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, 1939), pp. 269-271 Published by: The Warburg Institute Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/750106 . Accessed: 27/06/2013 06:30
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for the place is a public bathing establishment isolated from the outside world by a low wall in the foreground and a fence in the back. The purification which the melancholy patient craves can be produced by the methods of his phlegmatic opponent. though the phlegmatic man prefers the internal application to the external one. The four bathers exhibit four different forms of purification. He is faced by a man who holds a flower.43."2 Actually. The German word for tap is Hahn (cock). is susceptible to the attractions of music. seem intent upon luring to their side the melancholy man at the water tap who. The picture refers. very fittingly placed next to the drinker. but do no more than just inquisitively look in. 206. We shall find later that he is the key figure to the whole story. true to the melancholy temperament. It is one of the disabilities of melancholy men. while the man sitting in the back -a distinctly phlegmatic type drinking from a mug-is the only one of the four whose allegiance to Dionysus is clear at first sight. Though Dionysus is the god of purification and purging. I would hesitate to claim that the young man looking in from the back at Diirer's scene is meant to be this Platonic youth watching the Dionysiaca. We may infer from the arrangement of the figures before this background. p. 2 the man but has also decorated it with a little cock. 41a). that in Diirer's view. 1905. His opponent again prefers the internal to the external treatment. As the man at the water tap seemed to contemplate (in the first reading) the merits of washing. and also in the view of Pirckheimer who must have inspired this woodcut. Within these precincts there are four bathers and two musicians. In describing the young men who will not enter into a thorough study of philosophy but rest content with acquiring a superficial acquaintance with the different schools. The two in the back believe in ablutions. The melancholy man on the left leans against a water tap. Diirer has not only placed the DtYRER'S "MANNERBAD": A DIONYSIAN MYSTERY tap in the correct relation to the body of drawing of Orpheus and his Diirer's engraving of the Gallic Hercules reveal his power as a satirist.18 on Thu. The liquid which the one absorbs as wine might be released by the other as water : a very plain illustration of Systole and Diastole. for though he leans against the water tap he makes no effort to use it. the city makes This content downloaded from 192. He is for inhaling the scent of a flower. It is based on a passage in Plato's Republic (Book V. 27 Jun 2013 06:30:45 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . due to their excessively dry constitution.3 The name "Mannerbad" describes the picture correctly. Each of the bathers is supplied with a particular attribute. W61fflin took a very solemn view of this print: "Hier liegt eine ganz grosse Absicht zugrunde. one would not assume that these very profane demonstrations are to represent his sacred rites. Again Diastole as opposed to Systole. including their bladders. seem to know the cure for his ailment. of Systole and Diastole. the other in absorbing the aroma of purity through the nose. 3 Cf. The contrast is clear: the one believes in removing the dirt from one's skin. 55. Plato compares them to the type of youth who will go to the city Dionysiaca as well as to the country Dionysiaca. to a text. so the man with the cleansing knife advocates with some ferocity the virtues of scratching. for Diirer has indulged at this point in a robust pictorial and verbal pun.). it is a broadly humorous travesty of the Dionysian mysteries of inspiration and purification. A parallel argument applies to the two men in the front. His relation to that tap -or rather of that tap to him-is one of the 'problems' of the picture. Die Kunst AlbrechtDiirers. There is no evidence that his melancholy partner on the left does not really share his prejudice. the fierce-looking fellow in the left foreground has in his hand a scraping knife. P. In the background a young man looks in and seems to watch the proceedings with curiosity. Heinrich W61ffiin. Pico della Mirandola.1 A more good-natured side of his wit appears in the woodcut "Minnerbad" (P1. were it not for the fact that the landscape in the background is clearly divided into two halves. that their digestive organs.DORER'S "MANNERBAD" : A DIONYSIAN MYSTERY 269 explicit. one city. The two musicians. De Hominis Dignitate. however. are not as active as they desire: which tends to increase their sadness. The melancholy attitude of the bearer now assumes a new significance with regard to the drinker on the other side. 475 St.227. The musicians who try to lure the sufferer to their side. the other country. and to make his meaning 1 See above.
and in two opposite directions. though in reverse order. and to produce thereby a poignant travesty of the different stages in the Dionysian ritual. As the initiation into the mysteries proceeds by stages. Durer compares them to the silly youth in Plato's Republic who superficially glanced at the mysteries but never became initiated in them. An etching by Burgkmair (P1. the cycle appears to be complete. wears a plaited cap like the Sanguinicus. whose presence defines the scene as Dionysian. Though Burgkmair's etching is probably later in date than Diirer's woodcut. the god of Melancholy. and the melancholy one listens to music and hopes for water. the sense of taste by the drinker. A common denominator between Burgkmair's Mercury and Diirer's Melancholicusis to be found in a passage by Pico della Mirandola who coordinates Saturn. who are placed on the side of the country. dejection is overcome by intoxication. a fountain in the vulgar shape of a watertap. which stood to Nuremberg in a relation like that of Venice to Florence. while in the city the active state (anger) is far less humiliating than the contemplative (dejection). with the help of the luring 1 I imagine that the contrast between the two caps which the men in the foreground are wearing. As a result the contest takes place on two levels. it is not impossible that one day we shall know the name of the particular man or the circle of men against whom the attack was directed. The lowest type of all is the melancholy man (in the second rank of the negative side). It is clear that the country represents here the positive side. the god of Eloquence.227.4 SI have the suspicion that the circle belongs to Augsburg. In the back rank. This content downloaded from 192. To complete the joke. It attacks the people who think that the right way of treating melancholy is by getting drunk and who praise the entertainments of a country tavern as the best music for inspiring and purging the soul. the sense of hearing by the melancholy man listening to the musicians. But he is consoled by Venus. In addition to being a capital joke the picture is also a powerful indictment of the false Dionysians. and the sense of sight by the young man looking in. ". the sanguine inhales the soothing odour of a flower. in making a footnote to a passage in Plato. but in the front rank inspiration is met by anger through which it drops back into dejection : from where. by associating both. rounds off the group to a complete representation of the Five Senses. 27 Jun 2013 06:30:45 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Diirer's representation of the Four Temperaments on the title-page of Celtes' Libri Amorum. refer to the life of the senses. One cannot help marvelling at the ingenuity which. the highest type is the sanguine man (in the front rank of the positive side). 4Ib) shows the melancholy Mercury over brooding. very much like Diirer's Melancholicus. . But it was not only for the fun of it that Durer took his text from Plato. with Mercury. In view of the precision and poignancy of the satire. The two inferior types are relegated to the second rank.2 The choleric man releases his spleen through rubbing and scratching. being dedicated to Dionysus. and the city the negative side. Quattuor 3A complete hierarchy of types is thereby established.3 Viewing the distribution of forces between the parties. In the front rank the man who bases his defence on a flower has little chance against his adversary with the shaving knife. there can be no doubt as to who will be the winners and who the losers in this fight. the side of Systole.270 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES musicians.18 on Thu. aquam with the element of water melancholy and choleric men. The picture represents the Dionysian ritual as seen through the eyes of an outsider. One of the musicians. it is safe to assume that it represents a point of view which was prevalent in Augsburg before. the countryside sanguine and phlegmatic ones. who offers him the arrow of Cupid. the two more dignified oppose each other in the front. the sense of touch by the man with the scrubbing knife. the process can start over again. But each side contains also in itself the contrast between the active and the contemplative life. In the country the contemplative state (inspiration) is more refined than the active (intoxication). in inverse order.43. 2 For the association of the sanguine temperament with zephyr and flowers. the side of Diastole: inspiration and intoxication are on the side of the country. The phlegmatic man takes intoxicating drinks. cf. For the inquisitive youth at the back. manages without visible effort to unite in one formula the images of the Four Temperaments and the Five Senses. Durer has not failed to indicate that these mysteries. corresponds to the opposition between city and country.1 and that the Dionysian rites provide for each temperament a specific purge. anger and dejection on the side of the town. The sense of smell is signified by the man with the flower. In the back rank the drinker supported by the musicians is about to break the resistance of the melancholy man. . This "cure for melancholy" is exactly of the type which Diirer meant to satirize.
211.18 on Thu. Etching :: ---:: :-: NPRO 19 ::: ::: :: : -a-Dtirer. Fleury." From "Hercules Gallicus." Woodcut ::: -:-: :: :: Staf . GAL-. Mercury's Mercury's Froben Froben of of Mar Mark k Printer's Printer's 2 212) ((p.41 41 b-Burgkmair. Mercury and Venus. 2 II. ~ From Champ Gallicus. Cols. "Mannerbad. 27 Jun 2013 06:30:45 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." Champ Fleury. c-Holbein.c F~RAN~ FRAN-. - cv ccv. p. I2) LE HREO H ER H ERi.. c-Holbein. a-Diirer. "Hercules d-Geofroy Tory. LICVS LICVS i~b6~ ~ii~i~ m ?_H?so . 271) Etching (pp. LES LES CC Vi: LES GAL.43. 21o) 21O) This content downloaded from 192. d-Geofroy (p. 1529 1529 Tory.227. Staff.
and he shows it as a flat couch. But it remained usual till the 6th century. such as Bouts. The impulse to render biblical feast scenes with the figures recumbent on couches came from the archaeologists.THE TRICLINIUM The biblical words "spiritus ferebatur super aquam" run like a Leitmotivthrough the Renaissance theories of inspiration. This idea appears also in engravings after Giulio Romano. . The author is still concerned only with the pagans. in the background on the right by the well. note 2. 414). artists begin once more occasionally to represent such scenes with the figures recumbent. according to the practice of their own time. He appears to be the first person to develop a clear idea of what the triclinium looked like. scilicet. when it appears in a mosaic in S. 277-8. running round three sides of the table. in the more abstract version of Leonardo. Kiinstle. Iconographie 5 Bk.227.6 The next stage is marked by the publication of a volume by the Florentine doctor. tum ordine versipelle are more elaborate than those in Philander's . p. pl. Saturnum inverso aquam senem. From the beginning of the I6th century painters had used the evidence of ancient monuments about the correct arrangement of classical feasts. on which the guests lie at full length. figs.43. who shows classical feasts in the background of two of his engravings of the Caesars (Augustus and Vitellius). cf. and in the sumptuous pageants of Veronese. based on ancient monuments. date. 2 It is certainly not by accident that water is that artists derived the idea of representing represented in this picture no less than three times : the triclinium when they painted scenes in the foreground by the bath. Chacon or Petrus Ciacconus. L'Iconographie 4 This form of the story is to be found in the Cambridge Gospels of the early 7th century (cf. cap. published in 1544. and they are sometimes illustrated by the figure of a muse blowing a flute over a fountain of water. but his knowledge is more extensive than that of Philander. see above. the portrait of Alberto Pio in the National archaeologists to which Mercuriale belonged Gallery (Mond Collection). in which one chapter This content downloaded from 192. though he placed them in such an attitude. It was apparently from the group of 1 Cf. damnatae frigiditatis"! (Heptaplus. commentary on Vitruvius which only show On the unusual physiognomy of Burgkmair's Mercury. of the couches with which the ancients furnished these rooms. ch.3 As interest in realism developed and artists felt the desire to treat Biblical stories as if they were scenes from everyday life.4 This form of representation reached its highest expression in the naturalistic religious paintings of I5th century Flemish painters. that any serious eating would have been out of the question. IN RELIGIOUS ART THE TRICLINIUM IN RELIGIOUS ART When is devoted to the problem of how the ancients were placed at their feasts. It survived in the East till a much later de l'Evangile. II).18 on Thu. The matter was treated in a more scientific manner by Philander in his edition of Vitruvius. one or two people at the table. A background with water is appeared in Rome a volume entitled De the normal form also in serious pictures of inspiration Triclinioand containing a treatise by Pedro (see. i o. in the background on the from the New Testament.' The drawing of a vulgar bathing scene with musicians as the inspirerswas therefore a particularly effective conceit for the satirizing of a current theory of inspiration. they naturally followed the usage of the day and showed the figures recumbent on couches round a table. 41b). . . 27 Jun 2013 06:30:45 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . with their feet away from the table. and in the work of Mannerists such as Stradanus. presented the Last Supper or any the early Christian artists re- 271 But this case is quite different from what had happened in early Christian times. W. . a Spanish 3 The earliest examples of such renderings occur in catacomb paintings. in which he illustrates the chapter on dining rooms5 with engravings. and a deliberate pursuit of archaeological accuracy. for example. 5. Millet.2 E. with their feet towards the table. der christlicien Kunst. Katakombenmalerei. however. pl.expos. he chose to exhibit the inhabitants of Olympus lounging on couches at a celestial feast. entitled Artis Gymnasticae libri sex (1569). for it was now a question of a conscious revival. and when Raphael had to show Cupid and Psyche received by the gods in a fresco in the Farnesina. cf. 211. p. VI. In 1588 there left by the river. Pfister. they rbandoned what had become an archaism and showed the Apostles seated on chairs or benches round a table. Girolamo Mercuriale. II. The engravings illustrating his exposition Mercurium sidus . After the Renaissance. archaeologist and theologian attached to 1924. 6 other biblical subject which showed people partaking of a meal. Apollinare Nuovo.
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