxy near the detection limit of 22.5 I‑mag is
shown at the bottom.

2000

1000

O II O III

0
4000 5000 6000

2000

1000

Figure 3 (above): Entropy structure of Figure 5 (below): Left: Radial distribu-


the ICM in RXCJ 0014.3-3023 seen tion of the cumulative ratio of galax- Ca II H + K
in projection as derived from the XMM- ies with and without emission lines in 0

Newton spectro-imaging (Finoguenov their spectra. The central peak in the 4000 5000 6000

et al. 2005). While we expect the blue line (all galaxies) is due to only
entropy to steadily increase with radius three galaxies (see right hand), which
in a re­laxed cluster, we here observe are excised in the red curve. Right:
50
low en­tropy gas (in blue) marking the Projected distribution of the galaxies
two subcomponent centres, whereas with spectroscopic observations. Dif­-
the high entropy (in yellow/red) in the ferent colours mark the ­redshift re-
region in-between implies energy dis- gions (blue: ∆v < −1321 km s−1, green: 0

sipation due to the merger shock. −1321 < ∆v < 0 km s−1, yellow: 0 < ∆v
Another interesting feature is the low- < 1321 km s−1, red: ∆v > 1321 km s−1)
en­tropy channel connecting the main and the asterisk symbol indicates –50 Ca II H + K
cluster centre with the southern edge ongoing star formation activity. The
(in green). The overplotted contours cluster centre is marked by a cross.
show the galaxy distribution (see Fig- –100
ure 7).
4000 5000 6000

0.4

–30.2

0.3

–30.3
Ne/N ne

DEC

0.2 –30.4

–30.5
0.1

–30.6

0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.4
Radius (kpc) RA

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 51


Reports from Observers Böhringer H. et al., Unveiling the Structure of Galaxy Clusters

The structure of the cluster merger 30 Figure 6: Histogram and Gaussian fit
of the RXCJ 0014.3-3023 galaxy ve­-
Cluster Substructure
N g = 134 N g = 18 locity distribution from the VIMOS
Figure 6 shows the (rest-frame) ­velocity σkm/s = 1321.45 σkm/s = 619.821 spectroscopic observations. The blue
distribution of the galaxies in the ­cluster. ∆ v = 501.946 curves show the overall distribution,
The overall velocity dispersion is very while the red curves give the distribu-
tion of galaxies in the sector covered
large, with sV = 1321 km s −1. Since there
by the infalling subcluster, showing
is a clear signature of an infalling sub- 20
a higher recession velocity by about
cluster in X-rays, we can use this informa- 500 km s−1. The green curves show
tion to search for a velocity difference the velocity distribution of the remain-
ing galaxies.
N(v)

between the two subcomponents. There-


fore Figure 6 also shows the velocity
distribution of the galaxies in the region
to the right and above a point interme- 10

diate to the two X-ray maxima. This sec-


tion nicely separates the infalling sub-
cluster from the main cluster. We note a
clear shift to higher velocities for the
infalling subcluster, with a mean velocity
difference of about 500 km s−1. Since 0
–4000 –2000 0 2000 4000
we see clear signatures in X-rays that v(km/s)

the two subcomponents are interacting


(e.g. a high entropy region in the X-ray
emitting plasma between the two X-ray
­maxima, see Figure 3), we interpret the
Figure 7: Projected distribution of gal­-
higher redshift of the subcluster as indi- axies with R ≤ 22 mag (without z-cut)
cating that this subcomponent is infalling in the cluster RXCJ 0014.3-3023
from the front. We can further speculate and its surroundings. Top: The X-ray
that the mutual attraction of the two surface brightness map with the
galaxy number density superposed as
subcomponents with a combined mass a contour plot. Colours from white to
of about 1015 h −170 M A allows a maximum green correspond to decreasing X-ray
­approach velocity at a separation of surface brightnesses. The maximum
about 1 Mpc (equivalent to a separation of the galaxy distribution clearly marks
the centre of the main cluster. In the
of about 800 h −170 kpc in projection) of outer contours we recognise exten-
about 2200 km s−1. The low observed sions to the NW and to the S. Bottom:
line-of-sight velocity thus implies that the The galaxy distribution on scale that is
merger axis is near the plane of the sky twice as large (entire WFI field-of-view)
and to lower overdensity thresholds
with an angle of the order of about (decreasing from yellow to black). The
15 degrees. The signature of a bow shock extensions of the top panel now find
seen in the ­Chandra data (­Kempner and their continuation in possible filaments
David 2004) ­supports this picture of a of galaxy overdensities leading further
away from the cluster.
motion almost perpendicular to the line-
of-sight. A more detailed analysis of this 8000
merger structure is in progress, and
we also plan to support our investigation
by comparison to tailored simulations.
6000
The strategy we then adopted for the
mass analysis of the cluster is to use the
Y [pixels]

undisturbed sector of the main cluster


(see Zhang et al. 2006). Both the spectro- 4000
scopic dynamical analysis and the X-ray
analysis were then performed excluding
the substructure. Our assumption of a re-
2000
latively undisturbed sector of the cluster
is supported by the fact that we observe
a gently falling velocity dispersion profile
in this sector, as expected for a regular
cluster. Preliminary results based on the 2000 4000 6000 8000
sky and velocity distribution of the galax- X [pixels]

52 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


ies give a value for the mass of the main pret them as the signature of a previous For all 33 clusters of this sample deep
cluster that is in agreement with the X-ray infall of galaxy groups, with a low entropy XMM-Newton observations have been
estimate. intergroup medium, from the surround- conducted, and now we inspect a wide
ing large-scale filamentary structure. Thus spectrum of cluster morphologies. So
we are obtaining a glimpse of the accre- far only few optical data are available but
The surroundings tion history of this cluster. The fact that systematic observations are planned.
RXCJ 0014.3-3023 exhibits a giant radio As spectroscopy at medium redshift and
The large field-of-view of the WFI cam- halo (see Kempner and David 2004), low resolution on a wide field is time-
era (34; × 33;) allows us to image the which was most probably formed by cos- demanding, complements to VIMOS will
whole cluster together with its infall re- mic-ray acceleration in a previous merger be considered at no loss of efficiency
gion. Figure 7 (top) shows a contour plot shock, is a further confirmation that this or science throughput. Both samples are
of the projected galaxy density distri- cluster has recently suffered from other becoming benchmark samples, for which
bution down to R ~ 22 mag (no z-cut mergers in addition to the one observed observations based on the Sunyaev
being ap­plied) superposed on the X‑ray here. Zel’dovich effect are scheduled, and lens­-
image, and (bottom) a large-scale map ing studies are planned. With this rich
of the galaxy distribution extending even ­infor­mation on cluster structure we will
outside the virial radius of RXCJ 0014.3- Outlook signifi­cantly improve our calibration
3023. The maximum of the galaxy densi- of ­cluster mass measurements, as these
ty distribution is centred on the main Similar results to those shown here have first results illustrate.
cluster. The extensions in the galaxy dis- been obtained in the past from deep opti-
tribution and the X-ray surface ­brightness cal and X-ray studies. The point here is
distribution to the NW and to the South that the power of XMM-Newton and VLT- Acknowledgements
(S) in Figure 7 (top) find their continua- VIMOS makes such observations a rou- The X-ray data used here are based on ob­servations
tion in a possible large-scale filamentary tine enterprise which can be applied to a with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with in-
structure in the bottom panel of this fig- larger, representative sample of galaxy struments and contributions directly funded by ESA
ure, where the galaxy distribution is re- clusters. We are currently exploiting these member states and NASA.
produced with a lower threshold for the two facilities to study two representative
density contours. There is a very inter- cluster samples, one comprised of the References
esting correspondence between the fila- most massive, southern galaxy clusters in
ments and the internal structure of the the redshift range from z = 0.27 to 0.31, Böhringer, H. et al. 1998, The Messenger 94, 21
Böhringer, H. et al. 2004, A&A 425, 367
cluster, although a spectroscopic confir- all observed with XMM-Newton, from Finoguenov, A., Böhringer, H., Zhang, Y.-Y. 2005,
mation is needed. The main subcluster which the above example was taken, and A&A 442, 827
is falling into the system from the NW. for more than half of which we have re- Gomez, P. L. et al. 2003, ApJ 584, 210
The extension to the S is connected to a cently collected VIMOS data. The other Kempner, J. C., David, L. P. 2004, MNRAS 349, 385
Kodama, T. et al. 2001, ApJ 562, L9
low entropy channel linking the possi- sample, covering the whole mass range Schuecker, P., et al. 2003, A&A 398, 867
ble filament with the cluster centre (Figure of clusters in a homogeneous way, was Smail, I. et al. 1991, MNRAS, 252, 19
3). We have seen analogous features in designed from the REFLEX sample in Zhang, Y.-Y. et al. 2006, A&A, submitted
other clusters of our sample and we inter- the redshift range from z = 0.055 to 0.2.

The centre of the glob­ular cluster Messier 12 as


ob­served with the FORS1 multi-mode instrument on
ESO’s Very Large Tele­scope. The picture covers a
­re­gion of about 3.5 arcmin on a side, corresponding
to about 23 light years at the distance of Messier 12.
It is based on data in five different filters: U, B, V,
R and Ha. The observations were obtained with very
good conditions, the image quality (‘seeing’) being
around 0.6 arcsec. (ESO PR Photo 04/06)

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 53


Reports from Observers

Gamma-Ray Bursts: Learning about the Birth of Black


Holes and Opening new Frontiers for Cosmology

Guido Chincarini 1, 2 Zwicky used to say that Nature manifests innermost regions around the event hori-
Fabrizio Fiore 3 itself in any form we may think of and zon of the black hole.
Massimo Della Valle 4 has far more ways than we can possibly
Angelo Antonelli 3 imagine. Indeed every time we increase The collapse of a massive star towards
Sergio Campana 2 the sensitivity of our instruments or a black hole occurs in a very short time
Stefano Covino 2 develop the technology to open a new and releases a very large amount of
Giancarlo Cusumano 5 window in the electromagnetic spectrum, en­ergy. Woosley, Paczy´nski and cowork-
Paolo Giommi 6 we discover new phenomena that in ers proposed the collapsar/hypernova
Daniele Malesani 7 most cases were not predicted or even model: the fast rotating iron core of a
Felix Mirabel 8 expected. very massive star collapses and forms a
Alberto Moretti 2, 9 rotating black hole surrounded by a
Patrizia Romano 2, 9 The Swift mission is no exception, its very high-density accretion ring. This sce­-
Luigi Stella 3 strength being the mission concept itself nario was illustrated by the simulations 
Gianpiero Tagliaferri 2 based on: multi-wavelength coverage of Zhang, Woosley and MacFadyen. Pow-
with the on-board instrumentation, fast erful relativistic jets along the polar axis
pointing capabilities of the satellite,  are formed by extracting the potential en-
1
Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, tight international collaboration with team ergy and rotational energy via neutrinos
Italy members permanently on duty, and or magnetic fields. Contrary to ordinary
2 
INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di worldwide networks with robotic and very core-collapse supernovae (SNe), a col-
Brera, Italy large telescopes ready to respond in a lapsar/hypernova is also ex­pected to ex-
3
INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di matter of minutes. Facilities like the VLT, pel matter at relativistic speed. This
Roma, Italy Keck, Gemini, Subaru, and many ­others, model envisages that long GRBs should
4
INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di play a fundamental role with their fast go off mainly in star forming regions.
Arcetri, Italy response and high sensitivity. The funda­
5
INAF/IASF Palermo, Italy mental discoveries made in the past year The coalescence of two relativistic stars
6
ASI Science Data Center were made possible by the excellent (double neutron star or black hole/neu-
7
International School for Advanced Stud- level of coordination between Swift team tron star binary mergers) is the end result
ies (SISSA), Trieste, Italy members, ground-based telescopes and of 0.1–1 Gyr of orbital decay caused by
8
ESO the GRB community at large. The key el- the emission of gravitational waves. This
9
Supported by the Italian Space Agency ements in this scientific enterprise, i.e. paroxysmal event should also give rise
(ASI) speed and coordination, were discussed to a black hole surrounded by a torus of
and carefully planned over the years; they matter at nuclear densities, possibly
are now working very efficiently. producing relativistic jets that are less
Swift, a satellite devoted to the study of energetic and shorter lived than those of
cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), is Back in 1963 Hoyle and Fowler pointed collapsars and originating short GRBs.
now fully operational and detects about out that the energy source of a quasar These merger events should, in general,
100 GRBs per year, as the first year or AGN could arise from a collapsed ob- be associated with galaxies having an
of operation demonstrated. Since its ject or black hole. A flow chart original- older stellar population and take place, in
launch (20 November 2004), Swift has ly due to Martin Rees illustrates different a fraction of the cases, in the outskirts of
monitored with the narrow-field X‑Ray channels possibly leading to the forma- (or even outside) the galaxy.
Telescope (XRT) 75 afterglows (out tion of black holes, on a variety of scale
of 97 GRBs), starting just a few minutes lengths, always with gravity as the main These are the two main models invoked
after the GRB onset. Together with the player. We do not know the quantitative to explain the two flavours in which GRBs
events detected by HETE-II and INTE- aspect of various processes but we are manifest themselves: long and short.
GRAL, Swift gives us a unique position making important theoretical progress in Gathering evidence in favour of this over-
to unveil the details of these enigmat- the field. The energy that black holes ir- all scenario is certainly among main re­-
ic events, which likely identify the birth radiate can be produced in different ways, sults so far obtained by Swift, in conjunc-
of black holes. GRBs are also useful for instance via extraction of black hole tion with large ground-based tele­scopes,
cosmological tools, and can be used as rotational energy through the Blandford the ESO VLT facility in particular, where,
powerful, distant beacons to trace the and Znajek mechanism, or via the more thanks to the MISTICI and GRACE colla­
history and evolution of the early Uni- generally accepted mechanism involving borations, most of the bursts visible from
verse. All of this can be accomplished the release of gravitational energy from the southern hemisphere have been
by the use of Swift, coupled to large matter inflowing through an accretion disc. monitored. The deep significance of the
ground-based telescopes. In this article Both mechanisms can be made to work ongoing research is not only that of
we describe some of the fresh, exciting on a sufficiently short time and with high putting together a complicated mosaic,
results obtained in the field. enough efficiency to power GRBs, pro- but also trying to match at an unprece­
vided that nuclear density matter, possi­ dented level the observational results
bly in the form of a torus, surrounds the with the predictions of the models. This

54 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Figure 1: Rest frame 0.2–10 keV light curves of mean luminosity of the prompt emission detected by
GRB 050126 (light blue), GRB 050315 (blue), BAT and converted to the XRT band pass. The
GRB 050318 (violet), GRB 050319 (red) GRB 050401 inset shows four representative light curves, combin-
(green), GRB 050408 (dark green), GRB 050505 ing BAT and XRT data. There is a clear continuity
(dark blue). The dot-dashed line is a mean curve of between the two instruments. The light curve of
the type-I (steep, shallow, steep) light curve. The GRB 050401 does not show the steep early decay.
squares on the top left of the figures represent the

is what Swift can do in conjunction with 53


ground-based telescopes: witnessing the
birth of black holes surrounded by very 52
10 0 050126
050315

dense matter, and extracting crucial new


050319
050401

information from these events.


10 –2

51

Flux [arbritary units]


10 –4

In the following we will refer in ­particular


to the data obtained with the X-ray tele- Log Luminosity (erg s –1 ) 50 10 –6

scope onboard Swift and to the fast


follow-up observations carried out espe- 49
10 –8

cially with the ESO VLT. These are in­deed


the two facilities that allowed us to gath- 10 –10

er most of the information. Needless 48 0 50 100 150 200


Time [s. from trigger]

to say, none of this would have been pos-


sible without the Burst Alert Tele­scope 47
(BAT) on board Swift, the instru­ment that
detects the bursts. The sequence of 46
events is led by the Swift satellite so that
in this paper we will follow the same
outline dictated by the Swift observations. 45

44
X-ray light curves and optical 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
observations Log Time (seconds)

Thanks to the remarkable theoretical pro­ Figure 2: On the bottom of the figure
the light curve obtained with the XRT
gress achieved in recent years, we now GRB 050721
10 3 in the 0.5–10 keV band. The black
have a reasonably good understanding of filled circle on the top of the figure re­-
the afterglow light curves observed in the presents the first optical observation
soft X-ray band by Swift (­Figure 1). Most 10 2 in the I-band obtained by a Japanese
robotic telescope. The other black
of them are characterised by a steep early
filled circles are the I-band observa-
decline, followed by a milder one after 
Flux Density (µJy)

101 tions obtained at ESO. Always at ESO


a few hundred seconds, which breaks we observed in the R pass-band,
again to a faster decline generally in less red filled circles and in the blue pass-
band, blue filled circles. The optical
than 10 000 seconds. The spectral shape 10 0
re-brightening of ΔR = 1.8 magnitudes
does not change much in time, even in is not present in the XRT observations
correspondence of the light curve breaks. 10 –1 at the bottom of the figure.
The first break seems to mark the tran-
sition between the GRB tail and the long-
lasting afterglow emission, which is con- 10 –2
tinuously energised by the central engine
(thus the decay is slow). The end of this 10 –3
energy input is marked by the second
break. A further break is often visible due 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6
to the collimation of the ejecta. Such a Time Since Burst (s)
break has been observed in long GRBs,
while it has not yet been detected un- is mainly in the optical and infrared bands. is to a large extent still to be exploited.
ambiguously in short bursts (a low signi­ However, depending on the distribution of There are still a number of unresolved is-
ficance indication has been reported by matter in the ejecta, the emission can  sues: an especially important one is that
Fox and co-authors in GRB 050709). A be long lasting. The phenomenon is quite in some cases an optical/NIR afterglow is
minority of bursts do not display the early complex and depends on the regime  not detected.
steep decline. The afterglow emission of synchrotron emission, the hydrodynam-
is produced by the so-called ‘forward ics of the jet and the interaction with the The observations of GRB 050721 (Fig-
shock’, produced in the impact between surrounding medium (that could be differ- ure 2) provide an excellent example of
the GRB ejecta and the surrounding ent in the various shocks) and the behav­- what is needed. The VLT rapid response
­medium. There is additional emission iour of the energy injection during the mode allowed these early ­observations
from the ‘reverse shock’, produced inside evolution of the afterglow. This is why ob­ to be compared with the XRT light curve
the shocked ejecta themselves. This servations in the optical and near infra- from the earliest stages, showing that
emission lasts for a rather short time and red are very important and their potential both the X-ray and the R-filter light curves

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 55


Reports from Observers Chincarini G. et al., Gamma-Ray Bursts: Learning about the Birth of Black Holes

Figure 3: Left top panel: The image of the detection of the short GRB. Bottom left panel: the
GRB 050724 plus the host galaxy obtained on the VLT FORS spectrum of the host galaxy showing
night of 24 July. Top centre panel: The image of the characteristics of a rather old stellar population.
the host galaxy plus GRB obtained on 29 July. Right Bottom right panel: the XRT light curve showing
top panel: The image obtained subtracting the the presence of flares and the continuity between
two previous images (24 July – 29 July) showing the the BAT and XRT light curves.

were decaying at a comparable rate. In


this case, both the optical and X‑ray emis-
sions likely arise from a single compo-
nent and it is not yet clear whether there
is a reverse shock component. On the
contrary, when an early rapid X‑ray decay
phase (e.g. the case of GRB 050713A)
is present, the optical and XRT light curves
differ significantly, indicating a different
25
origin of the X-ray emission, which per­- 10 4

haps represents the soft tail of the prompt 1000

(10 –11 erg cm –2 s –1)


20
emission. A good coincidence between 100 BAT
the optical and X‑ray light curves has


15 XRT

Na I
10
been observed also in GRB 050525A


Flux


Ca II

Mg I
10
and GRB 050801. The VLT rapid response 1

mode is a fundamental tool to build the

0.2–10
5 0.1
statistics needed to discrimate amongst

Flux
0.01
different models. In addition, detailed 0
monitoring of the light curve might reveal 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 10 –3
10 100 1000 10 4 10 5
Wavelengths
short-timescale variability that may arise Time (s at z = 0.258)

from the injection of energy from a highly


variable central engine, the newly born long GRBs, which appear to be associat- well as high redshift (as in GRB 050724,
black hole. ed with dwarf galaxies with intense star- GRB 050730, and GRB 050904; Fig-
forming activity. ure 4). The energy emitted during a flare
is sometimes comparable to the ener-
Short gamma-ray bursts The relatively low redshift observed gy emitted during the entire X-ray after-
for these objects implies an energy output glow, as in the case of GRB 050502B.
The typical duration of a short burst is that is about a factor 100–1000 smaller This is a fundamental discovery made by
about 0.2 s. These bursts are spec- than that observed for long bursts. For the Swift mission and provides addition-
trally harder than the long ones and com- several of the short GRBs with ­accurate al clues about the central engine. Flares
prise about 30 % of the BATSE (25– positions detected so far no optical might well be due to internal shocks re­-
350 keV) sample, and about 10 % of the after-glow could be found. In some other sulting from new energy injection into the
Swift sample. The rapid response of cases even the soft X-ray emission was jet caused by an active central engine
the Swift spacecraft yielded the first un- not detected. A continuing programme (as opposed to internal shock from the
ambiguous detection of the X-ray emis- of fast response observation by ground- catching-up of shells emitted at different
sion from a short GRB, GRB 050509, in based telescopes is essential in order to speeds).
turn measuring the sky position of the determine whether short GRBs comprise
event accurately enough to pinpoint the different subclasses. On the other hand, No very large flare has been observed
most likely host galaxy, an elliptical gal­ both long and short bursts are ­consistent yet in the optical band; extensive optical
axy at z = 0.22. Excellent images were so far with the same general scenario ­coverage of the light curve during the
obtained with VLT, Subaru, HST, and oth­­- in which the GRB is ­generated by a newly early stages is essential to address this
er telescopes. Two months later HETE‑II formed black hole-torus sys­tem, result- issue.
detected GRB 050709 and ESO tele­ ing however from much different paths in
scopes were able to discover the optical the evolution of massive stars. It should
counterpart and observe the host gal- be said that important alternatives exist. Gamma-ray bursts and supernovae
axy at a redshift of z = 0.16. About two In Usov’s model, the relativistic flow is
weeks later Swift detected and observed mostly Poynting flux and is driven by the The first suggestion of a possible connec­
GRB 050724 (Figure 3), and a few other magnetic and rotational energies of a rap­ tion between SNe and GRBs dates back
short GRBs in the following months. After idly rotating neutron star. to Colgate (1968). This prediction was
many years of chasing, the mystery of confirmed in recent years, thanks to in­-
the counterparts to short GRB was finally tensive optical and near-infrared fol-
solved. Flares low-up observations of GRB afterglows
discovered by BeppoSAX. These stud­-
These observations showed that the host Flares were detected superimposed on ies firmly established that long-duration
galaxies of short GRBs are either of early the ‘basic’ X-ray light curves (Figure 1) GRBs (or at least a large fraction of them)
type, as in the case of GRB 050509B, in about 40 % of the bursts, during both are connected with the death of mas-
or harbour a reasonably old stellar popu- the GRB tail (the steep decay phase) sive stars. The most persuasive evidence
lation, as in the case of GRB 050709. and in the early afterglow, in both GRB arises from observations of supernova
This is much at variance with respect to flavours (long and short), and at small as features in the spectra of a few GRB after­

56 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Figure 4: The BAT + XRT light curve of the long estimate the photometric redshift. The light curve
GRB 050904 at z = 6.3. The continuity between BAT in various optical and near-infrared bands has been
(after conversion of the emission to the band pass plotted in the inset on the bottom of the figure.
of XRT) and XRT is perfect and the light curve shows
the presence of flares. The top-right inset shows
the optical observations (mainly from VLT) used to

10 –8 80 VLT UT1 + FORS2, during the flattening,


shows strong similarities with the spec-
60 trum exhibited by SN 1998bw at about
five days after the maximum. Therefore  in

Flux (mJy)
40
this case we have also discovered a ­con-
10 –9
20
nection between a SN and a GRB. With
a frequency of about 4 10 –6 GRB per gal-
Observer frame Flux

0 axy per year accounting for a jet an-


gle, <q> ~ 10°, we have a frequency of
(erg/sec/cm 2 )

5000 10000 15000 20000


Wavelength (Å)
~ 4 10 –4 GRB per galaxy per year ~ 1/30
10 –10
the rate of Ibc supernovae.
16

18
While the discovery of a clear SN/GRB
connection represented a major step 
BAT in the study of GRBs, it also posed a
Magnitude

10 –11 20

XRT-W number of new questions. Whether the


XRT-PC 22
V z asso­ciation is restricted to bright SNe,
R J

24
I1
I2
H
K2 as the cases with spectroscopic confir-
0.1 1 10
ma­tion seem to indicate so far, or is open
10 –12 Time since burst (d)
also to fainter type-Ibc SNe, remains 
to be established through forthcoming ­
101 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 observations. Based on a reasonably
Time (seconds from trigger) large sample, we may finally track down
the physical mechanism of the associa-
14 Figure 5: The photometric evolution tion and understand how the explosions
of the afterglow of GRB 050525A,
afterglow
evolve in time. There is no indication at
15 obtained at early stages with TNG and
host at later epochs with VLT-UT1 + FORS2, all in the short GRBs 050709 and 050724
16 SN shows a flattening in the light curve of the signature of a supernova, although
sum starting about five days after the gam­- they are quite nearby.
17 ma event, followed by a sharp dim-
ming. The magnitude and the duration
18 of the flattening suggest the presence
of a SN component (dot-dashed Cosmology and the new frontiers
19
Magnitude

line), which is marginally fainter than


SN 1998bw (Della Valle et al. 2006,
20 It is fascinating to consider the possibili-
ApJ, submitted).
ties opened in cosmology by GRBs. In-
21 deed, after the detection of GRB 050904
22 spectrum and the measurement of its redshift
(z = 6.3) by the VLT and the SUBARU
23 our data tele­scopes, our wildest hopes became
Klotz et al. (2005)
24
reality. We can now likely trace the star-
formation rate and its evolution. Further-
25 more, since for a few hours after their
onset, GRB afterglows are the brightest
0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Time since burst (days) beacons in the far Universe, they offer a
superb opportunity to investigate the
glows. In a number of other cases, the with TNG and NTT, and at later epochs environment in which they go off in very
evidence for a SN is based on a late time with VLT, allowed us to discover a flatten- young galaxies, determine the proper-
photometric hump emerging out of ing in the light curve starting about five ties of the interstellar medium and deter­
the decaying optical afterglows. Outstand- days after the GRB explosion, followed mine cosmic abundances up to the
ing examples of this SN/GRB connec- by a sharp dimming. The magnitude and re-ionisation epoch. The GRACE and
tion include SN 1998bw/GRB 980425, duration of the flattening suggest the ­MISTICI collaborations achieved mile-
SN 2003dh/GRB 030329, and SN 2003lw/ presence of a SN component, marginally stone discoveries in this field. Here 
GRB 031203. The average redshift of fainter than the prototypical SN 1998bw, we can only touch upon this fascinating
Swift GRBs is quite large (<z> ~ 2), mak- and characterised by a faster rise to research briefly.
ing the search for an associated SN maximum light. An early spectrum ob-
­difficult. GRB 050525A at z = 0.606 is the tained by Foley and collaborators One of the straightforward discoveries of
first supernova detected in a GRB dis- with Gemini North and GMOS indicates UVES high resolution spectroscopy
covered by Swift. The photometric evolu- that GRB 050525A occurred in a star- of GRB afterglows is that the ISM of GRB
tion (Figure 5), obtained at early stages forming galaxy. A spectrum obtained with host galaxies is complex, with many

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 57


Reports from Observers Chincarini G. et al., Gamma-Ray Bursts: Learning about the Birth of Black Holes

components resolved down to a width of from quasar forests. For example the so- while the short bursts might originate
a few tens of km/s, contributing to each called ‘proximity effect’ should be much from the merging process of a relativistic
main absorption system, and spanning reduced for GRB. By using GRBs as very binary. GRB afterglows can be used to
a total velocity range of up to thousands remote beacons, carbon, silicon, oxy- probe the IGM during the reionisation
of km/s. The absorption systems can be gen and iron ions, as well as Lya, can be epoch, through the detection of metal
divided into three broad categories. First, studied with UVES up to z ~ 6–6.5 and systems associated with early starburst
those associated with the GRB surround- with ISAAC up to the reionisation epoch, winds. High-resolution UVES observa-
ing medium; second, those associated thus yielding the first metal abundance tions are already giving us precious infor-
with the ISM of the host galaxy along the measurements at epochs when the Uni- mation on the kinematics, ionisation 
line of sight, which is far enough so that verse was less than 1 Gyr old. and metallicity of the interstellar matter
it is not affected by the GRB emission; of GRB host galaxies up to a redshift
last, the intergalactic matter along the line of z ~ 4. Further optical and near-infrared
of sight. Strong ‘fine structure’ lines have Conclusions spectroscopy will allow us to extend fur-
been detected in GRB 050922C and in ther the redshift range, possibly up to the
GRB 050730 (previously these were also It is by now evident that GRBs provide us reionisation epoch. These were amongst
detected in GRB 020813, GRB 030323 with a new fascinating perspective in the main motivations for building the
and in GRB 021004). The presence of relativistic astrophysics and Cosmology. REM telescope, a robotic, fast-slewing
strong fine structure lines of several ions, The central engine of GRBs must be facility capable of observing the early
C ii*, Si ii*, O i*, O i**, Fe ii*, is at odds with ca­pable of producing, in a matter of sec- ­optical and near-infrared GRB afterglows.
QSO absorption systems, where, despite onds, energies of the order 1049 –1052 erg, However, Swift has shown that most
more than 30 years of investigation, on- which result in the acceleration of a plan- GRB counterparts are fainter than expec­
ly sparse detections of fine structure lines etary-mass jet of plasma to ultrarelativis­- ted in the optical and NIR, so that we
are available. Strong fine structure lines tic speed. The energy and duration of must work even more with medium and
in GRB sightlines are most likely due to the prompt emission and the characteris- very large telescopes.
the dense environment of the star-forming tics of the parent galaxies, including their
regions hosting GRBs. Furthermore, GRB locations inside them, suggest that both
afterglows provide a new, indepen­dent GRB types, long and short, may well end References
tool to study the ISM of high-­redshift gal- up in the same configuration, con­sisting Barthelemy, S. D. et al. 2005, Nature 438, 994
axies. Figure 6 illustrates the UVES spec- a of newborn black hole surrounded by an Chincarini, G. et al. 2003, The Messenger 113, 40
trum of GRB050922C, but a very similar ultradense torus. However the two GRB Woosley, S. E. 1993, ApJ 405, 273
situation is also present in the spectrum types would be the final outcome of two Cusumano, G. et al. 2006, Nature 440, 164
Della Valle, M. et al. 2004, The Messenger 118, 31
of GRB050730 About six absorption sys­- extremely different evolutionary paths: Fiore, F. et al. 2005, ApJ 624, 853
tems of relatively high ionisation are the long bursts may arise in the collapse Gehrels, N. et al. 2004, ApJ 611, 1005
de­­tected, likely associated with the GRB of the iron nucleus of a very massive star, Tagliaferri, G. et al. 2005, A&A 443, L1
surrounding medium. On the other hand,
we also observe a Si iil1304 ­compo-
nent (marked HG in Figure 6) that is not
2
Si II*1309

present in either the Si iv or Si ii* transi-


tions. This is an indication that the gas of 1.5
Lyα forest

this component is much less dense and Si II 1304


DLA
z = 3.5
ion­ised than that of the other six compo-
Lyβ
Pixel value (Flux)

HG 1

nents, suggesting that this component


Normalised Flux

is not part of the cloud surrounding the 0.5

GRB but rather belongs to the ISM of the Si IV 1402

host galaxy.
0

Finally, GRB afterglows can be used to Si IV 1393 5000 5200 5400 5600 5800 6000

probe the Lya forest and the high-redshift a b c d e f


Position ( )

intergalactic medium (Figure 7). An ac-


curate determination of the number of ab-
–144 –72 0 72 144
sorption systems per unit redshift dn/dz Velocity (km/s)
at high redshift has strong implications
Figure 6: The UVES spectrum of GRB 050922C Figure 7: UVES spectrum of the Lya forest of
for any investigation of the reionisation around the the Si iv l1393, Si iv l1402, Si iil1304 and GRB 050730. Note the strong Lya absorption at the
epoch, since the optical depth due to Lya Si ii*l1309 lines. The zero of the velocity scale refers redshift of the GRB host galaxy (log N H in the range
line blanketing is evaluated by extrapo- to the redshift of the host galaxy, z = 2.199. Six 21.2–22.2). Taken at face value the [C/H], [O/H],
lating the Lya dn/dz measured at lower ­c omponents, labelled from ‘a’ to ‘f’, are identified [S/H] and [Si/H] ratios imply a metal abundance be­
for the Si iv l1393 and Si iv l1402 lines, spanning tween 1/10 and 1/100 of the solar value.
redshifts. Using GRBs as remote beacons a ve­locity range from –75 to +140 km/s. Each com-
opens up the opportunity of highlighting ponent has a width from 10 to 25 km/s. The
any deviation from what is already known main component ‘c’ has nearly zero velocity shift.

58 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Other Astronomical News

The ALMA-Herschel Synergies

Paola Andreani 1
Tom Wilson 2 5σ 1 hour
Point Source
100 PACS (1h,5σ)
1
INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di SPIRE
Trieste, Italy
Flux Density (mJy)
10
2
ESO
1 z = 0.1
One of the ESO-ESA science ­planning
working groups has studied joint op- 0.1 z =1
portunities offered by Herschel and
ALMA in the infrared and submillimetre z=2
0.01 z=3
bands. A brief summary of the report HIFI
z=5
SPIRE
edited by David Elbaz and Tom Wilson PACS z=7
is given here. 0.001 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 z = 12

1 cm 1 mm 10 2 µm 101 µm
The ESA/Herschel Satellite and the Ata­- Observed Wavelength
cama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) are
two large projects in astronomy to in­- Figure 1: A plot of the emission from the starburst sensitivity of ALMA. The lower dashed curve is for
galaxy M82 for different redshifts, z. The horizontal the 64-antenna ALMA and the upper dashed curve
vestigate the submillimetre and Far Infra­
axis is observed wavelength, the vertical axis is for a 6-antenna ALMA. PACS, SPIRE and HIFI
Red (FIR) range. Herschel covers the predicted flux density in mJy. The crosses show the are Herschel receiver bands. The ALMA bands are
wavelength range from 60 to 625 μm sensitivity of the Herschel bolometers. The dashed shown numbered.
(480–5000 GHz), while ALMA, an inter- lines at the left side of this diagram show the 5s
na­­tional project in which ESO has the
­Eu­ro­pean leadership, covers the range interstellar dust. The cocoons of form- M82, where the broadband radiation
320 μm to 1 cm (30–950 GHz). Both ing objects are deeply embedded within peaks in the FIR/submm. This is mostly
­Herschel and ALMA will come into oper­- gaseous dusty clouds where optical due to thermal radiation from dust. This
a­tion in similar timeframes. ALMA is extinction can be extremely large and continuum radiation is consistent with
planned to be completed in 2012, but prevents the study of these fundamental temperatures in the range 10–100 K. In the
‘early science’ operation will begin well processes with traditional optical tele- FIR/submm/mm there are also spectral
before this time. The launch of the scopes. However, cool material emits lines, mostly from molecular species, al-
Herschel satellite is planned for August submm and FIR radiation. By exploring though there are prominent atomic fine
2007 with an expected lifetime longer this wavelength range we can directly structure lines of various ionisation stages
than three years. Thus there should be measure physical phenomena associated of oxygen, carbon, silicon and nitrogen.
an overlap in the time when both are in with the formation process itself. The Objects like M82 were much more fre­
operation1. third question may seem less fundamen- quent in the past. With the full ALMA we
tal, but since FIR/submm telescopes expect to detect ‘M82-like’ objects even
Although the two facilities overlap in measure radiation from dust, an accurate at redshifts up to 12. As Figure 1 shows,
wavelength range they are ‘complemen- characterisation of dust properties is a if this SED is shifted in redshift, we wit-
tary’. They will lead to major advances prerequisite for answering the other two ness a peculiar ­effect, called the ‘nega-
in many fields of astronomy, especially questions. tive K-correction’, which greatly facilita­tes
those related to the origins of planets, the detection of high-redshift objects 
stars and galaxies. The crucial ­questions In the local Universe 30 % of the galax- at FIR/submm wavelength. The ­thermal
are: (1) How do galaxies form? (2) How ies emit in the FIR/submm because they spec­trum and charac­teristics of dust
do stars form? and (3) What is the life are dust enshrouded and forming stars. emission makes the observed flux density
cycle of a dust grain, and how does this This fraction grows steeply up to redshift constant at Herschel and ALMA wave-
depend on environment? The birth of z = 1−2 and flattens off at earlier times,  length range over a wide value of red-
planets, stars and galaxies is hidden by to z > 6, as inferred from the ­evolution of shifts. This Figure shows that the broad-
the cosmic luminosity density. This means band emission of sources such as
1
 description of the bilateral (North America-Eu-
A that at redshifts larger than 1 the popu­ M82 can be detect­ed with Herschel and
rope) ALMA is at http://www.alma.nrao.edu/
projectbk/construction/. Accounts of ALMA sci-
lation of galaxies dominating cosmic en­- the early science ALMA even at high red-
ence are in Shaver (1996) and Wootten (2001). ergetics is that of dusty starburst galax- shifts.
The web site for the Herschel project, including all ies, i.e. objects that are rapidly forming
instruments, is http://www.rssd.esa.int/Herschel/. stars. Our knowledge of the star-formation proc-
Accounts of Herschel and ALMA, some plans
for Herschel science, ALMA science and their syn­
ess is still very limited. Figure 2 shows
ergies are to be found in the Proceedings of “The Figure 1 shows the Spectral Energy Dis­- a sketch of the four stages of star forma-
Dusty and Molecular Universe” (ed. A. Wilson 2005). tribution (SED) of the starburst galaxy tion, from the collapse of a molecular

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 59


Other Astronomical News Andreani P. and Wilson T., The ALMA-Herschel Synergies

Figure 2: A sketch of the development of a low-mass and 6 and Band 3 in the bilateral ALMA project. With
protostar and its disc (after Charles Lada, Figures: the addition of Band 5 and Bands 4, 8 and 10, the
Michiel Hogerheijde). Above on the left side are coverage of ALMA receiver bands provides a solid
shown the wavelength coverage of the Herschel in- block in the uppermost part of the figure under
struments PACS, SPIRE and HIFI. The ALMA re­ ‘ALMA’. These will also fill the longer wavelength part
ceiver bands from left to right are Band 9, Bands 7 of Herschel HIFI coverage, marked ’HIFI’.

cloud to the formation of a star surround- PACS SPIRE Class O


(main accretion phase)
ed by a disc. Cloud collapse requires
HIFI Size: 10 000 AU
high interstellar gas densities and low ALMA t=0
kinetic temperatures. The starting point is
a gravitationally-bound ‘pre-stellar core’. 1
For column densities N > 1018 cm−2 and 0
Class I
(late accretion phase)
densities n > 10 2 cm−3, interstellar gas –1 ???
Size: 8 000 AU
consists mostly of molecular hydrogen, Log F
–2 t = 10 4 –10 5 yr
H2 and helium. This is a molecular cloud.
The H2 molecule does not produce 2

emission lines if kinetic temperatures are 0


below ~ 100 K and there are no shock –2 Class II
(optically thick discs)
waves. Then the abundances of the H2 0 1 2 3 Size: 200 AU
molecules must be traced indirectly. At Log (µm) t = 10 5 –10 6 yr
high density, in cold clouds, grain prop­
erties change and constituents of the gas 1
will condense onto grains. From millime- 0
tre-submm maps the mass distribution of –1
Star Disc
pre-stellar cores is remarkably similar to –2 Class III
Log F

(debris discs?)
the Initial Mass Function. These pre-stel-
0 Size: 200 AU
lar cores begin to collapse as the result of t = 10 6 –107 yr
processes which may involve ambipolar –1 Star
diffusion, the dissipation of turbulence, or –2 Disc
an outside impulse. Once begun, the 0 1 2 3
gravitational collapse is rapid, ending in Log (µm)
the formation of a hydrostatically-sup-
ported protostar in the centre. During the istry. The higher angular resolution of of abundances on scales finer than a few
main accretion phase, the central object ALMA images will help to refine the analy- arc seconds and thus the true source
plus an accretion disc gradually builds sis of models based on Herschel data. averaged abundances of species which
up its mass from a surrounding ­envelope The final result will be the distribution of are those needed for chemistry models.
of matter while progressively ­warming. H2, selected atoms, molecules and dust,
The protostar evolves from the Class 0 as well as their dynamics. ALMA data alone and Herschel data alone
phase, in which the mass of the envel- will be a great step forward. A combined
ope is much greater than the mass of the The Herschel PACS and SPIRE bolom- ALMA-Herschel data set will be a tremen-
protostar + disc, through the Class I stage, eter systems are well suited to surveying dous advance. A number of conditions
in which the mass of the protostar + disc rather large regions of the sky, where- must be fulfilled to combine Herschel and
becomes greater than the mass of the as ALMA can provide high sensitivity, ALMA data sets. First, the calibrations
surrounding envelope, to the Class II high angular resolution images in spectral for both instruments and cross calibration
stage, in which material in the envelope line and continuum, but these will usual- must be well determined and ­consistent.
becomes sufficiently rarified that the ly be limited to a few arc minutes in size, This will require a rather extensive set of
protostar becomes visible to traditional at most. ALMA and Herschel/HIFI are Herschel measurements and subsquent-
optical telescopes. These phases can  heterodyne instruments, and will be able ly, accurate models of the calibra­tion
be distinguished by the shape of the FIR/ to resolve even the narrowest lines in sources. The signal-to-noise ratios must
submm SED. ­velocity. Thus, ALMA is better suited be excellent and the angular sizes of
to be a follow-up instrument for Herschel the calibrators well determined. This may
With broadband data from Herschel/ surveys. Such follow-ups could be in restrict calibrators to Solar System ob-
SPIRE and Herschel/PACS the SED CO lines, to determine the redshifts of jects. Herschel cannot observe sources
shortward of the peak of the luminosity sources detected in the dust ­continu- closer to the Sun than Earth, because
curve will be measured, with ALMA the um, or in broad-band continuum to ­pro- of Sun avoidance. Also the detectors will
longer wavelength part, so the total lumi- vide the component of spectral energy saturate when observing intense sources,
nosity will be measured with accuracy. distributions at longer wavelengths. For so the calibrations may have to be done
The Herschel spectrometers will measure spectral lines, ALMA will be complemen- using the emission from asteroids such
the fine structure lines of atomic spe- tary to Herschel because of different as Vesta, Ceres, moons of outer ­planets,
cies and rotational and vibrational transi- frequency ranges and attenuation in the or smaller planets such as Uranus, Nep­
tions of molecular species, without ab- Earth’s atmosphere of most lines of water tune or Pluto. PACS and SPIRE cross
sorption in the Earth’s atmosphere. This vapour. The higher angular resolution of calibration with ALMA will be more com-
is especially important for water vapour ALMA provides high-resolution images of plex because the bandwidths of these
lines, whose abundance has a strong in- many spectral lines and allows better instruments are much larger than those
fluence on the energy balance and chem- estimates of source sizes, the variations possible with ALMA.

60 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


For any spectral line surveys with Her- ing time as soon as possible to meas- Dominique Bockelée-Morvan (Paris),
schel, follow-up measurements with ure variable sources, newly discovered José Cernicharo (Madrid), Pierre Cox
ALMA will greatly increase the scientific sources, peculiar objects or in general to (­Grenoble), Carlos De Breuck (ESO),
value. However, it must be stressed perform a complete follow-up both in line Ewine van Dishoeck (Leiden), David ­Elbaz,
that this requires Herschel surveys to be and continuum of selected fields. Maryvonne Gerin (Paris), Robert Laing
as complete as possible. (ESO), Emmanuel Lellouch (Paris), Göran
The data sets that will be produced by Pilbratt (ESA), Peter ­Schilke (Bonn),
For an efficient synergy, ESA should de- Herschel and ALMA will be so large that Christoffel Waelkens (Leuven), Tom ­Wilson
vote Herschel time to Legacy projects, there may have to be special data-re- and Martin Zwaan (ESO).
i.e. projects of large interest for the com- duction procedures to insure the opti-
munity, starting soon after the science mal synergy. The analysis and compari-
verification phase and/or during the very sons with models will have to be made References
early Herschel lifetime. It should make on an automatic basis without human Schöier F. et al. 2005, A&A 432, 369
data available to the community as soon intervention. Such computer analysis pro- Shaver P. 1996, Science with Large Millimeter
as possible, and provide access to data- grams have been developed by Schöier Arrays, Springer Verlag.
reduction tools and calibration. This et al. (2005), for example, but these must Wilson A. 2005, The Dusty and Molecular Universe
ESA-SP577, ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands
would be the case for Herschel surveys be further developed to accommodate Wootten A. 2001, Science with the Atacama Large
of Galactic and extragalactic sources, in the very large data sets that will be pro- Millimeter Array (ALMA), ASP Conference Series,
continuum and spectroscopy. duced by ALMA and Herschel in the near Vol. CS 235
future.
Most efficient would be a scheme in which
ESO reacts quickly to Herschel data. It The contributors to the scientific ­content
would be useful to allocate ALMA observ- of the report are: Paola Andreani (Trieste),

ESO at AAAS

Claus Madsen (ESO)

Photo: E. Janssen, ESO


Even casual observers of ESO will have no­-
ticed a steady increase in public visibility for
our organisation and its projects over the
recent years. This increase is the result of a
many-sided but focussed effort in public
­communication about ESO. Entertaining infor-
mation stands at key fairs and conferences
are part of this effort, and ESO’s presence
at this year’s Annual Meeting of the American
Association for the Advancement of ­Science –
though a ‘first’ for us – is therefore no coin-
cidence. This meeting is arguably the largest
gathering of its kind worldwide. Indeed, no
other event manages to attract more science
journalists including a substantial number
from Europe, which is certainly one of the rea­
sons why more European organisations have
begun to think about participating. Another
reason is that the annual AAAS meetings pro-
vide plenty of opportunities for exchanges be­- gatherings, but nonetheless it featured near- Dr. Herbert Münder
tween American and European scientists and ly 200 symposia, plenary and topical lectures, (middle), one of the or-
ganisers of Eurosci-
science policy makers. in-depth seminars, poster presentations,
ence Open Forum 2006,
ca­­reer workshops, etc. in addition to a major at the ESO stand.
This year’s meeting took place on 16–20 Feb­- exhibition. ESO’s 30 sq m information stand
ruary at America’s Center in St Louis, Mis- was located in the main exhibition hall, lo-
souri. With an estimated 4 000 participants cated near the stands of the National Science
this meeting was one of the ‘smaller’ AAAS Foundation and the European Commission.

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 61


Other Astronomical News

Latin American Summer School:


A Key Event for Future Astronomers

Gonzalo Argandoña, Felix Mirabel (ESO)

Photos: I. Lemus, ESO (2)


More than 200 students gathered in De-
cember at ESO-Vitacura for the first
multi-thematic Latin American Astronomy
Summer School, organised jointly by
ESO and the Chilean Astronomical Soci-
ety (SOCHIAS).

From 8 to 10 December, enthusiastic stu-


dents and young researchers from 18 dif-
ferent countries had the chance to review
important front-line areas of re­search, pre­
sented by major players of those fields.

“Given the large interest in attendance,


this summer school could possibly turn Other speakers were Gloria Dubner The first multi-thematic Latin American Astronomy
Summer School generated large interest among stu­-
out to be one of those meetings of his- (IAFE/CONICET, Argentina), Luis Felipe
dents. At the centre of the picture, some of the
torical significance for the development Rodríguez (UNAM, Mexico), Felix Mirabel speakers (from left to right): Gloria Dubner (IAFE /
of astronomy in South America”, com- (ESO, Chile) and Monica Rubio (SOCH- CONICET, Argentina); Pat Osmer (Ohio State Uni­
mented Bob Williams (STScI, USA), one IAS, Chile). versity, USA); Luis Felipe Rodríguez (UNAM, Mexico);
Felix Mirabel (ESO); Bob Williams (STScI, USA);
of the invited speakers, at the opening
Malcolm Longair (Cambridge University, UK) and
of the event. This event was the perfect preamble to Dante Minniti (PUC, Chile).
the 11th Latin American Regional Meet­-
Besides the large number of students ing of the International Astronomical
from Chile, other countries well repre­ Union (IAU), held just the week after, on
sented among the attendees were those 12–16 December in Pucon, Chile.
from Latin America with longer ­traditions
in astronomical research, such as Argen­ Given the outstanding success of the
tina, Mexico and Brazil. Even students sum­mer school and its considerable im­-
from countries with incipient departments pact on the education of future astron­
of astrophysics – such as Honduras omers from Latin America, it is now be­-
or Gua­temala – were also present at the ing proposed that such multi-thematic
conference. Finally, young researchers schools should take place associated Professor Bob Williams (former director of STScI,
from Europe attended too, attracted by with the future Regional Meetings of the USA) stimulated young researchers with the pos-
the series of powerful astronomical facili- IAU. sibilities for research on the distant, early Universe.
ties operating in northern Chile.

In the first day of the event, Malcolm


Longair (Cambridge University, UK) pre­
sented an overview of the history of 20th-
century cosmology, complemented in
the following days by talks on the most
luminous radio galaxies, physics of gal-
axy formation and the cosmic microwave
background.

Pat Osmer (Ohio State University, USA)


offered a series of talks about quasars,
while Dante Minniti (Pontificia ­Universidad
Católica, Chile) described in detail pres-
ent and future methods for the search
for extrasolar planets as well as current
mod­els for planetary formation.

62 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Report on the Conference on

Groups of Galaxies in the Nearby Universe


held in Santiago de Chile, 5–9 December 2006

Ivo Saviane, Valentin D. Ivanov,


Jura Borissova (ESO)

Number of Galaxies per Group per Bin


10
For every galaxy in the field or in clusters,
there are about three galaxies in groups.
Therefore, the evolution of most galax­-
ies actually happens in groups. The Milky
Way resides in a group, and groups can
be found at high redshift. The ­current
generation of 10-m-class telescopes and 1
space facilities allows us to study mem-
bers of nearby groups with exquisite de-
tail, and their properties can be corre-
lated with the global properties of their L x < 41.7 Log (erg s –1)
L x > 41.7 Log (erg s –1)
host group. Finally, groups are relevant
for cosmology, since they trace large-
–22 –20 –18 –16 –14
scale structures better than clusters, and
Absolute Magnitude (M B )
the evolution of groups and clusters may
be related.
Figure 1: Cumulative B-band luminosity function of
25 GEMS groups of galaxies grouped into X-ray-
Strangely, there are three times fewer pa­-
bright and X-ray-faint categories, fitted with one or
pers on groups of galaxies than on ­clus­- two Schechter functions, respectively (Miles et
ters of galaxies, as revealed by an ADS al. 2004, MNRAS 355, 785; presented by Raychaud-
search. Organising this conference was a hury). Mergers could explain the bimodality of the
luminosity function of X-ray-faint groups.
way to focus the attention of the com-
munity on the galaxy groups. We also
wanted to offer a venue where people All you wanted to know about groups The evolution of low-velocity ­dispersion
coming from various research fields could (but were afraid to ask) groups is dominated by mergers, which
meet and discuss groups from ­differ- could explain the bimodal mass func-
ent perspectives. All this happened in a Groups are bound structures with tion of the X-ray-faint groups (X-ray-faint
friendly atmosphere created by Hotel Tor­- masses in the range M = 1012–14 MA (Eke), groups tend to have low-velocity disper­
remayor in Santiago. containing less than fifty galaxies (Conse- sion, and vice versa), if intermediate-
lice), and with typical sizes of a few Mpc. mass members merge to build the largest
The discussion was organised in seven Groups detected in X-rays have luminos- group members (Raychaudhury). The bi-
sessions, introduced by invited reviews: ities of L X = 10 41–43 erg sec –1 and gas modal mass function (see Figure 1), simi-
Eva Grebel (Local Group versus Near­- temperatures of kT = 0.1–3 keV (­Ponman). lar to that of clusters, is confirmed in
by Groups), Vince Eke (Groups Searches Most of the stellar mass in the present compact groups (Bomans). Compared to
and Surveys), Chris Conselice (The Evo- Universe is in groups ­similar to the Lo­cal compact groups, the loose ones tend to
lution of Galaxies in Groups – Obser­ Group with masses ~ 2 × 1012 MA and have fewer low-mass members.
vations), Gary Mamon (The Evolution of only 2 % is in clusters with M > 5 × 1014 MA
Galaxies in Groups – Theory), Ann Zab- (Eke). Groups were already present at The results presented here were obtained
ludoff (Evolution of Groups as Systems), redshifts z > 1 (Conselice). Cosmological thanks to large observational efforts
Trevor Ponman (Interstellar Medium and simulations predict a much larger num- (Table 1). Historically, the first group cata­-
Intragroup Medium), Stefano Borgani ber of galaxy satellites than observed, and logues were biased toward compact
(Groups in a Cosmological context), and H i high-velocity clouds cannot fill in this groups, which are the easiest to identify
finally Ken Freeman (Conference Sum- gap (Pisano). Groups follow a fundamen- from im­aging surveys. Modern redshift
mary). There were almost 50 contributed tal plane (Muriel), and the most massive surveys allow selections including reces-
talks and 30 posters. Most speakers ones have an X-ray halo with an extended sion ve­locities, and finding algorithms
agreed to share their presentations with component (Zabludoff). can be tested on mock catalogues gen-
the astronomical community at http:// erated with dark matter (DM) simulations
www.sc.eso.org/santiago/science/NGG/ A special class of groups are the so- (Eke).
finalprogram.html. Here we give a short called ‘fossil groups’ – isolated ellipticals
summary of the main conference ideas, with properties similar to a group, which
mostly based on the invited reviews. could be the final stage of a collapsed Galaxies in groups
group. However, most isolated ellipticals
are not collapsed groups (Forbes). There Galaxies in groups can be affected by
are only 15 fossil groups known to date. proc­esses like ram pressure stripping, in­­-

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 63


Other Astronomical News Saviane I. et al., Conference on Groups of Galaxies in the Nearby Universe

Table 1: Summary of the state-of-the-art group catalogues and surveys discussed at the meeting.

Name Description Reference


160 and 400 square-degree ROSAT 14 groups were studied to compute the mass and compare mass-to-light ratios Vikhlinin et al. 1998, ApJ 502, 558
surveys with simulations (presented by A. Hornstrup)
2PIGG (2dFGRS Percolation-Inferred The largest available homogeneous sample of galaxy groups, public Eke et al. 2004, MNRAS 348, 866
Galaxy Group) catalogue
ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast Alfa Large-scale survey of extragalactic H i over 7000 square degrees of sky, up to Giovanelli 2005, AAS 207, #192.03
(= Arecibo L-Band Feed Array)) survey cz = 18 000 km/s. Spectral resolution is 5 km/s. It can detect H i clouds with more
than 107 M A throughout most of the Local Supercluster
AMIGA project (Analysis of the Inter- Multiwavelength database of isolated galaxies, including optical (B and Ha), Verdes-Montenegro et al. 2005, A&A
stellar Medium of Isolated Galaxies) infrared (FIR and NIR) and radio (continuum plus H i and CO lines) 436, 443
CNOC2 (Canadian Network for Obser- Spectroscopically selected catalogue of 200 groups at intermediate redshift over Carlberg et al. 2001, ApJ 552, 427
vational Cosmology) survey 1.5 square degrees on the sky
GEMS (Group Evolution Multiwave- Catalogue of 60 galaxy groups at 15–130 Mpc distance. Plus: X-ray (ROSAT presented by Forbes
length Study) project PSPC 10 000 sec, 1.5 degrees), optical imaging (0.5 degrees), Parkes H i mapping
(5.5 degrees), ATCA H i follow-up, 6 dFGS spectra, 2 MASS K-band photometry,
XMM/Chandra imaging, Mock catalogues
H i survey of six loose groups Observations of six spiral-rich, loose groups between 10.6–13.4 Mpc, presented by Pisano
over 25–35 square degrees: Parkes Multibeam and ATCA; Mass sensitivity
of 5–8 x 10 5 M A
LVHIS (Local Volume H i Survey) H i imaging of all nearby (distance less that 10 Mpc), gas-rich galaxies; presented by Koribalski
deep 20-cm radio continuum imaging with ATCA and VLA; deep H-band and
Ha imaging
Sharc (Serendipitous High-redshift 638 ROSAT PSPC observations with |b| > 20 degrees and exposure time greater Romer et al. 2000, ApJS 126, 209
Archival ROSAT Cluster) survey than 10 000 seconds; total 178.6 square degrees; found the most distant fossil (presented by F. Durret)
group at z = 0.59

teractions and harassment, mergers, at lower redshifts. ­Mergers occur mostly gas become part of the intragroup
group tidal field, gas loss and suppressed at redshifts z > 1: for example at z = 2.5 ­environment. Eventually, common dark
star formation (also known as strangu- about 50 % of bright galaxies are un- matter and hot (X-ray) gas halos are
lation or suffocation). Merging is the most der­going mergers, while today only 2 %  formed (Zabludoff). The X-ray emission
important of them because of the low of galaxies merge per Gyr (Conselice).  increases, and the X-ray halo becomes
relative velocities of galaxies in groups in Most of the stars in group members also more and more regular. Later, the dif-
comparison with the galaxies in clusters. formed between redshifts z = 2.5 and 1. fuse DM distribution will reduce the mer­
Simulations show that mergers induce an ger rate and moderate the evolution of
intense and brief (of the or­der of a hun- Locally, environmental effects can be groups. At least a fraction of groups end
dred Myrs) surge of star formation before traced directly by reconstructing star-for- their lives as fossil groups.
the final coalescence into a spheroid, mation histories of individual galaxies.
which evolves passively afterwards. Simul- For example, the fraction of intermediate- Most low-redshift groups are just detach-
taneously, mergers transfer momentum age stars of Milky Way dwarf satellites ing from the Hubble flow, as suggested
from the interacting galaxies to the group depends on their distance from the by the time evolution of the virial mass-to-
as a whole, thereby in­creasing the group Galaxy. On the contrary, this fraction is light ratio (Mamon). In particular, the de­
velocity dispersion. Indeed, observa- constant in M81 satellites (Da Costa), tachment for the Local Group occurred at
tions show that there are more spheroids probably due to the compactness of the z < 0.7 (Freeman). The mass-tempera-
in groups with higher velocity dispersion M81 group, where multiple close en- ture and mass-luminosity distributions in
(Zabludoff). counters have homogenised their star- the X-rays for clusters and groups can
formation histories. constrain the cosmological parameters
Eventually, the feedback from the resid­- (Borgani).
ual black-hole and active galactic nucleus
(AGN) reduces the star formation by a The evolution of groups To summarise, as a group evolves, the
factor of ten or more. At least 50 % of gal­- dwarf-to-giant ratio, early-type galaxy
axies in compact groups are low-lumi- The origin of groups is probably related fraction, intragroup starlight and metal-
nosity AGNs (Martinez), while the field to large-scale gaseous filaments at licity, the velocity dispersion, and the
fraction is only 30 %. Moreover, the cores high redshift. Before virialisation, smooth mass of the central giant elliptical grow.
of X-ray groups are often disturbed, which accretion, supernovae and AGN acti- The metallicity of the intragroup medium
could be additional evidence for AGN vity enhance the entropy, and the metal- also increases thanks to the intragroup
feedback (O’Sullivan). The selective sup- enriched gas cannot be retained by the stars, whose ejecta do not have to over-
pression of star formation in larger group shallow potential of pre-collapse groups come galactic potential wells (Zabludoff).
members could explain the downsizing (Ponman, Borgani). During the viriali-
phenomenon – the decrease of the maxi- sation, the central spheroidals grow via Observations are consistent with this sce­
mum luminosity of star-­forming galaxies mergers. Early-type stars and enriched nario. As mentioned above, groups with

64 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


higher velocity dispersions have higher
fractions of early-type galaxies. And the
intragroup medium can be responsible 0.6
for stripping, e.g. of NGC 2276 in the
NGC 2300 group (Ponman). In turn, strip-
ping enhances the fraction of passive
Spiral Fraction
galaxies in groups. Further observational 0.4
support for this evolutionary scheme
are the constant radial profiles of velocity
dispersion, which point to a common
DM halo. Next, if the early enrichment his­- 0.2
tory of the intragroup gas is dominated 
by type II supernovae, and the late histo-
ry by type Ia supernovae, then this could
explain the observed decrease of the 0
overall metallicity toward the outskirts of 0 1 2
the group, and the alpha-enhancement Log Surface Density (Mpc –2)

in the outer parts of groups (­Rasmussen) Figure 2: Spiral fraction (including irregulars) as a merging rates, respectively (for clarity the error bars
because the early ejecta had time to function of surface den­sity (averaged over radial bins). are omitted from these points). Direct type mergers
spread across the group. The histogram represents the local clusters, and the in groups convert late-type galaxies into spheroidal
open circles with error bars are the group data. galaxies more efficiently than grazing mergers in
Crossed and shaded circles represent group points clusters (Helsdon and Ponman 2003, MNRAS 339,
after estimated corrections for 3D density and L29; presented by Mamon).
Groups and clusters of galaxies
ter light in Virgo probably originates in These few paragraphs can only give a
It was realised during the conference that tid­al interactions inside group-size struc- brief sense of the stimulating discussion
groups are important for the evolution tures (Mihos), favoured by their low veloc- during the five days of the conference,
of clusters as well. Clusters may grow by ity dispersion. Since tidal features are and we hope that all participants went
accretion of groups, as exemplified by erased as clusters evolve, the presence away with fresh views on the current sta-
the Eridanus Super-group infalling toward of such features would indicate that tus of galaxy groups studies. The pro-
Fornax (Brough). Therefore, some cluster the cluster is dynamically young, still ‘frag- ceedings will be published later this year
properties might be explained by groups, mented’ in groups. in the ESO Astrophysics Symposia series.
such as the X-ray medium, high dwarf-
to-giant galaxy ratio, brightest cluster gal- Although mergers can happen both in
axies, and the early-type galaxy frac- clusters and groups, the high veloci- Acknowledgements
tion (especially in more massive groups). ty dispersion in clusters leads to less ef- We would like to express our gratitude to the mem-
ficient orbital-decay-type mergers, while bers of the SOC, and especially to the SOC chair
Likewise, the evolution of galaxies in clus- more efficient, direct head-on mergers Duncan Forbes, for their efforts that made it possible
ters might be dominated by group-scale are common in groups, especially the to organise this meeting. Last but not least, the
­success of the conference would have been impos-
environment, driving e.g. the morphology- evolved, X-ray bright ones (Mamon). This sible without the excellent work of Maria Eugenia
environment relation, the Butcher-Oemler can explain the higher fraction of early- Gómez, Paulina Jiron and Ismael Martínez, and the
effect, and the brightest cluster galax- type galaxies in this class of groups com- financial ­sup­port of ESO.
ies formation. For example, the in­traclus­- pared to the field and clusters (Figure 2).

Almost all conference participants


can be seen in this photograph, taken
in the hotel frontyard. The excep­-
tion is Valentin Ivanov, who’s taking
the picture!

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 65


Other Astronomical News

Fellows at ESO

Gaël Chauvin Emmanuel Galliano (left)


and Gaël Chauvin (right).
After studying for five years microelectronics
and nuclear physics to become an engineer, I
finally changed my mind in fall 1999 to join the
small world of Astronomy. With a master of
Astrophysics ob­tained in Grenoble (France), I
started a thesis based on a double scientific
approach: stellar physics and instrumentation.

A first part of my work was then de­dicated to


the study of the environment of nearby stars,
to search for planetary discs and substel-
lar companions. As this implies searching for
very faint objects close to bright stars, I got
­involved into the development of high-contrast
and high-angular-resolution instrumentation.
I joined the group integrating and testing the Emmanuel Galliano ty was hoping that the VLTI would finally prove
adaptive optics (AO) system of the NACO in- the existence of one of the key pieces in the
strument, now installed at the Paranal Observ- Six years have passed since I arrived in Chile. AGN model: the so-called dusty torus. A new
atory. Later on, with the NACO commission- Time flew so quickly and I almost never felt ­exciting field in my research area was about
ing and the defense of my thesis, I naturally that I had to leave Latin ­America to return to to take off, and this would happen at ESO.
came to Chile in December 2003 in order to Europe. It must be because I feel I still have This motivated my application for a ­fellowship
start an ESO fellowship position. a lot to learn from the people of this side of the in the VLTI team. My duties on Paranal have
world: they probably know better than any now been for two years to make starlight in­-
Within the Paranal Science Operation Group, other folk how to connect with their emotions. terfere, with the most advanced technology
I now work mainly with infrared instruments available. I broaden my observing skills in the
(coupled to AO). This position offers me the Thanks to ESO, I could discover the magic of most fascinating way.
great opportunity to develop constantly an Latin America while fulfilling a professional
important observing and instrumental expe- dream, to be an astronomer. In 1999, I came In Santiago, I can focus on my favourite re-
rience. This is necessary for my own astro- to Chile for the first time to participate in the search topics: active galactic nuclei and
physical work, now focused on the direct de­- Denis Survey, thanks to Pascal Fouqué. I con- the still mysterious embedded clusters: these
tection of exoplanets and brown dwarf com- sider it a privilege that I could start learning bright sources, only visible in the infrared,
panions and the study of their fundamental astronomical observation with a ‘small’ 1‑m and thought to be the an­cestors of globular
physical parameters, the chemical properties telescope, having everything under control. I clusters. Nothing but the ­cutting-edge infrared
of their cool atmosphere, as well as their ori- then started a Ph.D. project with Danielle Alloin ­technology offered by the VLT allows study-
gin of for­mation. at ESO/Santiago. During three years I mainly ing these objects. I guess this project has a
tried to clarify the distribution of dust and mol- nice future since ESO gives me the opportu­
This experience also offers me the great ecules around active galactic nuclei (AGN). ni­ty to spend my fourth year at La Universidad
chance to fulfill a personal dream, to live de Chile, where I can apply for Chilean VLT
abroad, immersing myself in a foreign cul- At that time, operations with the interferometer ob­serving time.
ture and knowing other people. of the VLT were about to start. The communi-

Science in School launched

The new quarterly European journal for sci- a wide range of topics from astronomy and
ence education, “Science in School”, was physics to chemistry and biology. It also con­-
launched at the European Molecular Biology tains articles on student’s perceptions of sci-
Laboratory in Heidelberg, on 28 March 2006. ence and technology, on the teaching of
After “Science on Stage” this journal con­ ‘process skills’, book reviews and other edu-
stitutes the second element of the EIROforum cation-related topics.
European Science Teachers’ Initiative (ESTI),
which itself is part of a broader effort by “Science in School” is available online and in
the European Commission together with printed form. Visit http://www.scienceinschool.
EIROforum and other partners to stimulate in- org/ to find out more and view the first issue
novative science teaching in Europe’s primary which includes an article about 24 hours in the
and secondary schools. The first issue has life of the VLT and Paranal.
no less than 92 full-colour pages and covers

66 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Announcements

The UKIDSS Early Data Release

Steve Warren (Imperial College London), tometric system is described by Hewett filter, for each survey. In good conditions
Simon Dye (Cardiff University), et al. (2006), who also provide synthetic the shallow surveys LAS and GCS, use
Nigel Hambly (University of Edinburgh), colours of a wide range of stars, galaxies, 40 s integration per band, so the depths
on behalf of the UKIDSS consortium and quasars. are similar, but depend on seeing, sky
brightness, and transparency. The GPS
UKIDSS data releases are made available uses 40 s in K and 80 s in J and H. We
The first release of data from the UKIRT at the WSA http://surveys.roe.ac.uk /wsa. have not attempted to define the depth
Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Any astronomer at an institution in an for the GPS because crowding means
took place on 10 February 2006. The da- ESO member state may access the data that it is difficult to assess, but nominally
ta are proprietary to astronomers in ESO as soon as it is released. Because ESO it is quite similar to that for the LAS and
states, for 18 months, before release to astronomers have proprietary access to GCS. With the UDS, which covers a sin­-
the world. This Early Data Release (EDR) the data for 18 months, there is a sys- gle tile (4 WFCAM pointings), 0.8 sq degs,
comprises mostly data observed in May tem of registration, which is explained in the depth will steadily accumulate, and in
and June 2005. Although the EDR rep- Lawrence and Warren (2005). Responsi­ any band at any time is defined by a sin-
resents a very small fraction of the com- bility for the registration process is de­- gle number (although there are slight vari-
plete UKIDSS 7-year plan, it is already volved to volunteers who act as the ‘com- ations over the field due to variable q.e.
large compared to existing surveys, and munity contact’ for an institution. A list of the detectors). The DXS, on the other
will be valuable for science exploitation. of institutions with community contacts is hand, is made up of tens of tiles, each
maintained at http://www.ukidss.org/ ac­cumulating depth at a different rate. A
UKIDSS has been covered by two pre- archive/archive.html. Astronomers who range of depths is therefore quoted for
vious articles in The Messenger. The wish to be registered and who have a the DXS.
first (Warren 2002) described the goals community contact should ask their con-
and the design of the surveys (depths, tact to provide a username and pass- Figure 1 illustrates some of the EDR data.
areas, fields – which have since changed word. Those without a contact need to The two plots are the YJK and JHK two‑
somewhat). The second (Lawrence find a volunteer, who should then follow colour diagrams for all the stellar sources 
and Warren 2005) explained how to the instructions at the above link. in the LAS, plotting objects detected at
obtain data that have been released, from S/N > 15. Overplotted is the sequence of
the WFCAM Sci­ence Archive (WSA) i.e. synthetic colours of stars from the BPGS
the registra­tion process. We briefly review The contents of the EDR atlas, computed by Hewett et al. (2006).
this information, and then give an over-
view of the contents of the EDR. Details of the contents of the EDR are The progress of the surveys, and a com­-
provided in Dye et al. (2006), including a parison against 2MASS, is made in an
UKIDSS is an ESO public survey pro- summary of the results of the quality con- interesting way in Figure 2. For sky-lim-
gramme, and comprises five large near- trol (QC) procedures. The paper also in- ited observations in the K-band, the time
infrared surveys, that together will col- cludes relevant background information, to reach depth K is proportional to 10(0.8 K).
lect about 100 times as many photons as sufficient to understand the character- One can therefore think of the quantity
2MASS, and survey about 20 times the istics of the data, including details about area × 10(0.8 K) as being proportional to
volume. The UKIDSS programme is set WFCAM, and the data-reduction pipeline, the number of photons collected. A relat-
out in detail in Lawrence et al. (2006) (see as well as a guide to exploiting the WSA. ed argument, for Euclidian space, leads
also http://www.ukidss.org). The sur­veys to the conclusion that the quantity ar-
are currently focused on achieving a A bare summary of the contents of the ea × 10(0.6 K) is proportional to the volume
set of goals to be reached before the end EDR is provided in Table 1 which lists area surveyed. By multiplying by the num-
of 2007, the ‘2-year plan’. The three extra- covered, and mean depth (5s, Vega), by ber of filters, and then normalising to the
gal­actic surveys cover complementa-
ry combinations of area and depth, run- Survey Area (sq degs) Filter Depth Frac. 2-yr plan
ning successively deeper from the Large LAS 28.2 Y 20.2 0.014
Area Survey (LAS), which is contained J 19.5
within the SDSS footprint, through the H 18.7
K 18.1
Deep Extragalactic Survey (DXS), to the
GPS 7.2 J 0.009
Ultra Deep Survey (UDS). There are  H
two more wide, shallow surveys target- K
ing areas of the Milky Way; the Galactic Table 1: Summary of EDR depths and
GCS 15.4 Z 20.3 0.043
areas for the five surveys, and fraction-
Plane Survey (GPS) and the Galactic Y 19.9
al completeness of the two-year plan.
Clus­ters Survey (GCS). The surveys use J 19.4
Depths are not quoted for the GPS,
H 18.8
the UKIRT Wide Field Camera (WFCAM), K 18.1
as noted in the text. The EDR includes
the world’s most powerful camera-and- data with seeing > 1?, whereas most
DXS 2.4 J 20.9–21.7 0.072 survey-quality (i.e. DR1) data should
telescope combination for near-infrared K 20.2–20.6 be better than this. Therefore the depth
surveys. Each survey uses some or all of UDS 0.8 J 22.3 0.044 achieved in DR1 may improve slightly
the broadband filter set ZYJHK. The pho- K 21.1 over EDR.

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 67


Announcements Warren S. et al., The UKIDSS Early Data Release

2MASS values, we can compare the size


of the EDR against 2MASS in terms of
photons and volume. The results are plot-
ted in the figure. Summing over the 0 0
surveys we see that the EDR is about as
large as 2MASS in terms of photons ­col-
lected. Also shown are the two-year

J–H
Y–J
goals, i.e. where UKIDSS aims to be by
the end of 2007. The final column in
Table 1 shows the fractional completion
of the two‑year plan in terms of photons, 1
by survey. 1

Within UKIDSS we consider the EDR to


be a small prototype sample, provid­ed 0 1
to the community as a stepping stone to- 0 1 H–K
wards the goal of prompt release of sur- J–H
vey quality data. The data have passed a
set of QC procedures. Some details of Figure 1: Two-colour diagrams for stellar sources, black track shows the predicted colours of quasars
with colour errors on each axis < 0.1 in the LAS 0 < z < 8, at intervals of z of 0.1, with z = 0 marked
the pipeline (including treatment of arte-
portion of the EDR. The large blue symbols show by the hexagon. There are some 80 000 points in
facts) and QC procedures are still being the synthetic colours computed from the BPGS atlas each plot. The nature of the small fraction of outliers
refined, in preparation for the first large by Hewett et al. (2006), the large green symbols has not been checked yet in detail, and many may
release of survey-quality data in the sum- mark the computed colours of M stars, and the be spurious.
mer of 2006, called Data Release 1 (DR1,
we have copied the SDSS nomencla-
ture). We would expect most, but not all,
of the EDR to satisfy our final survey QC
procedures.

As explained in Dye et al. (2006) the EDR


release includes all fields observed, that
pass QC, and where the full filter com- 100
plement exists. There is an additional
database included in the release, but in All
the background, called EDR+. This con-
tains fields that pass QC, but where 
the filter complement is incomplete. The
paper contains an explanation of how to LAS
Photons UKIDSS/2MASS

10 UDS
access the EDR+ database as well. GPS
DXS
The DR1 release is scheduled to take
GCS
place this summer, and will be an order
of magnitude larger. We will provide a 2MASS
All
similar paper, and Messenger article, to 1
accompany the release.
UDS
DXS
References
LAS
Dye S. et al. 2006, MNRAS, submitted 0.1 GCS
Hewett P. C. et al. 2006, MNRAS, in press Figure 2: Comparison of the UKIDSS
Lawrence A., Warren S. J., Almaini O. 2006, GPS EDR (blue sym­bols) and two-year plan
MNRAS, submitted (cerise symbols) against 2MASS, in
Lawrence A., Warren S. J. 2005, The Messenger terms of number of photons detected,
119, 56 0.01 0.1 1 10 and volume surveyed, computed as
Warren S. J. 2002, The Messenger 108, 31 Volume UKIDSS/2MASS described in the text.

68 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Scisoft VI

Richard Hook (ST-ECF/ESO) We are pleased to announce the avail- collection may be requested on DVD. Re-
and the Scisoft Team ability of Scisoft VI (April 2006). This new quests for DVDs should be made through
version of the collection includes many the request form on the same web page
updates and additional packages and al­- or by email to scisoft_­request@eso.org.
Scisoft is a collection of astronomical so incorporates some new features.
software intended mostly for ESO users Scisoft VI was built on, and intended to The next release of Scisoft will be Sci-
but also distributed to other interested be used on, Fedora Core 3 Linux, but soft VII at the end of 2006. This ver-
parties. It includes most of the pack- is likely to run on similar modern Linux sion will include a selection of virtual ob­
ages needed by working observational systems. We no longer maintain a version serv­atory tools as well as many other
astronomers with an emphasis on those of Scisoft for other architectures such as new features.
widely used for handling optical and Solaris or HPUX but an independent
infrared data sets. It is installed on all the version for Mac OSX, maintained outside Scisoft is a collaboration between many
standard scientific computers running ESO, is also available. people at ESO. I would particularly like to
Linux at ESO Garching. More complete thank Alexis Huxley, formerly with Terma
details, including a list of software that Scisoft VI can be either downloaded from at ESO, for his very diligent and thorough
is included in the bundle, can be found at the ESO ftp site, by following the link on help with the technical aspects of the re­-
www.eso.org/scisoft. the web page given above, or the entire ­lease.

Workshop on

Deep Impact as a World Observatory Event – Synergies in


Space, Time, and Wavelength
7–10 August 2006, Palace of the Royal Academy for Science and the Arts (RASAB), Brussels, Belgium

The astronomy group in the physics fac- different data sets can only be achieved The scientific organising committee is
ulty of the Vrije Universiteit ­Brussel to- if observers share their data and arrive at composed of: Chris Sterken (chair),
gether with ESO, is organising a workshop a coherent interpretation. Consequent- Ulli Käufl (co-chair), Mike A’Hearn,
on the worldwide observational campaign ly a coherent presentation of all data sets ­Hermann Böhnhardt, Michael Combi,
of the “Deep Impact Experiment” (c.f. will allow theoreticians to fully appreciate Yan ­Fernandez, Marco Fulle, Luisa
Käufl et al. 2005, The Messenger 121, 11). all observational constraints. Lara, Casey Lisse, Jean Manfroid, Karen
In the context of NASA’s Deep Impact Meech, Javier Licandro, Heike Rauer,
space mission Comet 9P/Tempel 1 was Specific topics of this workshop are: Rita Schulz, Gerhardt Schwehm and
at the focus of an unprecedented world- General Cometary Topics From Space Diane Wooden. The proceedings will ap-
wide long-term multi-wavelength obser- and Ground; the cometary nucleus; com- pear in the ESO/Springer series (eds.
vation campaign. The comet was studied etary gas; cometary plasma; cometary Ulli Käufl and Chris Sterken).
through its perihelion passage by various dust; cometary surface and activity. Deep
spacecraft including the Deep Impact Impact Specific Questions will include: The relevant deadlines are: 3 April 2006,
mission itself, HST, Spitzer, Rosetta, XMM release of unprocessed primordial mate- final call for papers; 15 June 2006, ab-
and all major ground-based observato- rial from the formation period of the com- stracts due for programme.
ries in a wavelength band from cm-wave et; long-term effects from the impact;
radio astronomy to X-rays. understanding of global properties of the For further details, see http://www.eso.
nucleus; surface layering of the Comet org/~hukaufl/deepimpact.html or http://
The objective of this workshop is to 9P/Tempel 1 nucleus; impact cratering; www.vub.ac.be/STER/DI/di-conf2006.
make full use of this data set by bringing understanding of cometary dust after htm or contact Chris Sterken (csterken@
together observers across the electro- deep impact; understanding the proc- vub.ac.be) or Ulli Käufl (hukaufl@eso.org).
magnetic spectrum and from different esses in the gas coma; and ground sup-
sites and projects. Synergy between the port of space missions (complementari-
ty and needs).

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 69


Announcements

MPA/ESO/MPE/USM Joint Astronomy Conference on

Heating versus Cooling in Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies

6–11 August 2006, Garching, Germany

The aim of the conference is a review of conference will explore possible connec- tions in X-rays, optical, IR, radio, and ab­­-
our knowledge of the physical processes tions between these two areas. sorption studies), (ii) heating of central
controlling the state of the dense, cen- cluster regions by the AGN-intracluster
tral intracluster medium in galaxy clusters In recent years the effort to understand medium interaction and by other proc-
and to dicuss their analogy to feedback cluster cooling cores has grown both  esses, confrontation of modelling results
process in regulated galaxy formation. in terms of observation (in particular in with observed cooling core structure,
X-rays with the Chandra and XMM-New- (iii) diagnostics of the cooling core re-
Detailed multiwavelength observations ton satellites) and in terms of detailed gions through the entropy structure of the
suggest that the dense plasma regions at numerical hydrodynamical simulations. A intracluster medium and chemical en-
the centres of galaxy clusters, previous- review of the state of the subject is thus richment as signatures of feedback heat-
ly thought to harbour cooling flows, are timely. Also, in recent years it has been ing in the past, (iv) the need for feedback
subject to a delicate balance between much more generally appreciated that the regulation in galaxy formation, detailed
heating and cooling, which substantially suppression of gas cooling in the centre comparison of model predictions and ob­
reduces mass condensation and star- of galaxy clusters may be a model for the servations for the feedback during gal-
formation rates. While these regions are effects of feedback in galaxy and struc- axy formation from both, stars/superno-
quite complex, the rich observational ture formation in general. In our meeting vae and from AGN.
detail now becoming available can guide we consequently broaden the view to in­
understanding and modelling. The aim clude feedback and self-regulation during Scientific Organising Committee:
of this conference is to provide a synthe- galaxy formation. M. Arnaud, M. Begelman, H. Böhringer,
sis of all the observational evidence and M. Donahue, A. Fabian, G. Ha­singer,
to confront it with astrophysical model- The wealth of new observational data and T. Heckman, C. Jones, B. McNamara,
ling. Analogous issues arise in the models modelling results will provide the basis T. Ohashi, F. Owen, M. Pettini, T. Reiprich,
of galaxy formation where the observed for the current meeting, which will include A. Renzini, P. Rosati, C. Sarazin, N. Soker,
properties and the evolution of the galaxy the following topics: (i) evidence for cool- R. Sunyeav, S. White
population can only be explained if gas ing, cold material, and star formation
cooling and star formation are assumed in the centres of galaxy clusters and ellip­ Visit out webpage: http://www.mpe.mpg.
to be regulated by feedback heating. The tical galaxies with results from observa- de/~cool06

Conference on

Precision Spectroscopy in Astrophysics

11–15 September 2006, Aveiro, Portugal

In the last decade we have witnessed im- optical wavelengths, IR high-resolution This ESO conference is co-organised
pressive advancements in the accuracy spectroscopy should soon approach the with the Centre for Astronomy and
of Doppler-shift measurements in astron- same accuracy regime. ­Astrophysics (University of Lisbon) and
omy and of high-precision spectroscopy the University of Aveiro.
in general. The goal of the conference is to gather
together scientists to discuss all the Scientific Organising Committee: ­Beatriz
The random measurement uncertainty scientific topics related to various as- Barbuy (Brasil), Jacqueline Bergeron
depends on the inverse of the Signal- pects of high-precision spectroscopy (de­- (France), Dainis Dravins (Sweden), Artie
to-Noise ratio, therefore high accuracy re- termination of Doppler shifts, accurate Hatzes (Germany), Garik Israelian (Spain),
quires a high photon flux and a large line profiles, isotopic ratios, etc.). In addi- David Lambert (USA), Michel Mayor
pho­­ton-collecting capability. As a conse- tion to presentations on the state of the (Switzerland), Paolo Molaro (Italy), Mario
quence, not only the scientific domains art of research in the field, part of the J. Monteiro (Portugal), Luca Pasquini
using this technique benefit tremendous- programme will be devoted to future pro- (ESO, co-chair), Max Pettini (UK), Martino
ly from the use of 8-m-class telescopes, grammes and instruments, including Romaniello (ESO, co-chair), Nuno C.
but, also, they will fully exploit the tremen- those for ELTs. In addition to presenting ­Santos (Portugal, co-chair)
dous gain provided by future Extremely their current results, we would like to ask
Large Telescopes (ELTs), as clearly shown all the speakers to highlight also their Conference webpage:
by the preliminary study of CODEX. Even limitations and to indicate, when possible, http://www.oal.ul.pt/psa2006
if most applications so far have been at future avenues to progress. Contact: psa2006@oal.ul.pt

70 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Science on Stage 2

National Events: April–October 2006, in 29 participating countries


International Event: 2–6 April 2007, ATRIA Centre, Grenoble, France

The first Science on Stage festival, held Centre from 2–6 April 2007. The Euro- Visit the Science on Stage website at
at CERN in Geneva in November 2005, pean Synchrotron Research Facility and http://www.scienceonstage.net/ (or email
was a great success. As described in the Institut Laue-Langevin are the local eduinfo@eso.org) to find contact details
the previous issue of The Messenger, al- organisers from the EIROforum. for your National Steering Committee
most five hundred science educators (NSC). The national websites will be avail-
from across Europe met to share innova- If you are a teacher or are interested in able by the end of April, giving details
tive science-teaching techniques. innovative teaching methods, and are of how to get involved with Science on
from one of the 29 countries who will be Stage at a national level. The National
Now, the countdown has begun for Sci- represented at Science on Stage 2, then Events will be taking place between April
ence on Stage 2. The festival is again now is your chance to get involved! and October of this year, so if you want
being organised by the EIROforum, of Each country will be running a National to join this exciting programme you should
which ESO is a member, and co-funded Event during 2006, in order to choose contact your NSC as soon as possible.
by the European Commission as part the delegates who will go to Grenoble in
of the EIROforum Science Teachers’ Ini- April 2007. For further details see http://www.
tiative (ESTI). The international event scienceonstage.net/ or email eduinfo@
will take place in Grenoble at the ATRIA eso.org

Euroscience Open Forum – ESOF2006

15–19 July 2006, Munich, Germany

Following the successful first ESOF2004 The organisers intend to put a special Also as in Stockholm, which featured a
event in Stockholm, the second pan- focus on young scientists, young journal- wide programme for the general pub-
Euro­pean ‘General Science Meeting’ ists and students through an exten- lic, ESOF2006 offers an interesting range
ESOF2006 is scheduled to be held in Mu- sive Careers Programme with ­educational of outreach activities, comprising hands-
nich from 15–19 July 2006 at the Forum workshops and seminars on career ­de- on experiments, games and science
am Deutschen Museum and the Deut- velopment. In this connection, the EIRO- cafés. These activities will be held to-
sches Museum. ESOF constitutes an at- forum will organise videoconferences to gether with the German national science
tempt to create a European version of the facilities of the partner organisations, week from 15–21 July 2006. The pub-
the famous AAAS meeting and targets including ESO. lic activities are free and will take place at
scientists, science administrators and the Marienhof square, behind the his­-
policy makers as well as science journal- According to the current programme, torical Munich town hall. The Wissen-
ists from across the continent. the meeting comprises over 70 seminars, schaftssommer is organised annually by
symposia and workshops. Wissenschaft im Dialog, an initiative of
ESOF is an initiative by EUROSCIENCE the Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wis-
with strong sponsors including the Eu- One of these seminars – on exoplanet re­- senschaft and other German science-
ropean Commission and major German search – is organised by ESO. This parti- funding organisations.
funders. It is supported by an advisory cular session will take place on 17 July
board, which – among others – includes 2006 at the Forum. Another astronomy- For further information, see:
Enric Banda (former Secretary General of related event is the key-note talk by http://www.esof2006.org
ESF), Phillip Campbell (editor of Nature), Prof. Gerry Gilmore (Cambridge Univer-
Helga Nowotny (until recently chairperson sity) with the title “The history and future Contact: Claus Madsen (cmadsen@eso.
of EURAB and a member of the Scien- of the Universe”. org), Bruno Leibundgut (bleibundgut@
tific Advisory Board of the future Europe- eso.org)
an Research Council) and the Directors As at the Stockholm meeting, ESO will
General of ESO, Catherine Cesarsky, and also be represented as part of the
the EPO, Alain Pompidou. EIROforum partnership that will mount a
major information stand at the exhibition
area, also at the Forum.

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 71


Announcements

ESO Studentship Programme

The ESO research student programme science/thesis-topics/. It is highly recom- the advantages of coming to ESO (rec-
aims at providing opportunities to en- mended that the applicants start their ommended one page, max. two).
hance the Ph.D. programmes of ESO Ph.D. studies at their home institute be­- – t wo letters of reference, one from the
member-state universities. Its goal is to fore continuing their Ph.D. work and ­de- home institute supervisor/advisor and
bring young scientists into close con- veloping observational expertise at ESO. one from the ESO local supervisor,
tact with the activities and people at one – and a letter from the home institution
of the world’s foremost observatories. In addition, the students in Chile have  that (i) guarantees the financial support
For more information about ESO’s astro- the opportunity to volunteer for as many for the remaining Ph.D. period after
nomical research activities please consult as 40 days/night work per year at the the termination of the ESO studentship,
http://www.eso.org/science/ La Silla Paranal Observatory. These du­- (ii) indicates whether the requirements
ties are decided on a trimester by tri­ to obtain the Ph.D. degree at the home
The ESO studentship programme is mester basis, aiming at giving the student institute are already fulfilled.
shared between the ESO headquarters insight into the observatory operations All documents should be typed in English
in Garching (Germany) and the ESO and shall not interfere with the research (but no translation is required for the cer­
offices in Santiago (Chile). These posi- project of the student in Santiago. The tificates and diplomas).
tions are open to students enrolled outline of the terms of service for stu-
in a Ph.D. programme at a university in dents (http://www.eso.org/gen-fac/adm/ The application material has to be
an ESO member state or, exceptional- pers/student.html) provides some more ­addressed to:
ly, at an institution outside ESO member details on employment conditions and ESO Studentship Programme
states. benefits. Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2
85748 Garching bei München (Germany)
Students in the programme work on their The closing date for applications is
doctoral project under the formal super­ 15 June 2006. All material, including the recommenda­-
vision of their home university. They come tion letters, must reach ESO by the
to either Garching or Santiago for a stay Please apply by: deadline (15 June 2006); applications
of normally between one and two years (1) filling the form available at http://www. arriving after the deadline or incom-
to conduct part of their studies under the eso.org/gen-fac/adm/pers/forms/ plete applications will not be considered!
co-supervision of an ESO staff astrono- student06-form.pdf
mer. Candidates and their home institute (2) and attaching to your application: Candidates will be notified of the results
supervisors should agree on a research – a Curriculum Vitae (incl. a list of publi­ of the selection process in July 2006.
project together with the ESO local super­ cations, if any), with a copy of the Studentships typically begin between
visor. A list of potential ESO supervisors transcript of university certificate(s)/ ­August and December of the year in
and their research interests can be found diploma(s). which they are awarded. In well-justified
at http://www.eso.org/science/person- – a summary of the master thesis project cases starting dates in the year follow-
nel/index.html and http://www.sc.eso. (if applicable) and ongoing projects ing the application can be negotiated.
org/santiago/science/person.html. A list in­dicating the title and the supervisor
of current Ph.D. projects offered by ESO (maximum half a page), as well as an For further information contact Christina
staff is available at http://www.eso.org/ outline of the Ph.D. project highlighting Stoffer (cstoffer@eso.org).

This photo was obtained with the FORS2 instrument


at ESO’s Very Large Telescope. It zooms in on the
open stellar cluster Haffner 18, perfectly illustrating
three different stages of this process of star forma-
tion: In the centre of the picture, Haffner 18, a group
of mature stars that have already dispersed their
birth nebulae, represents the completed ­product or
immediate past of the star-formation process. Lo-
cated at the bottom left of this cluster, a very young
star, just come into existence and, still surrounded
by its birth cocoon of gas, provides insight into
the very present of star birth. Finally, the dust clouds
towards the right corner of the image are active
­stellar nurseries that will produce more new stars in
the future. (ESO PR Photo 42b/05)

72 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


ESO

European Organisation
for Astronomical
Research in the
Southern Hemisphere

ESO is opening the following management positions of

Senior Astronomer Associate Director


Director of the La Silla Paranal Observatory
The Director responsible for the Observatories on La Silla, Paranal The primary purpose of this position is to support and assist the
and APEX will lead a multidisciplinary team and act as a link be- Di­rector General in the discharge of his/her duties. The Associate
tween user community, the Director General and the Observatories. Director reports directly to the Director General and is required
She/he will in particular be responsible for: to work closely with division heads and other senior staff in the Or­-
– the continuation, creation and implementation of scientific and ganisation. She/he shall carry out such tasks as requested or
technical policies for the operation of the Observatories in accord- delegated by the Director General which shall include, but not be
ance with ESO’s overall policy limited to, responsibility for:
– the management of the Observatories and their staff members – providing the Director General with briefing material and appropri-
through the definition and implementation of goals and objectives ate analysis on any matter which could have implications for the
– the Observatories’ budget operation of ESO
– the representation of all Observatories in the science ­community, – the management of the Council secretariat
public and public relations (e.g. media support, exhibitions, – the management of the ALMA board and European ALMA board
­presentations, etc.) in close interaction with ESO’s representative business, and specifically acting as ALMA board secretary when
in Chile and the Public Affairs Department. the chair is nominated by ESO.

The Director of the Observatories reports directly to the Director An appropriate professional qualification as well as substantial man-
­G en­eral. The staff of the Observatories presently consist of about agement and leadership experience within a scientific organisation,
70 international and 150 local staff members who work in groups pre­ferably international, are required. Excellent communication skills
or teams. As a senior astronomer the Director of the Observato- and a very good knowledge of English are essential.
ries is a member of the ESO science faculty and is expected and
encouraged to actively conduct astronomical research. She/he
should foster the participation and integration of the scientists of As members of the ESO management both job holders contribute
the Ob­servatories in the ESO faculty and in the Office for Science directly to the development of the overall policy, the strategic plan-
in Santiago. ning, and maintain professional contacts at highest level outside the
Organisation.
Basic requirements for the position include a Ph.D. in astronomy,
astrophysics or physics, or related fields, substantial and long or For details and to download an application form, please consult our
equivalent experience in management and leadership prefera­bly homepage: http://www.eso.org. If you are interested in working
gained within multinational scientific organisations. A proven record in areas of frontline technology and in a stimulating international en­
in astronomical systems such as instruments, large optical tele­ vironment please send your application in English to:
scopes or systems of equivalent complexity as well as an outstand-
ing record of astronomical research and international scientific ESO Personnel Department, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2
collaborations are required. Initiative, ability to judge, to decide and 85748 Garching near Munich, Germany
to work with people of different nationalities as well as excellent e-mail: vacancy@eso.org
communication skills are essential. The position requires a very
good knowledge of English and a working knowledge of Spanish or ESO is an equal opportunity employer. Qualified female candidates
willingness to learn it. are invited to apply.

ESO. Astronomy made in Europe

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 73


Announcements

ESO

European Organisation
for Astronomical
Research in the
Southern Hemisphere

ESO is opening the following positions of

Instrument Scientist Front End Production Engineer Software Engineers


This position is in the Instrumentation Division Within the European ALMA team, the selected The successful candidates will work within the
which is responsible for the design and develop- candidate will take up responsibilities in the Data Flow Systems (DFS) Department, which is re-
ment of advanced optical and infrared instru- prduction engineering, integration and monitoring sponsible for designing, implementing, testing and
ments for the Very Large Telescope and other of contracts for the receivers of the ALMA radio maintaining the Data Flow System used to operate
telescopes at ESO’s La Silla Paranal Observatory tele­scope. ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) array.
and, in the future, for a possible Extremely The position will include the following tasks:
Large (30–60 m diametre) Telescope (see http:// – management, both technical and programmatic, Two positions are opened in the area of detailed
www.eso.org/instruments/). of individual production work packages for the de­sign, development and documentation of
ALMA Front End (FE) subsystem and the related components of the back-end DFS, that is the col-
The successful candidate will initially work in the production contracts lection of client server applications used on-line
Optical Instrumentation Department as Instru- – d eveloping front end integration and test plans, at the Observatory and off-line in Garching to
ment Scientist of the X-shooter, a medium-resolu- and assist in the development of an operations collect, archive and organise the raw data, sched-
tion, echelle spectrograph for the VLT, covering and maintenance plan in close ­collaboration with ule and parallise their processing. Sound ex-
in one exposure the spectral region from the UV- ALMA system engineers perience in Java, C++ and a solid understanding of
to the K-band and expected to go to the tele- – quality management: definition of applicable data archives are re­quired.
scope in 2008. She/he will directly be in charge or processes, mainly in the areas of production,
collaborate with the P.I. and project manager integration and validation. Participation in and An additional position is opened to the verification
of the project in various tasks related to the docu- organisation of product reviews and validation of a subset of the DFS, starting with
mentation for the instrument (e.g. calibration plan, – a ssisting in developing and maintaining the the back-end applications used at the Observa-
commissioning plan, user manual), the develop- FE subsystem specifications and interfaces. tory and in Garching. She/he will be responsible
ment of the exposure time calculator, of the data- As­suring that subsystem designs comply with for de­fining, implementing and executing manually
reduction pipeline, the testing of the instrument defined specifications. or automatically test cases to ensure that users’
in Europe and the commissioning in Chile. She/he – keeping track of detailed subsystem perform- requirements have been met and that the behav­
will be responsible for verifying that the overall ance of the front end technical budgets. iour under abnormal or extreme conditions is
performance of the instrument at the telescope – c ontributing to the ALMA configuration and acceptable. Test data will have to be defined and
matches the specified values, and support the op- change-control processes. maintained, test plans and reports produced
eration during the first year. In parallel, she/he will – reporting directly to the European ALMA Front and discussed with development teams, accord-
be involved in the definition studies of other instru- End IPT manager. ing to DFS Software Quality Assurance stand-
ment projects for the VLT and possibly the ELT. ards. A first level support to DFS users should be
We seek a professional with a university degree in provided. Finally, she/he will contribute to the
Basic requirements for the position include qua- engineering, in one or more of the following fields: DFS installation activities and software configura-
li­fied experience in observational astronomy electronics, technical physics or other relevant tion management. A minimum of three years of
at optical or IR wavelengths at large tele­scopes. fields and at least five years of working ­experience experience in testing and integration of complex
A proven, strong record of scientific research in an engineering position on multidisciplinary, high- distributed software applications running on UNIX
in areas which are related to the functional work technology, and complex electronics project(s). platforms is required.
and good experience with spectro­scopic data-
reduction packages in IDL, IRAF or MIDAS are a
requirement.

This is an astronomer position in the ESO faculty. For details and to download an application form, ESO Personnel Department
The successful candidate is expected to carry out please consult our homepage: http://www.eso.org. Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2
a vigorous research programme in the field of ob- 85748 Garching near Munich, Germany
servational astronomy. He/she is entitled to work If you are interested in working in a stimulating in­ e-mail: vacancy@eso.org
up to 50 % on scientific research and will receive ternational research environment and in areas
financial and technical support by the ESO faculty of frontline science and technology, please send ESO is an equal opportunity employer. Qualified
for this purpose. us your application in English to: female candidates are invited to apply.

ESO. Astronomy made in Europe

74 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Personnel Movements

1 January–31 March 2006

Arrivals Departures

Europe
Europe
Alves, João (P) Astronomer
Abuter, Roberto (RCH) Software Engineer Boneva, Kristina (BG) Student
Botticella, Maria Teresa (I) Student Dell’Erba, Anna Maria (I) Administrative Assistant
Caproni, Alessandro (I) Software Engineer Larsen, Søren (DK) Instrument Scientist
Di Dio, Tommaso (I) Accounting Clerk Leoni, Marco (I) Software Engineer
Guidolin, Ivan Maria (I) Electronics Engineer Nees, Walter (D) Head of Electronic Systems
Jahreiss, Hans (D) Head of Administration Pott, Jörg-Uwe (D) Student
Patkós, Enikő (H) European Affairs Officer Rettura, Alessandro (I) Student
Suc, Vincent (F) Student
Taylor, Luke (GB) Laser Specialist
Turolla, Stefano (I) Software Engineer
Vasisht, Gautam (IND) Software Engineer
Yaitskova, Nataliya (RUS) Applied Scientist

Chile Chile

Choque Cortez, Christian (BOL) Student Badel, Arnaud (F) Student


Francois, Patrick (F) Operations Staff Astronomer Brancacho, Jorge (RCH) Software Engineer
Haguenauer, Pierre (F) Optical Engineer Coppolani, Franck (F) Student
Kubas, Daniel (D) Fellow Inzunza, Lorena (RCH) Telescope Instruments Operator
Mellado, Angel (RCH) Mechanical Technician Schemrl, Anton (RCH) Data Handling Administrator
Pizarro, Andres (RCH) Safety Officer Torres, Danilo (RCH) Electronics Engineer
Rahoui, Farid (F) Student
Somboli, Fabio (I) System Engineer

List of Proceedings from the ESO Astrophysics Symposia

Volume Title Editors


(foreseen for July) 2006 Chemical Abundances and Mixing in Stars in the Milky Way Sofia Randich, Luca Pasquini
and its Satellites
(foreseen for April) 2006 Planetary Nebulae Beyond the Milky Way Letizia Stanghellini, Jeremy R. Walsh, Nigel G. Douglas
2005 Growing Black Holes: Accretion in a Cosmological Context Andrea Merloni, Sergei Nayakshin, Rashid A. Sunyaev
2005 High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy in Astronomy Hans-Ulrich Käufl, Ralf Siebenmorgen, Alan F. M. Moorwood
2005 Multiwavelength Mapping of Galaxy Formation and Evolution Alvio Renzini, Ralf Bender
2005 Science with Adaptive Optics Wolfgang Brandner, Markus Kasper
16/2003 Astronomy, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics Peter A. Shaver, Luigi DiLella, Alvaro Giménez
15/2004 Toward an International Virtual Observatory Peter J. Quinn, Krzysztof M. Górski
14/2003 Extragalactic Globular Cluster Systems Markus Kissler-Patig
13/2003 From Twilight to Highlight: The Physics of Supernovae Wolfgang Hillebrandt, Bruno Leibundgut
12/2003 The Mass of Galaxies at Low and High Redshift Ralf Bender, Alvio Renzini
11/2003 Lighthouses of the Universe: The Most Luminous Celestial Objects Marat Gilfanov, Rashid A. Sunyaev, Eugene Churazov
and Their Use for Cosmology
10/2003 Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation Jacqueline Bergeron, Guy Monnet
9/2003 The Origin of Stars and Planets: The VLT View João F. Alves, Mark J. McCaughrean
8/2003 Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Afterglow Era Enrico Costa, Filippo Frontera, Jens Hjorth
7/2003 Deep Fields Stefano Cristiani, Alvio Renzini, Robert E. Williams
6/2003 Mining the Sky Anthony J. Banday, Saleem Zaroubi, Matthias Bartelmann

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 75


Annual Index 2005 (Nos. 119–122)

Subject Index CODEX: Measuring the Expansion of the Universe The Horsehead Nebula: A Beautiful Case; Habart, E.;
(and beyond); Pasquini, L.; Christiani, S.; Dekker, Walmsley, M.; Abergel, A.; 120, 37
H.; Haehnelt, M.; Molaro, P.; Pepe, F.; Avila, G.; Resolving the Host Galaxies of Quasars at z = 2.5
Scientific Strategy Planning at ESO; 119, 2 Delabre, B.; D’Odorico, S.; Liske, J.; Shaver, P.; with VLT + NACO; Scarpa, R.; Falomo, R.; Koti-
Science with Extremely Large Telescopes; Hook I. Bonifacio, P.; D’Odorico, V.; Vanzella, E.; Bouchy, lainen, J. K.; Treves, A.; 120, 40
and the OPTICON ELT Science Working Group; F.; Dessauges-Lavadsky, M.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; A New Isotopic Abundance Anomaly in Chemically
121, 2 Queloz, D.; Udry, S.; Murphy, M.; Viel, M.; Grazian, Peculiar Stars; Cowley, C. R.; Castelli, F.; Hubrig,
A.; Levshakov, S.; Moscardini, L.; Wiklind, T.; S.; 120, 42
Zucker, S.; 122, 10 Deep Impact at ESO Telescopes; Käufl, H.-U.;
Telescopes and Instrumentation Afterglows of Elusive Short Gamma-Ray Bursts Ageorges, N.; Bagnulo, S.; Barrera, L.; Böhnhardt,
(based on ESO Press Release 26/05); 122, 14 H.; Bonev, T.; Hainaut, O.; Jehin, E.; Kerber, F.;
Wide Field Infrared Imaging on the VLT with HAWK-I; ALMA News; Wilson, T.; 122, 15 Lo Curto, G.; Manfroid, J.; Marco, O.; Pantin, E.;
Casali, M.; Pirard, J.-F.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Moor- ALMA Antenna Contract Signed (based on ESO Pompei, E.; Saviane, I.; Selman, F.; Sterken, C.;
wood, A.; Bedin, R.; Biereichel, P.; Delabre, B.; Press Release 31/05); 122, 17 Rauer, H.; Tozzi, G. P.; Weiler, M.; 121, 11
Dorn, R.; Finger, G.; Gojak, D.; Hubin, N.; Huster, Inauguration of the APEX Telescope; Argandoña, G.; A Triple Asteroid System (based on ESO Press Re-
G.; Jung, Y.; Koch, F.; Le Louarn, M.; Lizon, J.-L.; Mirabel, F.; 122, 18 lease 21/05); 121, 17
Mehrgan, L.; Pozna, E.; Silber, A.; Sokar, B.; Steg- Towards an Automatic Reduction of FORS2-MXU FLAMES Observations of Old Open Clusters: Con-­
meier, J.; 119, 6 Spectroscopy; Kuntschner, H.; Kümmel, M.; straints on the Evolution of the Galactic Disc and
ESO’s Two Observatories Merge (based on ESO Larsen, S.; Walsh, J.; 122, 19 Mixing Processes in Stars; Randich, S.; ­Bragaglia,
Press Release 03/05); 119, 8 The Virtual Observatory in Europe and at ESO; A.; Pastori, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sestito, P., Spanò,
New observing modes of NACO; Kasper, M.; Padovani, P.; Quinn, P.; 122, 22 P.; Villanova, S.; Carraro, G.; Carretta, E.;
Ageorges, N.; Boccaletti, A.; Brandner, W.; Close, ­Romano, D.; Zaggia, S.; Pallavicini, R.; Pasquini,
L. M.; Davies, R.; Finger, G.; Genzel, R.; Hartung, L.; Primas, F.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tosi, M.; 121, 18
M.; Kaufer, A.; Kellner, S.; Hubin, N.; Lenzen, R.; Reports from Observers Measuring Improved Distances to Nearby Galaxies:
Lidman, C.; Monnet, G.; Moorwood, A.; Ott, T.; The Araucaria Project; Gieren, W.; Pietrzynski, G.;
Riaud, P.; Röser, H.-J.; Rouan, D.; ­Spyromilio, J.; VISIR, a Taste of Scientific Potential; Pantin, E.; Bresolin, F.; Kudritzki. R.-P.; Minniti, D.; Urbaneja,
119, 9 Lagage, P.-O.; Claret, A.; Doucet, C.; Kaufer, A.; M.; Soszynski, I.; Storm, J.; Fouqué, P.; Bono, G.;
Observing with the ESO VLT Interferometer; Käufl, H.-U.; Pel, J.-W.; Peletier, R. F.; Sieben­ Walker, A.; García, J.; 121, 23
Wittkowski, M.; Comerón, F.; Glindemann, A.; morgen, R.; Smette, A.; Sterzik, M.; 119, 25 Early Galaxy Evolution: Report on UVES Studies of
Hummel, C.; Morel, S.; Percheron, I.; Petr- The VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey First Epoch Observa- a New Class of Quasar Absorbers; Péroux, C.;
Gotzens, M.; Schöller, M.; 119, 14 tions: Evolution of Galaxies, Large Scale Struc- Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; D’Odorico, S.; Kim,
Improvements at the 3.6-m Telescope; Gilliotte, tures and AGNs over 90 % of the Current Age of T. S.; McMahon, R. G.; 121, 29
A.; Ihle, G.; Lo Curto, G.; 119, 18 the Universe; Le Fèvre, O.; Vettolani, G.; Bottini, A New Einstein Ring (ESO Press Photo 20b+c/05);
Telescope Time Allocation Tool; Alves, J.; 119, 20 D.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, 121, 32
ALMA News; Wilson, T.; 119, 24 J.-P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Resolved Spectroscopy of a z = 5 Gravitationally
Progress Report on X-shooter, the first second-gen­- Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Arnouts, Lensed Galaxy with the VIMOS IFU; Swinbank,
eration VLT Instrument; Dekker, H.; D’Odorico, S.; S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, M.; Bower, R.; Smail, I.; Morris, S.; Smith, G.;
120, 2 S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Franzetti, P.; Foucaud, 121, 33
VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at S.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Farthest Known Gamma-Ray Burst (based on ESO
Paranal; Koehler, B. and the AT Assembly and McCracken, H.-J.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Maz- Press Release 22/05); 121, 35
Commissioning Team; 120, 5 ure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Paltini, S.; Pellò, Surveying the High-Redshift Universe with the
The OPTICON FP6 Programme and ESO; Monnet, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zamorani, VIMOS IFU; Jarvis, M. J.; van Breukelen, C.;
G.; 120, 7 G.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, ­Venemans, B. P.; Wilman, R. J.; 121, 38
The VLT Survey Telescope: A Status Report; G.; Lamareille, F.; Mathez, G.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, The zCOSMOS Redshift Survey; Lilly, S. and the
Capaccioli, M.; Mancini, D.; Sedmak, G.; 120, 10 P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.; 119, 30 zCOSMOS team; 121, 42
OmegaCAM: The VST Camera; Cappellaro, E.; 120, Recent Astrophysical Results from the VLTI; Observing with the New High-Speed Camera
13 Wittkowski, M.; Paresce, F.; Chesneau, O.; ULTRACAM on Melipal (based on ESO Press
ALMA News; Wilson, T.; 120, 15 ­Kervella, P.; Meilland, A.; Meisenheimer, K; Release 17/05); 121, 46
The Sampo Project; Hook, R.; Møller, P.; Ignatius, J.; Ohnaka, K.; 119, 36 GOODS’ Look at Galaxies in the Young Universe;
Vasko, K.; Peron, M.; Quinn, P.; 120, 17 VLTI Observation of IRS 3: The brightest compact Vanzella, E.; Christiani, S.; Dickinson, M;
ALMA News; Wilson, T.; 121, 48 MIR source at the Galactic Centre; Pott, J.-U.; ­Kuntschner, H.; Rettura, A.; Moustakas, L. A.;
ALMA Site Development; Eschwey, J.; 121, 50 Eckart, A.; Glindemann, A.; Viehmann, T.; Nonino, M.; Popesso, P; Rosati, P.; Stern, D.;
Technology Transfer at ESO; Cullum, M.; 121, 52 Schödel, R.; Straubmeier, C.; Leinert. C.; Feldt. Cesarsky, C.; Ferguson, H. C.; Fosbury, R. A.
Surveying the High-Redshift Universe with KMOS; M.; Genzel, R.; Robberto, M.; 119, 43 E.; Giavalisco, M.; Haase, J.; Renzini, A. and the
Sharples, R.; Bender, R.; Bennet, R.; Burch, K.; Transiting Extra-solar Planets, follow the FLAMES ...; GOODS Team; 122, 25
Carter, P.; Casali, M.; Clark, P.; Content, R.; Dav- Pont, F.; Bouchy, F.; Queloz, D.; Melo, C.; Santos, The Dynamics and Evolution of Luminous Galaxy
ies, R.; Dubbeldam, M.; Finger, G.; Genzel, R.; N.; Udry, S.; Mayor, M.; Moutou, C.; 120, 19 Mergers: ISAAC Spectroscopy of ULIRGs;
Häfner, R.; Hess, A; Kissler-Patig, M.; Laidlaw, K.; On the Track of very low-mass Planets with HARPS; ­Tacconi, L. J.; Dasyra, K.; Davies, R.; Genzel, R.;
Lehnert M.; Lewis, I.; Moorwood, A.; Muschielok, Pepe, F.; Mayor, M.; Queloz, D.; Benz, W.; Lutz, D.; Burkert, A.; Naab, T.; Sturm, E., Veilleux,
B.; Förster Schreiber, N.; Pirard, J.; Ramsay ­B ertaux, J.-L.; Bouchy, F.; Lovis, C.; Mordasini, C.; S.; Baker, A. J.; Sanders, D. B.; 122, 28
Howat, S.; Rees, P.; Richter, J.; Robertson, D.; Santos, N.; Sivan, J.-P.; Udry, S.; 120, 22 Supernova in NGC 1559 (ESO Press Photo 26/05);
Robson, I.; Saglia, R.; Tecza, M.; Thatte, N.; Todd, Confirmation of the First Image of an Extra-Solar 122, 31
S.; Wegner, M.; 122, 2 Planet (based on ESO Press Release 12/06); Lithium Isotopic Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars:
Instrument Concepts for the OWL Telescope; 120, 25 A Problem for Standard Big Bang Nucleosynthe-
D’Odorico, S.; 122, 6 First Science with SINFONI; Gillessen, S.; Davies, sis?; Nissen, E. P.; Asplund, M.; Lambert, D. L.;
The Centre of the Active Galaxy NGC 1097 (ESO R.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Lehnert, M.; van der Werf, P.; Primas, F.; Smith, V. V.; 122, 32
Press Photo 33/0); 122, 9 Nowak, N.; Eisenhauer, F.; Abuter, R.; Horrobin, The VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive Stars; Evans,
M.; Gilbert, A.; Genzel, R.; Bender, R.; Saglia, R.; C.; Smartt, S.; Lennon, D.; Dufton, P.; Hunter, I.;
Lemoine-Busserolle, M.; Reunanen, J.; Kjær, K.; Mokiem, R.; de Koter, A.; Irwin, M.; 122, 36
Messineo, M.; Nürnberger, D.; Dumas, C.; 120, 26
Galaxy Cluster Archaeology; Böhringer, H.; Mullis.
C.; Rosati, P.; Lamer, G.; Fassbender, R.;
­Schwope, A.; Schuecker, P.; 120, 33

76 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


Why are G and K Giants Radial Velocity Variables?; PPARC Council at ESO; 122, 45 Author Index
Döllinger, M. P.; Pasquini, L.; Hatzes, A. P.; Setia- Open House at ESO Garching; Boffin, H.; 122, 46
wan, J.; da Silva, L.; de Medeiros, J. R.; von der Danish Minister visits ESO Chile; Argandoña, G.;
Lühe, O.; Girardi, L.; Di Mauro, M. P.; Weiss, A.; Mirabel, F.; 122, 47 A
Roth, M.; 122, 39 Science on Stage 2005; Pierce-Price, D.; Boffin, H.;
Madsen, C.; 122, 47 Alves, J.; Telescope Time Allocation Tool; 119, 20
ESO at CER 2005; Madsen, C.; 122, 48 Argandoña, G.; Mirabel, F.; High Honour for Daniel
Other Astronomical News Report on the Conference on Science Perspectives Hofstadt; 120, 55
for 3D Spectroscopy; Walsh, J.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Argandoña, G.; Mirabel, F.; Public Information and
Comparison of Science Metrics of Observatories; 122, 49 Education in Chile; 121, 64
Grothkopf, U.; Leibundgut, B.; Macchetto, D.; Report on the Science Day in Honour of Alvio Argandoña, G.; Mirabel, F.; Inauguration of the APEX
Madrid, J. P.; Leitherer, C.; 119, 45 Renzini; Cesarsky, C.; Leibundgut, B.; 122, 52 Telescope; 122, 18
The ESO Telescope Bibliography Web Interface Argandoña, G.; Mirabel, F.; Danish Minister visits
– Linking Publications and Observations; ESO Chile; 122, 47
­D elmotte, N.; Treumann, A.; Grothkopf, U.; Micol, Announcements
A.; Accomazzi, A.; 119, 50
ESO Exhibitions in Granada and Naples; Janssen, The UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS): Data B
E.; 119, 52 Access; Lawrence, A.; Warren, S.; 119, 56
EAAE Meeting at ESO Headquarters; West, R.; Symposium on Relativity, Matter and Cosmology; Böhringer, H.; Mullis. C.; Rosati, P.; Lamer, G.;
119, 53 119, 57 Fassbender, R.; Schwope, A.; Schuecker, P.;
Public Affairs Highlights in Chile: Achievements of ESO Workshop on Multiple Stars across the Galaxy Cluster Archaeology; 120, 33
2004; Rodríguez, V.; Mirabel, F.; 119, 54 H-R Diagram; 119, 57 Boffin, H.; Open House at ESO Garching; 122, 46
Fellows at ESO: Nicolas Bouché, Eric Depagne, MPA/ESO/MPE/USM Joint Astronomy Conference
Markus Hartung, Jochen Liske; 119, 55 on Open Questions in Cosmology: The First
ESO Studentships: PhD opportunities in Garching ­B illion Years; 119, 58 C
and Santiago; Kissler-Patig, M.; Kaufer, A.; ESO Conference on Science Perspectives for 3D
Leibundgut, B.; Mirabel, F.; 120, 44 Spectroscopy; 119, 58 Capaccioli, M.; Mancini, D.; Sedmak, G.; The VLT
“Towards a Europe of Knowledge and ­Innovation” Felix Mirabel becomes ESO Representative in Chile; Survey Telescope: A Status Report; 120, 10
– EIROforum presents a major science policy 119, 59 Cappellaro, E.; OmegaCAM: The VST Camera;
paper; Madsen, C.; 120, 46 ESO Studentship Programme; 119, 59 120, 13
Report on the Workshop on The Power of Optical/IR ESO Vacancy: Head of Administration; 119, 60 Casali, M.; Pirard, J.-F.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Moorwood,
Interferometry: Recent Scientific Results and Sec- ESO Vacancy: Operations Staff Astronomer; 119, 60 A.; Bedin, R.; Biereichel, P.;. Delabre, B.; Dorn, R.;
ond-Generation VLTI Instrumentation; ­Richichi, A.; ESO Vacancy: ALMA Back-end Integration and Data Finger, G.; Gojak, D.; Hubin, N.; Huster, G.; Jung,
Glindemann, A.; 120, 48 Communication Engineer; 119, 61 Y.; Koch, F.; Le Louarn, M.; Lizon, J.-L.; Mehrgan,
Dutch Minister of Science Visits ESO Facilities in ESO Vacancy: Senior Engineer – Head of Paranal L.; Pozna, E.; Silber, A.; Sokar, B.; Stegmeier,
Chile (based on ESO Press Release 14/05); Engineering Department; 119, 61 J.; Wide Field Infrared Imaging on the VLT with
120, 51 ESO Vacancy: ALMA Project Planner/Scheduler; HAWK-I; 119, 6
ESO Receives Computerworld Honors Program 119, 62 Cesarsky, C.; Leibundgut, B.; Report on the Science
21st Century Achievement Award in Science Cat- Personnel Movements; 119, 63 Day in Honour of Alvio Renzini; 122, 52
egory (based on ESO Press Release 16/05); 120, Recent Proceedings from the ESO Astrophysics Cowley, C. R.; Castelli, F.; Hubrig, S.; A New Isotopic
52 Symposia; 119, 63 Abundance Anomaly in Chemically Peculiar Stars;
ESO at the European Research and Innovation ESO/MPA Workshop on Carbon-Rich Ultra Metal- 120, 42
Salon in Paris; Janssen, E.; 120, 53 Poor Stars in the Galactic Halo; 120, 54 Cullum, M.; Technology Transfer at ESO; 121, 52
Fellows at ESO: Martin Vannier, Martin Zwaan; ESO Conference on Groups of Galaxies in the
120, 53 nearby Universe; 120, 54
The ESA-ESO Topical Science Working Groups; High Honour for Daniel Hofstadt; Argondoña, G.; D
Fosbury, R. A. E.; 121, 56 Mirabel, F.; 120, 55
ESA-ESO Working Group on Extra-Solar Planets; Richard West retires; Madsen, C.; 120, 56 D’Odorico, S.; Instrument Concepts for the OWL
Kerber, F.; Hainaut, O.; 121, 56 Fizeau Exchange Visitors Programme, Optical Inter- Telescope; 122, 6
Report on the ESO-ESA-IAU Conference Communi- ferometry in Europe; 120, 57 Dekker, H.; D’Odorico, S.; Progress Report on
cating Astronomy with the Public 2005; Robson, Personnel Movements; 120, 57 X-shooter, the first second-generation VLT Instru-
I.; Christensen, L. L.; 121, 59 ESO Fellowship Programme 2005/2006; 120, 58 ment; 120, 2
Report on the ESO Workshop on Virtual Observa- ESO Vacancy: ALMA Project Planner/Scheduler; Delmotte, N.; Treumann, A.; Grothkopf, U.; Micol, A.;
tory Standards and Systems for Data Centres and 120, 59 Accomazzi, A.; The ESO Telescope Bibliography
Large Projects; Padovani, P.; Dolensky, M.; 121, International Conference on Relativistic Astrophysics Web Interface – Linking Publications and Obser-
60 and Cosmology – Einstein’s Legacy; 121, 70 vations; 119, 50
Report on the EPS-ESA-ESO-CERN Conference Latin American Astronomy Summer School; 121, 70 Döllinger, M. P.; Pasquini, L.; Hatzes, A. P.; Setiawan,
on Relativity, Matter and Cosmology; Shaver, P.; Personnel Movements; 121, 71 J.; da Silva, L.; de Medeiros, J. R.; von der Lühe,
Leibundgut, B.; Liske, J.; 121, 62 ESO Vacancy: European Affairs Officer; 121, 70 O.; Girardi, L.; Di Mauro, M. P.; Weiss, A.; Roth,
ESO Public Activities in July 2005; Janssen, E.; Conference on Globular Clusters – Guides to Galax- M.; Why are G and K Giants Radial Velocity Vari-
121, 63 ies; 122, 54 ables?; 122, 39
Public Information and Education in Chile; NEON Observing Schools; 122, 54
Argandoña, G.; Mirabel, F.; 121, 64 Personnel Movements; 122, 55
Universe Awareness for Young Children; Miley, G.; List of Proceedings from the ESO Astrophysics E
Madsen, C.; Scorza de Appl, C.; 121, 66 Symposia; 122, 55
Catherine Cesarsky Elected Member of Academies Eschwey, J.; ALMA Site Development; 121, 50
of Sciences; 121, 68 Evans, C.; Smartt, S.; Lennon, D.; Dufton, P.; Hunter,
Fellows at ESO: Cédric Foellmi, Margrethe Wold; I.; Mokiem, R.; de Koter, A.; Irwin, M.; The
121, 69 VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive Stars; 122, 36
ASTRONET: Towards a Strategic Plan for European
Astronomy; Lagrange, A.-M.; 122, 42
The Current and Future ST-ECF; Fosbury, R. A. E.;
122, 44

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 77


F Koehler, B. and the AT Assembly and Commission­- Pasquini, L.; Christiani, S.; Dekker, H.; Haehnelt,
ing Team; VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary M.; Molaro, P.; Pepe, F.; Avila, G.; Delabre, B.;
Fosbury, R. A. E.; The ESA-ESO Topical Science Tele­scopes at Paranal; 120, 5 D’Odorico, S.; Liske, J.; Shaver, P.; Bonifacio, P.;
Working Groups; 121, 56 Kuntschner, H.; Kümmel, M.; Larsen, S.; Walsh, J.; D’Odorico, V.; Vanzella, E.; Bouchy, F.; Des-
Fosbury, R. A. E.; The Current and Future ST-ECF; Towards an Automatic Reduction of FORS2-MXU sauges-Lavadsky, M.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.;
122, 44 Spectroscopy; 122, 19 Queloz, D.; Udry, S.; Murphy, M.; Viel, M.; Grazian,
A.; Levshakov, S.; Moscardini, L.; Wiklind, T.;
Zucker, S.; CODEX: Measuring the Expansion of
G L the Universe (and beyond); 122, 10
Pepe, F.; Mayor, M.; Queloz, D.; Benz, W.; Bertaux,
Gieren, W.; Pietrzynski, G.; Bresolin, F.; Kudritzki. Lagrange, A.-M.; ASTRONET: Towards a Strategic J.-L.; Bouchy, F.; Lovis, C.; Mordasini, C.; Santos,
R.-P.; Minniti, D.; Urbaneja, M.; Soszynski, I.; Plan for European Astronomy; 122, 42 N.; Sivan, J.-P.; Udry, S.; On the track of very low-
Storm, J.; Fouqué, P.; Bono, G.; Walker, A.; Lawrence, A.; Warren, S.; The UKIRT Infrared Deep mass planets with HARPS; 120, 22
García, J.; Measuring Improved Distances to Sky Survey (UKIDSS): Data Access; 119, 56 Péroux, C.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; D’Odorico, S.;
Nearby Galaxies: The Araucaria Project; 121, 23 Le Fèvre, O.; Vettolani, G.; Bottini, D.; Garilli, B.; Kim, T. S.; McMahon, R. G.; Early Galaxy Evolu-
Gillessen, S.; Davies, R.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Lehnert, Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J.-P.; Scaramella, tion: Report on UVES Studies of a New Class of
M.; van der Werf, P.; Nowak, N.; Eisenhauer, F.; R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Zanichelli, A.; Quasar Absorbers; 121, 29
Abuter, R.; Horrobin, M.; Gilbert, A.; Genzel, R.; Adami, C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Pierce-Price, D.; Boffin, H.; Madsen, C.; Science on
Bender, R.; Saglia, R.; Lemoine-Busserolle, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Stage 200,5; 122, 47
Reunanen, J.; Kjær, K.; Messineo, M.; Nürnberger, Contini, T.; Franzetti, P.; Foucaud, S.; Gavignaud, Pont, F.; Bouchy, F.; Queloz, D.; Melo, C.; Santos, N.;
D.; Dumas, C.; First Science with SINFONI; 120, I.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; McCracken, Udry, S.; Mayor, M.; Moutou, C.; Transiting Extra-
26 H.-J.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; solar Planets, follow the FLAMES ...; 120, 19
Gilliotte, A.; Ihle, G.; Lo Curto, G.; Improvements at Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Paltini, S.; Pellò, R.; Pott, J.-U.; Eckart, A.; Glindemann, A.; Viehmann, T.;
the 3.6-m Telescope, 119, 18 Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zamorani, G.; Schödel, R.; Straubmeier, C.; Leinert. C.; Feldt.
Grothkopf, U.; Leibundgut, B.; Macchetto, D.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, G.; M.; Genzel, R.; Robberto, M.; VLTI Observation of
Madrid, J. P.; Leitherer, C.; Comparison of Sci- Lamareille, F.; Mathez, G.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; IRS 3: The brightest compact MIR source at the
ence Metrics of Observatories; 119, 45 Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.; The VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey Galactic Centre; 119, 43
First Epoch Observations: Evolution of Galaxies,
Large Scale Structures and AGNs over 90 % of
H the Current Age of the Universe; 119, 30 R
Lilly, S. and the zCOSMOS team; The zCOSMOS
Habart, E.; Walmsley, M., Abergel, A.; The Horse- Redshift Survey; 121, 42 Randich, S.; Bragaglia, A.; Pastori, L.; Prisinzano, L.;
head Nebula: A Beautiful Case; 120, 37 Sestito, P., Spanò, P.; Villanova, S.; Carraro, G.;
Hook I. and the OPTICON ELT Science Working Carretta, E.; Romano, D.; Zaggia, S.; Pallavicini,
Group; Science with Extremely Large Telescopes; M R.; Pasquini, L.; Primas, F.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tosi,
121, 2 M.; FLAMES Observations of Old Open Clusters:
Hook, R.; Møller, P.; Ignatius, J.; Vasko, K.; Peron, M.; Madsen, C.; “Towards a Europe of Knowledge and Constraints on the Evolution of the Galactic Disc
Quinn, P.; The Sampo Project; 120, 17 Innovation” – EIROforum presents a major science and Mixing Processes in Stars; 121, 18
policy paper; 120, 46 Richichi, A.; Glindemann, A.; Report on the Work-
Madsen, C.; Richard West retires; 120, 56 shop on The Power of Optical/IR Interferometry:
J Madsen, C.; ESO at CER 200,5; 122, 48 Recent Scientific Results and Second-Generation
Miley, G.; Madsen, C.; Scorza de Appl, C.; Universe VLTI Instrumentation; 120, 48
Janssen, E.; ESO Exhibitions in Granada and Awareness for Young Children; 121, 66 Robson, I.; Christensen, L. L.; Report on the ESO-
Naples; 119, 52 Monnet, G.; The OPTICON FP6 Programme and ESA-IAU Conference Communicating Astronomy
Janssen, E.; ESO at the European Research and ESO; 120, 7 with the Public 200,5; 121, 59
Innovation Salon in Paris; 120, 53 Rodríguez, V.; Mirabel, F.; Public Affairs Highlights in
Janssen, E.; ESO Public Activities in July 2005; Chile: Achievements of 200,4; 119, 54
121, 63 N
Jarvis, M. J.; van Breukelen, C.; Venemans, B. P.;
Wilman, R. J.; Surveying the High-Redshift Nissen, E. P.; Asplund, M.; Lambert, D. L.; Primas, S
­U niverse with the VIMOS IFU; 121, 38 F.; Smith, V. V.; Lithium Isotopic Abundances in
Metal-Poor Stars: A Problem for Standard Big Scarpa, R.; Falomo, R.; Kotilainen, J. K.; Treves, A.;
Bang Nucleosynthesis?; 122, 32 Resolving the Host Galaxies of Quasars at z = 2.5
K with VLT + NACO; 120, 40
Sharples, R.; Bender, R.; Bennet, R.; Burch, K.;
Kasper, M.; Ageorges, N.; Boccaletti, A.; Brandner, P Carter, P.; Casali, M.; Clark, P.; Content, R.; Dav-
W.; Close, L. M.; Davies, R.; Finger, G.; Genzel, ies, R.; Dubbeldam, M.; Finger, G.; Genzel, R.;
R.; Hartung, M.; Kaufer, A.; Kellner, S.; Hubin, N.; Padovani, P.; Dolensky, M.; Report on the ESO Häfner, R.; Hess, A; Kissler-Patig, M.; Laidlaw, K.;
Lenzen, R.; Lidman, C.; Monnet, G.; Moorwood, Workshop on Virtual Observatory Standards and Lehnert M.; Lewis, I.; Moorwood, A.; Muschielok,
A.; Ott, T.; Riaud, P.; Röser, H.-J.; Rouan, D.; Spy- Systems for Data Centres and Large Projects; B.; Förster Schreiber, N.; Pirard, J.; Ramsay
romilio, J.; New observing modes of NACO; 119, 9 121, 60 Howat, S.; Rees, P.; Richter, J.; Robertson, D.;
Käufl, H.-U.; Ageorges, N.; Bagnulo, S.; Barrera, L.; Padovani, P.; Quinn, P.; The Virtual Observatory in Robson, I.; Saglia, R.; Tecza, M.; Thatte, N.; Todd,
Böhnhardt, H.; Bonev, T.; Hainaut, O.; Jehin, E.; Europe and at ESO; 122, 22 S.; Wegner, M.; Surveying the High-Redshift
Kerber, F.; Lo Curto, G.; Manfroid, J.; Marco, O.; Pantin, E.; Lagage, P.-O.; Claret, A.; Doucet, C.; Universe with KMOS; 122, 2
Pantin, E.; Pompei, E.; Saviane, I.; Selman, F.; Kaufer, A.; Käufl, H.-U.; Pel, J.-W.; Peletier, R. F.; Shaver, P.; Leibundgut, B.; Liske, J.; Report on the
Sterken, C.; Rauer, H.; Tozzi, G. P.; Weiler, M.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Smette, A.; Sterzik, M.; VISIR, EPS-ESA-ESO-CERN Conference on Relativity,
Deep Impact at ESO Telescopes; 121, 11 a Taste of Scientific Potential; 119, 25 Matter and Cosmology; 121, 62
Kerber, F.; Hainaut, O.; ESA-ESO Working Group on Swinbank, M.; Bower, R.; Smail, I.; Morris, S.; Smith,
Extra-Solar Planets; 121, 56 G.; Resolved Spectroscopy of a z = 5 Gravitation-
Kissler-Patig, M.; Kaufer, A.; Leibundgut, B.; Mirabel, ally Lensed Galaxy with the VIMOS IFU; 121, 33
F.; ESO Studentships: PhD opportunities in
Garching and Santiago; 120, 44

78 The Messenger 123 – March 2006


T

Tacconi, L. J.; Dasyra, K.; Davies, R.; Genzel, R.;


Lutz, D.; Burkert, A.; Naab, T.; Sturm, E., Veilleux,
S.; Baker, A. J.; Sanders, D. B.; The Dynam-
ics and Evolution of Luminous Galaxy Mergers:
ISAAC Spectroscopy of ULIRGs; 122, 28

Vanzella, E.; Christiani, S.; Dickinson, M; ­Kuntschner,


H.; Rettura, A.; Moustakas, L. A.; Nonino, M.;
Popesso, P; Rosati, P.; Stern, D.; Cesarsky, C.;
Ferguson, H. C.; Fosbury, R. A. E.; Giavalisco,
M.; Haase, J.; Renzini, A. and the GOODS Team;
GOODS’ Look at Galaxies in the Young Universe;
122, 25

Walsh, J.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Report on the Confer-


ence on Science Perspectives for 3D Spectros-
copy; 122, 49
West, R.; EAAE Meeting at ESO Headquarters;
119, 53
Wilson, T.; ALMA News; 119, 24
Wilson, T.; ALMA News; 120, 15
Wilson, T.; ALMA News; 121, 48
Wilson, T.; ALMA News; 122, 15
Wittkowski, M.; Comerón, F.; Glindemann, A.; ­
Hummel, C.; Morel, S.; Percheron, I.; Petr-
Gotzens, M.; Schöller, M.; Observing with the ESO
VLT Interferometer; 119, 14
Wittkowski, M.; Paresce, F.; Chesneau, O.; Kervella,
P.; Meilland, A.; Meisenheimer, K; Ohnaka, K.;
Recent Astrophysical Results from the VLTI;
119, 36

Left: A comparison between two images of


­M essier 100, taken in March 2002 with the VIMOS
instrument on Melipal (VLT) and in February 2006
with FORS1 on Kueyen (VLT). The difference in col­-
ours comes from the different filters used. The
supernova SN 2006X is clearly present in the FORS1
image as the bright object in the middle, just above
the lower main spiral arm. It is not seen in the VIMOS
image. (ESO PR Photo 08b/06)

Front Cover Picture: Spiral galaxy NGC 1350.


This colour-composite image was taken with
FORS2 on the VLT unit telescope Kueyen. See
ESO Press Photo 31a/05 for details.

The Messenger 123 – March 2006 79


ESO is the European Organisation for Contents
Astronomical Research in the Southern
Hemisphere. Whilst the Headquarters Spain to Join ESO 3
(comprising the scientific, technical and
administrative centre of the organisa- Telescopes and Instrumentation
tion) are located in Garching near G. Monnet, R. Gilmozzi – Status of the European ELT 4
Munich, Germany, ESO operates three R. Arsenault et al. – The VLT Adaptive Optics Facility Project:
observational sites in the Chilean Ata­ Telescope Systems 6
cama desert. The Very Large Telescope R. Arsenault et al. – The VLT Adaptive Optics Facility Project:
(VLT), is located on Paranal, a 2 600 m Adaptive Optics Modules 11
high mountain south of Antofagasta. At First Light for the VLT Laser Guide Star Facility 16
La Silla, 600 km north of Santiago de S. Hubrig et al. – VLT-UVES Long-Slit Spectroscopy 17
Chile at 2 400 m altitude, ESO operates T. Wilson – ALMA News 19
several medium-sized optical tele­ M. Hogerheijde – The ALMA Design Reference Science Plan 20
scopes. The third site is the 5 000 m
high Llano de Chajnantor, near San Reports from Observers
Pedro de Atacama. Here a new submil- M. Kürster, M. Endl, F. Rodler – In Search of Terrestrial Planets in the
limetre telescope (APEX) is in opera- Habitable Zone of M Dwarfs 21
tion, and a giant array of 12-m submil- Low-Mass Exoplanet Found Using Microlensing 24
limetre antennas (ALMA) is under R. Neuhäuser, M. Mugrauer, E. Guenther – Direct Imaging of Sub-Stellar
development. Over 1600 proposals are Companions around Young Stars 25
made each year for the use of the ESO T. Henning et al. – The Formation and Early Evolution of Massive Stars 28
telescopes. E. Tolstoy et al. – The Dwarf galaxy Abundances and Radial-velocities
Team (DART) Large Programme – A Close Look at Nearby Galaxies 33
The ESO MESSENGER is published four A. Koch et al. – The Age-Metallicity Degeneracy in the
times a year: normally in March, June, Dwarf Spheroidal Carina as Seen by FLAMES 38
September and December. ESO also F. Hammer et al. – The Formation of Intermediate-Mass Galaxies
publishes Conference Proceedings and over the Last 8 Gyrs 41
other material connected to its activi- A. van der Wel et al. – Masses and Mass-to-Light Ratios of Early-Type ­
ties. Press Releases inform the media Galaxies at High Redshift – The Impact of Ultradeep FORS2 Spectroscopy 45
about particular events. For further H. Böhringer et al. – Unveiling the Structure of Galaxy Clusters
in­formation, contact the ESO Public with ­Combined ESO-VLT, WFI, and XMM-Newton ­Observations 49
Affairs Department at the following ad- G. Chincarini et al. – Gamma-Ray Bursts: Learning about the Birth of
dress: Black Holes and Opening new Frontiers for Cosmology 54

ESO Headquarters Other Astronomical News


Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2 P. Andreani, T. Wilson – The ALMA-Herschel Synergies 59
85748 Garching bei München C. Madsen – ESO at AAAS 61
Germany G. Argandoña, F. Mirabel – Latin American Summer School 62
Phone +49 89 320 06-0 I. Saviane, V. D. Ivanov, J. Borissova – Report on the Conference on
Fax +49 89 320 23 62 Groups of Galaxies in the Nearby Universe 63
information@eso.org Fellows at ESO – G. Chauvin, E. Galliano 66
www.eso.org Science in School launched 66

The ESO Messenger: Announcements


Editor: Peter Shaver S. Warren et al. – The UKIDSS Early Data Release 67
Technical editor: Jutta Boxheimer R. Hook et al. – Scisoft VI 69
www.eso.org/messenger/ Workshop on Deep Impact as a World Observatory Event 69
MPA/ESO/MPE/USM Joint Astronomy Conference on Heating versus
Printed by Cooling in Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies 70
Peschke Druck Conference on Precision Spectroscopy in Astrophysics 70
Schatzbogen 35 Science on Stage 2 71
81805 München Euroscience Open Forum – ESOF2006 71
Germany ESO Studentship Programme 72
Vacancies 73
© ESO 2006 Personnel Movements 75
ISSN 0722-6691 List of Proceedings from the ESO Astrophysics Symposia 75

Annual Index 2005 76