kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

:
xyxsJP»r Cjú~j uãqJmKu I\tPj
ßrKcS'r ßTRvuVf mqmyJr
\JjM~JKr 2006

Cjú~Pjr \jq
fgq S ßpJVJPpJV

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj:
xyxsJP»r Cjú~j uãqJmKu I\tPj ßrKcS'r ßTRvuVf mqmyJr
Voices of Change:
Strategic radio support for achieving the Millennium Development Goals
January 2006

oNu: KcFl@AKc, AjlrPovj IqJ¥ TKoCKjPTvj lr ßcPnukPo≤ KaoÇ
mJÄuJ~ IjMmJh: ßoJyJÿh ßVJuJo jmL
mJÄuJ xÄÛrPer k´TJvTJu: oJYt, 2007
k´TJvT: mJÄuJPhv FjK\Sx ßjaS~JTt lr ßrKcS IqJ¥ TKoCKjPTvj
mJKz: 13/1, ßrJc: 2, vqJouL, dJTJ-1207
ßlJj: 9130750, 9138501, lqJé: 9138501-105
APoAu: ceo@bnnrc.net
www.bnnrc.net

oMhes : ß\KjKxx (k´J:) Ku”

KcFl@AKc mJÄuJPhv Fr @KgtT S TJKrVKr xyJ~fJ~ k´TJKvfÇ

mJÄuJ xÄÛrPer nNKoTJ

mJÄuJPhPvr ßk´ãJkPa ßrKcS Ifq∂ vKÜvJuL FTKa \jKk´~ oJiqoÇ V´JoJûPu ßlJj KTÄmJ KmhqM“ xMKmiJ mKûf oJjMPwr TJPZS
ßrKcS UMm xyP\A ßkÅRZJPf ßkPrPZÇ @mJr ßp oJjMwèPuJ KuUPf KTÄmJ kzPf \JPjj jJ fJPhr TJPZ fgq ßkÅRPZ KhPf
ßrKcS'r nNKoTJ @\ Ij˝LTJptÇ fgq KmnJ\Pj KmnJK\f mftoJj KmPvõ fgq xÄPpJPV FTKa vKÜvJuL oJiqo KyPxPm ßrKcS'r ˙Jj
xmtJKiT èÀfôkeN tÇ
mJÄuJPhPvr ßk´ãJkPa @orJ ßhUPf kJA xrTJPrr Cjú~j ßTRvuxoNy I\tPj ßrKcS'r ßVRrmVJgJ AKfyJx FmÄ pJr iJrJmJKyTfJ
FUPjJ YuoJjÇ mJÄuJPhPvr ˝JiLjfJ pM≠, èKamx∂ k´KfPrJi, oqJPuKr~J oMÜ IKnpJj, kKrmJr kKrT·jJ S AKk@Axy IjqJjq
èÀfôkNet Cjú~j ßTRvu I\tPj ßrKcS KmrJoyLjnJPm ImhJj ßrPU YPuPZÇ
mJÄuJPhv xrTJr xyxsJP»r Cjú~j uãqJmKu I\tPj IKñTJrJm≠Ç FmÄ ßxA uPãq k´eLf yP~PZ hJKrhsq KmPoJYj ßTRvuk©Ç
mftoJPj hJKrhsq KmPoJYj ßTRvukP©r mJ˜mJ~j YuPZÇ @orJ oPj TKr, FA ßTRvuk© mJ˜mJ~Pj xJluq I\tPj ßrKcS IfLPfr
ßVRrmVJgJ IKnùfJr @PuJPT mqJkT nNKoTJ kJuj TrPf kJPrÇ FA \Pjq k´P~J\j ßrKcS mqmyJPrr ßTRvuVf kKrT·jJ S
k´e~j S fJr xMÔá mJ˜mJ~jÇ
pMÜrJ\q xrTJPrr KckJatPo≤ lr A≤JrjqvjJu ßcPnukPo≤ (KcFl@AKc) 2006 xJPur \JjM~JKr oJPx ÈnP~Pxx Im ßY†”
ˆsqJKaK\T ßrKcS xJPkJat lr FKYKnÄ Kh KoPuKj~Jo ßcPnukPo≤ ßVJux' vLwtT FTKa k´KfPmhj k´TJv TPrÇ @oJPhr
TJPZ IjMnNf yP~PZ ßp, FA k´KfPmhjKar mJÄuJ xÄÛre ßhPvr jLKf KjitJrT, xrTJKr TotTftJ, xŒ´YJr ߈vj, FjK\S,
VeoJiqo, jJVKrT xoJ\, KvãJKmh S hJfJxÄ˙Jr oPiq Kmfrexy FTKa k´YJrJKnpJj kKrYJujJ TrPu ßrKcS'r IKiTfr
ßTRvuVf mqmyJPr xKâ~ yPf fJPhr oPjJPpJV @Twte TrJ x÷m yPmÇ
F KmwP~ @orJ KcFl@AKc mJÄuJPhv'r ßpJVJPpJV ACKjPar TJPZ mJÄuJ xÄÛre ßmr TrJr k´˜JmjJ ßk´re TKrÇ ßpJVJPpJV
ACKja @oJPhr k´˜JmjJKar èÀfô IjMiJmj TPr ˝· xoP~ k´KfPmhjKa mJÄuJ~ k´TJPvr IjMoKfxy @KgtT xyJ~fJ k´hJPjr
mqm˙J TPrÇ @orJ F\jq KcFl@AKc mJÄuJPhv'r k´Kf @∂KrTnJPm TífùÇ
mJÄuJPhv xrTJr xŒ´YJr mqm˙Jr IKiTfr Cjú~j S xŒ´YJr mqm˙J ChJrLTrPer uPãq xŒ´YJr jLKfoJuJ (UxzJ) 2003 k´e~j
TPrPZÇ pJ FUPjJ YNzJ∂ y~KjÇ @orJ \JjPf ßkPrKZ ßp, CÜ jLKfoJuJ~ xrTJKr mqm˙J~ xŒ´YJr, mJKeK\qT mqm˙J~ xŒ´YJr
S TKoCKjKaKnK•T IuJn\jT xŒ´YJr mqm˙Jr KmwP~ CPuäU rP~PZÇ @orJ @vJ TrKZ, xrTJr hs∆f FA UxzJ xŒ´YJr
jLKfoJuJ YNzJ∂ TPr @APj kKref TrPmjÇ pJPf ßhPv FTKa mqJkT KnK•T xŒsYJr mqm˙J k´KfÔJ uJn TPrÇ TJre KmKnjú
irPjr fPgq \jVPer mqJkT k´JK¬r xMPpJV FmÄ ßaTxA Cjú~Pjr kgPT xJmuLu TrPf kJPrÇ FPãP© xrTJKr S mJKeK\qT
ßrKcS'r kJvJkJKv TKoCKjKa KnK•T ßrKcS'r xŒsYJr \jVPer \LmjoJj Cjú~Pj ImhJj rJUJr oJiqPo ßhPvr xJKmtT Cjú~Pj
ß\JrJPuJ nëKoTJ kJuj TrPmÇ
k´KfPmhjKar mJÄuJ IjMmJh, xŒJhjJ S C“kJhPjr hJK~Pfô pJrJ xŒOÜ KZPuj fJPhr xTPur k´Kf @∂KrT TífùfJ k´TJv TrKZÇ

FFAYFo m\uMr ryoJj
k´iJj KjmtJyL TotTftJ
mJÄuJPhv FjK\Sx ßjaS~JTt lr ßrKcS IqJ¥ TKoCKjPTvj

TífùfJ ˝LTJr
F k´KfPmhPjr oNu AÄPrK\ xÄÛre KuPUPZj S xŒJhjJ TPrPZj FPcPuAc KmvõKmhqJuP~r
xoJ\KmùJj IjMwPhr c. IqJjcsM Ûáq\Ç pMÜrJP\qr KckJatPo≤ lr A≤JrjqJvjJu
ßcPnukPo≤ (KcFl@AKc) Fr AjlrPovj IqJ¥ TKoCKjPTvj lr ßcPnukPo≤ KaPor
KjPTJuJ Ccx k´KfPmhjKa ‰fKrr CPhqJV ßjj FmÄ KfKj FKmwP~ k´P~J\jL~ ofJof S
xyJ~fJ ßhjÇ k´KfPmhjKa xÄPvJij S kKroJ\tPjr \jq ofJof KhP~PZj KcFl@AKc'r
ßoKr oJ~Jxt, KlSjJ kJS~Jr FmÄ A~JoK~j ßaurÇ
Kc\JAj TPrPZ V´∆K¥ IqJ¥ jPgt\Ç

IqJPâJPjo FmÄ v»xÄPãk
FAcx (AIDS)
FoJrT (AMARC)
KmKmKx (BBC)
KmKmKx FAKk (BBC AEP)
KmKmKx cKmäCFxKa (BBC WST)
KcFl@AKc (DFID)
cax (DOTS)
lJS (FAO)
FlFo (FM)
FAY@AKn (HIV)

FPTJ~Jct AKoCj ßcKlKvP~K¿ KxjPcsJo
S~Jflt IqJPxJKxP~vj Im TKoCKjKa ßrKcS mscTJˆJrx
KmsKav mscTJKˆÄ TrPkJPrvj
KmKmKx @lVJj FcMPTvj k´P\Öx
KmKmKx S~Jflt xJKntx asJˆ
KckJatPo≤ lr A≤JrjqJvjJu ßcPnukPo≤
cJAPrÖKu Im\Jrnc KasaPo≤ vat-ßTJxt (KaKm)
UJhq S TíKw xÄ˙J (lác IqJ¥ FKV´TJuYJr IVtJjJAP\vj)
Kl∑PTJP~K¿ ocMPuvj
KyCoqJj AKoCPjJPcKlKvP~K¿ nJArJx

@AKxKc (ICD)

Cjú~Pjr \jq fgq S ßpJVJPpJV k´pKM Ü (AjlrPovj IqJ¥ TKoCKjPTvj lr ßcPnukPo≤)

@AKxKa (ICT)

fgq S ßpJVJPpJV k´pKM Ü (AjlrPovj IqJ¥ TKoCKjPTvj ßaTPjJuK\x)

AlJc (IFAD)
FoIqJ¥A (M&E)

TíKw Cjú~j Kmw~T @∂\tJKfT fyKmu (A≤JrjqJvjJu lJ¥ lr FKV´TJuYJrJu ßcPnukPo≤)
kKrmLãe S oNuqJ~j (oKjaKrÄ IqJ¥ AnqJuMP~vj)

FoKcK\ (MDG)

xyxsJP»r Cjú~j uãqJmKu (KoPuKj~Jo ßcPnukPo≤ ßVJux)

FjK\S (NGO)

ßmxrTJKr Cjú~j xÄ˙J (jj-VnjtPo≤ IrVJjJAP\vj)

KaKm (TB)
ACKcFAY@r (UDHR)
ACFj (UN)
ACFjFAcx (UNAIDS)
ACFjKcKk (UNDP)
ACPjPÛJ (UNESCO)
cKmäCFAYS (WHO)

pçJ (KaCmJrKTCPuJKxx)
oJjmJKiTJPrr xmt\jLj ßWJweJ (ACKjnJxtJu ßcTîJPrvj Im KyCoqJj rJAax)
\JKfxÄW (ACjJAPac ßjvjx)
FAY@AKn/FAcx Kmw~T \JKfxÄPWr ßpRg TotxNKY (\P~≤ ACFj ßk´JV´Jo Ij FAY@AKn/FAcx)
\JKfxÄPWr Cjú~j TotxKN Y (ACFj ßcPnukPo≤ ßk´JV´Jo)
\JKfxÄPWr KvãJ KmùJj S xÄÛOKf xÄ˙J (ACFj FcMPTvjJu xJP~K≤KlT IqJ¥ TJuYJrJu IVtJjJAP\vj)
Kmvõ ˝J˙q xÄ˙J (S~Jflt ßyug IVtJjJAP\vj)

xNKYk©

kOÔJ

xNKY
mJÄuJ xÄÛrPer nNKoTJ

04

IqJPâJPjo FmÄ v»xÄPãk

07

xJrxÄPãk

09-14

1. Cjú~Pjr \jq fgq S ßpJVJPpJV (@AKxKc) FmÄ xyxsJP»r Cjú~j uãqJmKu

15-17

2. xyxsJP»r Cjú~j uãqJmKu mJ˜mJ~Pj xyJ~fJ FmÄ @AKxKc CPhqJPVr \jq xyJ~T kKrPmv ‰fKr

18-20

3. oJjmJKiTJr S xofJr mJ˜mJ~j: TgJ muJr xMPpJV I\tj FmÄ v´∆KfPVJYr yS~J

21-23

4. oJjm Cjú~j mJ˜mJ~j: Cjúffr ˝J˙q S KvãJ xyJ~fJr \jq ßrKcS

24-27

5. ßaTxA \LKmTJ\tj iJreJr mJ˜mJ~j: TíKw S TPotJPhqJPV ßrKcS xyJ~fJ

28
29-30

6. KmPrJi FmÄ k´JTíKfT hMPptJV k´KfPrJi mJ KjK•Pf ßrKcS'r nNKoTJ
7. Frkr ßTJgJ~? @AKxKc k´oJeKnK• FmÄ ßrKcS UJPfr \jq mKitf hJfJ xyJ~fJr YJKyhJ Kj„ke

31

kKrKvÓ 1: xyxsJP»r Cjú~j uãqJmKu

32

kKrKvÓ 2: ßrlJPr¿ xoNy

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

IJAKxKc

xJrxÄPãk
FA k´KfPmhPj ßaTxA \LKmTJ\tj, IKiTJr k´KfÔJ, oJjm Cjú~j
FmÄ \JKfxÄPWr xyxsJP»r ßWJweJr mqJkTfr uãq S CP¨vq
I\tPj xyJ~fJr \jq ßrKcSPT TJP\ uJVJPjJr TfaJ xMPpJV
rP~PZ ßx xŒPTt FTKa xÄK㬠iJreJ ßh~J yP~PZÇ Cjú~jvLu
KmPvõ mxmJxrf KmkMu xÄUqT hKrhs jJrL, kMÀw S KvÊPT
\LmPjr \jq IKf k´P~J\jL~ fgq ImqJyfnJPm ßkÅRPZ ßh~Jr
TJP\ ßrKcSPT mqmyJPrr uPãq FA UJPf xyJ~fJr kKroJe
mJzJPjJr \jq FA k´KfPmhPj KcFl@AKc FmÄ IjqJjq hJfJ
xÄ˙Jr oPjJPpJV @Twte TrJ yP~PZÇ FUJPj hKrhs \jPVJÔLr
\jq ßrKcS'r k´P~J\jL~fJr KhTKa CPuäU TrJ yP~PZ FmÄ ˝J˙q,
IKiTJr, KvãJ, \LKmTJ KjmtJy FmÄ Æªô Kjrxjxy jJjJoNUL TJP\
ßrKcS'r mqJkT mqmyJPrr Kmw~Ka fáPu irJ yP~PZÇ ßxAxPñ
TJptTr kKrmLãe S oNuqJ~j TJ\ kKrYJujJr xãofJ mOK≠r
YJKyhJ xTu kptJP~r ßrKcS xŒ´YJrTJrLPhr rP~PZ KT jJ fJ
KYK¤f TrJ yP~PZ, pJPf TPr FTKa pgJpg Cjú~Pjr \jq fgq
S ßpJVJPpJV k´oJeKnK• k´KfÔJr k´Kâ~J ÊÀ TrJ pJ~, pJ
xyxsJP»r Cjú~j uãqJmKu I\tPjr ßãP© ßrKcS FmÄ IjqJjq
ßpJVJPpJV oJiqPor ßTRvuVf ImhJPjr Kmw~Ka ¸Ó TPr
fáuPmÇ kPrr kOÔJ~ CPuäKUf xJrKePf k´KfPmhPjr oNu k´KfkJhq
IÄvèPuJ xÄKã¬nJPm fáPu irJ yP~PZ FmÄ oJjm Cjú~Pj
ßrKcS'r nNKoTJ mOK≠Pf KcFl@AKc xKâ~nJPm TL irPjr
xyJ~fJhJj TrPf kJPr fJr „kPrUJ ßh~J yP~PZÇ

7

IJAKxKc

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

FTKa VKfvLu VeoJiqo kKrPmv ‰fKrr
uPãq KcFl@AKc TL TrPf kJPr?

ßrKcS-Pf IKnVoqfJr xofJ mJzJPf
FmÄ IKiTJr k´KfÔJ~ xyJ~fJ KhPf
KcFl@AKc TL TrPf kJPr?

ßrKcS'r \jq ˝J˙q S KvãJoNuT Kmw~m˜M
ß\JrJPuJ TrJr mqJkJPr KcFl@AKc TL
nNKoTJ kJuj TrPf kJPr?

˙JjL~ S \JfL~ kptJP~ mÉKmi S
Kj~πeoMÜ VeoJiqo mqm˙J YJuMr uPãq
kKrYJKuf IqJcPnJPTKx xÄâJ∂
TotTJP§ xMvLu xoJ\ S FjK\SPhr
xyJ~fJ TrPf kJPrÇ

ßrKcS k´pKM Ür oJKuTJjJ I\tj mJ
ßrKcS-Pf IKnVoqfJ I\tPjr ßãP©
hKrhs oJjMPwr xãofJ mOK≠ FmÄ
xy\unq S ßaTxA kMj”mqmyJrPpJVq
\ôJuJjL vKÜ (ßpoj, ßxRrvKÜ)
xrmrJPyr \jq KmKjP~JVÇ

xrTJKr ßrKcS ߈vjèPuJPf Totrf
TotLPhr k´fqã k´KvãPer oJiqPo
hKrhs \jPVJÔLr \jq CkPpJVL ßrKcS
Kmw~m˜M QfKrPf fJPhr xãofJ mOK≠
FmÄ F UJPfr \jq ˝JiLjnJPm
Kmw~m˜M ‰fKrPf KjP~JK\f FjK\SPhr
xyJ~fJ TrJr oJiqPo oJjmxŒh
Cjú~j Kmw~T Kmw~m˜M ß\JrhJrTreÇ

TKoCKjKa ßrKcS kKrYJujJr IjMoKf
xÄV´Py xMvLu xoJ\ S FjK\SPhr
xyJ~fJ KhPf kJPrÇ
VeoJiqPor kKrPmv ‰fKrr uPãq
xyJ~fJ ImqJyf rJUPf kJPr ßpUJPj
@ûKuT S \JfL~ KoKc~Jr oiqTJr
xM¸Ó kJgtTqKa ßmJ^J pJPm FmÄ pJ
F„k @AjL TJbJPoJKnK•T yPm pJPf
xJÄmJKhT S xŒ´YJrTJrLPhr
IKiTJPrr kJvJkJKv fJPhr hJK~Pfôr
CkrS èÀfô ßhPmÇ

ßrKcS-Pf jJrLPhr IKnVoqfJ CjúLf
TPr Foj CPhqJVèPuJPT xyJ~fJhJj,
ßpoj ßrKcS ßvsJfJhu Vbj FmÄ jJrL
IjMÔJj kKrYJujJTJrLPhr k´KvãehJjÇ

@jMÔJKjT KvãJ ßgPT mKûf KvÊPhr
\jq ßrKcSKnK•T KvãJr xMPpJV ‰fKrr
Kmw~KaPT @PrJ ß\JrhJr S
KjKmzfrTreÇ
KvÊoOfqá , oJfí˝J˙q FmÄ xÄâJoT ßrJV
xÄâJ∂ ßrKcS Kmw~m˜M
(IqJcPnJPTKx, k´KfPrJi S Kj~πe)
k´e~j ß\JrhJrTre S KjKmzfrTreÇ

ßaTxA \LKmTJ\tj kKrPmv ‰fKrr
ßãP© ßrKcS-r nNKoTJPT xyJ~fJ
KhPf KcFl@AKc TL TrPf kJPr?

ƪô Kjrxj S hMPptJV k´KfPrJPi S
ßrKcS'r nNKoTJPT xyJ~fJhJPjr \jq
KcFl@AKc TL TrPf kJPr?

xyxsJP»'r Cjú~j uãqJmKu I\tPjr ßãP©
ßrKcSr nNKoTJ KmwP~ @oJPhr ùJj
mJzJPf KcFl@AKc TL TrPf kJPr?

TíKw Kmw~T xŒ´YJPrr ßãP© \JfL~
kptJP~r xΫYJrTJrLPhr TJ\
@iMKjTJ~j FmÄ ß\JrhJrTrPer uPãq
xyJ~fJ mOK≠Ç

ƪô k´KfPrJi, Kjrxj S @∂”\JKf
xÄuJk FmÄ KrPkJKatÄ Kmw~T
k´KvãehJPjr oJiqPo xrTJKr,
mJKeK\qT S TKoCKjKa xΫYJrTJrLPhr
KjrPkãfJ vKÜvJuLTreÇ

kKrmLãe S oNuqJ~Pjr xy\ k≠Kf S
KjPhtKvTJ k´e~Pjr oJiqPo @ûKuT,
\JfL~ mJ @AKxKc UJPf VOyLf
CPhqJVèPuJr @SfJ~ kKrmLãe S
oNuqJ~j xÄâJ∂ TJ\ vKÜvJuLTreÇ

\ÀKr xŒ´YJr mqm˙J ˙JkPjr \jq Igt
xrmrJy FmÄ ^ÅKM TV´˜ S mJ˜MYqá f
\jPVJÔLr oPiq ßrKcS KmfrPer
oJiqPo oJjKmT fgqmqm˙J
vKÜvJuLTrPe xyJ~fJhJjÇ

xTu kptJP~ @AKxKc CPhqJVèPuJ
xŒPTt ImKyf TrJr uPãq VbjoNuT
VPmweJr \jq KjPhtKvTJ k´e~j, KmPvw
TPr TKoCKjKa ßrKcS kKrYJujJTJrL
mqKÜVPer \jq xyP\ mqmyJpt xJoJK\T
VPmweJ CkTre ‰fKrTreÇ

^ÅKM TkNet kKrK˙KfPf hMPptJV ßoJTJPmuJr
k´˜KM f S hMPptJV k´voj xÄâJ∂
xŒ´Y´ JPrr mqm˙J k´KfÔJ~ xyJ~fJhJjÇ

VbjoNuT VPmweJ FmÄ k´nJm oNuqJ~j
ßTRvuxoNy k´e~Pjr \jq xyPpJVL
xrTJKr k´KfÔJj (\JfL~ VeoJiqo) FmÄ
˝Kjntr @AKxKc UJfPT xyJ~fJhJjÇ

ßaTxA kKrPmvVf mqm˙JkjJ,
˝J˙qKmKi FmÄ k~”KjÏJvj Kmw~T
ßrKcS Kmw~m˜M ‰fKrr TJ\ @rS
ß\JrhJrTre S KjKmzfrTreÇ
ãáhs CPhqJÜJ S kKrmftj-k´Kâ~JiLj
IgtjLKfPT xyJ~fJ TrJr CkPpJVL
ßrKcS Kmw~m˜M ‰fKrr TJ\ @rS
ß\JrhJrTre S KjKmzfrTreÇ

8

TKoCKjKa FmÄ \JfL~ xŒsYJrTJrL
kptJP~ IjMxºJjoNuT xJÄmJKhTfJ FmÄ
ßrKcSKnK•T IqJcPnJPTKx TotTJ§
ß\JrhJrTreÇ

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

1
1.1

Cjú~Pjr \jq fgq S ßpJVJPpJV (@AKxKc) FmÄ
xyxsJP»r Cjú~j uãqmKu

FA k´KfPmhPj èÀPfôr xPñ CPuäU TrJ yP~PZ ßp, fgq S
ßpJVJPpJV hJKrhsqs KmPoJYj k´Kâ~Jr ßTªs˙Pu Im˙Jj
TrPZÇ Kmw~Ka TKoCKjKar IÄvV´ye S ãofJ~Pjr k´Kâ~J
ßgPT ÊÀ TPr \j˝J˙q xÄâJ∂ KmKnjú KmwP~ mqJkTnJPm
xPYfjfJ mJzJPjJ, xÄWJfTJPu oJjKmT fgq xrmrJy
TrJ, xMvJxj k´KfÔJ S \mJmKhKyfJ mJzJPjJ, EeoMKÜr
\Kau k´Kâ~JxoNy KTÄmJ \JKfxÄPWr xyxsJP»r Cjú~j
uãqJmKu (FoKcK\) I\tPj xyJ~fJhJj kpt∂ Km˜OfÇ fgq
kJS~J, ßpJVJPpJV TrJ FmÄ xÄVKbf yS~Jr ßãP© FT\j
mqKÜr xMKjKhtÓ IKiTJr k´P~JPVr oiq KhP~ Fr k´Kfluj
WPaÇ ßpoj, xmt\jLj oJjmJKiTJr ßWJweJr 19 iJrJPf1
muJ yP~PZ ßp:

ßTRvuVf xyJ~fJ KhPf kJPr ßx Kmw~Ka krLãJ-KjrLãJ
TPr ßhUJ yP~PZÇ iJreJVf FA Kmw~KaPT xyxsJP»r
Cjú~j uãq TJbJPoJ FmÄ hJKrhsq S IxofJ ysJPxr ‰mKvõT
CPhqJV TJbJPoJr oPiq KmPmYjJ TrJ yP~PZ (kKrKvÓ 1
ßhUMj)2Ç \JKfxÄPWr xyxsJP»r Cjú~j uãqJmKur
mÉUJfKnK•T CPhqJPVr xPñ xñKf ßrPU FA k´KfPmhPj
˝J˙q, KvãJ, k´JTíKfT xŒh mqm˙JkjJ, ƪô k´KfPrJi S
ysJx FmÄ hMPptJV Kjrxj, ãáhs TPotJPhqJV Cjú~j, Cjúffr
vJxj, ˝òfJ S \mJmKhKyfJ xÄâJ∂ ßrKcSKnK•T
èÀfôkeN t ChJyrexoNy fáPu irJ yP~PZÇ
1.4

k´PfqPTrA ofJof ßkJwe TrJ S k´TJv TrJr IKiTJr
rP~PZÇ KmjJ y˜PãPk ofJof ßkJwe TrJ FmÄ
ßpPTJPjJ oJiqPo rJÓsL~ xLoJjJ KjKmtPvPw fgq S
ofJof xºJj TrJ, V´ye TrJ S \JjJmJr ˝JiLjfJ FA
IKiTJPrr I∂ntÜ
M Ç
(iJrJ 19, xmt\jLj oJjmJKiTJr ßWJweJ 1948)
1.2

1.3

hKrhs oJjMPwr fgq kJS~Jr FmÄ fJ TJP\ uJVJPjJr IKiTJr
xoMjf
ú rJUJ hJKrhsq ysJx CPhqJPVr FTKa Ijqfo èÀfôkeN t
Kmw~Ç ßx TJrPe hKrhs kMÀw, jJrL S KvÊPhr mÜmq
Ck˙Jkj FmÄ jLKf k´e~j, kKrT·jJ k´e~j S mJ˜mJ~Pj
fJPhr IÄv ßj~Jr hJKm \JjJPjJr xMPpJV k´hJPjr oJiqPo
hKrhs oJjMPwr xPñ UJfS~JKr S mÉUJfKnK•T Cjú~j
k´Kâ~JxoNPyr oPiq ßpJVxN© ‰fKrr ßãP© Cjú~Pjr \jq
fgq S ßpJVJPpJV (@AKxKc) CPhqJV ßTRvuVf nNKoTJ
kJuj TrPf kJPrÇ
ChJyre KyPxPm FTKaoJ© @AKxKc UJf KjP~ FA
k´KfPmhPj oJjm Cjú~j k´Kâ~J~ ßrKcS xŒ´YJr TfaJ
KY© 1: @∂”xŒTtpÜ
M

kJKjmJKyf ßrJV Kmw~T
KvãJ S fgq

IJAKxKc

FoKcK\'r oNujLKfr ßTPªs rP~PZ hJKrPhsqr mÉoJK©T
k´TKí fr ˝LTíKf FmÄ oJjm Cjú~Pjr oNu xoxqJèPuJr
@∂”xŒTt UÅPM \ ßmr TrJ, FmÄ ßxAxPñ ßp ßhvèPuJ
oJjm Cjú~j xNYPTr KmYJPr hs∆f KjoúoUM L fJPhr IKnùfJr
@PuJPT fJPhr \jq TJP\r IV´JKiTJr KjitJre
(ACFjKcKk 2003: 51-58)Ç @∂”xŒPTtr FA irjKa
ßaTxA \LKmTJ\tj TJbJPoJ3 FmÄ ACFjKcKkr oJjm
Cjú~j xÄâJ∂ xJŒ´KfT KrPkJPat (2003) CkpMÜ„Pk
láKaP~ ßfJuJ yP~PZÇ CÜ KrPkJPat FoKcK\-r Ckr
@PuJTkJf TPr ßhUJPjJ yP~PZ TLnJPm xy\ TotTJ§
xÄKväÓ ßãP© Cjú~j xJluq mP~ @jPf kJPrÇ ßpoj,
kJKjmJKyf ßrJPVr k´JhMnJt m ToJPjJr uPãq xŒ´YJKrf
xJiJre FTKa ßrKcSKnK•T IjMÔJj ßgPT Cjúffr
˝J˙qKmKi YYtJ S ˝J˙qPxmJ V´yPer ßãP© xMluuJn FmÄ
ßxAxPñ IjqJjq KvãJoNuT luJlu kJS~J x÷mÇ

IJAKxKc CPhqJVxoNy TL?
1.5

FUj kpt∂ @AKxKc CPhqJPVr xPñ FoKcK\ I\tPjr xM¸Ó
ßpJVxN© I·A UÅPM \ ßmr TrJ yP~PZÇ k´iJjf ßp Kmw~èPuJr
k´Kf oPjJPpJV ßh~J yP~PZ ßxèPuJ yPuJ: (i) IqJcPnJPTKxr
@hPu FoKcK\r Kmw~m˜M S oNujLKfèPuJ xŒPTt \JjJPjJ

oJjm Cjú~j luJlu
Cjúffr ˝J˙qKmKi YYtJ,
˝J˙qPxmJ~ IKiTfr
IKnVoqfJ S ˝J˙qPxmJr
mqmyJr mOK≠

xÄâJoT ßrJV ysJx,
KvÊPhr Cjúffr kMKÓ-Im˙J
FmÄ KvãJr xJogtq mOK≠

ACFjKcKk 2003: 85 Imu’Pe)

9

SIERRA LEONE
Kids listening to the radio
© Clive Shirley

KxP~rJ Ku~j
KvÊrJ ßrKcS ÊjPZ
© TîJAn vJrKu

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

(ACFj TKoCKjPTvjx V´∆k ßhUMj)5 pJPf TPr ßxèPuJr
k´Kf \JfL~ S TKoCKjKa kptJP~ oJKuTJjJPmJi QfKr y~;
(ii) @AKxKa xÄâJ∂ YJKyhJ S xLoJm≠fJèPuJ xŒPTt
TJKrVKr ImTJbJPoJ S ùJPjr Km˜Jr WaJPjJ (KcFl@AKc
xyJ~fJkMÓ Ajl∑JˆsJTYJr TJPjÖ FmÄ @A-TJPjÖ
SP~mxJAaèPuJ ßhUMj)6Ç fPm, k´JP~JKVT @AKxKc
CPhqJVxoNPyr mqJkT ‰mKY©q rP~PZ FmÄ IxÄUq Cjú~j
UJPf mqmÂf IxÄUq ßpJVJPpJV k´pKM Ü S ßTRvPur xPñ Fr
xŒTtS rP~PZÇ @AKxKar KmKY©oMUL mqmyJPrr oPiq
I∂ntÜ
M rP~PZ:
• oMPUJoMKU KTÄmJ @∂mtqKÜT ßpJVJPpJV, ßpoj TJCP¿KuÄ
• TKoCKjKa kptJP~r ßpJVJPpJV, ßpoj KgP~aJr, nNKoTJIKnj~, TotvJuJ
• KoKc~Jr oJiqPo VeoJjMPwr xPñ ßpJVJPpJV, ßpoj
ßaKuKnvj, ßrKcS, YuKó© mJ KnKcS
• A≤JrPja S A-PoAu KnK•T ToKkCaJrKjntr fgq C≠Jr
S KmKjo~ mqm˙J
• ßaPrKˆs~Ju (uqJ¥ uJAj) mJ ßoJmJAu YqJPjPur oJiqPo
ßaKuPpJVJPpJVÇ
1.6

1.7

FZJzJS, APuTasKjT k≠KfPf ßpJVJPpJV mqm˙J âomitoJj
yJPr kJr¸KrTnJPm pMÜ yP~ FTLnNf yPòÇ IgtJ“ @PVTJr
kOgT kOgT oJiqoèPuJ FmÄ kOgT kOgT oJiqoKnK•T
ßxmJèPuJr xKÿuj WaPZÇ ßpoj:
• mftoJPj A≤JrPjPar oJiqPo IjuJAPj ßrKcS ßvJjJr
kptJ¬ mqm˙J rP~PZ
• A≤JrPjPar oJiqPo ßaKuKnvjS ßhUJ pJ~
• A≤JrPjPar oJiqPo oMPUJoMKU TgJ muJr oPfJA
@uJkYJKrfJ FmÄ KnKcS TjlJPrK¿Ä TrJ pJ~Ç
• ßoJmJAu ßlJPjr xJyJPpqS A≤JrPjPa k´Pmv TrJ pJ~
FmÄ ßoJmJAu ßlJj V´JyTrJ KjP\Phr oPiq APoAu/FxFoFx @hJjk´hJj TrPf kJPrjÇ
• FUj ToKkCaJr S ßoJmJAu ßlJj CnP~r oJiqPo
A≤JrPja xJAaèPuJ ßgPT VJj S YuKó© cJCjPuJc
TrJ x÷m yPòÇ
FTLnNfTrPer k´nJm xTu Cjú~jvLu ßhPvr \jq fJ“kptkeN t
FmÄ Fr lPu mqmxJ S ßxmJ k´hJPjr jfáj jfáj CkJP~r
CØm WPaPZÇ ßpoj:
• IjuJAj mqmxJ krJovt ßxmJ, ßa¥Jr cTáPoP≤
IKnVoqfJ FmÄ APuTasKjT mJKe\qÇ

IJAKxKc

• A≤JrPjaKnK•T ˝J˙q Kmw~T fgqnJ§Jr ßpUJPj KuKUf
fPgqr kJvJkJKv cJCjPuJc TrJ x÷m Foj IKcS lJAu
gJTPZ ßpèPuJ hKãPer ßhvèPuJr ßrKcS ߈vjèPuJPT
CK¨Ó mqmyJrTJrL KyPxPm KmPmYjJ TPr ‰fKr TrJ
yP~PZÇ
• ˝J˙q AjlrPoKaé, ßpoj A≤JrPjaKnK•T ßrJV j\rhJKr
KmwP~ fgqùJkj k≠KfÇ
• A≤JrPjaKnK•T YqJa S @PuJYjJ xJAaèPuJr oJiqPo
ßxmJhJjTJrL S ßrJVLPhr \jq xyJ~fJ, krJovt S fgq
ßh~J y~Ç

hKãPer ßhvèPuJr \jq ßrKcS FPfJaJ èÀfôkeN t ßTj?
1.8

@AKxKc CPhqJVèPuJr mqJkT mÉoJK©TfJ xP•ôS ßrKcS'r
Ckr ßTj FPfJaJ KmPvwnJPm @PuJTkJf TrJ yPò? ßrKcS
KT KmVf KhPjr FTKa k´pKM Ü j~? ßp k´pKM Ü FA mPu
xoJPuJKYf yP~ @xPZ ßp, Fr oJiqPo \jVe ÊiM \JjPf
kJPr, KT∂á \jVPer TgJ ßvJjJr ãofJ Fr ßjAÇ F
Im˙J~ FoKcK\-r uãq kNrPer CP¨Pvq @AKxKc
CPhqJVèPuJr xPñ kr¸r xŒTtpÜ
M S mÉUJfKnK•T
k´JxKñTfJr FTKa ßoRKuT ChJyre KyxJPm ßrKcS-PT ßmPZ
ßj~Jr TJre xM¸ÓÇ pKhS jLKf-KjitJrT S VPmwTPhr TJPZ
ßrKcS x÷mf FTKa kMrPjJ iÅJPYr k´pKM Ü, FUj kpt∂
hKãPer uJU uJU hKrhs oJjMPwr TJPZ ßpJVJPpJPVr FTKa
k´iJj mJyj yPuJ ßrKcSÇ

1.9

hKrhs oJjMPwr mxfmJKzPf ßrKcS TPfJaJ CPuäUPpJVqnJPm
ßkÅRZJPf ßkPrPZ ßxxŒPTt mé 1-F CkJ• fáPu irJ
yP~PZÇ fJr lPu ˝J˙q, oJjmJKiTJr, xMvJxj S
\mJmKhKyfJ, ƪô Kjrxj FmÄ hMPptJV k´voj, ßaTxA kKrPmv
S \LKmTJ~j FmÄ ãáhs KvP·Jjú~j CPhqJPVr oPfJ
Kmw~èPuJPT FKVP~ KjP~ pJS~Jr \jq @AKxKc k´~JxxoNPyr
vLPwt ßrKcS-PT ˙Jj ßh~Jr Kmw~KaS fáPu irJ yP~PZÇ
xy\ TgJ~ muPf ßVPu, KjotJfJ S ßnJÜJ Cn~ kPãr \jq
fáujJoNuTnJPm To UrPY FTxPñ xmPYP~ ßmKv xÄUqT
hKrhs oJjMPwr TJPZ ßkÅRZJPjJr \Pjq mftoJPj xy\unq
ßpJVJPpJV k´pKM ÜèPuJr oPiq ßrKcS ßxrJÇ

ßrKcS UJPfr kJgtTqTre
1.10 ßrKcS FTKa UJf KyPxPm mÉ irPjr IjMÔJPjr oJiqPo KmkMu
kKrxPrr ßvsJfJr TJPZ ßkÅRPZ gJPTÇ ßrKcS xŒ´YJrTJrLPhr
oPiq rP~PZ: (i) TKoCKjKa xŒsYJrTJrL; (ii) mJKeK\qT
xŒsYJrTJrL; (iii) \JfL~ mJ xrTJKr xŒsYJrTJrL; FmÄ

11

IJAKxKc

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

mé 1 hKãe @Kl∑TJr hKrhs \jPVJÔLr V´JoLe xŒPhr oJKuTJjJ FmÄ @AKxKa IKnVoqfJ
KcFl@AKc'r xJoJK\T VPmweJ ßgPT \JjJ pJ~, Ijqxm
ßpJVJPpJV k´pKM Ür fáujJ~ ßrKcS TfaJ ßmKv kKroJPe mxfmJKzr
k´P~J\jL~ m˜M KyPxPm mqmÂf yP~ gJPTÇ AˆJjt ßTPkr oJC≤
lsPr ß\uJr 50Ka V´JoLe hKrhs mxfmJKzr Ckr kKrYJKuf FT
\KrPkr CkJ• ßgPT \JjJ pJ~ ßp, 68 vfJÄv mJKzPf ßrKcS
rP~PZÇ IjqKhPT Fxm mxfmJKzPf ToKkCaJr S ßaKuKnvPjr
xÄUqJ ßjyJP~fA ToÇ ToKkCaJr ßTJPjJ mJKzPfA ßjA FmÄ
ßaKuKnvj rP~PZ oJ© 2 vfJÄv mJKzPfÇ hKãe @Kl∑TJr 2001
xJPur \JfL~ \jKoKfS FA CkJ•PT xogtj TPrÇ \JfL~
\jKoKfPf oJC≤ lsPrr 86,710 mqKÜr (V´Jo S vyr Cn~
FuJTJr) Ckr \Krk kKrYJujJ TrJ y~ FmÄ ßhUJ pJ~ ßp oJ©
0.29 vfJÄv oJjMPwr ToKkCaJr FmÄ oJ© 18 vfJÄv oJjMPwr
ßaKuKnvj rP~PZÇ FA irPjr CkJ• @AKxKa oJKuTJjJr KmYJPr

V´Jo S vyr FuJTJr oPiq KmhqoJj mz irPjr kJgtTqKa láKaP~
ßfJPuÇ fPm FTgJ oPj rJUPf yPm ßp, xJoJK\T kptJP~ xTPu
KoPu ßaKuKnvj ßhUJ FmÄ IPjqr ßlJj iJr TPr mqmyJPrr Kmw~
KmPmYjJ~ KjPu IKnVoqfJr kKrxÄUqJj CPuäUPpJVqnJPm ßmKv yPf
kJPrÇ
mxfmJKzr Vz \jxÄUqJ
7.4
ßaKuKnvj
2%
ßrKcS
68%
ßaKuPlJj (Kléc uJAj)
0%
ßoJmJAu ßlJj
28%
(Ûáq\ IqJ¥ TJK\jx 2005)

mé 2: ßrKcS UJf
TKoCKjKa ßrKcS
xJŒ´KfT mZrèPuJPf
Cjú~jvLu KmPvõr ßhvèPuJPf
TKoCKjKa ßrKcS UJfPT
xyJ~fJ ßh~Jr FTKa D±toMUL
k´mefJ uãq TrJ pJPòÇ ˙JjL~
kptJP~r YJKyhJ S KmKnjú KmwP~
\jVPer ofk´TJPvr xMPpJV
TPr ßh~Jr ßãP© TKoCKjKa
ßrKcS'r nNKoTJ hJfJ ßhvèPuJ
TftT
O ˝LTíKf kJPò FmÄ ßx\jq
TKoCKjKa ßrKcS TJptâo
hJfJPhr TJZ ßgPT fyKmu
xyJ~fJS kJPòÇ hOÓJ∂˝„k
muJ pJ~, KcFl@AKc'r KmKflÄ
KcK\aJu IkrYáKjKax ßk´JV´Jo
FoJrT8 (S~Jflt IqJPxJKxP~vj
Im TKoCKjKa ßrKcS
mscTJˆJrx)-Fr xPñ TJ\
TrPZ, pJrJ: (i) @Kl∑TJr ßpxm
ßhPv mftoJPj CPuäUPpJVq
ßTJPjJ TKoCKjKa ßrKcS UJPfr
IK˜fô ßjA ßxxm ßhPv ßmfJr
frñ CÿMÜ TrJr \jq
IqJcPnJPTKx TrPZ; (ii)
TKoCKjKa ßrKcS YJuM rP~PZ
Foj ˙JjèPuJPf krJovt FmÄ
ßjaS~JKTtÄ xMKmiJKh ßh~Jr
oJiqPo FA UJfPT @PrJ
vKÜvJuLTrPer ßYÓJ TrPZÇ
ßxAxPñ hãfJ Cjú~Pjr uPãq
k´Kvãe FmÄ pπkJKf xrmrJPyr
mqm˙JS rJUJ yP~PZÇ
12

mJKeK\qT ßrKcS
KjKhtÓ KTZá ßãP© mJKeK\qT
ßrKcS hs∆fVKfPf Km˜JruJn
TPrPZÇ KmPvw TPr kKÁo S
hKãe @Kl∑TJPf FmÄ oiq S
uqJKaj @PoKrTJPfÇ F irPjr
ßrKcS ߈vjèPuJ oNuf
KmùJkPjr oJiqPo IPgtJkJ\tPjr
uPãq kKrYJKuf yPuS Fxm
ßrKcS ߈vj ßmv \jKk´~ y~
FmÄ pMmPvseLr TJPZ FPhr
KmPvw Thr rP~PZÇ fJA Fxm
mJKeK\qT ßrKcS ߈vPjr
oJiqPo FAY@AKn/FAcx9,
ßpRjPrJV FmÄ ßpRj @YrPer
oPfJ èÀfôkeN t Kmw~m˜M k´YJr
TrJ ßpPf kJPrÇ mJKeK\qT
ßrKcS xÄKväÓ mqKÜfôPhr
\jKk´~fJ FPfJaJA ßp fÅJrJ
ßrKcSr ßlJj Ajx KTÄmJ
FPVJKj @≤-Fr oPfJ ßvJ-Fr
oJiqPo xoJ\ kKrmftPj
èÀfôkeN t nNKoTJ rJUPf kJPrjÇ
F irPjr mJKeK\qT ߈vjèPuJ
âomitoJj yJPr ˝J˙q,
kKrPmvVf Cjú~Pjr ˙JK~fô,
jfáj CPhqJV AfqJKh ßãP©
KmKnjú k´YJrJKnpJPj xyJ~fJ
KhP~ pJPòÇ

xrTJKr ßrKcS
\JfL~ kptJP~ xΫYJKrf
xrTJKr ßrKcS GKfyJKxTnJPm
hJfJ xÄ˙Jr TJZ ßgPT @\
kpt∂ UJfS~JKr xJyJpq @Twte
TrPf kJPrKjÇ Fr FTKa mz
TJre F irPjr ßmKvr nJV
߈vj xrTJr ÆJrJ Kj~Kπf FmÄ
IPjT ߈vjA Foj rJ\QjKfT
ofJhPvt kKrYJKuf y~ pJ y~
IVefJKπT j~PfJ oJjmJKiTJr
S oJjm Cjú~j mJ˜mJ~Pjr
kKrk∫LÇ xJiJref ßhUJ pJ~
rJÓs kKrYJKuf ßrKcS-r xPñ
hJfJ xÄ˙Jr xŒOÜfJ xMKjKhtÓ
TJptâoKnK•T, ßpoj
Cjú~joNuT oqJVJK\j ßk´JV´Jo
FmÄ ßrKcS ßxJk IPkrJÇ
xJiJref FA irPjr xŒOÜfJ
mz ßTJPjJ k´YJrJKnpJPjr
IÄvKmPvw yP~ gJPT pJr
oJiqPo xMKjKhtÓ KTZá ˝J˙q
Kmw~T IjMÔJj k´YJr TrJ y~Ç
ßpoj, KmKmKx S~Jflt xJKntx asJˆ
nJrPf TáÔPrJV KjP~ TJ\
TrPZÇ10 rJÓsL~ ßaKuKnvj S
ßrKcS-r xPñ ßpRgnJPm
kKrYJKuf F irPjr TotTJ§
pPgÓ \Kau, fPm UMmA
TJptTrÇ

@∂\tJKfT ßrKcS
@∂\tJKfT ßrKcS xŒ´YJr
xJiJref xrTJr ÆJrJ
xyJ~fJk´J¬ yP~ gJPTÇ FA
irPjr ßrKcS ߈vjèPuJr
xŒ´YJPr xM¸Ó ‰mPhKvT jLKfr
@SfJ~ k´J~v ãáhs kKrxPrr
rJ\QjKfT uãq mJ˜mJ~Pjr
k´mefJ uãq TrJ pJ~Ç ßpUJPj
rJÓs FmÄ rJÓs-Kj~Kπf VeoJiqo
IgtmynJPm S TPbJrnJPm
KjP\Phr KmKòjú TPr rJPU
ßxUJPj @∂\tJKfT mscTJKˆÄ
hKrhs \jPVJÔLr \jq UMmA
k´JxKñT yPf kJPr FmÄ Foj
xm Kmw~ S k´xñ fáPu irPf
kJPr ßpèPuJ Inq∂rLe
xŒ´YJrPTªsèPuJ xŒ´YJr TPr
jJ, ßpoj kKrmJr kKrT·jJ,
ßxmJ kJS~Jr IKiTJr, KTÄmJ
mOy•r IPgt oJjmJKiTJrÇ
@∂\tJKfT xŒ´YJr TftkO ã,
ßpoj KmKmKx S~Jflt xJKntx,
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• \KrknMÜ \jPVJÔLr 48.9 vfJÄv ßrKcS ßvJPjj
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• 1995 ßgPT 1997 xJPur oPiq

jJrLPhr oPiq uqJ¥oJAj xŒPTt
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• FTA xoP~ KaTJ ßh~Jr èÀfô KmwP~
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kr FA xÄUqJ 63 vfJÄPv CjúLf yP~PZÇ

(oJ~Jxt 1998 : www.comminit.com; www.bbc.co.uk; www.soulcity.org.za)

13

IJAKxKc

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

TrPf xyJ~fJ KhP~ gJPT FmÄ F k´KfÔJj VPmweJ
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xJiJrenJPm xÄùJK~f TrJ yP~PZ:
• xyxsJP»r Cjú~j uãqJmKu mJ˜mJ~Pj xyJ~fJ FmÄ




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‰fKr
oJjmJKiTJr S xofJr mJ˜mJ~j
oJjm Cjú~j mJ˜mJ~j
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ƪõ FmÄ k´JTíKfT hMPptJV k´KfPrJi mJ KjK•Pf
ßrKcS'r nNKoTJ

FA IiqJ~èPuJr ßvPw FTKa @PuJYjJr xN©kJf TrJ
yP~PZ ßpUJPj @AKxKc TotTJP§r \jq FTKa xM¸Ó
k´oJeKnK• k´KfÔJr Ckr IKiTfr èÀfôJPrJPkr @Ê
k´P~J\jL~fJr Ckr @PuJTkJf TrJ yP~PZ pJr xPñ
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xrTJKr FmÄ TKoCKjKa kptJP~r ßrKcS xŒ´YJPrr
ßãP© xMKjKhtÓ xJoJK\T k´nJm xÄâJ∂ CkJP•r KmPvw
InJm rP~PZÇ

aLTJxoNy
1. ßhUMj http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html.
2. ACFjKcKk k´TJKvf 2003 xJPur oJjm Cjú~j
k´KfPmhPjr KkKcFl xÄÛre ßhUMj
http://www.undp.org/mdg/

3. ßhUMj http://www.livelihoods.org/info/
guidance_sheets_pdfs/section1.pdf

4. ßhUMj http://www.comminit.com/experiences/
pdskdv102003/experiences-915.html

5. ßhUMj http://ceb.unsystem.org/hlcp/documents/
UNCG-reports-misc.UNCG-final-report-2002.pdf

6. ßhUMj http://www.infrastructureconnect.info/ict.asp
FmÄ http://www.iconnect-online.org/home
7. ßrKcS ßxÖr, Fr TJKrVKr @mvqTfJxoNy, FmÄ
ßxAxPñ Fr \jq k´P~J\jL~ oJjmxŒh FmÄ KmKnjú
k´TJr xŒ´YJr xŒPTt Km˜JKrf iJreJuJPnr \jq ßhUMj
CAuKm, Kk. FmÄ Tjr~, F.Ç 1994Ç Kh ßrKcS
yqJ¥mMTÇ ÀaPu\, u¥j, pMÜrJ\qÇ
8. ßhUMj http://www.amarc.org/site.php?lang=EN
9. ßhUMj http://www.unfpa.org/upload/lib_pub_file/
157_filename_commmunityradio.pdf

10. ßhUMj http://www.bbc.co.uk./worldservice/trust/news/
story/2003/09/010509_leprosy.shtml

11. ßhUMj http://www2.rnw.nl/rnw/en/features/
development/childhoodindex.html

12. ßhUMj http://www.mande.co.uk/docs/
Summary%20record-FINAL.doc

14

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

2
2.1

2.2

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xyxsJP»r Cjú~j uãqJmKu mJ˜mJ~Pj xyJ~fJ FmÄ
@AKxKc CPhqJPVr \jq xyJ~T kKrPmv ‰fKr

xyxsJP»r Cjú~j uãqoJ©J I\tPjr \jq F xŒPTt
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ùJjmOK≠ hJKrPhsqr Ckr KmKnjúnJPm xM¸Ó k´nJm
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ãofJ~j kJvJkJKv IV´xr y~ FmÄ FUJPj ßpJVJPpJPVr
nNKoTJr Ckr xM¸ÓnJPm ß\Jr ßh~J yP~PZ:

˙JjL~ TfítkãPT \jVPer YJKyhJr k´Kf xJzJ KhPf
xão yPf yPu, FA hMPaJ kãPT ImvqA KjP\Phr
oPiq xJmtãKeTnJPm ßpJVJPpJV rJUPf yPmÇ ßx
TJrPe TKoCKjKar ofJof xÄV´y S ¸ÓnJPm
ßxèPuJ k´TJPv xão FTKa xMKmTKvf S C•o„Pk
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(ACFjKcKk 2003: 139)
mé 4 ouPhJnJ~ \JKfxÄPWr FoKcK\ Kmw~T
k´YJrJKnpJj FmÄ IqJcPnJPTKx TJptâo
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t TrJ yP~PZÇ k´YJrJKnpJPjr oJiqPo
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xPñ FoKcK\r k´KfKa uPãqr xÄKväÓfJ kptJPuJYjJ TPr
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kKrTK·f ÈoJjKmT IjMnKN fr V·' jJPo IKnKyf k´Kâ~Jr
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KrPxJxt KTa xrmrJy TrJ yP~PZÇ
http://www.undp.md

15

MALI

oJKu

Maintaining the solar panels which
power Radio Douentza. This radio
station was opened in 1993 and
broadcasts in local languages.

ßrKcS ßcRP~≤\J~ KmhMq“ xrmrJPyr \jq
mqmÂf ßxRr kqJPjPur rãeJPmãeÇ
1993 xJPu k´KfKÔf FA ßrKcS ߈vj
˙JjL~ nJwJxoNPy xŒ´YJr TPrÇ

Photographer © Crispin Hughes

@PuJTKY©L © KâxKkj KyCP\x

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

FoKcK\r 8 j’r uPãqr 18 jÄ uãqoJ©J~ jfáj k´pKM Ü
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IJAKxKc

mé 5 ßx≤Jr lr IqJcPnJPTKx IqJ¥ KrxJYt
(KxFlF@r), nJrf
xŒ´YJrTJrL xÄ˙J jJ yP~S, KxFlF@r FmÄ F irPjr
IjqJjq xÄ˙J Cjú~jvLu ßhvèPuJPf KmhqoJj KoKc~J
kKrmLãe FmÄ VeoJiqo mÉKmi S Kj~πeoMÜ TrJr \jq
IqJcPnJPTKxr ßãP© ßoRKuT nNKoTJ kJuj TPr gJPTÇ
KxFlF@r nJrf \MPz FTJKiT KoKc~J ßlJrJo k´KfÔJ
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k´Kvãe oKcCu ‰fKr TPrPZ, ßpUJPj oNuf ßaKuKnvj KY© S
jLKfoJuJ, KmùJkj, VeoJiqo @Aj FmÄ k´pKM Ür Ckr ß\Jr
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mqmyJr TPrÇ
http://www.womenaction.org/women_media/eng/2/adv
ocacy.html

FTKa VKfvLu VeoJiqo kKrPmv ‰fKrr uPãq
KcFl@AKc TL TrPf kJPr?
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mqm˙J YJuMr uPãq kKrYJKuf IqJcPnJPTKx xÄâJ∂
TotTJP§ xMvLu xoJ\ S FjK\SPhr xyJ~fJ TrPf
kJPrÇ
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S FjK\SPhr xyJ~fJ KhPf kJPrÇ
3. VeoJiqPor kKrPmv ‰fKrr uPãq xyJ~fJ ImqJyf
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aLTJxoNy:
1. ßhUMj http://abc.net.au/timetotalk/english/radio/default.htm
2. ßhUMj http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/righttotelloverview.html

17

IJAKxKc

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

3
3.1

oJjmJKiTJr S xofJr mJ˜mJ~j:
TgJ muJr xMPpJV I\tj FmÄ v´∆KfPVJYr yS~J

ßrKcS WOeJ S xKyÄxfJ CxPT KhPf xão mPu ßrKcS
FmÄ Fr xPñ oJjmJKiTJPrr xŒTt k´J~v ßjKfmJYT
ßk´ãJkPa @PuJKYf y~Ç pJPyJT, FrTo ChJyre,
ßpoj ßrKcS KoPu TKujx-Fr 1994 xJPu À~J¥Jr
VeyfqJr xPñ VnLrnJPm \Kzf gJTJr WajJ,
oJjmJKiTJr k´KfÔJ~ xyJ~fJ KhPf S C“xJy ßpJVJPf
TKoCKjKa, mJKeK\qT, xrTJKr, @∂\tJKfT AfqJKh xTu
kptJP~ ßrKcS ßp KmrJa nNKoTJ ßrPU gJPT fJr kKrmPft
KoPgq iJreJ ßh~Ç FoKcK\ oJjmJKiTJr S xofJr Ckr
KmPvwnJPm ß\Jr KhP~ gJPT FmÄ F Kmw~Ka FoKcK\r 2
S 3 j’r uPãq k´KflKuf, ßpèPuJPf pgJâPo ßZPu S
ßoP~ CnP~r \jq xmt\jLj k´JgKoT KvãJr TgJ muJ
yP~PZ FmÄ ß\¥Jr xofJr TgJ muJ yP~PZÇ FZJzJS
FoKcK\-Pf YJTKruJPnr xoJj xMPpJV S ‰mwoqyLj
IKnVoqfJr AxMqèPuJr kPrJã k´TJv rP~PZÇ

FjK\SèPuJr UÅPM \ ßhUJ hrTJr fJ yPuJ, fgq xrmrJy
TPr ßp k´pKM Ü fJPf KT hKrhs oJjMPwr IKnVoqfJ rP~PZ?
C•r pKh jJ-xNYT y~, fPm TKoCKjKa, \JfL~ FmÄ QmKvõT
fgqk´mJPy pMÜ TrJr ßoRKuT TJbJPoJ xOKÓr xN©kJf yPm
ßrKcSPT KhP~AÇ ßrKcS'r oJKuTJjJ FmÄ IKnVoqfJ mOK≠
fgq ßgPT KmpMÜ gJTJr kKroJe ysJx TrPm - F TgJKar
xmPYP~ Km˜Of S xmPYP~ ßoRKuT k´pKM ÜVf IPgtr KmYJPrÇ
3.4

fgqk´JK¬ S of k´TJPvr IKiTJr
3.2

3.3

18

IPjT hKrhs oJjMPwr \jq rJÓs yPuJ xMhrN FTKa x•J,
ßpUJPj ßkÅRZJPjJ TÓxJiq FmÄ @PrJ ßmKv TKbj
ofKmKjo~ TrJÇ ßxmJr k´JkqfJ S mq~ xÄâJ∂ ßoRKuT
fgq KmPvw TPr V´JoJûPu k´J~v kJS~J pJ~ jJ Ç
FTAnJPm hKrhs \jPVJÔLr TgJ fJPhr KjP\Phr
xoJP\r oJjMPwrJS ßvJPjj jJÇ @AKxKar oJKuTJjJ S
FPf k´PmvJKiTJr kJS~Jr ßãP© fÅJrJ âomitoJj
IxofJr oMPUJoMKU yP~ @PZjÇ F ßk´ãJkPa TKoCKjKa
ßrKcS UJPfr k´xJr, vKÜvJuLTre S xŒ´xJre;
xŒ´YJrTJrLPhr hãfJ mJzJPjJ FmÄ KmPvw TPr
TKoCKjKa kptJP~ S V´JoJûPu ßrKcS-Pf IKnVoqfJ
KTÄmJ FPf \jVPer oJKuTJjJ mJzJPjJ oJjmJKiTJr
Kmw~T FTKa IV´JKiTJroNuT TJ\Ç
fgqWJaKf FmÄ IxofJ hKrhs \jVPer \LmPjr FTKa
ßTªsL~ Kmw~Ç ßrKcS yPuJ xmPYP~ TohJoL S xmPYP~
xy\unq @AKxKa pJ hKrhs oJjMPwr jJVJPur oPiq rP~PZÇ
fJrkrS xmPYP~ k´JgKoT iJPkr FmÄ VnLrnJPm \LmPjr
xPñ xŒOÜ (FmÄ ßx\jq ImPyKuf) Foj FTKa kPeqr
oJKuTJjJ S IKnVoqfJr k´Pvú mz irPjr IxofJ FUjS
KmhqoJjÇ APuTasKjT ßpJVJPpJV FmÄ fgq KmKjoP~r
ßk´ãJkPa ßp IKf ßoRKuT k´vKú a hJfJ xÄ˙J S

hKrhs \jVe ßpxm KmwP~r oMPUJoMKU y~ FmÄ ßpxm
hMPntJPVr KvTJr y~, ßxxm fáPu irJr \jq kKrTK·f
xŒ´YJPrr oJiqPo jLKfKjitJrT FmÄ @Ajk´PefJPhr
jJVJu kJS~Jr ßãP© ßrKcS èÀfôkeN t nNKoTJ kJuj TPr
gJPTÇ FTKa vKÜvJuL TKoCKjKa ßrKcS UJf FmÄ
xoJP\r oJjMPwr T£˝r, ßxAxPñ IjMxºJjoNuT
xJÄmJKhTfJr Cjúf hãfJ ßp ßTJj xoJP\ KmhqoJj
‰mwoq S IKmYJPrr Kmw~èPuJPT xTPur xJoPj
IPjTUJKj k´TJv TPr mJ fáPu irPf kJPr (ACFjKcKk/
KlKuKkj ßx≤Jr lr AjPnKˆPVKan \JjtJKu\o1)Ç fPm
KmKiKjPwPir oJiqPo FmÄ rJÓs TftT
O xJÄmJKhTPhr nLKfr
oPiq ßrPU xJÄmJKhTfJPT mJiJV´˜ TPr rJUJ y~Ç fJ
xP•ôS rJ\QjKfT S IgtQjKfT ãofJr nJrxJoq oMKÓPo~
oJjMPwr yJf ßgPT xÄUqJVKrÔ oJjMPwr TJPZ KjP~ ßpPf
yPu hMjLt Kf S oJjmJKiTJr u–WPjr oPfJ Kmw~èPuJr
CPjìJYj UMmA èÀfôkeN Çt
ßrKcS FmÄ TotxÄ˙JPjr IKiTJr

3.5

hKrhs oJjMwPhr fJPhr IKiTJr xŒPTt xPYfj TPr
ßfJuJr ßãP© ßrKcS xŒ´YJr fJ“kptkeN t xyJ~T nNKoTJ
kJuj TrPf kJPr, FmÄ ßxaJ kMPrJ ßrKcS UJf \MPz
WaPf kJPrÇ ßpoj, vsKoTPhr IKiTJr k´KfÔJ IgtJ“
ßpRg hrTwJTKw, xÄW VbPjr ˝JiLjfJ, xTu irPjr
Qmwoq S ß\JrkNmT
t vsPor KmPuJk xJij AfqJKh vsKoT
ßvJwe ysJx FmÄ \LKmTJ\tj mqm˙JPT @PrJ ßmKv
ßaTxA S optJhJkNet TrJr \jq èÀfôkeN Çt F Kmw~T
IPjTèPuJ ßrKcS KxKr\ hKãe @Kl∑TJ~ TKoCKjKa
ßrKcS'r FTKa ßjaS~JPTt k´YJKrf yP~PZÇ ßxUJjTJr
vso KmnJV ÈS~JKTtÄ aáPVhJr'2 jJPo 13 kPmtr FTKa
ßrKcS KxKr\ ‰fKrr \jq Igt xrmrJy TPrPZ pJr
oJiqPo jfáj vso @Aj fáPu irJ yP~PZÇ

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

ß\¥Jr, ßrKcS FmÄ xofJ
3.6

FoKcK\r 3 jÄ uPãq ß\¥Jr xofJ FmÄ jJrLr
ãofJ~j xŒPTt muJ yP~PZÇ FPãP© @AKxKar
oJKuTJjJ FmÄ @AKxKaPf k´PmvJKiTJr FTKa ChJyre
KyPxPm KjPu F TgJ xM¸Ó yP~ SPb ßp, hKãPe k´pKM Ü
mqmyJPrr ßãP© ß\¥Jr ‰mwoq mqJkTÇ jfáj k´pKM Ü
ßpoj ToKkCaJr mqmyJPrr ßãP© jJrLrJ xJiJref mJh
kzPf kJPr, fPm FojKa kMrPjJ k´pKM Ü ßpoj ßaKuKnvj
FmÄ ßrKcS'r ßãP©S WaPf kJPrÇ mJh kzJr
TJreèPuJr oPiq gJTPf kJPr k´YKuf xJÄÛíKfT KmiJj,
jJrLr Kjoú @KgtT ãofJ FmÄ To KvãJVf ßpJVqfJÇ
xŒ´YJPrr k´Kf @TíÓ yS~Jr KnK•Pf ßrKcS ßvJjJr
mqJkJrKaS ß\¥JrKnK•T yPf kJPr, KTZá KTZM IjMÔJj
ßpj kMÀwPhr CP¨Pv TrJ y~ (IgtJ“ KjC\ FmÄ
rJ\QjKfT Kmw~JKh) IgmJ TrJ y~ jJrLPhr TgJ ßnPm
(VOy˙JKur Kmw~ FmÄ jJKaTJ)Ç FA TJbJPoJ xoJP\r
mé 6 ßlKoKjˆ A≤JrjqJvjJu ßrKcS FjPcnJr (lJ~Jr)
lJ~Jr jJPor xÄ˙JKa ßrKcS xŒ´YJPr ß\¥Jr xofJ
KmiJPj KjPmKhfÇ jJrLPhr \jq FmÄ mscTJKˆÄ UJPfr
xTu kptJP~ kMÀwPTKªsT oJjKxTfJr TJrPe jJrLPhr
AxMq Kmw~T IjMÔJj xŒ´YJPr mJiJr oMPUJoMKU yPf y~
ßxxm AxMq k´YJPrr \jq ßmfJr frñ CjìÜ
M TrPf
fJrJ xKâ~nJPm TJ\ TrPZÇ ßpoj, fJrJ fgq xoJ\
Kmw~T \JKfxÄPWr Kmvõ xPÿuPj (2003) IÄv KjP~
ImhJj ßrPUPZÇ ßxUJPj fJrJ xrTJKr ßrKcS-Pf
Kmw~m˜M mJzJPjJ FmÄ KoKc~Jr mÉKmiTrPer Ckr
pMKÜ Ck˙Jkj TPrÇ ßxAxPñ fJrJ fgq S
ßpJVJPpJPV jJrLr IKiTJr YYtJ FmÄ xTu irPjr
@AKxKaPf jJrLr mKitf k´PmvJKiTJr KjP~ TgJ mPuÇ
fJrJ ßrKcS xŒ´YJPr ß\¥Jr xofJ Kmw~T KjPhtKvTJ
k´e~Pjr Ckr TJ\ TPrPZ ßpèPuJr oPiq rP~PZ: (i)
xŒsYJr mÅJiJirJ oJjKxTfJ IKfâo TrPZ KTjJ; (ii)
jJrLr T£˝r kMÀPwr oPfJA xoJj yJPr ßvJjJ pJPò
KTjJ; (iii) jJrLPhr IKnùfJPT FmÄ ßpxm KjKhtÓ
irPjr AxMq fJrJ ßoJTJPmuJ TPr ßxèPuJPT xŒ´YJr
xogtj TrPZ KTjJÇ

IJAKxKc

VnLPr ßk´JKgf KTZM mÅJiJirJ ß\¥Jr kKrK˙Kfr k´Kfluj
WaJ~Ç @r xŒ´YJPrr oJiqPo k´J~v F irPjr
Kmw~èPuJPT YqJPu† TrJ y~ jJ, mrÄ ßxèPuJr
kMjrJmOK• WaPf gJPTÇ ßpoj irJ pJT, V´JPor jJrLrJ
mJ˜Pm ßpxm ß\¥Jr xoxqJr oMPUJoMKU y~ ßxèPuJ
ßrKcS-Pf kptJ¬nJPm xoJiJPjr ßTJPjJ k´PYÓJ uãq TrJ
pJ~ jJ (oJ~Jxt, 2004)Ç xŒ´YJPrr ßãP© ß\¥Jr
IxofJ ßoJTJPmuJ TrJr uPãq ßpJVJPpJV TJptâPor
\jq âomitoJj yJPr fyKmPur ßpJVJj ßh~J yPòÇ
KmKnjú V´∆k, ßpoj A≤JrPjaKnK•T @Kl∑TJj CAPoj'x
KoKc~J ßx≤Jr4, Kh CAPoj'x KoKc~J ßx≤Jr Aj
TP’JKc~J FmÄ ßlKoKjˆ A≤JrjqJvjJu ßrKcS FjPcnJr
(KjPY ßhUMj) @PrJ ßmKv xofJkNet KoKc~J kKrPmv ‰fKrr
uPãq xKâ~nJPm IqJcPnJPTKx TPr pJPò, pJr oJiqPo
hKrhs jJrLPhr ofJof S AxMqèPuJ v´∆KfPVJYr yPmÇ
ßrKcS-Pf IKnVoqfJr xofJ mJzJPf FmÄ IKiTJr
k´KfÔJ~ xyJ~fJ KhPf KcFl@AKc TL TrPf kJPr?
1. ßrKcS k´pKM Ür oJKuTJjJ I\tj mJ ßrKcS-Pf
IKnVoqfJ I\tPjr ßãP© hKrhs oJjMPwr xãofJ
mOK≠ FmÄ xMunoNPuq S ßaTxA kMj”mqmyJrPpJVq
\ôJuJjL vKÜ (ßpoj, ßxRrvKÜ) xrmrJPyr \jq
KmKjP~JVÇ
2. TKoCKjKa FmÄ \JfL~ xŒsYJrTJrL kptJP~
IjMxºJjoNuT xJÄmJKhTfJ FmÄ ßrKcSKnK•T
IqJcPnJPTKx TotTJ§ ß\JrhJrTreÇ
3. ßrKcSPf jJrLPhr IKnVoqfJ CjúLf TPr Foj
CPhqJVèPuJPT xyJ~fJhJj, ßpoj ßrKcS
ßvsJfJhu Vbj FmÄ jJrL IjMÔJj kKrYJujJTJrLPhr
k´KvãehJjÇ
aLTJxoNy
1. ßhUMj http://www.undp.org.ph/
env_investigative.htm

2. ßhUMj http://www.comminit.com/experiences/
pds42004/experiences-1926.html

3. ßhUMj http://learnlink.aed.org/Publications/
Gender_Book/pdf/Exec_Sum_Nophotos.pdf

http://www.fire.or.cr/indexeng.htm

4. ßhUMj http://www.awmc.com?

19

CHAD
Community radio: interviewing
subsistence farmers.
© Giacomo Pirozzi

YJh
TKoCKjKa ßrKcS: KjP\Phr YJKyhJ ßoaJPjJr
\jq @mJhTJrL TíwTPhr xJãJ“TJr ßj~J yPò
tKV~JPTJPoJ KkPrJK\

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

4
4.1

oJjm Cjú~j mJ˜mJ~j:
Cjúffr ˝J˙q S KvãJ xyJ~fJr \jq ßrKcS

˝J˙q S KvãJ FoKcK\r oNuxMPrr I∂VtfÇ FoKcK\r
2, 4, 5 FmÄ 6 jÄ uPãq hKrhs \jPVJÔL ˝J˙q FmÄ
KvãJ UJPf KmrJ\oJj ßpxTu IxofJr KvTJr
k´KfKj~f yP~ gJPT ßxèPuJ hNr TrJr k´P~J\jL~fJr
Ckr ß\Jr ßh~J yP~PZÇ oJjm Cjú~Pjr uPãq hKrhs
oJjMPwr \jq Cjúffr ˝J˙q S KvãJr mqm˙J TrJr
Kmw~Ka CóJKnuJwL yPuS hJKrhsq ysJx FmÄ Cófr
TuqJPer \jq FèPuJ ßoRKuT Kmw~Ç Cjú~jvLu Kmvõ
\MPz ˝J˙q S KvãJ TotxKN YèPuJPf GKfyJKxTnJPm
ßrKcS'r FTKa o\mMf C•rJKiTJr rP~PZÇ1 k´JgKoT
pMPVr KvãJoNuT S Ckr ßgPT KjPY Km˜Of ßpJVJPpJVk≠Kfr xŒ´YJr ßgPT ÊÀ TPr xJŒ´KfTTJPur KvãJKmPjJhjKnK•T ßrKcS IjMÔJj kpt∂ Km˜Of kKrxPrr
ßrKcS IjMÔJPjr iÅJY mqmÂf yP~ @xPZ FTA irPjr
Km˜Of kKrxPrr ˝J˙q S KvãJ AxMqèPuJPfÇ2

hrTJr xyJ~fJoNuT jLKf kKrPmv Vbj, ßxmJ mqm˙Jr
TJbJPoJVf xŒ´xJre mJ Cjú~j, ßxmJ mqmyJPrr \jq
xJoJK\T CÆM≠Tre FmÄ ßxmJhJjTJrLPhr \mJmKhKyfJ
KjKÁfTrPer \jq \jVPer YJkÇ fgq S ßpJVJPpJV
xKfqTJr IPgt ßrJV Kj~πPer \jq CkPpJVL kKrPmv
mJ˜mJ~Pjr ßãP© èÀfôkeN t nNKoTJ kJuj TPr gJPTÇ
fPm, IPjT hKrhs oJjMw FUjS ˝J˙qPxmJ, KjrJkh
x∂Jjk´xm, jm\JfPTr pfú FmÄ ßZÅJ~JPY ßrJV xÄâJ∂
ßoRKuT fgq ßkPf kJPr jJÇ
4.3

mé 7 xJrJy-r kKrmJr, nJjM~Jfá
nJjM~Jfár S~Jj ˛umJV KgP~aJr TŒJKj KjKotf
ÈxJrJy-r kKrmJr' jJPor FA KmPjJhjoNuT ßrKcS
jJaPT FTKa FTT kKrmJPrr \LmjpJkPjr Ckr
@PuJTkJf TrJ yP~PZÇ FA jJaPTr ßTªsL~ YKr©
xJrJy, KpKj FTKa k´\jj ˝J˙qPTPªs TJ\ TPrjÇ
fÅJr k´KfKhPjr TJP\r xNP© fÅJPT
FAY@AKn/FAcx ßrJV k´KfPrJi FmÄ Tjco
mqmyJr C“xJKyfTre KmwP~ f“kr gJTPf ßhUJ
pJ~Ç fÅJr ˝JoL FcCAj FTKa mJr YJuJj FmÄ fÅJPT
hMjtLKf, kKffJmOK• FmÄ xKyÄxfJr oPfJ AxMqèPuJ
ßoJTJPmuJ TrPf y~Ç FKhPT FA hŒKfr KTPvJr
ßZPu \jìKj~πe, FAY@AKn/FAcx xPYfjfJ FmÄ
‰TPvJPr VntiJrPer oPfJ Kmw~èPuJr oMPUJoMKU
yPòÇ kptPmãT kKrmJr kKrT·jJ KTîKjT ßgPT
kKrYJKuf ßvsJfJ k´KfKâ~J xÄâJ∂ \KrkKnK•T
oNuqJ~j ßgPT \JjJ pJ~, ßvsJfJPhr oPiq kKrmJr
kKrT·jJ FmÄ Tjco mqmyJPrr k´Kf @V´y ßmPzPZÇ
http://www.comminit.com/pdsradiodrama/sld9392.html

4.2

IJAKxKc

KvÊoOfqá r yJr ToJPjJ, oJfí˝J˙q Cjú~j FmÄ
FAY@AKn/FAcx, pçJ S oqJPuKr~J k´KfPrJPir \jq

˝J˙qPxmJ FmÄ ˝J˙qfPgq IKnVoqfJr KmYJPr hKrhs
\jVe xMKmiJmKûfÇ fJPhr mKûf gJTJr TJrPer
oPiq y~PfJ rP~PZ fgq k´pMKÜr InJm (ßrKcS,
ßaKuKnvj), KvãJr InJm, ßxmJ âP~r xJoPgtqr InJm
(pKh oNuq @PrJk TrJ y~), KmjJoNPuqr ˝J˙q krJovt mJ
KYKT“xJ kJS~Jr CP¨Pvq pJfJ~JPfr \jq pJjmJyPjr
nJzJ xÄV´Pyr IxJogtq; ßxAxPñ YuJYPur Ckr
xJoJK\TnJPm @PrJKkf KmKiKjPwi (ßpoj k´KfmºL
KTÄmJ khtJjvLj jJrL)Ç F irPjr KmKiKjPwi fgqKmKòjúfJ ‰fKr TPr, pJr lPu fPgqr IxofJ @PrJ
mOK≠ kJ~Ç
ßrKcS FmÄ ˝J˙q

4.4

FoKcK\-r 6 jÄ uPãq FAY@AKn/FAcx, oqJPuKr~J
FmÄ IjqJjq CPuäUPpJVq xÄâJoT ßrJV ßoJTJPmuJr
KmwP~ muJ yP~PZÇ FPãP© FAY@AKn/FAcx,
oqJPuKr~J FmÄ pçJ ßrJPVr Km˜Jr 2015 xJPur oPiq
mº TrJr xMKjKhtÓ uPãqr TgJ CPuäU TrJ yP~PZÇ
ßpPTJj irPjr xÄâJoT ßrJPVr Km˜Jr mº TrJr
k´PYÓJ @jMÔJKjT S IjJjMÔJKjT KvãJ (k´J~v ßrKcS'r
oJiqPo) jLKf Kmw~T KmfTt S rJ\QjKfT IñLTJr
xOKÓ, ßxmJ~ IKnVoqfJ~ KmrJ\oJj IxofJ ysJx FmÄ
IkmJh hNrLTrPer Ckr xKmPvw èÀfô @PrJk TPrÇ

4.5

ßpoj, pçJ ßrJPVr Km˜Jr ßrJi Kjntr TPr @PrJ ßmKv
kKroJPe pçJPrJVL vjJÜTrPer CkrÇ IgY IPjT
oJjMw rP~PZj pÅJrJ hLWtPo~JhL TJKvPf nMVPZj, KT∂á
\JPjj jJ fÅJPhr pçJ yP~PZÇ FPãP© ßrKcSKnK•T
xPYfjfJmOK≠ TJptâo pçJ ßrJVL vjJÜTre S fJPhr
\jq @PrJ ßmKv KmjJoNPuq KYKT“xJr (Kmvõ ˝J˙q xÄ˙Jr

21

IJAKxKc

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

mé 8 @lVJKj˜JPjr KvÊPhr \jq ßrKcS'r oJiqPo KvãJ (KrY)

@lVJKj˜JPjr TJmMPu ImK˙f KmKmKx-r @lVJj FcMPTvj
k´P\Öx-Fr FTKa KvãJ CPhqJV yPuJ ÈKrY'Ç 1989 xJPu
@lVJKj˜Jj ßgPT ßxJKnP~f ‰xjq k´fqJyJPrr kr ßhvKa
FT hLWtPo~JhL VOypMP≠ \KzP~ kPzÇ lPu ßhvKar ßmKvr
nJV ImTJbJPoJ - KvãJ ˙JkjJxy - ±Äx yP~ pJ~Ç Fr
xPñ pMÜ y~ KmkMu xÄUqT KvãPTr vreJgtL yP~
ßhvfqJPVr Kmw~Ka, FmÄ xJŒ´KfTTJPu KvãJr Ckr
fJPumJjPhr KmKiKjPwi, pJr oJiqPo ßoP~Phr KvãJ V´ye
KjKw≠ TrJ y~ S jJrLPhr (pJPhr IPjPTA KZPuj KvãT)
YJTKrS IQmi ßWJKwf y~Ç FxPmr lPu 2001 xJPur
oPiq ßhPvr KvãJmqm˙J xŒNet ßnPX kPzÇ @jMÔJKjT
KvãJr IjMkK˙KfPf, KrY TJptâo 6 ßgPT 16 mZr m~xL

cax TJptâPor @SfJ~) mqm˙J TrJr ßãP© èÀfôkeN t
nNKoTJ kJuj TrPf kJPrÇ ˝J˙q Kmw~T k´YJrJKnpJPjr
oJiqPo ßrKcS k´J~v ^ÅKM TV´˜ \jPVJÔL, ßpoj xÄUqJuWM
@KhmJxL, hNrmftL S V´JoLe \jPVJÔL, mªL, ‰xKjT,
I·m~xL ßZPuPoP~, k´mLe FmÄ pÅJrJ APfJoPiq IxM˙
yP~ kPzPZj fÅJPhr TJPZ ˝J˙qPxmJ ßkÅRPZ ßh~Jr
ßãP© ßTªsL~ nNKoTJ kJuj TrPf kJPrÇ
ßrKcS FmÄ KvãJ

22

4.6

IPjT mZr iPr ßrKcS Cjúf S Cjú~jvLu ßhvèPuJPf
uã uã oJjMPwr \jq hNrKvãPer FTKa k´iJj mJyj
KyPxPm TJ\ TPr @xPZÇ @jMÔJKjT S IjJjMÔJKjT
Cn~ KvãJr ßãP© ßrKcS ßTRvuVf nNKoTJ kJuj TPr
gJPT, FmÄ \JfL~ KvãJ kJbâPor @SfJ~ xyJ~fJr
kJvJkJKv TJptTr KvãJ mqm˙Jr IjMkK˙KfPf (ßpoj
ßTJPjJ ßhv pUj ÆPªô \KzP~ kPz) KvãJr xMPpJV TPr
ßh~Ç TojSP~ug Im uJKjtÄ'r3 oPfJ xÄ˙JèPuJ k´pKM Ü
S KvãJr oJiqo KyPxPm ßrKcS-PT FKVP~ KjP~
pJS~Jr ßãP© IV´eL nNKoTJ kJuj TPr FPxPZÇ

4.7

FToMUL oJiqo KyPxPm k´J~v xoJPuJKYf yS~J xP•ôS
ßrKcS fÀe S k´mLe Cn~ irPjr ßvsJfJPhr \jq
A≤JrIqJTKan IÄvV´yPer IPjT xMPpJV ‰fKr TPr
gJPT (âJAPxu 1986)Ç ßpoj, kKÁo @Kl∑TJr
KVKjPf ACFxF@AKc4 KvãJgtLPhr ßvUJr \jq S
KvãTPhr k´KvãPer \jq A≤JrIqJTKan Ûáu ßrKcSPT
xyJ~fJ KhP~ @xPZÇ ÈßTkT VJPZr KjPY' vLwtT
FTKa ßrKcS IjMÔJj KvÊPhr ßUuJr oJiqPo KvUPf
C“xJKyf TPr FmÄ IjMÔJjKa KvãJgtLPhr ÛáPu ßpPf
CÆM≠ TrPZ mPu ßhUJ ßVPZÇ

4.8

aoJx (2001) hNrKvãPe ßrKcS'r IPjTèPuJ nNKoTJ
KYK¤f TrPZjÇ fÅJr oPf ßrKcS ßpxm ßãP© mqmyJr
TrJ ßpPf kJPr ßxèPuJ yPuJ: (i) KvãJr xMPpJVèPuJ
xŒPTt Umr S fgq k´YJr; (ii) ßuUJkzJ Kmw~T KjKhtÓ
uãq I\tPj KvãJgtLPhr CÆM≠ S kKrYJKuf TrJ; (iii)

ßZPuPoP~Phr CP¨vq TPr ßmv KTZM @V´PyJ¨LkT S
fgqxoO≠ IjMÔJj k´YJr TrPf ÊÀ TPrÇ FèPuJ IjojL~
@jMÔJKjT KvãJ kJbâPor k´Kf˙JkT jJ yPuS I·m~xL
KvÊPhr xPñ Kvãe S ßTRfëyPur IKf èÀfôkeN t xÄPpJV
rãJ TPr YPuPZÇ ßrKcS-Pf xŒ´YJKrf ߈JKr\ lr KuKnÄ
(I·m~xL KvÊPhr T·jJPT C¨L¬ TrJr CP¨Pvq k´YJKrf)
FmÄ TJPatj Im KxPâax (k´TKí f\V“ KjP~ rKYf)
ß\JrJPuJnJPm @lVJj xÄÛíKf S GKfPyqr xPñ pMÜ, FmÄ
FTA xPñ ßxèPuJ @mJr xTPur \jq KvãJr Kmw~KaS
fMPu irPZÇ
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/trust/
projectsindepth/story/2003/09/030904_reach.shtml

k´JxKñT ChJyre xrmrJPyr oJiqPo KvãJgtLPhr kJb
‰fKrPf xyJ~fJ TrJ S KrPxJxt CkTre KhP~ xyJ~fJ
TrJ; (iv) xrJxKr KvãJhJj, IgtJ“ KmPvw TPr
˝·KvKãf KvãJgtLrJ pJPf CkTíf yPf kJPrj Foj
irPjr mÜOfJ S kJbhJjÇ xJiJref hNrKvãe mqm˙J~
oJP^oPiq k´fqã KvãJhJj FmÄ ßxAxPñ oMKhsf
CkTre xrmrJPyr mqm˙J TrJ y~Ç FPãP©
ßaKuKnvPjr kJvJkJKv ßrKcS xyJ~T nNKoTJ kJuj
TrPf kJPrÇ FZJzJ KvãT k´Kvãe TJptâo
kKrYJujJr \jqS ßrKcS xy\unq S xy\ oJiqo
KyPxPm èÀfôkeN t nNKoTJ kJuj TrPf kJPrÇ FTgJ
KmPvwnJPm kuäL FuJTJ~ Totrf KvãTPhr ßãP©
k´PpJ\q, pÅJPhr \jq TotTJuLj k´KvãeuJPnr xMPpJV
xLKofÇ

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

mé 9 ßuax K¸T AÄKuv, jJKoKm~J

aLTJxoNy

jæA hvPTr ÊÀr KhPT jJKoKm~Jr KvãJ S xÄÛíKf
oπeJu~ FmÄ jJKoKm~J mscTJKˆÄ TrPkJPrvj (FjKmKx)
ßpRgnJPm Èßuax K¸T AÄKuv' jJPor 32 kPmtr FTKa
iJrJmJKyT ßrKcS IjMÔJj ‰fKr TPrÇ IjMÔJPjr k´KfKa
kPmtr k´YJrTJu KZu 30 KoKjaÇ IjMÔJjKar CK¨Ó \jPVJÔL
KZPuj k´JgKoT KmhqJuP~r KvãTVeÇ oqJVJK\j @KñPTr
FA IjMÔJPj FTKa ˝·QhPWtqr jJKaTJr xPñ gJTPfJ
KjPhtvjJoNuT Kmw~m˜M pJPf TPr KvãTrJ jJKaTJKa ÊPj
KjPhtvjJ ßoPj AÄPrK\ YYtJ TrPf kJPrjÇ ßrKcS
IjMÔJjKar xPñ xyJ~T xJoV´L KyPxPm FTKa ßTJxt mA
xrmrJy TrJ yP~PZ, ßxxPñ rP~PZ S~JTtV´∆k, pJPf
KvãPTrJ FTK©f yP~ AÄPrK\ YYtJ TrPf kJPrjÇ ßrKcS
IjMÔJjKar oJiqPo k´go kptJP~ k´JgKoT KmhqJuP~r 8 yJ\Jr
KvãTPT aJPVta TrJ yP~KZPuJ FmÄ kMPrJ jæA hvT iPr
FA IjMÔJj

1. ßhUMj http://www.comminit.com/pdf/

IJAKxKc

InstitutionalReviewofRadioDramas.pdf

2. ÈßrKcS mscTJKˆÄ lr ßyug: F KcKxvJj ßoTJrx
VJAc' vLwtT k´KfPmhPj ßrKcS xŒ´YJr FmÄ ˝J˙q
KmwP~ KmvhnJPm @PuJYjJ TrJ yP~PZÇ (ßhUMj
http:www.comminit.com/pdf/RadioBroadcasting
ForHealth.pdf), 2004, ACPT KckJatPo≤ lr

A≤JrjqJvjJu ßcPnukPo≤
3. ßhUMj http://www.col.org/
4. http://www.usaid.gov/gn/education/
news/010701_interactiveradio/

\jKk´~ KZuÇ (aoJx 2001)
ßrKcS-r \jq ˝J˙q S KvãJoNuT Kmw~m˜M ß\JrJPuJ
TrJr mqJkJPr KcFl@AKc TL nNKoTJ kJuj TrPf
kJPr?
1. xrTJKr ßrKcS ߈vjèPuJPf Totrf TotLPhr k´fqã
k´KvãPer oJiqPo hKrhs \jPVJÔLr \jq CkPpJVL ßrKcS
Kmw~m˜M QfKrPf fJPhr xãofJ mOK≠ FmÄ F UJPfr
\jq ˝JiLjnJPm Kmw~m˜M ‰fKrPf KjP~JK\f FjK\SPhr
xyJ~fJ TrJr oJiqPo oJjmxŒh Cjú~j Kmw~T Kmw~m˜M
ß\JrhJrTreÇ
2. @jMÔJKjT KvãJ ßgPT mKûf KvÊPhr \jq ßrKcSKnK•T
KvãJr xMPpJV ‰fKrr Kmw~KaPT @PrJ ß\JrhJr S
KjKmzfrTreÇ
3. KvÊoOfqá , oJfí˝J˙q FmÄ xÄâJoT ßrJV xÄâJ∂ ßrKcS
Kmw~m˜M (IqJcPnJPTKx, k´KfPrJi S Kj~πe) k´e~j
ß\JrhJrTre S KjKmzfrTreÇ

23

IJAKxKc

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

5
5.1

ßaTxA \LKmTJ~j iJreJr mJ˜mJ~j:
TíKw S TPotJPhqJPV ßrKcS xyJ~fJ

FoKcK\-r 1 jÄ uãq 2015 xJPur oPiq Yro hJKrhsq S
ãáiJ KjoNtu TrJr Kmw~Ka CPuäUPpJVqnJPm Kjntr TrPZ mJKT
7Ka uPãqr TP~TKa mJ xmT'Ka I\tPjr CkrÇ KT∂á
FZJzJS ßxaJ Kjntr TrPZ vyr S V´Jo FuJTJ~ mxmJxrf
hKrhs oJjMPwr \jq vKÜvJuL S ßaTxA \LKmTJ\tj mqm˙J
KjKÁf TrJr CkrÇ hKrhs oJjMPwr \jq ßoRKuT \LKmTJ~j
TrJr ßTRvu yPò TíKw FmÄ ãáhs TPotJPhqJV, ßpèPuJPf
ßrKcS TJptâo KhP~ IxÄUq ßk´ãJkPa xyJ~fJ ßh~J x÷mÇ

TíKw, mJ\Jr fgq FmÄ xŒ´xJre
5.2

5.3

24

Cjú~jvLu ßhvèPuJPf TíKw xŒ´xJre ßxmJxoNy IPjT mZr
iPr TíwPTr TJPZ fgq ßkÅRZJPjJr k´iJjfo Ckuã ßgPTPZ
FmÄ ßrKcS FPãP© mÉ hvT iPr jfáj TíKw iJreJ S
ßTRvu k´YJPrr oJiqPo xyJ~fJTJrLr nNKoTJ kJuj TPr
@xPZÇ xJiJrenJPm KmKnjú EfáKnK•T TotTJP§r xPñ
xñKf ßrPU KmKnjú fgq KhP~ TíwTPhr xyJ~fJ ßh~J yPòÇ
Fxm TotTJP§r oPiq rP~PZ ßkJTJoJTz Kj~πe, mL\ mkj
S lxu @yre AfqJKhÇ FZJzJS FTJKiT lxu C“kJhj,
jfáj \JPfr mL\, oJKar CmtrfJ, IjqJjq IgtQjKfT UJPfr
@SfJ~ mÉoMULTre, mqmxJK~T CkPhv FmÄ Kmkej
AfqJKhr oPfJ @PrJ IPjT KmwP~ F irPjr xΫYJPrr
oJiqPo xyJ~fJ ßh~J yP~PZÇ
TíKwTJ\ CPuäUPpJVq FTKa UJf yPuS TíwPTrJ xmxo~
TOKwKmw~T xŒ´YJr ÆJrJ nJunJPm CkTíf yjKjÇ1 F irPjr
IPjT IjMÔJjA IKfoJ©J~ KvãJoNuT, KmPvwù Kj~Kπf,
k´J~v ß\¥Jr kãkJfkNet FmÄ ßnRPVJKuTnJPm TOwTPhr
TJZ ßgPTA IkxJKrfÇ pJA ßyJT, FUj TíKwKmw~T IjMÔJj
ßrTKctÄ ˆáKcS ßgPT oJPb-PãPf-UJoJPr KjP~ pJS~Jr
k´mefJ âov mJzPZÇ mJAPrr Fxm IjMÔJPj TíwPTr
xJãJ“TJr ßj~J yPò, fÅJPhr xoxqJ S xïa xŒPTt fÅJPhr
muPf ßh~J yPòÇ ßxAxPñ Imu’j TrJ yPò @PrJ
\jKk´~ k≠Kf, pJPf fPgqr xPñ gJTPZ xJãJ“TJr, VJj S
k´KfPpJKVfJÇ lPu TíKw Kmw~T IjMÔJjèPuJr k´Kf
ßvsJfJPhr @Twte S oPjJPpJV @PrJ mJzPZÇ TíKwKjntr
xŒ´YJPrr oJj mJzJPjJr èÀfô IkKrxLoÇ FoKcK\-Pf ãáiJ
ysJx TrJr Ckr KmPvwnJPm èÀfô @PrJk TrJ yP~PZÇ
ßxTJrPe k´JK∂T TíwT mJ KjP\r YJKyhJ ßoaJPf C“kJhPj
KjP~JK\f TíwTPhr TíKw keq C“kJhj mJzJPf xKâ~
xyJ~fJ ßh~J ßpPf kJPrÇ F k´Kâ~Jr oiq KhP~ fÅJrJ ãáiJ
ysJx, kMKÓ Im˙Jr CjúKf KTÄmJ @~ mJzJPjJr TJptâoPT
@PrJ FTiJk FKVP~ KjP~ ßpPf kJrPmjÇ

5.4

ChJyre˝„k, Cjúf V´JoLe IgtjLKfxoO≠ ßhvèPuJPf mJ\Jr
xÄâJ∂ fPgq hKrhs TíwTPhr IKnVoqfJr Igt yPf kJPr
fÅJPhr IK˙KfvLu \LKmTJ\tPjr xPñ ßaTxA \LKmTJ\tPjr
kJgtTqÇ mJ\JroNuq xÄâJ∂ xKbT fgq \LKmTJ\tPjr \jq
KnK•˝„k KmPmKYf yPf kJPr, TJre fgq âomitoJj
C“kJhjvLufJr xPñ xŒOÜÇ FTAnJPm ˙JjL~ C“kJhT
ßvseL TLnJPm KjP\Phr oPiq xomJ~ Vbj TrPf kJPrj FmÄ
KTnJPm @PrJ TJptTr hrTwJTKwr ImTJv yPf kJPr ßxxŒPTt fgq xrmrJy TrJ yPu fJ TíwTPhr ãofJ~Pj
èÀfôkeN t nNKoTJ rJUPf kJPr FmÄ fÅJrJ @PVr ßYP~ IPjT
ßmKv hãfJr xPñ FmÄ TJptTrnJPm @PVr ßvJwek´me
oiq˝fôPnJVL S hJuJuPhr xPñ hrTwJTKw TrPf kJPrjÇ
mé 10 AlJh'r oJAPâJ-KljqJ¿ IqJ¥ oJPTtKaÄ
k´P\Ö (ßk´JKoT), ßmKjj
ßmKjPjr ãáhs IgtJ~j S mJ\Jr\JfTre k´T· (ßk´JKoT)
@∂\tJKfT TíKw Cjú~j fyKmu (AlJc) S ßmKjj
xrTJPrr FTKa ßpRg k´T·Ç FA k´TP·r uãq yPuJ
mJ\JroNuq xÄâJ∂ fgq xÄV´y TPr xoV´ ßmKjj \MPz
ImK˙f IPjTèPuJ TKoCKjKa S mJKeK\qT ßrKcS
߈vPjr xPñ ßpRgnJPm TJ\ TrJr oJiqPo k´iJj k´iJj
TíKwkPeqr mJ\JroNuq k´YJr TrJÇ VPmweJ ßgPT AlJc
\JjPf kJPr, ßmKjPjr V´JoLe FuJTJr mJ\JrèPuJPf
mqmxJ~L, C“kJhT FmÄ ßnJÜJr oiqTJr \Kau
ßpJVJPpJV mqm˙Jr oPiq TíKwkeq C“kJhTrJ KZPuj
xmPYP~ To xÄVKbf S xmPYP~ To VKfvLuÇ F TJrPe
fÅJrJ ßvJKwf yS~Jr oPfJ kKrK˙KfPf KZPuj, KmPvw
TPr mJ\Jr xŒPTt nJPuJnJPm ImVf mqmxJ~LPhr ÆJrJ
pÅJrJ C“kJhjTJrLPhr oPiq k´KfPpJKVfJ ‰fKr TPr
kPeqr hJo TKoP~ @jPf kJrPfjÇ ßk´JKoT k´TP·r
IiLPj mJ\JroNuq FmÄ TUj ßTJgJ~ V´JoLe mJ\Jr mxPm
ßx xÄâJ∂ Km˜JKrf fgq k´YJPrr mqm˙J TrJ y~Ç lPu
TíKwkeq C“kJhjTJrL hKrhs oJjMPwrJ \JjPf kJPrj
fÅJPhr C“kJKhf keq fÅJrJ TUj, ßTJgJ~, ßToj hJPo
KmKâ TrPf kJrPmjÇ èeVf oNuqJ~j ßgPT ßhUJ
KVP~PZ, F irPjr èÀfôkNet mJ\Jrfgq k´YJPrr lPu
C“kJhjTJrLrJ fÅJPhr CPuäUPpJVq ãofJ~j WPaPZ mPu
oPj TPrPZjÇ
http:www.fao.org/docrep/ 003/x67
21e/x6721e11.htm

ToPrJ\
FT\j TKoCKjKa ßrKcS KrPkJatJr FT\j fÀeL
oJP~r xJãJ“TJr KjPòjÇ
© KV~JPTJPoJ KkPrJK\

COMOROS
A community radio reporter interviewing
a young mother,
© Giacomo Pirozzi

IJAKxKc

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

˙JK~fôvLufJ S k´JTíKfT xŒh mqm˙JkjJ,
ßpoj kJKj mqm˙JkjJ
5.5

FoKcK\ TJbJPoJr oPiq FTKa mz YqJPu† yPuJ
jJVKrTPhr KjrJkh kJjL~ \u k´JK¬ KjKÁfTre FmÄ
oJjMPwr mP\tqr KjrJkh KjÏJvj mqm˙J xOKÓ TrJÇ
FoKcK\r 7 jÄ uPãq ßaTxA kKrPmPvr Ckr ß\Jr
ßh~J yP~PZÇ KTZM KTZM ßk´ãJkPa F KmwP~ mz mz
khPãk ßj~J yPuS hNKwf kJKj FmÄ hNKwf kJKj
mqmyJPrr lPu xOÓ kJKjmJKyf ßrJV Cjú~jvLu
ßhvèPuJPf kÅJY mZPrr To m~xL KvÊPhr oOfáqr
Ijqfo k´iJj TJre KyxJPm KmhqoJj (ßhUMj uãq 4)Ç
F Im˙J @PrJ hs∆f \Kau yP~ CPbPZ vyrJûPu hs∆f
\jxÄUqJ mOK≠r TJrPeÇ V´Jo ßZPz vyPr @xJ oJjMPwr
mé 11 KTKrKfoJKf ßrKcS, KTKrmJKf k´\Jfπ,
k´vJ∂ oyJxJVr
KTKrmJKf kJKj xrmrJy FmÄ k~”KjÏJvj k´T·
(ßTcKmäCFFxKk)-Fr IÄv KyPxPm KTKrmJKfr k´go
ßrKcS ߈vj KTKrKfoJKf ßrKcS k´KfKÔf y~
1998 xJPuÇ k´T·Ka ˙JkPj @KgtT xyJ~fJ
KhP~PZ IxFAcÇ mOy•r k´TP·r uãq KZu
KTKrmJKfr 4000 mJKxªJPT Cjúffr kJKj S
k~”KjÏJvj xMKmiJ ßkÅRPZ ßh~JÇ k´TP·r @SfJ~
oJjMwPT kJKjPvJij, ˝J˙qKmKi FmÄ k~”KjÏJvj
xÄâJ∂ èÀfôkNet mJftJ ßkÅRZJPjJr oJiqPo k´TP·r
xJKmtT uãq I\tPj ßTRvuVf xyJ~fJ KhPf FTKa
˝·oNPuqr TKoCKjKa irPjr ßrKcS ߈vj ˙JkPjr
xMPpJV KYK¤f TrJ y~Ç ßrKcS-r oJiqPo
k´gomJPrr oPfJ ˙JjL~nJPm QfrL VeoJiqPoJkPpJVL
˝J˙q xÄâJ∂ mJftJ \jVePT ßh~Jr mqm˙J TrJ y~,
ßpojKa @PV TUjS KTKrmJKfPf ßvJjJ pJ~KjÇ
ßxAxPñ k´TP·r @SfJ~ kJ~UJjJ krLãJ TrJ FmÄ
kJKjr TNk krLãJr mqm˙J rJUJr lPu KTKrmJKfr
\j˝J˙q kKrPmPvr Ckr AKfmJYT luJlu uãq
TrJ KVP~PZÇ
http://www.comminit.com/pdsMakingWaves/sld6558.html

26

ßmKvr nJV KjoúoJPjr WjmxKfkNet mK˜Pf mxmJx
TPrÇ oJjMPwr WjmxKf FmÄ ßxAxPñ KjoúoJPjr kJKj
S k~”KjÏJvj TJbJPoJ k´J~v YuoJj \j˝J˙q xïPar
TJre yP~ gJPTÇ ßrKcS IPjT ßhPv kKrÏJrkKròjúfJ S ˝J˙qKmKi Kmw~T @Yre kKrmftPj
mqJkTnJPm mqmyJr TrJ yP~PZÇ fJZJzJ ßaTxA
kKrPmv m\J~ rJUJr xPñ xÄKväÓ @PrJ IPjT mqJkT
kKrxPrr xoxqJKh xoJiJPjr \jq ßrKcS mqmyJPrr
xMPpJV rP~PZÇ FxPmr oPiq rP~PZ Kv·-TJrUJjJr
hNwe S ãKfTr m\tq, mxfmJKzr KjoúoJPjr mJ~MYuJYu
mqm˙Jr TJrPe TJb mJ T~uJ ßkJzJPjJ ßgPT xOÓ hNwe,
iNokJj FmÄ VJKz YuJYu ßgPT xOÓ xLxJr hNweÇ

ãáh,s oJ^JKr FmÄ IKfãáhs Kv·
(FxFoFoA) FmÄ \LKmTJ~j
5.6

xJŒ´KfT mZrèPuJPf IgtQjKfT Cjú~Pjr ßãP© ãáhs
Kv· Cjú~j FTKa mÉu @PuJKYf Kmw~Ç kMPrJ
Cjú~jvLu KmPvõ ßpUJPj TotxÄ˙JPjr InJm FTKa mz
irPjr xoxqJ ßxUJPj mÉ oJjMw ßTmu ßmÅPY gJTJr
\jq KmKnjú irPjr CPhqJPV xKâ~nJPm KjP~JK\f, fPm
ßxAxPñ fJrJ ChL~oJj ãáh,s oJ^JKr FmÄ IKfãáhs
KvP·JPhqJPVr xPñS pMÜÇ xJiJref uãq TrJ pJ~,
vyr S V´Jo FuJTJ~ ßa¥Jr FmÄ mqmxJ kKrT·jJr
oPfJ KmwP~ oJjMPwr hãfJ mJzJPjJ FmÄ ãáhs mqmxJ
˙JkPjr \jq mrJ¨ S Ee xyJ~fJuJPnr xMKmiJ
xŒsxJrPer oJiqPo @KgtTnJPm èÀfôkeN t FxFoFoA
UJPfr KmTJPvr uPãq ßYÓJ YJuJPjJ yPòÇ Cjú~jvLu
IPjT ßhPvr ßk´ãJkPa mqmxJ xÄâJ∂ krJovt ßxmJ
kJS~J FmÄ kOÔPkJwTfJr xMPpJV UMm hMutn yPf kJPr,
TJre F irPjr ßxmJ mqm˙J ßxxm ßhPv
GKfyJKxTnJPm ßfoj FTaJ VPz SPbKjÇ FPãP©
ßrKcS xKâ~nJPm xyJ~T nNKoTJ kJuj TrPf kJPrÇ
FTAnJPm kKrmftj-k´Kâ~JiLj IgtjLKfPf, ßpUJPj
kKrTK·f mJ Kj~Kπf IgtQjKfT k≠Kf ßgPT C•re
WaPZ, kÅMK\mJhL IgtQjKfT mqm˙J ßToj TPr
kKrYJKuf y~ ßx KmwP~ ùJPjr CPuäUPpJVq WJaKf
FUjS rP~ ßVPZÇ FPãP© ßrKcS mqmxJK~T hãfJ
mJzJPf xyJ~T nNKoTJ kJuj TrPZÇ

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

mé 12 ßjPTJPurJ VJ~Jj\ (@Ko KjP\A @oJr
mqmxJ kKrYJujJ TKr), CVJ¥J

ßaTxA \LKmTJ~Pj ßrKcS'r nNKoTJPT xyJ~fJ KhPf
KcFl@AKc TL TrPf kJPr?

@∂\tJKfT vso xÄ˙Jr ãáhs KvP·r oJiqPo TotxÄ˙Jj mOK≠
(Kxc) k´TP·r IÄv KyPxPm 1999 xJPu CVJ¥J~ ãáhs Kv·
CPhqJVPT xyJ~fJhJPjr CP¨Pvq FTKa A≤JrIqJTKan
oJbKnK•T ßrKcS CPhqJV k´KfKÔf y~Ç CVJ¥J~ fUj k´Kf
1000 \Pj ßrKcS KZu 125Ka FmÄ ßaKuKnvj KZu oJ©
16KaÇ F ßk´ãJkPa Kv· CPhqJÜJPhr TJPZ ßkÅRZJPjJr
ßãP© ßrKcS ˝nJmfA xmPYP~ CkpMÜ oJiqo KyPxPm
KmPmKYf y~Ç CVJ¥Jr 88 vfJÄv mqmxJ ãáhs Kv· ßvseLr
I∂ntÜ
M Ç fJ xP•ôS ãMhs Kv· Cjú~j xÄâJ∂ Kmw~JKh
VeoJiqPo @xJr Kmw~Ka iLrVKfPf IV´xr yP~PZÇ
ßjPTJPurJ VJ~Jj\ KvPrJjJPor IjMÔJjKa ÊÀr kr ßx≤sJu
mscTJˆ xJKntx (KxKmFx) jJPor mJKeK\qT ßrKcS ßTPªsr
oJiqPo k´gomJPrr oPfJ ãáhs Kv· CPhqJÜJPhr TgJ k´YJKrf
y~Ç FA ßrKcS IjMÔJPjr iÅJY FojnJPm kKrT·jJ TrJ
yP~PZ pJPf ãáhs Kv· xÄâJ∂ Kmw~JKh SA TKoCKjKar
CPhqJÜJPhr TJPZ xrJxKr ßkÅRZJPjJ x÷m y~Ç fÅJrJ ßpxm
xoxqJr xÿMULj yj ßxxm KmwP~ fÅJPhr ßUJuJPouJ
@PuJYjJ fÅJPhr KjKhtÓ xoxqJèPuJ xoJiJPjr KmwP~ mqmxJ
Cjú~j ßxmJxoNy FmÄ xrTJr Cn~PT k´fqãnJPm YqJPu†
TPrPZÇ ßjPTJPurJ VJ~Jj\ aqJé xÄâJ∂ xoxqJ, ˙JjL~
mJ\JrèPuJr k~”KjÏJvj Im˙J, aJCj TJCK¿Pur ßa¥JKrÄ
k´Kâ~J FmÄ IjJjMÔJKjT mqmxJ~LPhr oJiqPo hMi KmKâr
Ckr KjPwiJùJ @PrJPkr oPfJ Kmw~èPuJ xoJiJPj TJ\
TPrPZÇ FxPmr k´KfKa AxMq KjP~A oJb kptJP~ CPhqJÜJPhr
xPñ TgJ yP~PZ FmÄ ßvw kpt∂ xÄKväÓ jLKfPf fJ“kptkNet
kKrmftj WPaPZÇ ßpoj, mJ\JPr uqJKasj ˙Jkj TrJ yP~PZ,
ßoJarxJAPTu aqJKér Ckr ßgPT QÆf aqJé @hJ~ mº TrJ
yP~PZ FmÄ hMi KmKâr Ckr @PrJKkf KjPwiJùJ mJKfu
TrJ yP~PZÇ F irPjr I\tj ßgPT ßmJ^J pJ~
IqJcPnJPTKxr ßãP© A≤JrIqJTKan ßrKcS TL nNKoTJ
kJuj TrPf kJPrÇ

1. TíKw Kmw~T xŒ´YJPrr ßãP© \JfL~ kptJP~r
xŒ´YJrTJrLPhr TJ\ @iMKjTJ~j FmÄ ß\JrhJrTrPer
uPãq xyJ~fJ mOK≠Ç
2. ßaTxA kKrPmvVf mqm˙JkjJ, ˝J˙qKmKi FmÄ
k~”KjÏJvj Kmw~T ßrKcS Kmw~m˜M ‰fKrr TJ\ @rS
ß\JrhJrTre S KjKmzfrTreÇ
3. ãáhs CPhqJÜJ S kKrmftj-k´Kâ~JiLj IgtjLKfPT xyJ~fJ
TrJr CkPpJVL ßrKcS Kmw~m˜M ‰fKrr TJ\ @rS
ß\JrhJrTre S KjKmzfrTreÇ

IJAKxKc

aLTJ
1. http://www.farmradio.org/english/program.html

oqJTPn (2002)

27

IJAKxKc

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

6
6.1

ƪô KjPrJi FmÄ k´JTíKfT hMPptJV k´KfPrJi mJ
KjK•Pf ßrKcS'r nNKoTJ

hKrhs oJjMPwr Ckr ƪõ S k´JTíKfT hMPptJPVr k´nJm
k´KfPrJi mJ k´voPjr uPãq ßrKcS GKfyJKxTnJPm
èÀfôkeN t nNKoTJ kJuj TPr @xPZÇ ßrKcS ˙JjL~, \JfL~
FmÄ @∂\tJKfT kptJP~ xÄWJfo~ KTÄmJ xÄWJfKmyLj
\ÀKr kKrK˙KfPf oJjKmT xJyJPpqr FTKa èÀfôkeN t
CkJhJj KyPxPm mqmÂf yP~ FPxPZÇ1 UJPhqr ImqJyf
WJaKf FmÄ xv˘ xÄWJPfr oPfJ \ÀKr kKrK˙KfPf
xJoJK\TnJPm ßpxm KmYáqKf FmÄ ˙JjYáqKf WPa, ßxxm
\j˝JP˙qr Ckr k´fqã FmÄ xMkKruKãf k´nJm ßlPuÇ
ßx\jq ßrKcSKnK•T TotTJP§r FTKa CPuäUPpJVq IÄPvr
CP¨vq yP~ gJPT vreJgtL KvKmPrr \LmPjr xPñ pMÜ
ßjKfmJYT ˝J˙qVf k´nJm ysJx TrJÇ
mé 13 ßrKcS TMAP\rJ, fJj\JKj~J
ACFjFAYKx@r FmÄ ß\xMqAa KrKlCK\ xJKntPxr
IgtxJyJPpq kNmt fJj\JKj~J~ ßrKcS TáAP\rJ ˙Jkj
TrJ yP~KZu 1995 xJPuÇ FA ßrKcS ˙JkPjr
k´JgKoT CP¨vq KZu F IûPu KmrJ\oJj KmPÆwoNuT
xŒ´YJr FmÄ k´gPo À~J¥J S krmftLPf mMÀK¥Pf
xÄWJPfr lPu xOÓ âomitoJj vreJgtL xïa
ßoJTJPmuJ TrJÇ ßrKcS ߈vPjr xŒ´YJr FuJTJr
mqJxJit 300 KTPuJKoaJrÇ FA ßrKcS ßgPT KmkMu
vreJgtL \jPVJÔLr \jq oJjKxT S vJrLKrT ˝J˙q
xÄâJ∂ Kmw~ KjP~ IjMÔJj k´YJr TrJ y~Ç k´Kf
x¬JPy 91 WµJ IjMÔJj xŒ´YJr TrJ y~ FmÄ
k´YJKrf Kmw~èPuJr oPiq rP~PZ oJ S KvÊ ˝J˙q
FAcx, kJKj S k~”KjÏJvj (pJPf TPr IKf\jmÉu
TqJŒèPuJPf kJKjmJKyf ßrJPVr k´JhMnJt m ysJx TrJ
pJ~) FmÄ KaTJhJjÇ
(http://www.comminit.com/)

6.2

28

\ÀKr oJjKmT xJyJpq xÄâJ∂ ßrKcSKnK•T IjMÔJj k´YJPrr
ChJyre IPjT FmÄ mÉKmiÇ xKyÌáfJ S GTofq xOKÓr
oJiqPo xÄWJf Kjrxj k´PYÓJ, KTÄmJ xojõ~xJij S
@∂”\JKf xÄuJk C“xJKyfTrPer oJiqPo xÄWJf-krmftL
Im˙J ßoJTJPmuJ AfqJKhPf oJjKmT fgq xrmrJPyr ßãP©
FTKa èÀfôkeN t yJKf~Jr KyPxPm ßrKcS KmkMunJPm
˝LTOKfuJn TPrPZ (ßcPoJPâKaT KrkJmKuT Im TPñJ~
vJK∂ k´KfÔJ~ ßrKcS2 KrPkJatKa ßhUMj)Ç xïaJkjú
˙JjèPuJPf kOgT xŒ´YJrPTªs ˙Jkj - ßmKvrnJV ßãP©
\JKfxÄPWr CPhqJPV - âov xJiJre mqJkJr yP~ CbPZÇ
ßxAxPñ kKrKof S KjrPkãnJPm xÄWJf ßoJTJPmuJ~ xJzJ

KhPf ˙JjL~ xŒ´YJrTJrLPhr xJogtq mOK≠ TrJ yPòÇ
oJjKmT fgq C“x k´KfÔJr kJvJkJKv ˙JjYáqf oJjMPwr oPiq
ßrKcS KmfrPer mqm˙JS gJTPZÇ F TotPTRvPur uãq
yPò, F irPjr IfqJmvqT fgqk´mJPy pJPf Fxm Ifq∂
^ÅKM TV´˜ \jPVJÔLr IKnVoqfJ gJPT fJ KjKÁf TrJÇ
6.3

mjqJr oPfJ k´JTíKfT hMPptJV k´voj FmÄ F irPjr
hMPptJPVr ßãP© k´˜KM f V´yPer oJiqPo hKrhs oJjMw fJPhr
\LKmTJ\tPjr mqm˙J KaKTP~ rJUPf kJPr FmÄ F irPjr
hMrm˙Jr xPñ pMÜ ^ÅKM T S KmkhJvïJ ysJx TrPf kJPrÇ
mJÄuJPhPvr oPfJ ßk´ãJkPa, ßpUJPj mjqJ FTKa
EfáKnK•T hMPptJV, ßrKcS'r oJiqPo @PVA KmköjT
@myJS~J xÄâJ∂ xfTt xPïf k´YJPrr mqm˙J ß\Pu S
TíwTPhr xJmiJj TPr KhPf xJyJpq TrPZ (hMPptJV k´˜KM f
KmwP~ ACPrJKk~Jj ACKj~Pjr xJzJhJj xÄâJ∂
k´KfPmhj3 ßhUMj )Ç
ƪõ FmÄ hMPptJV k´KfPrJi S KjrxPj ßrKcS'r
nNKoTJPT xyJ~fJhJPjr \jq KcFl@AKc TL
TrPf kJPr?
1. ƪõ k´KfPrJi, k´voj FmÄ @∂”\JKf xÄuJk S
KrPkJKatÄ Kmw~T k´KvãehJPjr oJiqPo xrTJKr,
mJKeK\qT S TKoCKjKa xŒ´YJrTJrLPhr KjrPkãfJ
vKÜvJuLTreÇ
2. \ÀKr xŒ´YJr mqm˙J ˙JkPjr \jq Igt xrmrJy
FmÄ ^ÅKM TV´˜ S mJ˜MYqá f \jPVJÔLr oPiq ßrKcS
KmfrPer oJiqPo oJjKmT fgqmqm˙J vKÜvJuLTrPe
xyJ~fJhJjÇ
3. ^ÅKM TkNet kKrK˙KfPf hMPptJV ßoJTJPmuJr k´˜KM f S
hMPptJV k´voj xÄâJ∂ xŒ´Y´ JPrr mqm˙J k´KfÔJ~
xyJ~fJhJjÇ
aLTJxoNy
1. xŒ´YJr FmÄ xÄWJf ßoJTJPmuJ KmwP~ Km˜JKrfnJPm
@PuJYjJ TrJ yP~PZ FA AxMq ßkkJPr: S~JKTtÄ CAh
hq KoKc~J Aj TjKlîÖ IqJ¥ @hJr AoJrP\K¿\
ßhUMjhttp://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/chadmedia.pdf), 2000, pMÜrJP\qr KckJatPo≤ lr
A≤JrjqJvjJu ßcPnukPo≤Ç
2. ßhUMj http://www.mediasupport.org/drcreport.htm
3. ßhUMj http://europa.eu.int/comm/echo/pdf_files/
leaflets/dipecho_en.pdf

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

7
7.1

IJAKxKc

Frkr ßTJgJ~?
@AKxKc k´oJeKnK• FmÄ ßrKcS UJPfr \jq
mKitf hJfJ xyJ~fJr YJKyhJ Kj„ke

@PVr IiqJ~èPuJPf FoKcK\r Cjú~j uãqJmKur
I∂Vtf Cjú~j CP¨vqxoNy I\tPj ßrKcSKnK•T Km˜íf
kKrxPrr TotTJ§ fáPu irJ yP~PZÇ xJiJrenJPm,
@AKxKc-r k´nJm xÄâJ∂ VPmweJ Fxm TotTJP§r
Kj\˝ xMKjKhtÓ uãq FmÄ xyxsJP»r Cjú~j uãqJmKur
oPiq ßTJj k´fqã xÄPpJV rP~PZ mPu CPuäU TPrKjÇ
hMP~TKa CPuäUPpJVq mqKfâo ZJzJ ßrKcS xŒ´YJPrr
k´nJm TJptTrnJPm Kj„ke TrJr oPfJ kptJ¬ VPmweJ
FmÄ oNuqJ~j xãofJ ßrKcS UJPfr ßjAÇ1 xãofJr
ßãP© F irPjr hMmtufJ gJTJ xP•ôS KcFl@AKc
TLnJPm nKmwq“ @AKxKc CPhqJV FmÄ Fr k´nJm
xÄâJ∂ CkJP•r Km˜Of k´oJeKnK• VbPjr ßãP©
xyJ~fJ ßhPm?

VbjoNuT VPmweJ FmÄ oNuqJ~j
7.2

kKroJeVf S èeVf VbjoNuT oNuqJ~j xMKjKhtÓ
ßk´ãJka FmÄ TKoCKjKa CkPpJVL CkTre ‰fKr FmÄ
^ÅKM TV´˜ \jPVJÔL S ßvJwe, IxM˙fJ mJ UJhq ^ÅKM TPf
gJTJ \jPVJÔLPT KYK¤f TrJr xMPpJV TPr ßh~Ç F
irPjr oNuqJ~j ßgPT @AKxKc mJ˜mJ~jTJrLrJ
KoKc~Jr mqmyJr FmÄ xŒ´YJPrr kZªxA lroqJa
KYK¤f TrPf kJPrj, pJPf TPr fÅJrJ TKoCKjKa,
xrTJKr FmÄ @∂\tJKfT ßrKcS ßvsJfJPhr \jq
xPmtJ“TíÓ xŒ´YJr Kmw~m˜M KjKÁf TrJr mqm˙J TrPf
kJPrjÇ2 VbjoNuT VPmweJ FmÄ xJoKV´T oNuqJ~Pjr
oJiqPo ßvsJfJPhr xPñ pMÜ yS~Jr k´P~J\jL~fJ
xŒ´YJPrr xTu kptJP~r ßrKcS âomitoJjyJPr
IjMiJmj TrPf kJrPZÇ F ßk´ãJkPa ßrKcS FUj
ßvsJfJPhr CP¨Pvq xŒ´YJPrr kJvJkJKv fJPhr TgJ
ßvJjJr \jqS xão mPu KmPmKYf yPòÇ

7.3

@jMÔJKjTnJPm ßrKcS'r k´nJm oNuqJ~Pjr KhTKaS
xoJjnJPm èÀfôkeN t, FmÄ FPãP© @AKxKc TJptâo
V´yPer CP¨Pvq FTKa k´oJeKnK• VbPjr k´P~J\jL~fJr
xPñ @rS xMKjKhtÓ FTKa ßpJVxN© k´KfÔJ TrJ ßpPf
kJPrÇ fPm @jMÔJKjTnJPm ßrKcS'r k´nJm oNuqJ~j
@AKxKc TotTJ§ mJ˜mJ~jTJrLPhr Ckr CPuäUPpJVq
KmKjo~ mq~ YJKkP~ ßh~ KmPvw TPr TKoCKjKa kptJP~,

ßpUJPj @KgtT S TJKrVKr xŒPhr ˝·fJ rP~PZÇ
TKoCKjKar Inq∂Pr Totrf TKoCKjKa ßrKcS
xŒ´YJrTJrLPhr I∂Vtf Im˙Jj ßgPT ßmJ^J pJ~
fJPhr FmÄ fJPhr ßvsJfJPhr oPiq xJoJK\T S
xJÄÛíKfT hNrfô y~PfJ ßfoj ßmKv KTZá j~, fmM
oNuqJ~j hãfJr InJPmr Igt yPò k´nJm oNuqJ~Pjr
oJiqPo F UJf ßgPT k´JK¬ WaPZ xJoJjqAÇ
7.4

k´nJm oNuqJ~Pjr xãofJ y~PfJ \JfL~ kptJP~r
xŒ´YJr k´KfÔJjèPuJPf IPjTaJ vKÜvJuL, KT∂á
oNuqJ~Pjr ßãP© FUjS ßTJj FTKa xŒ´YJr ßTPªsr
IjMÔJj TL kKroJe ßvsJfJ ÊPj gJPTj k´iJjf fJPfA
xLKof rJUJ y~, ßvsJfJPhr Ckr IjMÔJPjr k´nJm
oNuqJ~j TrJ y~ jJÇ xŒ´YJKrf IjMÔJPjr @YreVf
k´nJm ßmJ^J rLKfoPfJ TKbj FmÄ ßxaJ ÊiMoJ©
hLWtPo~JhL k´PYÓJr oJiqPoA \JjJ x÷mÇ fPm ßpxm
@AKxKc TJptâo oNuqJ~j TrJ x÷m FmÄ xñf ßxxm
TJptâPor oPiq I∂mtftLTJuLj @Yre kKrmftj
KjPhtvT K˙rLTre x÷mÇ3 TJP\A, ChJyre˝„k muJ
pJ~, hLWt ßo~JPhr oNuqJ~Pj ßrKcSPf k´YJKrf mJftJ
FmÄ pçJ ßrJV KjrJoP~r yJPrr oPiq xJiJre FTaJ
ßpJVxN© ˙Jkj y~PfJ TKbj yPm, KT∂á ßrKcSPf
k´YJrJKnpJPjr lPu pçJ KTîKjPT ßrJVLPhr pJS~Jr yJr
mOK≠ IjMÔJPjr k´nJPmr FTKa oNuqmJj KmT· mJ
I∂mtftLTJuLj KjPhtvT KyPxPm Veq yPf kJPrÇ ßrKcS
UJPf xãofJ mOK≠ TrJr oJiqPo VbjoNuT VPmweJ
FmÄ xJoKV´T oNuqJ~j mqm˙Jr xJyJPpq ßrKcS IjMÔJj
KjotJfJ FmÄ ßvsJfJPhr oiqTJr xJoJK\T hNrfô TKoP~
@jJ x÷m yPf kJPrÇ (oJAaj 1999)

29

IJAKxKc

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

xyxsJP»r Cjú~j uãqJmKu I\tPjr ßãP©
ßrKcS'r nNKoTJ KmwP~ @oJPhr ùJj mJzJPf
KcFl@AKc TL TrPf kJPr?
1. kKrmLãe S oNuqJ~Pjr xy\ k≠Kf S KjPhtKvTJ
k´e~Pjr oJiqPo @ûKuT, \JfL~ mJ @AKxKc
UJPf VOyLf CPhqJVèPuJr @SfJ~ kKrmLãe S
oNuqJ~j xÄâJ∂ TJ\ vKÜvJuLTreÇ
2. xTu kptJP~ @AKxKc CPhqJVèPuJ xŒPTt ImKyf
TrJr uPãq VbjoNuT VPmweJr \jq KjPhtKvTJ
k´e~j, KmPvw TPr TKoCKjKa ßrKcS
kKrYJujJTJrL mqKÜVPer \jq xyP\ mqmyJpt
xJoJK\T VPmweJ CkTre ‰fKrTreÇ
3. VbjoNuT VPmweJ FmÄ k´nJm oNuqJ~j ßTRvuxoNy
k´e~Pjr \jq xyPpJVL xrTJKr k´KfÔJj (\JfL~
VeoJiqo) FmÄ ˝Kjntr @AKxKc UJfPT
xyJ~fJhJjÇ

ßrKcS xãofJ mOK≠: hJfJ xÄ˙Jr xyJ~fJ
mOK≠r \jq FTKa oPcu
7.5

7.6

30

pKh VPmweJ S oNuqJ~j TJptâPor oJiqPo ßrKcS ßvsJfJPhr
xŒ´YJPrr ßTPªs KjP~ @xJ x÷m y~, fPm FTAnJPm
@AKxKc CPhqJVèPuJPT hKrhs \jPVJÔLr UMm TJZJTJKZ
KjP~ pJS~J yP~PZÇ FPãP© FTKa ChJyre yPuJ
TKoCKjKa ßrKcSÇ TKoCKjKa ßrKcS kKrYJujJr ßãP©
hKrhs \jPVJÔLPT pUj k´pKM Ü FmÄ k´KvãPer oJiqPo xão
TPr ßfJuJ y~, fÅJrJ fUj KjP\rJ ßp xoJP\r IÄv ßx
xoJP\r Kmw~èPuJPT xlunJPm k´KflKuf TrJr oPfJ
ßrKcS IjMÔJj ‰fKr TrPf kJPrj (ßcVrj 2001)Ç fPm
\LKmTJ\tj, ˝J˙q S oJjmJKiTJr rãJr \jq k´P~J\jL~
fgq xrmrJPyr oJiqPo TKoCKjKar oJjMPwr ãofJ~Pjr
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KjC KcPrTvj vLwtT k´KfPmhjKa ßhUJr \jq
ACFjFAcx (http://www.unaids.org/en/in+focus/
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(ACFjKcKk 2003: 1-3)

31

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kKrKvÓ

2

ßrlJPr¿xoNy
âJAKxu, F, 1986 IJ¥JrˆqJKcÄ ßrKcS, ßogMP~j, u¥jÇ
KcFlIJAKc, 2000, S~JKTÄ CAg Kh KoKc~J Aj TjKlîÖx IqJ¥ IJhJr AoJP\tK¿x,
KcFlIJAKc ßxJvJu ßcPnukPo≤ KckJatPo≤ IqJ¥ TjKlîÖ IqJ¥ KyCPoPjaJKr~Jj IqJPl~Jxt
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oqJTPn, Fo, 1998, oJKu: Aa'x Ij Kh ßrKcS ßxJ Aa oJˆ Km as:M ACK\Ä ßrKcS aá k´PoJa
KrFPlJPrPˆvj, Kh ÀrJu FéPajvj mMPuKaj, ACKjnJKxtKa Im KrKcÄ, ACPTÇ
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mscTJˆJrx IqJ¥ KuPxjJxt Aj F ßTx ˆJKc Im AKrK©~J KkFAYKc KgKxx, ACKjnJKxtKa Im
KrKcÄ, ACPTÇ
oJAaj, K\, 1999, yqJ¥mMT Ij ßrKcS IqJ¥ ßaKuKnvj IKcP~¿ KrxJYtÇ ACPjPÛJ, ACKjPxl
IqJ¥ KmKmKx S~Jflt xJKntx ßasKjÄ asJˆ, u¥j, ACPTÇ
Ûáq\, F, 2004, IqJ¥ TJK\j, Ka 2005, oqJPjK\Ä KcxPa¿: Kh ßxJvJu cJAjJKoTx Im ÀrJu
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ßxJxJAKa KrxJYt V´∆k S~JKTÄ ßkkJr 1, ACKjnJKxtKa Im FPcPuAcÇ
goJx, ß\, 2001, IKcS lr KcxPa¿ FcáPTvj IqJ¥ SPkj uJKetÄ TojSP~ug Im uJKetÄ,
nqJïánJr, TJjJcJÇ
ACFjFAcx/ßkj ߈a, 1999, TKoCKjPTvjx ßl∑oS~JTt lr FAYIJAKn/FAcx F KjC
KcPrTvj, ACFjFAcx, ß\PjnJ, xMA\JruqJ¥Ç
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FPoJÄ ßjvjx aá F¥ KyCoqJj ßkJnJKat, ACFjKcKk, KjCA~Tt, ACFxFÇ
CAuKm, Kk IqJ¥ Tjr~, F, 1994, Kh ßrKcS yqJ¥mMT, ÀgPu\, u¥j, ACPTÇ

32

kKrmftPjr uPãq \jof Vbj

IJAKxKc

33

If you would like to know more about the
ICD team in DFID, please send an
e-mail to:
ICD©dfid.gov.uk,
or call us on:
+44 (0) 20 7023 1743 / 0286
or visit our website:
www.dfid.gov.uk/AboutDFID/Files/icd.htm

Information and Communication for Development
Room 5518
Department for International Development
1 Palace Street
London SE1E 5HE

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