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The relative advantage of using different types of instructional software in the classroom.

Drill-and-practice
Purpose: Roblyer & Doering (2013) state that, drill-and-practice software functions provide exercises in which students work example items, usually one at a time, and receive feedback on their correctness. The students are then assessed on that one item with only two possible outcomes: Correct or Incorrect. Potential use: The best potential use would be when a topic is introduced and then have drill and practice reinforce what has already been learned. Pros: Roblyer & Doering (2013) stated how the students can get immediate feedback, or automaticity, on their assessments without having to wait for their teacher. These types of programs also save the teacher time and energy grading. The information is also given to the students in a private setting so they are not possibly put in an embarrassing situation with their peers. Cons: A lot of teachers use it too much and/or they use it to introduce a topic to the students when drill-and-practice is best suited for practicing and reinforcing skills (Roblyer & Doering, 2013). Examples: Arithmetic Game a website that works on order of operations skills. http://bit.ly/14YIVt7 Math Lines a website that works on multiplication facts. http://bit.ly/10X6V0x Web Math Minute customizable assessments on basic math facts. http://bit.ly/139orQt

Tutorials
Purpose: Similar to the classroom setting, Roblyer & Doering (2013) describe tutorials as an instructional sequence on a specific topic. With wireless internet being available from almost anywhere in the world, students can access the information from any device in the world when the opportunity to learn becomes available to them. Potential use: To help introduce a topic or offer extra practice to students who show a need for it.

Pros: While many tutorials have helpful features similar to drill-and-practice (Roblyer & Doering, 2013) tutorials also help the students learn at their own speed. Cons: Tutorials are very direct in their approach so having hands-on projects and activities through online tutorials can be challenging (Roblyer & Doering, 2013). Examples: ALEKS an artificial intelligence web based computer program that our school district uses with our remedial math and summer school math students. http://www.aleks.com Khan Academy a tutorial website that allows kids to find topics that they are struggling with. https://www.khanacademy.org/ YouTube a video website that has numerous video lessons by teachers from around the world on many different topics. https://www.youtube.com/ Purple Math a website that allows students to find topics that they are struggling with but without the video component. http://www.purplemath.com/ Video Math Tutor just like its name says, this website has videos to help the students with math, to how to use a calculator to studying tips. http://www.videomathtutor.com/

Simulations
Purpose: According to Roblyer & Doering (2013), simulations are a computerized model of a real or imagined system that is designed to teach how the system works. Your simulation could educate the students about a physical situation that they may or may not have real-life access to. Your simulation could also make an event go slower, or faster if needed to show what is going on for better understanding. Potential use: Any situation or location that a student cannot get access to normally would be one of the best ways to use a simulation. It could also be used to replicate a smaller scale situation to observe something in a safer environment. Pros: Some of the advantages of simulations were already stated and repeated by Roblyer & Doering (2013): safety, access to previously impossible environments & locations, cheaper, and allows the scenario to be set up again and have the variables change to see, What if? Cons: Roblyer & Doering (2013) do make an excellent point about how Advanced Placement courses who heavily use hands-on experiments as part of their curriculum may not give credit

to those students who only did simulations. While technology has improved a lot over the years, there is still some worry about authenticity and realism of the real-life simulations. Examples: PhET Simulations from the University Colorado Boulder this website has algebraic and other mathematical simulations for math situations. http://bit.ly/17DSbXx Math Open Reference a website that as dynamic simulations of numerous geometry concepts and calculus. http://bit.ly/1coKp08

Instructional games
Purpose: Roblyer & Doering (2013) discuss how, Technology-based games bridge the world of gaming, entertainment, and education in an attempt to deliver fun and effective learning. Malone (1980) also described in his paper that for a game to be successful there needs to be a challenge to it, also some sort of fantasy element and a curiosity that needs to be peeked with the gamer so that gaming can be effective. Potential use: Roblyer & Doering (2013) give a great situation where instructional games could be used in place of a worksheet, or assessment if the game meets the requirements that need to me assessed. Pros: Instructional games can be motivational to students whether the educational value of the game is blatantly obvious or somewhat hidden. There are also different games that are coming out all the time so finding one that fits your classroom needs should not be a problem. Cons: If you have to purchase the games, the cost of having enough programs for the entire class can get expensive. Also, like many games before, boredom does sit in if the game is used too much. Examples: Coolmath-games a website that has many mathematical and other school related games for all levels. http://www.coolmath-games.com/ Mathplayground another website that has many mathematical and other school related games for all levels. http://www.mathplayground.com/games.html

Problem-solving software
Purpose: Depending on your topic that you are working with is an issue that Roblyer & Doering (2013) say is important to determining which software or program you use. Some of the programs that are available either help you with the problem-solving by teaching you the content that you need in order to solve the problem or give you all the tools to help you solve it with very little direction. Potential use: In mathematics, problem-solving software can helps to visualize the problem that is being asked of the students which can be very difficult. Pros: Visualization of the problem has always been a challenge for students in math and Roblyer & Doering (2013) state how Problem-solving software can help the students overcome that barrier. This software can also showcase practical, every-day life situations so the students can see how math is everywhere in their lives. Cons: Time is a factor that the students might need more of to fully grasp all the tools and features needed in order to understand what the problem-solving software is doing to help them. Also verifying that the software is the best for the situation or your classroom is something that can take up a teachers time and energy. Examples: Geometers Sketchpad One of the most well known software programs for math. http://www.dynamicgeometry.com/ Geogebra A web based program used to help students better understand math. http://www.geogebra.org/cms/en/

References: Malone, T. W. (1980). What makes things fun to learn? heuristics for designing instructional computer games. GSMALL '80 Proceedings of the 3rd ACM SIGSMALL symposium and the first SIGPC symposium on Small systems . Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2013). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon Publishers.